36 views

Uploaded by mani_vlsi

The Monte Carlo method was applied for the first time to calculate the
performance of a solar cell. It was proved that the method is self-consistent even for a relatively low number of histories and, in the simple case of a Schottky barrier, the results are in good agreement with the existing simple theory. The possible application of this method is relatively straightforward and could give much more information than existing numerical methods.

save

- Design of Solar Cabinet Drier
- SIMULATION
- Agricultural Electronics
- Permanent Magnet DC Motor
- PV Solar Simulator
- IAETSD-Modelling & Simulation of Solar PV Array Field
- Solar Cooler
- 1.Simulation of Solar Cell Pannel Using Two-Diode System
- DC Brush Motor Theory
- A Review of New Technologies, Models and Experimental Investigations Solar Driers
- Modeling and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic Module
- Theory and Applications of Monte Carlo Simulations
- Permanent Magnet Dc Motor
- Solar Dehydrator.08
- Development Ohmic Heating System
- Lecture 1 Introduction to Numerical Analysis.doc
- 77531217-A-Scientific-Autobiography-S-Chandrasekhar-K-Wali-World-2010-BBS.txt
- Adaptive Stochastic Optimization Techniques With Applications-James a. Momoh 2013 430p
- solar
- Modeling and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab- Simulink
- Monte Carlo Kwak Ingall
- Monte Carlo Kwak Ingall
- Dalit Suicide suicide
- Lecture_1
- Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Solar Chimney Power Plants
- Matlab Articulo
- PMF and Cramer-Rao Algoritmi
- Maths Structure
- 30283
- VLSI Design Questions With Answers
- ARM ISA Overview
- The History of ARM
- ARM ISA Extensions
- 1581310044_paper
- Instructions
- Memory Hierarchy
- ARM Pipeline
- Watkins 2005
- ARM ISA Registers
- Exceptions
- The ARM Architecture1
- 5 Simple Steps to Students to Excel
- Coprocessors
- Writing Test Bench
- Chapter11 Interrupt & Its Controller
- Tamil Samayal - Chappati 30 Varities
- 30 varieties - Bonda
- general definitions in computer
- 8086 Questions
- microprocessor notes vtu brief 6th sem
- block-diagram-of-intel-8086
- M1L3
- Nu-LB-NUC140 Users Guide v2.0.pdf
- ORG 100h
- 30 Varieties - Bajji and Bakoda
- 8088.8086 Microprocessor2
- 8086 Instruction Set
- 8086 Microprocessor
- Tamil Samayal - 30 Varities for Beauty & Health
- w Pv 61 to 8 Migration Guide
- glspec40.core.20100311
- ES Horizontal Curves.pdf
- 945GCMX-S2-R66--Schematic 070614
- angela gross technology addiction
- Brandon Chow, Improving MLE Approximation in ERGM
- 43M43MS12-0200FFP
- Recovering Fil esdsf
- GOLDSMITH, Jack & WU, Tim. Who controls the Internet__illusions of a borderless world.pdf
- b1 Lan Text and Voice Chat
- Concurrency in .NET
- Web Yh116a0 en Rx-A3050 Rx-A2050 Om Ucrabglf En
- bbmd
- 2nd assignment for semester 1
- Grid Power Quality Improvement and Battery Energy Storage in Wind Energy Systems
- Robopet Manual
- ASUSTOR AS3204T 4-Bay NAS Server Datasheet
- Analysis of Algorithms - Medians and Order Statistics
- The Ring programming language version 1.4 book - Part 4 of 30
- 10W Class D Power Amplifier
- ECi M1 Announces Partnership with Global Software, Inc.
- CR-63
- DAT500 Ver 1.3
- TechCorner 07 - Productivity3000 Drum, Sequencer, Debounce
- CatR - An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing
- 35-Information Center Commands Huawei
- THD analysis of SPWM & THPWM Controlled Three phase Voltage Source Inverter
- EIL Shedule of Rates ENQ_REV0
- wep
- Notes Digital Communication Lecture 1_3

You are on page 1of 12

**MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF SOLAR CELLS
**

C. MANFREDOTTI and M. MELIGA

Istituto di Fisica Superiore, Corso Massimo D'Azeglio 46, 10125 Turin (Italy)

(Received December 8, 1982; accepted May 10, 1983)

Summary

The Monte Carlo met hod was applied for the first time to calculate the

performance of a solar cell. It was proved that the met hod is self-consistent

even for a relatively low number of histories and, in the simple case of a

Schottky barrier, the results are in good agreement with the existing simple

theory. The possible application of this met hod is relatively straightforward

and could give much more information than existing numerical methods.

1. Introduction

Even though solar cells are semiconductor devices that are easy to pro-

duce, a complete analysis which takes into account the morphology of the

cell and the influence of various parameters is rather complex. Generally it is

necessary, for a complete understanding of the problem, to solve Poisson's

equation and the continuity equation simultaneously for electrons and holes.

Under illumination, these are non-linear partial differential equations. A

problem of this kind may be solved essentially in two ways: by numerical

analysis and by the Monte Carlo met hod (MCM).

Numerical analysis, which has many examples in the literature [1 - 3],

presents the advantage of short computation times, but it cannot avoid

problems due to boundary conditions, discontinuities, complex models or

structures. The MCM, which differs from numerical methods by its simplic-

ity and versatility, can also overcome very easily the most complicated prob-

lems connected with structural complexity, electrical potential behaviour,

discontinuities etc. without increasing the program complexity and, by tak-

ing the appropriate precautions, without even a marked increase in computa-

tion time. In fact this time can be kept to the same order of magnitude as for

numerical analysis; moreover, it is not proportional to the complexity of the

problem. Finally, the MCM, being generally based on a microscopic treat-

ment, leads to an easy visualization of the physical processes occurring in

solar cells and for this reason it can give various results without modification

of the program itself.

0379-6787/ 83/ $3. 00 © Elsevier Seauoia/Print~rl i,, ~ ~,^,L . . . . . . .

212

In our work, a Schot t ky barrier n-type Au-Si solar cell was chosen

because of bot h structural simplicity and lack of literature of previous work

in this field. However, t he program is quite general and with slight modifica-

tions it may be applied to other kinds of solar cells, such as p- n j unct i on

cells, met al -i nsul at or-semi conduct or (MIS) cells or het eroj unct i on cells, and

it can easily be used for more compl ex structures, e . g . t andem cells.

2. The met hod

The MCM is very extensively used in various fields of physics, whenever

processes or experi ment s have to be simulated. The best advantages result in

cases where a few t ypes of process are repeated several times (cooling down

of neut rons, electromagnetic or nucleonic cascades etc.). In these cases each

particle is followed unt i l it has lost all its energy and t he various processes

t hat occur are i nt erpret ed on a probability basis. Since the sum of t he prob-

abilities of t he various processes at each step is of course equal to uni t y, a

random number between zero and uni t y is consequent l y chosen in order to

decide t he kind of process which should occur. In our case, for instance, in

order to select a phot on from t he solar spect rum, t he integral of its energy

distribution is normalized to uni t y and t he random number chosen by the

program is compared wi t h t he normalized partial integrals of the energy dis-

t ri but i on. For t he subsequent process, light absorption in t he cell, t he prob-

lem can be solved analytically since t he probability of absorption between x

and x + dx is given by

d/

p ( x ) d x = - - = o~ exp(--ax) dx

I0

which is obviously normalized to uni t y, and t hus t he random number R is

given by t he following expression:

d

f exp(--ax) dx = 1 -- exp(--~d) = 1 - - R

0

Therefore t he penet rat i on dept h of t he involved phot on can be obt ai ned

from t he equat i on

In R

d- - - -

~(~,)

a(~) being t he absorption coeffi ci ent at t he selected phot on wavelength.

3. The model

In t he present work, t he program describes an n-type Au-Si Schot t ky

barrier solar cell with a surface area of 1 cm 2. However, the various physical

213

a n t i r ef / ~

coating

Paramet er S y mb o l Value

Metal thickness SM

Solar cell thickness SL

Barrier height qb B

{lowered by Schottky effect}

Energy gap Eg(T)

(as a funct i on of temperature)

Resistivity p

Electron lifetime T e

Hole lifetime Tp

Hole diffusion length Lp

100 A

300 pm

0.78 eV

1.2 -- (3 X 10-4T) eV

1 ~c m

3.95 x 10 -4 s

2.62 x 10-Ss

150 pm

mE

0.766

!

barrier

tal

W

0.780.

0.778

0 . 7 7 4

uJ

r

base 0.770

20 40 60 8'0

T A B L E 1

S y m b o l s a n d parameters used in the M o n t e Carlo m e t h o d

$L d( A }

Fig. 1. Geometry of the solar cell with the various zones considered by the program. The

figure is not to scale.

Fig. 2. The met al -semi conduct or pot ent i al barrier used in the program as a funct i on of

depth. The Schottky effect is included and the lowest energy corresponds to a t unnel l i ng

transmission of 3%.

and geometrical paramet ers are given as external dat a and can be varied

according t o t he characteristics of t he device under investigation. In Table 1

t he paramet ers which were used in this wor k are given.

Fr om a geomet ri cal poi nt of view, t he model st ruct ure may be divided

i nt o f our di fferent parts (Fig. 1).

In t he a n t i r e f l e c t i o n c oat i ng and me t a l e l e c t r o d e z o n e onl y t he trans-

mission of i nci dent light is t aken into account [4]. In fact, for t ypi cal met al

thicknesses of a Schot t ky barrier solar cell t he phot oexci t at i on of el ect rons

from t he met al t o t he semi conduct or is negligible.

The barri er z o n e thickness is evaluated in t he program [5]. The shape

of t he pot ent i al barrier is shown in Fig. 2: it was obt ai ned by considering

214

TABLE 2

Variation in Iasc and Voc as funct i ons of the t i me interval used in the calculation of the

current

At Numbe r o f Iasc Voc

boxes (mA) (V)

(1/30)Tp 8 24.28 0.281

(1/100)Tp 14 26.52 0.283

(1/150)Tp 17 27.38 0.284

(1/ 200)rp 20 27.63 0.284

(1/250)Tp 22 27.86 0.284

a barrier height of 0.8 eV and det ermi ni ng t he lowering due to the Schot t ky

effect. In any case, it is given as an external vector and t herefore it is possible

to consider barriers of any shape and height. The barrier zone is divided into

boxes in such a way as to obt ai n a const ant electrical field in each box.

In t he base z one , carrier di ffusi on takes place and t herefore t he char-

acteristic paramet er will be t he mi nori t y {hole) diffusion length Lp. The base

zone is also divided into boxes and t he box wi dt h depends on t he time

interval At chosen to calculate t he instantaneous current. The diffusion

length {given in terms of t he number of boxes) is det ermi ned by simulating a

semi-infinite crystal with t he same physical characteristics as the base and by

considering hole injection at each t i me interval (see Table 2) and t hus the

number of boxes necessary for t he base zone is obt ai ned.

The back el ect rode is i mport ant because it gives rise to phot on reflec-

t i on and it is characterized by a reflectivity coeffi ci ent t hat depends on t he

metal of t he electrode and varies with t he phot on wavelength.

4. The program

The flow chart of t he program is shown in Fig. 3. The MCM, if rigorous-

ly applied t o our program, would t ake a l ot of central processing uni t (CPU)

time. In fact, under air mass {AM) 1 condi t i ons about 3 × 101~ phot ons

should impinge in 1 s on a cell of area 1 cm 2. Four of five carrier lifetimes

are enough for t he semi conduct or t o reach a st at i onary state. In fact it was

proved t hat t he cell reaches st at i onary condi t i ons in a t i me shorter t han t he

lifetime and t herefore t he calculation is limited to an interval equal to one

lifetime. A furt her reduct i on in t he number of phot ons can be obt ai ned by

considering a number of histories sufficient to give a good representation of

t he solar spectrum and of t he absorption coefficient. Usually, 10 4 histories

are enough from this poi nt of view and t herefore a mul t i pl i cat i on coefficient

is applied to t he number of carriers reaching t he barrier zone. This poi nt will

be discussed furt her below. The phot on source considered exhibits an AM 1

solar spectrum which, for simplicity, is restricted to a wavelength interval

215

®

Fig. 3. Flow chart of the program (for nomenclature see Appendix A).

TABLE 3

Comparison of the total energy and the average energy of photons in the real and in the

s i mu l a t e d s o u r c e

Data for the real source Data for the simulated source

Total number of phot ons 2.49 × 1017 cm -2 s -1 104 histories

Totalpower density (mW cm -2) 72.62 72.6171

Average energy of photons (eV) 1.8235 1.8230

bet ween 3000 and 12 000 A, correspondi ng t o a t ot al i nt ensi t y of 72. 62 mW

cm -2. Table 3 shows t hat t he si mul at ed source (104 histories) gives a t ot al

i nt ensi t y and an average phot one ne r gy al most coi nci dent with t hose of t he

real source.

The dark cur r ent is si mul at ed by consi deri ng t he pot ent i al barrier illus-

t r at ed in Fig. 2, t aki ng f or el ect rons in t he met al a densi t y of states wi t h a

normal di st ri but i on and including t he ef f ect of t he Fer mi - Di r ac statistics. Of

course, onl y t hermi oni c emission of el ect rons in t he met al is t aken i nt o

account . The energy interval f or el ect rons is rest ri ct ed in or der t o neglect, on

t he high energy side (at about 1 eV above t he Fermi level), t oo low an

216

o. s j /

O

0.3

0.1

0.I O.2 0/3

AE (eV)

Fig. 4. Qua nt um mechani cal ref l ect i on coef f i ci ent Q as a f unc t i on of t he ener gy di ffer-

ence bet ween el ectrons and t he t op of t he bar r i er .

occupat i on probabi l i t y and, on t he low energy side, t oo l ow a tunnelling

probabi l i t y (approxi mat el y 3%). For each hi st ory, bot h t he tunnelling prob-

ability and, for E > ~B, t he quant um mechani cal refl ect i on coeffi ci ent [6]

are t aken into account (Fig. 4). The dark current is t hen calculated as t he

dri ft current of el ect rons injected into t he semi conduct or.

The dark electric field is evaluated as a derivative of t he electrical

pot ent i al , and t he carrier mobi l i t y is cal cul at ed as a funct i on of t he dopi ng

and of t he electric field according t o ref. 7. The simulation of t he short-

circuit current Isc is obt ai ned wi t h 104 histories; for each hi st ory, t he wave-

length of an incident phot on and its pat h length d = --(l n R)/o~(~) in t he cell

(where ~(~) is t he absorpt i on coeffi ci ent and R is a random number) are

det ermi ned. If d ~< w t he phot on will be absorbed in t he depl et i on layer (the

quant um effi ci ency is t aken as equal t o uni t y); if w < d <~ SL t he phot on

will be absorbed i n t he base zone; finally, if d > SL t he phot on will be

refl ect ed by t he back el ect rode, according t o t he relative reflectivity coef-

ficient. Aft er each event, t he charge paramet ers C(I) and G(I), which rep-

resent t he phot ogener at ed carrier numbers in box I of t he depl et i on zone

and of t he base zone respect i vel y, are updat ed.

In t he cal cul at i on of t he st at i onary short-circuit current, t he di ffusi on

process f r om each box of t he base is fol l owed at each t i me interval At, whi ch

is expressed as a fract i on of t he mi nori t y carrier lifetime. This paramet er is

qui t e i mpor t ant since it implicitly det ermi nes, as previously shown, t he num-

ber of boxes in t he base zone. Subsequent l y, aft er a t i me lag equal t o t he

lifetime rp t he drift current and di ffusi on current are calculated, their sum

being Isc.

As shown in Fig. 5 (where At = (1/ 30)rp) I,c increases rapidly with

t i me, reaching f or t = Tp a value wi t hi n 2% of t he st at i onary value. Moreover,

it t urns out t hat t he average current Ia,~ calculated in t he interval 0 - Tp is

also within 3% of t he st at i onary value. The rapid increase in Is¢ can be under-

217

15:

E

l{:t

I~J/30 2 0 / 3 0 3 0 / 3 0

t(Vp}

F i g . 5 . S h o r t - c i r c u i t c u r r e n t t r a n s i e n t c a l c u l a t e d a t t i m e i n t e r v a l s A t = ( I / 3 0 ) ~ p .

s t o o d if it is considered that t h e current transient is affected n o t o n l y b y t h e

m i n o r i t y carrier lifetime b u t a l s o b y t h e drift t i m e in t h e depletion layer,

w h i c h is m u c h s h o r t e r t h a n t h e lifetime. E v e n t h e diffusion t i m e in t h e base

z o n e is practically " w e i g h t e d " a c c o r d i n g to t h e e x p o n e n t i a l distribution o f

t h e p h o t o g e n e r a t e d carriers. A s far as A t is c o n c e r n e d , it is s h o w n in T a b l e 2

that it is n o t necessary to c h o o s e t h e shortest A t since, for e x a m p l e b y

c h a n g i n g f r o m A t = (1/100)rp t o A t = (1/150)rp, o n l y a 3 % increase in t h e

average Isc value is obtained. Neverthless, in o u r calculation A t = ( 1 / 2 5 0 ) r p

w a s used.

T h e present version o f t h e p r o g r a m calculates t h e short-circuit current,

t h e d a r k current, t h e o p e n ~ i r c u i t voltage, t h e current-voltage ( I - V ) charac-

teristics, t h e fill f a c t o r F F a n d t h e c o n v e r s i o n efficiency; t h e C P U t i m e for

1 0 4 histories is a b o u t 5 rain. M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o g r a m also provides t h e pos-

sibility o f evaluating all these d a t a at various temperatures.

5. Results a n d discussion

Since in t he model t he number of histories is necessarily l ow, some

checks are needed in order to confi rm t hat this number is sufficient t o

account for t he various physical processes involved wi t h good precision.

Among t he possible tests, t he solar spect rum and t he absorpt i on coeffi ci ent

at di fferent wavelengths have been consi dered. The mi nori t y carrier di ffusi on

(since it is simulated in a semi-infinite crystal) and t he carrier t ransport in

t he depl et i on layer are clearly less dependent on t he t ot al number of events.

218

!

0.084

!

i

0.034

'I ii

i I - -

~' iii

I Iii

I i - i I

J

I - - I f - - ' I - - II i

-] . . . . . . . . I.~

I ~ I I I I

- T I - ~ I E -

l ] I- J'i-

I ~, -i ~

- z -r I

I I (

r

-, I I

I -i

I

3'

I

T [

0.3 0.7 I~

I

II

I {

1

F i g . 6 . C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e r e a l a n d s i m u l a t e d s o l a r s p e c t r u m i n t h e w a v e l e n g t h

r a n g e 0 . 3 - 1 . 2 p r o . O n t h e y a x i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p h o t o n s i n t h e r e a l

s o u r c e t o t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p h o t o n s i n t h e s i m u l a t e d s o u r c e is r e p o r t e d . T h e s p e c t r a

h a v e b e e n s h i f t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n .

TABLE 4

Comparison between the simulated and the real absorption coefficient at three wave-

lengths and for t w o t h i c k n e s s e s

Thickness X N u m b e r o f ~ s i n m l a ~ d ~ m ~

( ~ m ) (A) absorbed photons

1 4000 9876 4.39 x 104

6000 3429 4.199 x 103

8000 952 1.0004 x 103

10 4000 10000 --

6000 9850 4.1997 × 103

8000 6320 0.99967 × 103

4.4 x 104

4.2 x 103

1.0 × 103

4.2 x 103

1 . 0 x 1 0 3

Figure 6 shows t hat t he solar spect rum in t he interval 0.3 - 1.2 pm is

very well r epr oduced by si mul at i on. It must be r emember ed (see Table 3)

t hat t he t ot al solar energy si mul at ed is, within 0. 004%, coi nci dent with t hat

delivered t o t he cell by t aki ng i nt o account t he real number of phot ons.

The absor pt i on coeffi ci ent ~(k) is also simulated at various wavelengths;

i t is derived f r om t he decrease in t he number of phot ons due t o t he absorp-

t i on in t he various boxes and is compar ed wi t h t he real absorpt i on coeffi-

cient. As shown in Tabl e 4, when t he absorpt i on in a cryst al ei t her 1 or 10

/~m t hi ck is consi dered t he maxi mum possible error in ~(k) is 0.2%.

Two exampl es of si mul at ed phot on at t enuat i on at 4000 • f or a thick-

ness of 1 ~m and at 8000 A f or a t hi ckness of 10 #m are shown in Fig. 7

219

..~ 4 ,

Z

_.= ~i

i +

Ni xi e

l e

w

N

m

" o. +

l e e

50+

| -

[--

J r-*

l-++

I~+..

[+.

I - ] . . .

[ - - .

J - - ] - -

10 30 50 10 30 50

~x *b ox

Fig. 7. At t enuat i on of 4000 A phot ons in a thickness of 1 pm (logarithmic scale).

Fig. 8. At t enuat i on of 8000 A phot ons in a thickness of 10 pm (linear scale).

TABLE 5

Comparison between the solar cell performances obt ai ned by simulation and by theory

MCM results

With Schot t ky effect b Without Schot t ky effect

Average values Stationary values

Theoretical results a

Isc (A) 27.86 x 10 -3 27.86 x 10 -3 28.67 x 10 -3 28.84 x 10 -3

I s (A) 5.0 x 10 - 7 2.2 x 10 - 7 2.2 x 10 - 7 2.253 × 10 - 7

Voc (V) 0.284 0.304 0.304 0.304

FF 0.71 0.72 0.72 0.72

7) (%) 7.695 8.39 8.66 8.69

aThe t heory does not include the Schot t ky effect. The values given are stationary values.

b Average values.

and Fig. 8 respectively: a truly exponential phot on attenuation is clearly

evident.

The results obtained in the present work are summarized in Table 5,

where I~, Is, Voc, FF and W are reported and compared with theoretical

results obtained by using equations quoted in the literature [8]. In order

to make t he comparison more understandable, the results of the simulation

are also reported for a barrier without the lowering due to the Schottky

effect, since theoretical results can be obtained for this case only. For com-

pleteness, results are also presented for both the average and the stationary

values of the parameters. In the theoretical calculation, an average value of

the quantum mechanical reflection coefficient has been used [6]. The

agreement between t he Monte Carlo simulation and theoretical calculation

is extremely good, t he larger differences being 2% for I, (stationary values)

and 3% for Isc and ~ (average values).

220

10

5

V (v}

0.1 0.2 0.3

J

/ 1

2 0

3 0 l

Fig. 9 . I - V characteristics in A M 1 conditions as o b t a i n e d b y t h e M C M ( o ) (average

values) a n d b y t h e t h e o r y (4). T h e t h e o r y d o e s n o t include t h e S c h o t t k y effect.

0.6

~ 0.4

0.2

0 O. 5 0.7 O. 9 1.1

k('/~m)

Fi g. 1 0 . Re s po na i v i t y R ( mA mW - 1) as a f u n c t i o n o f wa v e l e ng t h as o bt a i ne d b y t he MCM

( e ) and b y t h e t h e o r y ( 4 ) ( r e f l e c t i o n f r o m t he bac k e l e c t r o d e wa s n o t i nc l ude d) . The

t h e o r y d o e s n o t t a ke i nt o a c c o u n t t h e S c h o t t k y e f f e c t .

The c o mp a r i s o n wa s e x t e n d e d t o t h e I - V charact eri s t i cs ( Fi g. 9 ) and t o

t h e r e s po ns i v i t y ( Fi gs . 1 0 a nd 1 1 ) . I n Fi g. 9 t h e di f f e r e nc e s can be at t r i but e d

t o t h e S c h o t t k y e f f e c t whi c h l owe r s Voe. The di f f e r e nc e s whi c h appear in

Fi g. 1 0 c an be e x pl a i ne d b y l o o k i n g at Fi g. 1 1 , wh i c h s h o ws t h e dri f t c ur r e nt

i n t h e d e p l e t i o n l ayer and t h e d i f f u s i o n current in t he bas e z o n e . In t h e

f o r me r c as e t h e di s agr e e me nt is a ma x i mu m at 4 0 0 0 A, c o r r e s po ndi ng t o a

pe ne t r a t i o n d e p t h c o mpa r a bl e wi t h t h e d e p l e t i o n l ayer t hi c kne s s , whi l e i n

t h e l at t er cas e t h e di s a g r e e me nt c o r r e s po nds t o a de e p pe ne t r a t i o n o f l i ght i n

t h e bas e z o n e ( a b o u t 3 0 p m) . I t i s t he r e f o r e pr o ba bl e t ha t t h e f o r me r di f f er-

e nc e i s d u e t o t h e l o we r s ur f ac e el ect ri c f i el d i n t h e MCM and t h e l at t er re-

s ul t s be c aus e t h e d i f f u s i o n current is c al c ul at e d by t h e t h e o r y unde r t h e

a s s u mp t i o n o f c o mp l e t e d e p l e t i o n at t h e e n d o f t h e bas e z o n e .

221

~ i o n

0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1

Fig. 11. The drift current and the diffusion current as funct i ons of wavelength as c a l c u -

l a t e d by the MCM (o) and by t he theory (A). Monochromatic l i g h t w i t h a p o w e r of 10

mW was incident on t h e c e l l .

6. Conclusions

Our work may be consi dered as a first exampl e of t he possibility of

using t he MCM in t he simulation of solar cells. It was proved t hat t he MCM

can wor k wi t h good precision, even taking into account a reasonable number

of phot ons and considering t he di ffusi on process in mi croscopi c detail. Since

reliable or usable experi ment al results are not available, our results were

compar ed wi t h t hose of t he usual t heor y.

The good agreement whi ch was obt ai ned can be consi dered as pr oof of

t he validity of t he MCM in a very simple physical case. However, as has been

not ed in t he i nt roduct i on, t he MCM can easily be ext ended t o mor e compl ex

st ruct ures such as t andem cells, het eroj unct i on cells, graded band gap cells

and MIS cells and t o transient effect s in solar cells. This ext ensi on will be

carried out in fut ure work, particularly if mor e experi ment al dat a are avail-

able. Fr om our poi nt of view, t he MCM is pr obabl y t he simplest met hod by

which t o st udy t he influence of t he various paramet ers (lifetime, t emper-

ature, di ffusi on profiles, thickness of t he various zones, absorpt i on coef-

ficient etc. ) on t he per f or mance of t he cell, particularly in cases where these

paramet ers are also dependent variables. Effort s will be made in fut ure wor k

t o investigate all t hese possibilities of t he MCM.

We are also conf i dent t hat a t wo- or three<limensional ext ensi on of our

program, in order t o deal wi t h compl ex probl ems such as series resistance or

vertical cells, may be at t ai ned wi t hout severe compl i cat i ons.

References

1 P. M. Dumbar and R. J. Hauser, Solid-State Electron., 19 (1976) 95.

2 G. J . Fossum, Solid-State Electron., 19 (1976) 269.

222

3 J. Michel and A. Mircea, Act a El ect ron. , 18 (4) (1975) 331.

4 M. V. Schneider, Bel l Syst . Tech. J. , 45 (1966) 1611.

5 S. M. Sze, Physi cs o f Semi conduct or Devices, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1960,

Chap. 8, p. 363.

6 C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, J. Appl . Phys. , 37 (7) (1966) 2683.

7 S. Sharfetter and A. Gummel, I EEE Trans. El ect ron Devices, 16 (1969) 64.

8 H. J. Hovel, in R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer (eds.), Semi conduct or s and Semi -

metals, Vol. 11, Sol ar Cells, Academic Press, New York, 1975, pp. 112 - 126.

Appendix A: nomenclature for Fig. 3

E(I) electric field

FF fill factor

Iasc average current

Id diffusion current

/dr drift current

Iisc instantaneous current

Is dark current

Isc short-circuit current

I - V I - V characteristic

Nbb number of boxes in the base

Nbw number of boxes in the barrier

Ndt number of time intervals

Np number of time intervals

NB number of histories

V(I) potential

Voc open,circuit voltage

w barrier width

At time interval

efficiency

Pe electron mobility

#h hole mobility

- Design of Solar Cabinet DrierUploaded byamrit403
- SIMULATIONUploaded byamit7978
- Agricultural ElectronicsUploaded byAshanthiShanika
- Permanent Magnet DC MotorUploaded byMuhammad Arie Hendro
- PV Solar SimulatorUploaded byronniedakingpou
- IAETSD-Modelling & Simulation of Solar PV Array FieldUploaded byiaetsdiaetsd
- Solar CoolerUploaded byhandjojosan
- 1.Simulation of Solar Cell Pannel Using Two-Diode SystemUploaded bySoujan Kumar
- DC Brush Motor TheoryUploaded byjfsmenezes4534
- A Review of New Technologies, Models and Experimental Investigations Solar DriersUploaded byJoao Lopes
- Modeling and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic ModuleUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Theory and Applications of Monte Carlo SimulationsUploaded byDouglas Figueiredo
- Permanent Magnet Dc MotorUploaded byayie94_fox8792
- Solar Dehydrator.08Uploaded byPaul Ghinga
- Development Ohmic Heating SystemUploaded byachmatsarifudin1317
- Lecture 1 Introduction to Numerical Analysis.docUploaded byBashar Jawad
- 77531217-A-Scientific-Autobiography-S-Chandrasekhar-K-Wali-World-2010-BBS.txtUploaded byKarthik Chandrasekaran
- Adaptive Stochastic Optimization Techniques With Applications-James a. Momoh 2013 430pUploaded byalex torres
- solarUploaded bydeeksha2502
- Modeling and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab- SimulinkUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Monte Carlo Kwak IngallUploaded byspratiwia
- Monte Carlo Kwak IngallUploaded byvictorcc
- Dalit Suicide suicideUploaded byThe Indian Express
- Lecture_1Uploaded byAhmedAbubakr
- Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Solar Chimney Power PlantsUploaded byRazmi Noh
- Matlab ArticuloUploaded byguz12perla
- PMF and Cramer-Rao AlgoritmiUploaded bySlobodan Janicijevic
- Maths StructureUploaded byAnonymous gUjimJK
- 30283Uploaded bytechneo

- VLSI Design Questions With AnswersUploaded bymani_vlsi
- ARM ISA OverviewUploaded bymani_vlsi
- The History of ARMUploaded bymani_vlsi
- ARM ISA ExtensionsUploaded bymani_vlsi
- 1581310044_paperUploaded bymani_vlsi
- InstructionsUploaded bymani_vlsi
- Memory HierarchyUploaded bymani_vlsi
- ARM PipelineUploaded bymani_vlsi
- Watkins 2005Uploaded bymani_vlsi
- ARM ISA RegistersUploaded bymani_vlsi
- ExceptionsUploaded bymani_vlsi
- The ARM Architecture1Uploaded byapi-19417993
- 5 Simple Steps to Students to ExcelUploaded bymani_vlsi
- CoprocessorsUploaded bymani_vlsi
- Writing Test BenchUploaded byShrinivas Saptalakar
- Chapter11 Interrupt & Its ControllerUploaded bymani gopal
- Tamil Samayal - Chappati 30 VaritiesUploaded bySakthivel
- 30 varieties - BondaUploaded bymani_vlsi
- general definitions in computerUploaded bysambu1000
- 8086 QuestionsUploaded bymani_vlsi
- microprocessor notes vtu brief 6th semUploaded byAbdul Qadeer
- block-diagram-of-intel-8086Uploaded byRitesh Singh
- M1L3Uploaded bykorumillichandu
- Nu-LB-NUC140 Users Guide v2.0.pdfUploaded byAn Huynh Van
- ORG 100hUploaded bymani_vlsi
- 30 Varieties - Bajji and BakodaUploaded bymani_vlsi
- 8088.8086 Microprocessor2Uploaded bySatya_ace10
- 8086 Instruction SetUploaded bymani_vlsi
- 8086 MicroprocessorUploaded bysameer120487
- Tamil Samayal - 30 Varities for Beauty & HealthUploaded bySakthivel

- w Pv 61 to 8 Migration GuideUploaded byNaveenkumar Ramamoorthy
- glspec40.core.20100311Uploaded bygennoveus
- ES Horizontal Curves.pdfUploaded byRenz Janfort Junsay Graganza
- 945GCMX-S2-R66--Schematic 070614Uploaded byresistrance
- angela gross technology addictionUploaded byapi-323364980
- Brandon Chow, Improving MLE Approximation in ERGMUploaded byBrandon Chow
- 43M43MS12-0200FFPUploaded byhgfhfg6 kgkghjk
- Recovering Fil esdsfUploaded byRonald
- GOLDSMITH, Jack & WU, Tim. Who controls the Internet__illusions of a borderless world.pdfUploaded byrmalhao
- b1 Lan Text and Voice ChatUploaded byAanchal Arora
- Concurrency in .NETUploaded byInna Veselinova
- Web Yh116a0 en Rx-A3050 Rx-A2050 Om Ucrabglf EnUploaded byGerardy Ca
- bbmdUploaded byGabriel FC
- 2nd assignment for semester 1Uploaded byapi-272499969
- Grid Power Quality Improvement and Battery Energy Storage in Wind Energy SystemsUploaded bySharath Chandra
- Robopet ManualUploaded byalfredoxxxx
- ASUSTOR AS3204T 4-Bay NAS Server DatasheetUploaded byWebAntics.com Online Shopping Store
- Analysis of Algorithms - Medians and Order StatisticsUploaded byfelix kagota
- The Ring programming language version 1.4 book - Part 4 of 30Uploaded byMahmoud Samir Fayed
- 10W Class D Power AmplifierUploaded bycahes
- ECi M1 Announces Partnership with Global Software, Inc.Uploaded byPR.com 2
- CR-63Uploaded byAmber Leonard
- DAT500 Ver 1.3Uploaded byexplorerakeshroshan
- TechCorner 07 - Productivity3000 Drum, Sequencer, DebounceUploaded byQuantumAutomation
- CatR - An R Package for Computerized Adaptive TestingUploaded byOscar Tlatempa Nava
- 35-Information Center Commands HuaweiUploaded bytorradoedgardo
- THD analysis of SPWM & THPWM Controlled Three phase Voltage Source InverterUploaded byIRJET Journal
- EIL Shedule of Rates ENQ_REV0Uploaded bykoti
- wepUploaded byazsalleh
- Notes Digital Communication Lecture 1_3Uploaded bydinkarbhombe