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# STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 147-148 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 10A2; 10B1, 10B2, 10B4; 10C1 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables, charts, and comparisons.

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Unit vocabulary and pictographs Materials Six Group Activity: Pictographs Math journal Transparencies of pictographs in lesson (Optional) Worksheet for game (Optional) Enough playing cards to accommodate students Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: No Warm-up Activity today.

447

Lesson: Vocabulary Data are information taken from facts. Data collection sheet is where data are recorded. Questionnaire is a set of questions Data processing is when the data that have been collected and recorded is simplified. Data presentation is a way of showing data to other people in a way that is easy to read such as by graphs, charts, and pictures. Interpreting data means to read and understand what the data are telling us. The five stages of handling data: 1. Collecting data 2. Recording data 3. Processing data 4. Representing data 5. Interpreting data Ask students where data are found. (Television, magazines, newspapers, home, school, work, libraries, etc.) Introduce pictographs. Pictographs are graphs that use pictures to show data. A key is used to show what each picture on the graphs means. Every pictograph must have a key. Draw the pictograph below on the chalkboard or a transparency. Have students identify the key and its meaning. Ask students questions about the pictograph. Tell students that Mrs. Jones asked her class to name their favorite subject. They were given a choice of four subjects: math, reading, science, and social studies. My Favorite Subject X X X X X X X

Math Reading Science Social Science

X X X X

X X

X

X

Key: X means 1 student

448

Ask: How many students chose Science? (2) Which subject was most popular? (Math) What is the title of the pictograph? (My favorite subject) Draw the following pictograph on the chalkboard or a transparency. Candy Bars Bought By Sue’s Friends Dana Kevin Mike Linda Key: means 2 candy bars

Ask questions such as: What is the name of the pictograph? (Candy Bars by Sue’s friends) What does mean? (1 Candy bar) How many candy bars did Linda buy? (3) Who purchased the most? (Kevin) Least? (Linda) Game: Direct students to play in groups of 2 or 4. Materials: Deck of shuffled cards placed face down; sheet for pictograph. Rules: 1. Two students choose two of the suits (clubs and hearts or spades and diamonds.) If four students play each will choose one suit. 2. Turn over the top card on the correct line. 3. Continue turning over the cards and drawing the pictures on the sheet. 4. The winner is the person who chooses the first suit to have five pictures Card Suits Hearts Clubs Diamonds Spades ♥ ♣ ♦ ♠ ♥ ♣ ♦ ♠ Key means 1 card ♦ ♦ ♦ ♥

449

Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. Data is information taken from facts. (yes) 2. Interpreting data means to read and understand what the data is telling. (yes) 3. There are 8 quarts in 2 gallons. (no) 4. A questionnaire is a set of questions. (yes) 5. Pictographs are graphs that use pictures to show data. (yes) 6. The distance around a circle is called the circumference. (no) 7. A key is used to show what each picture on the graph mans. (yes) 8. Data presentation is a way of showing data to other people in a way that is easy to read. (yes) 9. A chevron is a comparison symbol. (no) 10. A data collection sheet is used to record data. (yes) Free-Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Pictographs as a teacherdirected activity. Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose

SC:

SS:

450

Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology: Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statement review Homework Assign students to draw a pictograph and write 2 questions that can be answered by analyzing the data presented in it. Teacher Notes

451

Six-Group Activity Analyzing Data: Pictographs Materials: 5 index cards (5” x 7”) 1 black marker 1 pencil 1 pictograph 1 envelope (9 ½“ x 6 ½“) Prepare the following index cards using the black marker to write the questions on the front of the cards. Use the pencil to write the answers on the back of the cards. Questions: 1) How much more money did John win in 1989 than in 1985? 2) Of the years shown, in which year did the leading money winner earn the smallest amount of money? 3) What year was Brian the leading money winner, and how much did he win? 4) For the years 1985 to 1989, did all of the leading money winners earn over $100,000? 5) How much money did Walter Rice win in 1986? (Hint: ½of the symbol equals ½of $25,000.)

Answers: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) $100,000 1986 1988, $175,000 yes $162,500

Have the students find and compare values found using the pictograph. Make a copy of this study board and use it to reteach this lesson.

452

A Pictograph A pictograph uses picture symbols to help you understand data. In the pictograph below, each pizza symbol stands for 80 pizzas sold. How many pizzas does Pie in the Sky sell weekly? Average Weekly Pizza Sales Place Amount

Dalta’s Pizza

Pizza Place

Pie in the Sky

Bonita’s Pizza

= 80 pizzas

Pie in the Sky’s sales are shown as two and one half pizzas. The key below the pictograph shows that each picture of a whole pizza represents 80 pizzas. Pie in the Sky’s sales are represented by two and one half pizza symbols. ⇒ 2 × 80 pizzas 160 pizzas = 1 ⇒ + × 80 pizzas = 40 pizzas 2 about 200 pizzas The answer is: Pie in the Sky sells about 200 pizzas a week.

453

Use this pictograph to ask the students some questions before doing the activity. Example: What was the difference from 1986 to 1987? What year had the least amount of prize money? In what year was the prize money the greatest? Indianapolis 500 Approximate Total Prize Money 1985: 1986: 1987: 1988: 1989: 1990: $3,000,000 $4,000,000 $4,500,000 $5,000,000 $6,000,000 $6,500,000

Tell the students that they are going to do an activity that calls for them to answer questions about a pictograph. Lay a card on the table and allow students time to write the answer before you reveal the answer. Store this activity in the 9 ½″ x 6 ½″ envelope.

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Pictograph

Professional Bowling Association Leading Many Winners

1985

John Smith

1986

Walter Rice

1987

Pete Weber

1988

Brian Jones

1989

John Smith

$=25,000

455

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 149 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 10B1, 10B2, 10B3 10B4; 10C1 ITBS/TAP: Anayze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and anaylsis, including tables, charts, and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Tally marks and block graphs Materials Six Group Activity: Interpreting a Bar Graph Math journal Snap cubes or colored blocks (red, black, brown, and yellow). Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: Have students exchange their pictographs (homework from last lesson) and answer the questions developed as part of the assignment. Then have students write a new question for the pictograph they are reviewing. Lesson: Explain that that tally marks are used to keep count. Write 1=1 and 1111=5 on the chalkboard. Tell students that 1111 is also called a gate. Write 1111 1111 11 on the chalkboard. Ask students how much this is. (12) Write a few more amounts and have students count them.

456

Next, write 7 on the chalkboard. Have a student come to chalkboard and write the amount using tally marks. Ask students why the gates are important. (So the amounts can be easily counted.) Write several more numbers on the chalkboard. Have volunteers come to chalkboard and write the tally mark equivalents. A graph is a picture used to make data clearer and easier to read and understand. A block graph is a collection of blocks. Each block stands for something. Use snap cubes to help the class make a block graph. On the chalkboard, write the title Hair Color. Use the red, yellow (blonde), black, and brown cubes. Write the headings Red, Blond, Black, and Brown on the chalkboard below the title. Have students come up and place a cube representing their hair color under the correct heading. Cubes should be connected. If there are no cubes, use tally marks. Give students graph paper and help them make a block graph showing their class data. Example: Hair Color

4

Frequency

3 2 1 0 Black Brown Red Blond

Hair Color Tell students that frequency means how often or how many. Have students compose questions for the block graph.

457

Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. Tally marks are used to keep count. (yes) 2. A graph is a picture used to make data clearer and easier to read and understand. (yes) 3. A block graph is a collection of blocks that stand for something. (yes) 4. Range is the difference between the greatest and the least numbers in a group of numbers. (no) 5. A single tally mark is equal to 1. (yes) 6. The symbol for 5 tally mark is equal to 1. (no) 7. A polygon is a closed two-dimensional figure formed by line segments. (no) 8. Two gates are equal to 10. (yes) 9. An ordered pair is a pair of numbers that give the location of a point on a graph. (no) 10. Frequency means how often or how many. (yes) Free-Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Interpreting a Bar Graph as a teacher-directed activity.

Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose

SC:

SS:

458

Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology: Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statement review Homework Provide students with graph paper and have make a block graph depicting the number of windows, doors, tables, and chairs in their home. Teacher Notes

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Six-Group Activity Analyzing Data: Interpreting a Bar Graph Materials: 10 index cards (5”x 7”) 1 black marker 1 pencil 1 bar graph illustration 1 envelope (9 ½ 6 ½ ”x ”) Prepare the following index cards using the black marker to write the problems on the front of the index cards. Use the pencil to write the answers on the back of the index cards. Front of the card: Ask: Estimate the Native American population of each of these states: New Mexico New York Texas Alaska Oklahoma Which two states have about the same Native American population? What is the difference in population between Arizona and Michigan? Which state has the smallest Native American population? Which state has the third largest population of Native Americans? Answers: 140,000 70,000 90,000 300,000 250,000 North Carolina and Texas 150,000 Michigan California Make a copy of this study board to use to reteach this lesson.

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A Bar Graph A bar graph uses bars to represent amounts. A horizontal axis runs across the top or bottom of a graph. A vertical axis runs up and down the left side of a graph. A scale is a series of marks at known intervals on a line for the purpose of measuring.

**100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0
**

Tu lsa Ne w Yo rk O kla ho Sa m a n Fr an si co Ph oe ni M x in ne ap ol is Tu cs on An ge le s Lo s

Cities Where Native Americans Live This bar graph shows the U.S. cities with the largest Native American populations. Each bar represents how many Native Americans live in each of the cities. The names of those cities are shown on the horizontal axis. Look at the scale on the vertical axis. To estimate population, use a ruler to measure the top of each bar with the scale. Use this bar graph to work with students before doing this activity. (Draw this on a sheet of paper.)

461

Park and Recreation Land by County

Plymouth County Range San Pedro Kane Dawton 0 4 8 12 16 20

Acres (in hundreds)

Ask these questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the title of the graph? What does the vertical axis represent? What does the horizontal axis represent? What is the range of values on the scale? The scale is measured in multiples of… …

Answers to questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Park and Recreation Land by County Counties Acres (in hundreds) 0 to 20 4

Tell the students that they are going to do an activity using bar graphs. Place the picture of the bar graph in the center of the table so all students can see it, then say: Estimate the Native American population of... After every card, turn it over to reveal the answer and say: The answer is… ... Store this activity in the envelope.

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Population 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 50,000

0

States Largest Native American Population

463

States

Al as ka Ar izo na C al ifo rn ia M ic hi ga N ew n M ex ico N ew N Yo or th rk C ar ol in a O kla ho m a Te xa W s as hi ng to n

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 150 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8D5; 10B1, 10B2, 10B3, 10B4; 10C2 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables, charts and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Bar graphs, data collection sheets Materials Six Group Activity: Constructing a Bar Graph Math journal Transparency of bar graph in lesson (Optional) Graph paper transparency Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: No Warm Activity today. Lesson: A bar graph shows information using bars. It is similar to a block graph, but uses bars instead of block. Both graphs can be used to show the differences between things. A bar graph has a title, labels, bars, a vertical axis, and a horizontal axis. The plural of axis is axes. Review the term frequency.

464

**Draw the bar graph below on the chalkboard or a transparency. Our Favorite Fruit
**

6 5 4 3

Frequency

2 1 0 Banana Plum Peach Apple

Fruit Ask: Is frequency on the horizontal or vertical axis? (Vertical) How many children like peaches the best? (3) Which fruit was liked the least? (plums) How many more children liked apples than plums? (3) Ask volunteers to compose additional questions for the bar graph. Tell students that they are going to prepare for a class survey to determine each student’s cookie preference. Write: What is your favorite cookie? List oatmeal, sandwich, butter, and chocolate on the board. Tell students that they are going to make a data collection sheet to record their responses. Our Favorite Cookies Types of Cookie Oatmeal Sandwich Butter Chocolate chip Review tally marks. Tallies Example: 1111 1111 11 Frequency 12

465

Use tally marks to record student responses. Call on each student to give their preference. Record them on the chart. Have students copy the data collection sheet in their math journals. Prepare a transparency on blank graph paper. As students give the title and labels write them in their proper places. Then write the numbers along the horizonatal axis. Our Favorite Cookies Oatmeal Types Sandwich Butter Chocolate chip

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Frequency Fill in the bar graph according to the data collection sheet. Next, ask students to compose questions for the graph. Write them on the chalkboard or transparency. Point out on the graph that the bars are all the same width and have gaps of equal width between them. Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. A hexagon is a polygon with six sides (no) 2. Frequency means how often or how many. (yes) 3. A bar graph shows information using bars. (yes) 4. The vertical axis goes up and down. (yes) 5. A bar graph should have a title. (yes) 6. A bar graph is similar to a block graph but uses bars instead of blocks. (yes) 7. An even number is any number that is a multiple of 2. (no) 8. Bar graphs are used to show the difference between things. (yes) 9. A rectangle is a quadrilateral in which all four angles are right angles. (no) 10. A data collection sheet is used to record data. (yes)

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Free Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Constructing a Bar Graph as a teacher-directed activity. Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology:

SC:

SS:

467

Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statement review Homework Have students compose a survey question with 4 or 5 possible responses. Tell them also to make a data collection sheet for it. Tell students to conduct the survey in class during next session. Teacher Notes

468

Six-Group Activity Analyzing Data: Constructing a Bar Graph Materials: 1 Information Sheet 1 Answer Sheet 1 envelope (9 ½ 6 ½ ”x ”) Use the information sheet to construct a bar graph. After the students have constructed the graph, show the answer sheet. Make a copy of this study board to use when reteaching this activity.

**Percent of Americans Participating in Selected Activities
**

Vertical Axis

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Name of graph

Range

Horizontal Axis

Ae ro bi cs

So ftb al l

G ol f

Scale Information

Hu nt ing

469

Te nn is

Sa ilin g

Use this bar graph to teach students how to construct a graph. Write this information on a sheet of paper. Program Rating Points E.R. 20 N.Y.P.D. 16 60 Minutes 35 Seinfeld 21

Label the axes, and title the graph or write the title of the graph. Write down all the information the students give you on the graph. Ask: What is the title of the graph? (What Programs People Watch) What is the range of rating points? (0-35) What are the programs? (E.R., N.Y.P.D., 60 Minutes, Seinfeld) What are the ratings points of E.R., N.Y.P.D., 60 Minutes, and Seinfeld? (20, 18, 35, 23)

**What Programs People Watch
**

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 E.R. N.Y.P.D. 60 Minutes Seinfeld Programs

Tell students that they are going to do an activity that calls for them to construct a bar graph from information given. Lay the information card on the table and allow the students time to complete the graph before revealing the answer sheet showing how their graphs should look. Store this activity in the envelope.

Rating Points

470

Information Sheet

Parkside School took a survey of students’ favorite television programs. How can you use this data to make a bar graph? • Steve Harvey was the favorite of 120 students. • 7th Heaven was the favorite program of 90 students. • Brandy was the favorite program of 49 students. • Soap operas were the favorite programs of 60 students. Construct a bar graph using this data.

471

Answer Sheet

Favorite T.V. Programs of Students at Parkside School 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7th Heaven Brandy Soap Operas Steve Harvey

Number of Students

Programs

472

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 151-152 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8B2 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpert data presented in charts, graphs, tables, and other display ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, incuding tables, charts, and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Plotting points on a grid Materials Six Group Activity: Line Plots Math journal Graph transparency or chalkboard graph Overhead markers or chalk Graph Paper (homework) Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: No Warm-up Activity today

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**Lesson: Display a grid like this using the overhead projector or use a chalkboard graph.
**

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

0

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Ask class if they are familiar with the Milton Bradley game Connect Four. Have students tell how to play it, if they know. Tell class they are going to play a game similar to Connect Four. Divide class into two teams. One team is l and one team is 7. The object of the game is to get four of the marks in a row across, up and down, or diagonally. Show examples of this on the transparency. Choose a number between 1 and 10. Call on one student from each team to choose a number between 1 and 10. The team closest to the chosen number goes first. Teams will alternate turns. Go up and down the rows allowing everyone a chance to play until the game is over. To begin the game call on the first student to give two numbers between 0 and 15. For example, team x chooses 3 and 8. Be certain to count across 3 and count up 8 on the graph. Write x on the graph at (3, 8). Team d chooses 4 and 6. Count across 4 and up 6. Write d on the graph at (4, 6).

474

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

x

0 1

2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Allow each team to choose two more numbers and plot them on the grid. Next, discuss the process of plotting points. Tell students to note that the first number goes across and the second one goes up. Continue alternating turns until one team has four in a row. At this time, discuss strategies such as blocking the other team’s moves. Choose one student form each team to plot the points in the second game. Display a clean graph transparency. Tell students that the goal is to mark where 6 and 7 would be positioned on this graph. Have a volunteer explain where the mark would be placed. Go right 6 and then up 7. Plot the point on the graph.

475

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

0 1

2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Remind students that across is the horizontal axis and up and down is the vertical axis. Write (6, 7) on the transparency. Tell students that (6, 7) is called an ordered point. The first number tells how far to the right to go. The second number tells how far up to go. Marking this point on the graph is called plotting a point. Plot the points (3, 7) and (7, 3) on the graph. Check that students understand that order is important. Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7, 5 in parentheses is an ordered pair. (yes) Across on the graph is the horizontal axis. (yes) Compostite numbers have more than two factors. (no) The first number of an ordered pair tells how far to the right to go. (yes) A product is the result of multiplying two numbers together. (no)

476

6. The ordered pair (7, 3) is different form the ordered pair (3, 7). (yes) 7. The second number of an ordered pair tells how far up to go. (yes) 8. Marking an ordered pair on a graph is called plotting a point. (yes) 9. Up and down on the graph is the vertical graph. (yes) 10. A mixed number is a number made up of a whole number and a fraction. (no) Free Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Line Plots as a teacherdirected activity. Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology:

SC:

SS:

477

Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statements review Homework Give each student a piece of graph paper. Have them number the horizontal and vertical axes. Students are to plot the following points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5, 3 0, 7 8, 2 4, 0 2, 6

Next have studnts plot on e ordered pair of their own choosing. Students should write the letter A above the point, and write the ordered pair in parentheses below the grid. Example: (6, 5) Teacher Notes

478

Six-Group Activity Analyzing Data: Line Plots Materials: 1 Information Sheet 1 Answer Sheet 1 envelope (9 ½ x 6 ½ ” ”) Construct a graph using plots and information given. Make a copy of this study board and use it to reteach this lesson. Line Plot A line plot can be used to order lists of data. To make a line plot, first make a number line. Then put an X above each number as many times as the number appears in the list. A line plot also allows you to see the shape of data. If you draw a line above the X’s, you can see that the data curves up and down. A cluster is a group of data that are close together on a line plot. A gap is a space between data on a line plot. An outlier is a data point that is very far from the other values on either end of a line plot. Example:

Outlier

Cluster

Gap

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ___________________________________________________________________________ 20 35 50 21 36 22 37 23 38 24 39 25 26 27 28 40 41 42 43 29 44 30 45 31 46 32 47 33 48 34 49

Use this line plot to teach students before doing the activity.

479

1992 Regular NFL Season Final Standing (National Conference) Team New York Giants Philadelphia Eagles Washington Redskins Phoenix Cardinals Dallas Cowboys Minnesota Vikings Green Bay Packers Detroit Lions Chicago Bears Tampa Bay Buccaneers San Francisco 49ers Los Angeles Rams New Orleans Saints Atlanta Falcons Number of Wins 8 10 14 4 11 8 4 12 11 3 10 3 11 10

As you give the directions on constructing a line plot, write and draw the steps. Step 1. Draw a line across your paper. Step 2. Find the scale you are working with. (In this case, the fewest number of wins is 3, and the largest is 14.) Write these numbers 9 10 11 12 13 14 under your line as shown and fill in the values in between. Step 3. Now use an X to record each number of wins on the number line. (The Giants had 8 wins, so put an X above 10 11 12 13 14 the 8 on the number line.) ______________________________

______________________________ 3 4 5 6

7

8

X ______________________________ 3 4 5 6 7 8

9

480

Step 4. Continue making the X’s in a stack X X above the appropriate numbers. (The X X X X X values for the Eagles, the Redskins, X X X X XX X the Cardinals, the Cowboys, and ______________________________ Vikings are now added.) 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tell the students that they are going to do an activity that calls for them to construct a line plot. Show them the information sheet and allow time for them to draw the answer. Display the answer sheet to show what the graph should look like. Store this activity in the envelope.

8

481

INFORMATION SHEET Number of Members in the House of Representatives, by State, 1990 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky 7 2 5 4 45 6 6 2 19 10 2 2 22 10 6 5 7 Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota 8 2 8 11 18 8 5 9 2 3 2 2 14 3 34 11 2 Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 21 6 5 23 2 6 2 9 27 3 4 10 8 9 9 2

482

483

Answer Sheet

484

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x xx xx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx

xx xxx xxx x xxx x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 153-154 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8B2; 8D5; 10A2; 10B1, 10B2, 10B3, 10B4; 10C1 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables , and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables, charts, and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Line graphs Materials Six Group Activity: Line Graphs Math journals Transparency of “Average Temperature in Oz City” Graph paper Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: No Warm-up Activity today Lesson: A line graph is often used to show changes over a period of time, for example, with temperature. Line graphs use a line to show how things change. The line goes up, goes down, or stays the same. If the line goes up it show an increase. In the line goes down it shows a decrease. If the line if flat the value stays the same. The horizontal axis shows the changes. Display the line graph Average Temperature in Oz City (found on the next page) on the overhead or reproduce for class. Have students identify the parts: title, labels, horizontal and vertical axes. Have volunteers answer the questions, and provide additional ones with answers.

485

Average Temperature in Oz City

100 90 80 70 Temperature oF 60 50 40 30 20 10

August

June

September

Months

1. In which month is Oz the hottest? 2. What was the change in temperature between March and May? 3. Which month was cooler, May or September? 4. How many degrees warmer was June than May? 486

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

October

July

Distribute graph paper and the data below to the students, and have them create a line graph. Jerry’s Bowling Averages WEEK 1 2 3 4 95 90 Scores 85 80 75 70 1 2 3 4 Week Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. The vertex is the point where two rays meet. (no) 2. Line graphs use a line to show how things change. (yes) 3. If the line goes down on the graph there was a decrease. (yes) 4. An addend is a number that is added to another number. (no) 5. Line graphs are often used to show changes over a period of time. (yes) 6. The lines on the bar graph go up, go down or stay the same. (yes) 7. A line graph has a title. (yes) 8. Equivalent fractions are fractions that have the same value. (no) 9. If the line on the graph goes up it means there was an increase. (yes) 10. The horizontal axis shows the change. (yes) SCORES 80 75 85 90

487

Free-Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Line Graphs as a teacherdirected activity. Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology:

SC:

SS:

488

Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statement review Homework Students are to compose 4 questions for the line graph they created in class. Teacher Notes

489

490

491

Six–Group Activity Analyzing Data: Line Graphs Materials: 2 illustrations of line graphs 10 index cards (5” x 7”) 1 envelope (9 ½ x 6 ½ ” ”) 1 black marker 1 pencil Prepare the index cards using the black marker to write each question below on the front of a different index card. Use the pencil to write the answer on the back of each index card. Questions: The graph shows the average price of what? (raw sugar) The price of sugar is measured in what? (cents per pound) The graph shows the rise and fall of raw sugar prices for what years? (1980-1987) In 1986, a pound of sugar would have cost? ($.16) What happened between 1982 and 1984? (raw sugar prices rose) Between what years was there the biggest decrease in raw sugar prices? (1984-1985) What is the difference in price between a pound of sugar in 1985 and a pound of sugar in 1986? ( 3 cents) What is the difference between the highest and the lowest raw sugar prices shown on the graph? (9 cents) What did sugar prices do from 1980-1985? (fell sharply, rose, then fell sharply again) What is the title of this graph? (Average Price of Raw Sugar) Say: The first thing you do to scan a line graph is to find the graph title, the axes’ names and the labeled points along each axis. Point to the graph and say: This graph shows the number of people living below the poverty level. The question is… from what year to what year? Find the horizontal axis title. (Years) Find the first and last years included on the graph. (Point this out.) The answer is 1981-1987. Say: The next step in reading a line graph is to find the information line, and read the labeled points along the horizontal and vertical axes.

492

Say: The question is: In 1987, how many people were living below the poverty level? (32 million) First find 1987 on the horizontal axis. (Point this out.) From the bottom of the graph, move directly upward to the information line. Next, from this point on the information line, move to the left to the labeled point on the vertical axis. Read the labeled point on the vertical axis. (32) The answer is: 32 million people were living below the poverty level. The last step is finding answers to comprehension questions. Inferences and predictions can be made by comparing values represented on the information line. The question according to the graph is: In what three years was the number of people living in poverty the highest? Display the picture of the graph Average Prices of Raw Sugar ask the students questions about the graph using the activity cards. Give immediate feedback by revealing the answers on the back of the index cards. Use the graph Persons Below Poverty Level to reteach this activity.

493

**Persons Below Poverty Level
**

40 39 Number of People (In Millions) 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 1981 1982 1983 1984 Years 1985 1986 1987

494

Directions for reading a graph: Say: First scan across the information line from left to right. Identify the three consecutive points on the information line that are higher than any others. (Point this out on the graph.) For each of these three points, move directly downward to the horizontal axis. Read the years labeled directly below the designated points on the information line. The answer is 1982, 1983, and 1984. Tell the students that they are going to do an activity on line graphs. Say: I am going to show you a picture of a line graph and I want you to answer questions about the graph. After each question, reveal the answer by turning the card over. Store this activity in the envelope.

495

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 155 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 10A2; 10B1, 10B2, 10B4, 10B5 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables, and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables, charts, and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Schedules, comparing bar graphs and line graphs Materials Six Group Activity: Identifying Locations Math journals Optional-Student copies of schedule, line graph, and bar graph Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: Answers are in parentheses. If the clock is now 11:30 A.M., tell what time it will be… 1. 2. 3. 4. …in 20 minutes (11:50 a.m.) …in 1 hour and 30 minutes (1:00 p.m.) …in 6 hours and 10 minutes (5:40 p.m.) …in 10 hours and 15 minutes (9:45 p.m.)

Lesson: Display the following schedule on a transparency for students, and ask questions about it. Tell students that schedules are used to display data. They are also helpful for planning activities.

496

FRIDAY 7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:10 11:30 12:00 12:15 1:00 News and weather Bingo Dogs and Cats School Time Math Fun Pets Mickey’s Playhouse Kids TV Doug’s Dog Little Princess My Best Friend News and Weather Shelly and Shirley I’ve Got a Joke

Ask questions such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Which program starts at 11:00? (Doug’ Dog) Which program comes after Little Princess? (My Best Friend) Which show is the longest? () Which programs last exactly half an hour? (News andWeather, Bingo, Dogs and Cats, School Time, Math Fun, Pets, Kids TV, and My Best Friend)

Discuss other types of schedules. Next, display these graphs on a transparency. Have students describe their similarities, and interpret the data on each. Candy Sale for Room 404 Number of candy bars sold 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1 2 3 4

Week 497

Candy Sales for Room 404 Number of candy bars sold

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1

2

3

4

Week Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. 1. Schedules are used to display data. (yes) 2. Line graphs and bar graphs need labels for the horizontal and vertical axes. (yes) 3. Length is the measurement of distance between two endpoints. (no) 4. Schedules are helpful for planning activities. (yes) 5. Parallel lines are lines that never intersect. (no) 6. Bar graphs and line graphs can display the same data. (yes) 7. Bar graphs and line graphs can be used to show the difference between things. (yes) 8. Bar graphs and line graphs both have titles. (yes) 9. A train schedule will tell what time a train arrives and departs. (yes) 10. A triangle is a polygon with three sides and three angles. (no) Free-Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

498

Six-Group Activity Have a group of students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Identifying Locations as a teacher-directed activity. Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology:

SC:

SS:

499

Assessment Student response during lesson, Ten Statement review Homework Find a schedule and write 5 questions for it. Bring in the schedule with questions. Study for test. Teacher Notes

500

Six-Group Activity Analyzing Data: Identifying Locations Materials: 1 picture of a graph 10 index cards (5” x 7”) 1 envelope (9 ½ x 6 ½ ” ”) 1 black marker 1 pencil Activity Card Sheet Prepare the following by cutting out the activity cards provided in the pages that follow. Glue each of them to an index card. Use the pencil to write the answers on provided below the back of each card. (See attached Activity Card sheet.) Answers: (10,0) (5,5) (2, 8) (0, 5) (6,0)

A soccer ball

Turtle

(3, 4)

Flashlight

(4, 8)

Write words or numbers to complete the directions and write the ordered pair for the object. Make a copy of this study board and use it to reteach this activity.

501

Coordinate Plane You can use a grid to locate points on a map. The location of the baked bread can be described in words. Go 3 squares right, then 4 squares up.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The location of the loaf of bread can also be described using an ordered pair. An ordered pair is a pair of numbers that describes a location. (3, 4) The first number tells how many squares to move to the right. The second number tells how many squares to move up. Use the grid in the study board to reteach this activity. Display the picture of the coordinate plane. Tell the students to use the graph to answer the questions. After every card is displayed and the answer is written, reveal the answer, saying: The answer is… …Store this activity in the envelope.

502

COORDINATE PLANE

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

503

ACTIVITY CARDS

To find walk ______ to the right, then __ up. The answer is (_____,_____)

,

504

ACTIVITY CARDS

To find , walk _____ to the right, then _____ up. The answer is (_____,_____)

505

ACTIVITY CARDS

To find The answer is (___, ___)

506

ACTIVITY CARDS

To find The answer is (___, ___)

507

ACTIVITY CARDS

To find The answer is (___, ___)

508

ACTIVITY CARDS

Which treasure can be found by walking 0 squares right, then 10 squares up? The answer is (___, ___)

509

ACTIVITY CARDS

What can be found by walking 10 squares to the right, then 9 squares up? The answer is (___, ___)

510

ACTIVITY CARDS

What is the ordered pair of the book? The answer is (___, ___)

511

ACTIVITY CARDS

What picture is at this location (7, 3)? The answer is (___, ___)

512

ACTIVITY CARDS

The bike is at what location? The answer is (___, ___)

513

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 156 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8B2; 8D5; 10B1, 10B2, 10B4, 10B5 ITBS/TAP: Analyze and interpret data presented in charts, graphs, tables, and other displays ISAT: Understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables, charts, and comparisons

Unit Focus/Foci Analyzing Data Instructional Focus/Foci Formal assessment Materials Math journals Prepared test Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Warm-up Activity: No Warm-up Activity today.

514

Test

Circle the letter of the answer. 1. We record information on a ____________________. A. meter B. chevron C. data collection sheet 2. ____________________ means reading and understanding what the data are telling you. A. Tallying B. Interpreting data C. Data 3. Information taken from facts is . ____________________ A. Tally B. Data C. Key 4. A ____________________ is used to show what each picture on a graph means. A. key B. data C. tally 5. A ____________________ is used to show changes over a period of time. A. Pictograph B. Key C. Line graph

Count the tally marks. 6. 1111 1111 ____________________. 7. 1111 1111 1111 1111 11 ____________________.

515

Write tally marks for each number. 8. 13 ____________________. 9. 20 ____________________. 10. If l stands for 10 coins on a pictograph, how would you show 35 coins? ____________________. Use the bar graph. Favorite Pets

9 8 7 Number of Students 6 5 4 3 2 1

CAT

DOG

RABBIT

FISH

HORSE

Pet

516

11. How many students were surveyed? 12. What was the least favorite pet? 13. How many more students said the dog than said fish? Use the line graph Room 109’s Food Drive 30 25 Number of Cans 20 15 10 5

MON TUE WED THU FRI 14. How many cans were collected on Thursday? 15. On which day were the most cans collected? 16. How many cans were collected on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday?

517

Use the grid.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

E A

B C

D

F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17. Give the ordered pair for letter A. 18. Give the ordered pair for letter F. 19. Tell what letter is found at (2, 3). 20. Tell what letter is found at (6, 6).

518

Ten Statements Review the ten statements and have the students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not heard in today’s lesson. No Ten Statements today Free-Choice Lesson Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day). Six-Group Activity No Six-Group Activity today Math Workshop Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information Understand the meaning of words in context Apply scientific method to solve problems Analyze and interpret data Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons Sequence information, especially using timelines Select appropriate information for intended purpose Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology:

SC:

SS:

519

Assessment Homework Teacher Notes Answers to Test: 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. 10 7. 22 8. 1111 1111 111 9. 1111 1111 1111 1111 10. 11. 22 12. horse 13. 6 14. 25 15. Friday 16. 60 17. (1,6) 18. 6,0) 19. C 20. E

520