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The Foliated Shaft. 195

again, ls frequently composed of several distinct parts. The cande-
labrum as a whole will receive a more detailed consideration in
Division III, (Utensils).
Small Pillars, shaped like a pier, column, or candelabrum, are
also used for the construction of balaustrades; in which case they
have to support only a Rail.
The small Pillars have thick, compact forms; Balausters, on the
contrary, are slender bodies of revolution, with great variety in the profile.
Very peculiar forms of support are the antique Trapezophors or
table-legs; the Legs of modern furniture bear more resemblance to
balauster pillars.
Terminus is the name given to supports which widen out in an
upward direction like an inverted Obelisk, and terminate in a bust
or capital.
Beside the geometrical and plant elements, the human form is
also used as a motive of supports. Male forms thus used are termed
Atlantes; and female forms Caryatids.
The various forms of Consoles are included in the group of Supports.
The Foliated Shaft. (Plate 121.)
We have already mentioned that the Plant-world furnishes the
motive for the forms of Supports. Reeds, Canes, Tree-trunks with
knots, &c., were copied in the Antique.
The mural paintings of Pompeii show lofty airy constructions
with extremely slender, foliated supports. The bronze Candelabra
and Lampadaria, intended to hold lamps, are often direct imitations
of plant stems, while the Roman State-Candelabra are often decorated
with Artificial foliage. Later epochs have made little change in this
respect; it may be said in general that, as regards delicacy of
feeling, and moderation in the application of natural forms, they
have seldom reached and still more seldom surpassed the Antique
Plate 121. The Foliated Shaft.
1. Finial of the choragic monument of Lysikrates, Athens, (in-
tended for the reception of a bronze tripod), Greek.
2. Part of the shaft of a Roman State -candelabrum, marble,
Vatican museum, Rome.
4. Supports, mural paintings, Pompeii, (Jacobsthal).
5. Graeco-Italic, Lamp-stand, bronze.
6. Upper part of shaft, Graeco-Italic candelabrvun, Brondsted collec-
tion, (Vulliamy).