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[Sci-Tech]TheHindu Sep-Oct-Nov(Part4of4): Space, Defense related: ISRO Mars

Mission, MAVEN, INSAT3D, Vikramaditya, EMP, Napalm


1. Prologue
2. ISROs MAR Orbiter Mission (MoM)/Mangalyaan
1. Timeline
2. Launch Vehicle
3. Payloads
4. Do we need Mars Mission?
5. Anti-Arguments
6. Pro-arguments
3. MAVEN (NASA)
4. INSAT 3D
5. RH 200 & Thumba
6. GSAT-7
7. GSAT-14
8. Chandra X-ray Observatory
9. Olympic torch in Space
10. Defense related
1. #1: INS Vikarmaditya
2. #2: Napalm
3. #3: EMP Bomb
11. Physics/Chemistry
1. #1: Tree Leaves to detect gold
2. #2: Candle flame vs Gravity
12. Mock Questions
ISROs MAR Orbiter Mission (MoM)/Mangalyaan
Timeline

Launch Vehicle
PSLV GSLV
Polar satellite launch vehicle Geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle
Can carry upto 1600 kg satellite 2500kg
MoM/Mangalyaan= first Indian spacecraft to cross Earths escape velocity of
11.2 km per second.
Mangalyaan will travel for almost 300 days, covering 680 million kilometres, and
reach Martian orbit in September 2014.
ISRO used PSLV XL (C25) launch vehicle to launch the Mangalyaan (Mars spacecraft).
Why?
1. GSLV tests are not yet successful. Last time they tried GSLV to launch GSAT-14
satellite and failed because of fuel leak. (Aug 2013)
2. Mangalyaan weighs ~1300 kg. PSLV can easily carry this weight.
3. PSLV is tried and tested technology.
Payloads
ISROs Mangalyaan wants to gather data about Mars SAM (Surface Atmosphere
Minerals) using five payloads/instruments:
Study Mars S-E-A Payload detail
I. Surface
1. Color Camera
Mars Color camera.
Study surface, dust
storms etc.
also taking photos
of Mars satellites:
Phobos and
Deimos.
2. Spectrometer
Thermal Infrared
Imaging spectromet
er (TIS). To study
mineral resources of
Mars
and to help UPSC
update its Mains
GS1 syllabus:
Distribution of key
natural resources
across the Earth
AND Mars.
II. (Particle)Environment 3. MENCAGandhi
Mars Exospheric Neutral
Composition Analyzer.To
study neutral gas atoms in
the Martian atmosphere.
III. Atmosphere 4. Methane Sensor
Methane Sensor for Mars
(MSM).If methane + water
detected=possible that at
some point of time, Mars
had supported life form.
5. Photometer
Lyman Alpha Photometer
(LAP). Measure hydrogen
and deuterium.Deuterium
= heavier than hydrogen.
Water made from heavy
hydrogen is heavier and
hence it evaporates
differently.
Knowing Hydrogen :
Deuterium ratio will
help answer how did
water vanish from Mars?
The combined weight of these five instruments =just ~25 kg.
ISTRAC
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking & Command Network @Banglore.
Previously tracked and commanded Chandrayaan-1
Now doing the same for Mars orbiter.
Do we need Mars Mission?
(for Group Discussion GD/Interview)
Anti-Arguments
1. Crores of rupee wasted- could be used to feed millions of hungry people in
India. Millions of children suffering from malnutrition, half the junta doesnt
have toilets. Better get those thousands of ISRO scientists and engineers to
comeup with new technology to fix malnutrition and malnutrition.
2. ISROs budget is better spent to meet Indias communication needs and bring
down digital divide.
3. Even Airtel has sued ISRO for not meeting its contract obligations. So, ISRO
better focus on present rather than doing some mars research whose benefits can
materialize may be after 100-200 years.
4. ISRO has installed a fancy methane detector in this spacecraft. But NASAs
curiosity rover data has already concluded that Mars environment doesnt
contain methane. ISRO is only doing gaddha majoori (donkey labour). Counter
argument: NASAs Curiosity rover measured presence of methane in a small
area. But ISRO will scan entire Martian environment to detect Methane.
5. GSLV testing has not giving positive result yet. Had they waited for GSLV
testing to finish- Mars Mission could be done in 2016. (Even Chandrayan-2
project is stalled due to this GSLV problem). But it seems ISRO chairman wants
media publicity before retiring, so made he all the haste to launch Mars Mission
in 2013 using PSLV (instead of GSLV).
6. Less of a scientific pursuit and more of a space race with China- me too going
on Mars. First India should overtake China in terms of GDP and poverty
removal.
7. Britain, Japan, World Bank etc. reduce the donation to India thinking since India
has lot of money of run such Mars adventures, they must have money to take
care of their poors as well.
(to drag the argument further non-seriously)
8. This is just publicity stunt to divert attention from real issues. Earlier
Chandryaan found traces of water on Moon, then Aaj-tak etc. Hindi channels ran
24/7 reports for weeks= in the meantime government can go scot free with
bigger scams.
9. And most importantly, the youngsters have to mugup one more stupid topic for
the competitive exams. The financial cost of combined man-hours wasted in
studying such topics= alone worth 13% of GDP.
Pro-arguments
#1: cash will be recovered
At the core of Anti arguments= Ca$H that ISRO has wasted in this Mars project. But
in reality its an investment that will be recovered within a few decades, How?
1. Many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America are seeing good economic
growth. But they lack skilled manpower, technology and budget to setup their
own launch vehicles and premier space agencies.
2. But they too need satellites for communication and military. So, they outsource
the satellite launch/survey work to established players.
3. ISROs commercial Arm ANTRIX makes annual profit of ~100 crore rupees from
such outsourced contracts.
4. ISRO spent only 450 crore rupees. NASA has spent billions of dollars on
Mars. This Makes ISRO world-famous as a prudent cost saving space agency=
more clients via its commercial arm ANTRIX = more money incoming.
So, we can see this Mars mission as ISROs 450 crore rupees advertisement / PR
campaign- to impress those potential clients and get more contracts=> money will be
recovered and profit will be made.
#2: Soft Power
As ISRO establishes reputation, gets more contracts from third world- it can be used as
a tool to exercise soft power. How?
give Take
personnel /technology exchange
programs with developing
countries
giving discounts on their space
projects/infrastructure
their support for Indias claim to
Permanent seat in UNSC
their votes in our favour whenever
Kashmir/Arunachal issues popup in
UN General Assembly
Oil-gas exploration contracts in their
territory and so on.
In short, there is more to international relations than what meets the eyes. 450 crore is a
very petty amount to accomplish many diplomatic victories- [compared to the
thousands of crore rupees weve given to Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan via
soft loans so they dont shelter terrorists and secessionists on their soil.]
#3: Did not steal from poors month
1. Government spends barely ~0.35% of budget on space programs. And even out
of that ~0.35% allocation, ISRO spent only 8% on Mars Missions. There are plenty
of government schemes with way bigger budgetary allotments for poor people.
So its not like government stopped/reduced expenditure on some xyz scheme
for poors to fund ISROs Mars adventure.
2. Agreed, poverty should be removed, and everyone must get food security. But
the proposed food security bill will need ~1-2 lakh crores rupees every year.
Even If ISRO didnt spend 450 crores on Mars, the money thus saved- wont
make a big contribution to food security anyways.
#4: Making History
So far only three agencies have succeeded in Mars Mission
1. European Space Agency (ESA) of European consortium,
2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the US
3. Roscosmos of Russia
Even USA, Japan and China failed to reach mars in their first attempt.
So, if ISROs Mars mission succeeds in first attempt (that too without coaching),
itd be a milestone in the history of space explorations.
#5: Misc.
1. Will attract talented desi scientist/engineers to join ISRO=braindrain prevented.
2. Data gathered from ISROs mission, can be used to send manned mission
(astronauts) on Mars later, with collaboration of NASA etc.
3. The technology used in this mission has potential application in weather forecast,
computer tech, health-medicine etc. in future.
4. Space research is not waste of time. 1990 Odisha cyclone killed >10000 people.
But 2013 cyclone Phalin killed very few, because Indian satellite gave accurate
weather prediction about where and when the storm would hit. Space research
has given immense benefits to Agriculture, education, fisheries and defense.
(Counter argument: then send more weather/education satellites- not spacecrafts
to Moon and Mars!)
MAVEN (NASA)
ISROs MoM NASAs Maven
Mars Orbitor Mission
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution
Mission (MAVEN)
launch vehicle=PSLV Atlas V rockets. (more powerful than PSLV)
launched on 5
th
Nov 2013 18
th
Nov 2013
from Sriharikota, Andhra from Cape Canaveral in Florida, US.
Rs.450 crore $671 million
~1,350 kg ??
will enter Mars Orbit ~Sept. 24, 2014 will enter Mars Orbit ~Sept. 22, 2014
Doing three studies:
1. Surface/geology: using camera
and spectrometer.
2. (Particle) Environment: using
MENCA
3. Atmosphere: using Photometer
and Methane sensor
Only study Martian (upper)
atmosphere.
based on that data: Itll give clues about
martian climate, geologic, and
geochemical conditions over time
Will find the answer: Did Mars ever had
suitable environment to support life?
has five instruments/payloads
has eight instrument- spectrograph,
magnetometer, ion analyzer etc.

The spacecraft may also provide
communications relay support for
future Mars landers and rovers.
INSAT 3D
Weather satellite (meteorology), search and rescue operations.
At present Indias meteorological observation is done by two satellites Kalpana-1
and INSAT 3A. This INSAT 3D is more powerful and advanced.
it can detect signals from distressed fishing boats, aeroplanes etc. and help in
search and rescue missions, with help of coast guard, navy etc.
Launched in late August 2013.
expiry date= after seven years in 2020
RH 200 &
Thumba
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), Kerala,
under ISRO
1963: Vikarm Sarabhai and team had launched an American
rocket Nike-Apachefrom here.
2013: completed 50 years. RH 200 rocket was launched.
RH 200 is a Rohini series advanced sounding rocket. can carry 10
kg payload.
to study the upper atmosphere.
GSAT-7
Indias first full-fledged military communications satellite
Navy will use it for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore
communications.
Launched from French Guiana in late August 2013.
GSAT-14
this communication satellite was to be launched ~mid-August
2013, from Sriharikota, Andhra
but #EPICFAIL because launch vehicle GSLV-D5 developed a
leak= ISRO had to cancel.
Curiosity
NASAs Mars Rover Curiosity- gave two new findings
1. Martian meteoritesreally are from the Mars Planet.
2. Found two isotops of argon gas : Argon-36 and Argon-38by the
Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on Curiosity.
Chandra X-ray Observatory
belongs to NASA
allows scientists from around the world to obtain X-ray images- to understand
universes structure and evolution
It recently found a black hole @the center of milky way a producing high energy
particles.
High energy particles = produced by young stars and blackholes.
They play important role regulating the rate of formation of new stars.
Olympic torch in Space
2014s winter Olympics will be held in Sochi, Russia during February.
From Kazakhstan, rocket was launched to carry Olympic torch to the
international space station. (ISS)
Astronauts will carry out a spacewalk with this Olympic torch. That way we can
brag Olympic torch has even been to space.
This torch has also been through:
1. Worlds deepest lake: Baikal
2. Highest mountain in Russia and Europe: Mt.Elbrus
Ashish Yadav
from Haryana.Selected in NASAs three year astronaut
training program
.
Defense related
#1: INS Vikramaditya
1987 INS Virat- Aircraft carrier inducted.
1994
India starts negotiating with Russia to get their aircraft carrier called Admiral
Gorshkov (to be added as INS Vikramaditya)
2004 formal deal signed
2013,
INS Vikrant: Indias first ever indigenously built aircraft carrier launched
@Kochi.
2013,
Nov
Finally Russia handed over the ship to Indian Navy, after almost 9 years wait.
Total cost: >12000 cr. rupees.
Ok but why is it so special?
INS Virat is soon to retire. Vikrants testing is still ongoing. So, We needed a new
aircraft carrier.
vikramaditya will makes us only the third country in the world after the US and
Italy to own more than air craft one carrier. (Vikrama+Vikrant)
Even China has only one aircraft carrier: Liaoning
INS Vikramaditya can carry
o 30 aircraft including MiG 29K, Sea Harrier; Dhruv, Chetak helicopters.
o 1600 personnel
o Its radar has a range of 500kms.
2013 has been a special year for Indian Navy for following reasons:
1. got Boeing P8 I long range maritime reconnaissance planes
2. got Hawk jets to train navy pilots.
3. got full fledged communication satellite GSAT-7
4. first MiG-29K squadron was commissioned
5. INS Vikrant: first indigenous aircraft carrier, was launched at Kochi.
6. INS Arihant- Indias first home grown nuclear submarine: Its nuke reactor went
critical in August month.
7. and finally got this INS Vikramaditya
#2: Napalm
incendiary weapon, designed by American chemists during WW2
Principle: fuel + thickening agent= fuel burns longer, gives higher temperature=
more damage if poured on an enemy bunker/vehicle/soldier.
Thickening agent used was: Naphthenate + aluminium palmitate. (hence
called Napalm)
was widely used during Korean and Vietnam War.
UN convention prohibits the use of Napalm against civilians.
Why in News? Syrian Air force dropped Napalm bombs over schoolchildren. (BBC
report.)
#3: EMP Bomb
EMP=electromagnetic pulse
Nuclear bomb blast => gamma radiation.
Atom is made up of: proton + neutron + electron.
but this gamma radiation throws electrons out of the atom.
all those free electrons are then deflected by earths magnetic field. And thus an
EMP blast is created.
An EMP blast can disable all type of electronic equipment. But it wont damage
physical structures- like bridges/buildings, It cant kill people directly.
Solar flares also create EMP- damage satellites and communication network.
ok but why in news? Because North Korea has (allegedly) bought EMP bombs
from Russia = South Korea is worried.
Physics/Chemistry
#1: Tree Leaves to detect gold
Gold mining companies spend billions of dollars to search new deposits of gold.
But Australian researcher came with a cheaper method= just study the tree
leaves.
Acacias and eucalypts treet roots go very deep in the earth and while they suck
water and minerals- they also suck gold particles.
But these trees treat the gold as toxic, and store it away in their leaves for
shedding later.= by studying the chemical contents of the tree leaves, we can
make a preliminary assessment about gold deposits in the area.
Synchrotron =particle accelerator machine in Australia. it was use for testing this
tree-leaves-gold theory.
#2: Candle flame vs Gravity
When we light a candle, why does the flame go against the gravity (up)?
Burning candle= nearby air gets hot=moves upwards.
And the cold air from above comes downward.
Soon, this cold air also gets hot and moves upward.
This continuous cycle of air movement pushes the flame upwards and gives the
teardrop / elongated shape.
If there is no gravity, then candle flame will be in spherical shape. (Because there
is no up direction for the warm air to rise.)
Mock Questions
1. Which among the following used GSLV launch vehicle?
a. GSAT7
b. GSAT14
c. Mars Orbitor Mission
d. None of Above
2. Which of the following is not associated with Indian Navy
a. Hawk Jet Trainer
b. Boeing P8
c. GSAT-7
d. Samudra Paheredar
3. Find the correct statement about Nepalm
a. Napalm is used in synethsis of Agent Orange
b. Napalm can be used as fuel in bomber jets.
c. UN convention forbids the use of Napalm against enemy soldiers during
war.
d. None of Above
4. Find incorrect statements
a. an EMP blast cannot damage mechanical instruments stored in a bunker
b. an EMP blast cannot kill soldiers hiding in a bunker
c. an EMP blast cannot damage electronics stored in a bunker
d. None of above
Q5. Consider following statements about ISRO Mars Mission
1. Mangalyaan was launched using PSLV because PSLV can carry heavier weight
and longer journey than GSLV
2. Mangalyaan has a Spectrometer to determine hydrogen and Deuterium levels in
Martian atmosphere
3. Mangalyaan has a Photometer to study mineral composition of Martian soil
Correct statements are:
A. Only 1 and 2
B. Only 2 and 3
C. Only 1 and 3
D. None
Q6. Consider following pairs
1. Mangalyaan=first Indian spacecraft to cross Earths escape velocity of 11.2 km
per second.
2. INS Virat= Indias first ever indigenously built aircraft carrier
3. GSAT-7= Indias first full-fledged Military communication satellite.
Correct pairs are
A. Only 1 and 2
B. Only 2 and 3
C. Only 1 and 3
D. None
Q7. Which of the following do not belong to ISRO?
1. Chandra X-ray Observatory
2. RH-200
3. Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer
4. Sample Analysis at Mars
Answer choice
A. Only 1 and 2
B. Only 2, 3 and 4
C. Only 2 and 4
D. Only 1 and 4
Mains
5 marks
1. Payloads on ISROs Mars orbital mission
2. MENCA
3. ISTRAC
4. INSAT 3D
5. GSAT-7
6. GSAT-14
12 marks
1. Discuss the modernization initiatives of 2013 that will help Indian Navy to
become a Blue Water Navy.
2. India, a country faced with plethora of socio-economic problems, should not
involve in space race with developed countries. Do you agree? Justify your
stand.
[Sci-Tech] TheHindu Sep-Oct-Nov:(Part 1 of 4) Environment and Biodiversity (EnB)-
Jellyblooms,e-waste rules,SAFAR tech
1. Prologue
2. Flora Fauna Wildlife related
1. Jellyfish bloom
2. Cyber poaching
3. Tiger Census
4. Giant African Snail
5. Hibernation
6. Great Indian Bustard
7. Katurirangan report on western ghat
8. Human Cruelty by Animals?
3. Waste Management related
1. #1: E-waste rules
2. #2: Nisrgruna
3. #3: Coriander as biosorbent
4. Air Pollution related
1. #1 Air Quality Index
2. #2 SAFAR
3. #3 China bans coal based power plants
4. #4: Aerosol
5. Energy related
1. #1: Nanotech: Better solar panels
2. #2: Nanotech: better fuel cells
6. Mock Questions
Prologue
Until now, Ive compiled Hindu Sci-Tech upto August 2013. You can access the
entire archive on Mrunal.org/snt now moving to next three months: September,
October and November 2013. (minus last Thursday of November ie.28
th
Nov)
This compilation runs in total three parts, first part dealing with Environment
and Biodiversity related topics. Topics of agro, medical research, space, IT etc in
remaining parts coming soon.
COP-19/ Warsaw climate change conference being a big topic- separately
dealt click me
Disclaim: Ive covered only Thursday edition. (in that too, left many topics that I
felt useless.) However sci-tech news randomly comes in Non-Thursday editions
also. And nothing prevents UPSC from asking anything from there. So one
should keep habit of maintaining daily notes from the newspaper on his own.
These articles are only meant to supplement your preparation- not substitutes
of Hindu/IndianExpress
Flora Fauna Wildlife related
Jellyfish bloom
Jellyfish bloom = huge increase Jellyfishes population.
Jellyfish bloom: result?
1. In Sweden, a nuclear power plant had to be shut down after jellyfishes clogged
its water cooling system. Similar incidents reported from Muscat, S.Korea to
Scotland
2. Bad for fishermen: their nets get busted and trawl lines get clogged.
3. Jellyfish stings are extremely painful. Sea-resorts/beaches receive less tourists
whenever jellyfishes are sighted near the coast.
Why Jelly fish blooms?
or, why is Jellyfish population increasing so rapidly?
Predators
They have few predators sea turtles, salmon, mackerel et
al.Overfishing of salmon, mackerel = less predators of jelly fish.
cuisine
Except a few Asian countries- most people dont eat Jelly fish because
its meat is tasteless and you need to carefully remove its poisonous
stings.=less demand=fishermen avoid jellyfishes.
Competitors
Jelly fish competes with smaller fishes for the same food. But Jelly fish
even eats the eggs of its competitors fishes= collapses smaller fish
populations.
Reproduction
They create polypslittle bundles of clones. Polyps attach to
hard surfaces and wait for their opportunity to release small
jellyfish.
Nowadays with lot of man-made hard surfaces in the ocean:
drilling platforms, offshore wind turbines, boats, anchors etc
even plastic cigarette packets= more places for polyps to thrive.
In Certain species of jelly fish- even dead jelly fishes cells find
each other again and from a whole new polyp.
Because of this polyps mechanism- Jellyfish can even transport
to new ecosystem- where often they have no natural predators.
Algae Bloom
Pesticides, fertilziers, industral waste etc=>river=>ocean
This increases the nitrogen and phosphorous content in water=>
algal blooms
During algal bloom, oxygen content in water decrease. = most
marine organisms are wiped out. However, jellyfish can survive
because it needs very little oxygen.
So as other animals dwindle, jellyfish colonies expand
Example: Pollution from Yangtze River in western
China => dead zones in the East China and Yellow Seas with
Jelly blooms.
Cyber poaching
Cyber poaching is the use of GPS, satellite, IT technology poaching animals.
Iridium collar= fitted on tigers, can track them both via satellite and ground
tracking. Can provide GPS data about animals movement at regular interval
daily.
Wildlife official found that someone from Pune tried to access this GPS data of
tiger in MP=>leading to suspicion that hacker tried to get the tiger movement
data- pass it to poachers so the animal can be easily hunted. FIR has been lodged.
in the meantime, forest officers captured this tiger, replaced this iridium collar
with Very High Frequency (VHF) collar.
VHF collar GPS collar
since 60s recent technology
An animal wearing a VHF collar = transmits
radiowaves- you track it with a special receiver
and directional antenna. (but you have to in the
nearby region).
GPS tracking is based on a
radio receiver (rather than a
transmitter) in an animals
collar.
satellite used for monitoring
the location coordinates-
every 15 minutes, one
hour etc.
labor intensive. You need a man on the
ground / plane in the air to track animal.
So, doesnt work well in bad weather /
difficult terrain.
Satellite captures GPS coordinates-
you can see animals location on
computer anywhere.
Cheap expensive
long life Battery expires in a few months.
Accuracy=reasonable. extreme
Tiger Census
Conducted every four years.
By National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) + Wildlife Institute of India
(WII), Dehradun
It is in news because October-December 2013 period, tiger census will run in the
four southern states.
Authorities also want to include NGOs and citizens in this exercise. Public
participation gives transparency and credibility to tiger census. (else local forest
officers might inflate tiger numbers in their district.)
but as per the rules: no cameras/mobile phones allowed. hence very few
volunteers applied.
Why? Because in previous census Volunteers spent most of their time shooting
photos and recording videos, rather than collecting data.
flashlights from camera=disturbs the tigers and other wildlife.
Giant African Snail
Exotic pest introduced from East Africa to India in 1800s
This is the biggest land snail
Damages crops of papaya, brinjal etc.
Snail is one type of Mollusk= Invertebrate having a soft body usually enclosed in
a shell
Snail is a hermaphrodite and lays eggs on soil.
In cold regions, snail can undergo hibernation
Hibernation
What?
Hibernation is a way that some animals deal with the harshness of winter.
They curl up in a safe place, barely breathe, heartbeat is so slow you can hardly
detect it, as if the animal is almost dead.
In warmer weather, they return to their regular activities.
Hibernation =in winter / cold regions. Similarly, Estivation = in summer/ hot
regions.
Why Hibernation?
Evolutionary mechanism to survive in winters + food shortage.
they breathe slowly, dont move=energy expenditure declines. Can live with just
their body fat.
(new research)
o Hibernation boosts immunity.
o Predator avoidance: since animal is motionless and emit minimal noise
and body odour= predator cannot detect it.
Who?
Mammals: bats, bears, chipmunks, mice, hedgehog, Prairie Dogs,
Raccoons, hamsters
frogs, snakes, turtles, snails, earthworms, bees, lizards
Birds: Poorwill, Nighthawks.
Great Indian Bustard
Regarding Great Indian Bustard: Less than 250 left in country.
Why decline?
Andra
has received ca$h from CAMPA (Compensatory
Afforestation Management and Planning).. Yet theyve not declared bird
sanctuary for great Indian bustards.
Maharashtra
in Chandrapur, the government ordered that farmland cannot be sold if
bustard was seen on it. So, farmers kill bustards to sell the land.
Karnataka
Forest officials planting exotic tree species= unsuitable as habitat for birds
+ less insect=less food
Erosion of grassland by domestic animals=less insects=less food for bird.
Grassland turned into farmland, Farmland sold for industrial purpose= less
insects=less food.
Forest mafia destroying teak trees.
poaching
Unregulated tourism.
In recent times, UPSC has been asking MCQ about status and location of endangered
species. So, As per International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)s red list:
Birds found in
India
red list status (on
Nov 2013)
Found in
Great Indian
Bustard
critically
endangered
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat,
Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
Cattle Egret least concern
Egrets are local winter Migratory birds.
In winter, they migrate to Ooty hill
station region.
They also feed on pest/insects=help
farmers.
Baya Weaver least concern

Pink-headed
Duck
critically
endangered
You dig and post in comments.
Jerdons
Courser
critically
endangered
Siberian Crane
critically
endangered
Indian Vulture
critically
endangered
Bengal
Florican
critically
endangered
Katurirangan report on western ghat
Weve already seen Gadgil report in detail: click me
But Gadgil report led to widespread protests by villagers and
forest/builder/mining mafia lobby in Western Ghats.
So, Environment ministry setup one more committee under Kasturirangan, in
August 2012.
headed by Dr. K. Kasturirangan (Member, Planning Commission)
Gadgil Kasturirangan
Official name: Western Ghats
Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP)
High Level Working Group (HLWG)
use satellite data down to 9km
resolution
24 meters resolution
Classifies western ghat region into
three zone: 1, 2 and 3. Separate
level protection to each of this
zones. click me for more
It classifies Western Ghat into
cultural landscape: ~58%
Natural landscape ~42%.
kept cultural landscape within
purview of ecologically sensitive
areas.
Kasturi has kept cultural landscape out of
purview of Ecologically sensitive areas. e.g.
sacred groves of Kerala- rich in
biodiversity.
So, if Kasturis recommendations accepted,
any builder could raze the sacred groves to
construct new buildings. (or atleast thats
what Gadgil followers say)
entire Western ghat should be
declared as ecologically sensitive
area under Environment Protection
Act, 1986.
nope, only 37% area of Western ghat
(=60000 sq.km)
villages with population density >100,
shoulnot be declared ecologically sensitive.
pro-people, pro-nature.Grama
Sabhas should decide on the
Ecological Sensitivity of the
respective areas
autocratic approach. Doesnt include local
communitys role in ecological decision-making.
(or atleast thats what Gadgil followers say)
Why Kasturi in news?
As per Kasturis recommendation, Environment ministry banned mining
activities and restrict on construction activities in 123 villages of Western Ghat.
Kasturi also recommends that commercial crops, rubber, tea, coffee, pepper,
cashew, cardamom, arecanut and coconut etc. shouldnot be allowed in such
ecologically sensitive areas.
+ even chemical fertilizers and pesticides should not be allowed for any crops.
result? farmers are against Kasturis report. = violent protests in Kerala.
Human Cruelty by Animals?
Shimla Municipal Corporation had earlier rounded up every stray dog and kept
them in dog houses built outside the town.
But an NGO got these dogs released and now leopards entering localities to hunt
this dogs
Similarly, people throwing food garbage in the town= monkeys coming from
jungle causing more crop destruction.
State Government has banned export of monkeys for medical research.
Kisan Sabha demanding that (1) monkeys must be culled and (2) monkey export
should be permitted.
Animal-loving NGOs move to courts for flimsiest reasons but dont care for such
problems faced by humans.
Waste Management related
#1: E-waste rules
e-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011
By Environment ministry- made in 2011, became effective since 2012
Covers: electrical / IT equipment.
Doesnt cover: lead batteries and radioactive waste (separate rules for them)
Features
aim
safe disposal e-waste through private bodies
Coverage
Apply to every producer, consumer and recycling center.
Ceiling
Specify the ceiling limits of lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium,
ether etc. hazardous substances in electrical equipment.
Every producer has to certify their equipment donot contain
those substances beyond the specified level.
Disposal
Concept: Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR).
Meaning, once the consumer discards the electronic / IT
product- it is producers responsibility to collect the e-waste and
ensure theyre safely disposed.
Producer has to take back its discarded electronic products from
customers. (or can outsource this work to a recycler/collection
center)
If municipality gather e-waste (during their day-to-day
operation)- they need to hand over e-waste to such private
bodies.
Non-
Compliance
State pollution control board can cancel the license of that
producer
.
Some more fodder points on e-waste
1. E-waste is not entirely waste. you can salvage iron, aluminum, copper and gold
and other precious metals and reuse them
2. but e-waste also contains mercury, cadmium etc. hazardous substances
3. Mercury =bio-accumulates (builds up in organisms) and biomagnifies (moves up
the food chain). Thus, even a minuscule amount of mercury can affect entire
ecology and human health.
4. As per ASSOCHAM report top three e-waste producing cities
city rank e-waste in tonnes per year
1. Mumbai
>60,000
2. Delhi
>40,000
3. Banglore
>35,000
#2: Nisrgruna
too clichd topic, besides already been asked in one of the earlier mains. but anyways:
Nisargruna= solid waste management technology devised by Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC)
1 tonne of biodegradable waste from households, hotels, farms=>nisargruna
plant=>methane (1 cylinder) + manure (50kg)
4 such cylinders can power 80-100 LED streetlight for 8 hours.
takes only 20 lakhs to setup one plant.
More efficient than traditional biogas plants
been in news because a new Plants being setup in Madurai + Chennai
some fodder points related to municipal waste
By 2100: Indias total waste generation will be 70 per cent of all the high income
and OECD countries put together
by 2030 India will be worlds largest municipal solid waste generator.
#3: Coriander as biosorbent
Coriander or cilantro, the leafy herb used to garnish variety of Indian food.
US researchers found coriander leafs are potential biosorbent = can remove lead,
nickel and other toxic heavy metals from water.
can be used low-cost remedy to purify drinking water.
Air Pollution related
#1 Air Quality Index
Air Quality Index is a color-coded tool that categorizes air quality.
Air QualityRating Air Quality Index (AQI) Color
GOOD 0 50 green
MODERATE 51 100 yellow
UNHEALTHY FOR SENSITIVE GROUPS 101 150 orange
UNHEALTHY 151 200 red
VERY UNHEALTHY 201 300 purple
HAZARDOUS >300 maroon
Air Quality index can be measured based on particle size.
PM 10: measure pollutants with a diameter of 10 microns or less.
PM 2.5: pollutants with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less.
For example
Air QualityRating Range PM10 PM2.5 Color
GOOD 0 50

green
MODERATE 51 100

yellow
UNHEALTHY FOR SENSITIVE GROUPS 101 150

orange
UNHEALTHY 151 200

red
VERY UNHEALTHY 201 300

purple
HAZARDOUS >300

maroon
for Beijing, it remains >300 (hazardous) and for Delhi- in the range of 250 (very
unhealthy). [October data]
#2 SAFAR
SAFAR: System of Air Quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR)
Computerized system developed by Indian institute of Tropical Meteorology
(IITM), Pune (under Ministry of Earth Science)
with help of India Meteorological Department (IMD).
SAFAR was installed in Delhi, during CWG-2010. Later in Pune.
Why in news? Because SAFAR is being installed in Mumbai. (October)
it provides data on
1. Air Quality Index health advisory
2. UV Index skin advisory
3. Dynamic city pollution maps.
Quality of air can be forecasted 24-72 hours in advance.
#3 China bans coal based power plants
In Beijing, air quality index is constantly above 300 in recent months. Haze is a routine
phenomenon. Air pollution has reduced Chinese peoples life expectancy by 5.5 years
and so on finally Chinese government woke up, has banned new coal based power
plants in the three key industrial regions
1. Beijing
2. Shanghai
3. Guangdong (Pearl River)
China will try to reduce its coal consumption to 65% by 2017, and aim for more nuclear,
natural gas and renewable energy.
#4: Aerosol
Aerosol= solid/liquor particles uniformly distributed in gas.
natural man-made
sea salt, dust
soot from vehicles.
firewood burning,
sulphate particles from thermal / cement plants.
Aerosol optical depth (AOD)= An index of aerosol levels. Researchers found aerosol
level has increased over the years in India.
Why aerosol bad in atmosphere?
They absorb light= less sunlight coming to ground. also affect how much heat
escapes from earth
Thus aerosol affect aerosol affect regional climate and monsoon (+respiratory
problems).
Man made aerosols have HFCs (Hydrofloro carbons)=greenhouse effect.
Energy related
#1: Nanotech: Better solar panels
Solar power panels use semiconductor material, like silicon or gallium arsenide
Sunlight=>photons=> Semiconductor material =>electromagnetic energy
London researchers coated this solar panel surface with aluminum
nanostructures.
Result?
More photons absorbed=>more electricity produced.
Earlier scientists tried similar thing with silver and gold nanoparticles. But
Aluminum is giving better performance at cheaper cost.
Price of Solar Power in India
2011 Rs. 18/kWh
2013 Rs. 7/kWh
Aluminum nano structure Could help bring down the cost even further
#2: Nanotech: better fuel cells
Fuel cells: chemical energy=>electricity.
Fuel cell running cars will emit water rather than carbon dioxide.
But fuel cells use platinum as a catalyst= very expensive.
Researchers came with new tech. to convert cheap catalyst from geletin.
Gelatin is protein, used in jelly making.
Gelatin+Magneisum+Iron=>heating=>create metal nanoparticles. Useem as
catalyst in fuel cells.
Mock Questions
Q1. Consider following statements about Nisargruna Technology
1. It is a solid waste management technology developed by BARC
2. can transform plastic waste into biodiesel
3. More efficient than traditional biogas plants because Nisargruna plant can
directly turn waste into butane gas.
The incorrect statements are
A. only 1
B. only 2
C. only 2 and 3
D. only 1 and 3
Q2. Consider following statements about hibernation
1. It is a survival mechanism to cope up with harsh winters.
2. During hibernation, animal reduces its breathing rate to increase its metabolism
rate.
3. Only mammals can undergo hibernation.
Correct statements are
A. only 1
B. only 2
C. only 2 and 3
D. only 1 and 3
Q3. Which of the following set of birds are included in IUCNs critically endangered
list?
A. Great Indian Bustard, Cattle Egret, Indian Vulture
B. Great Indian Bustard, Siberian Crane, Cattle Egret
C. Great Indian Bustard, Siberian Crane, Indian Vulture
D. Cattle Egret, Siberian Crane, Indian Vulture
Q4. Consider following statements about Jellyfish:
1. Jellyfish is one type of Mollusk
2. Jellyfish population is on decline because the overfishing of its food-salmon and
mackerel.
3. Jellyfish requires high amount of dissolved oxygen and hence can die
immediately during an algae bloom.
4. Man-made hard surfaces in the ocean such as drilling platforms, offshore wind
turbines, boats and anchors negatively affect the reproduction of jelly fishes.
Correct statements
A. only 1 and 2
B. only 2 and 3
C. only 2, 3 and 4
D. None
Q4. Find correct statements
A. VHF collar is more accurate in tracking wild animals compared to GPS collars.
B. VHF collar is one type of radio transmitter.
C. Both A and B correct
D. Neither A nor B correct
Q5.Consider following statements about Tiger Census
1. Tiger census is conducted at the interval of every five years.
2. Tiger census is solely done by Wild life institute of India, with help of state forest
departments.
3. As per the tiger census rules, the forest officials are prohibited from using public
and NGOs in the tiger counting work.
Correct statements
A. Only 1
B. only 2 and 3
C. Only 1 and 3
D. None
Q6. Consider following statements about Katurirangan report on western ghat
1. Kasturirangan is the chairman of Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP)
2. His report recommends entire Western ghat should be declared as ecologically
sensitive area under Environment Protection Act, 1986.
3. His report recommends promoting cultivation of rubber, tea, coffee, pepper,
cashew, cardamom, arecanut and coconut in the ecologically sensitive areas- to
prevent tribals from joining poaching activities.
Incorrect statements
A. Only 1
B. only 2 and 3
C. All
D. None
Q7. Incorrect statement
A. E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules were enacted by the Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology in 2011.
B. These rules follow the principle of Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR),
under which, producer is freed from the responsibility of safe-disposal of e-
waste, by paying a specified amount to government.
C. both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
Q8. Correct Statement
A. As per the Air Quality index- city with lower index number is more polluted
than a city with higher index number.
B. System of Air Quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) is a new technology
developed by Japan to monitor air quality index during next Olympic Games.
C. both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
Mains
5 marks
1. SAFAR technology
2. Tiger Census
3. Great Indian Bustard
12 marks
1. List the salient features of the rules enacted by Ministry of environment
and forestry for management and handling of e-waste.
2. Between Gadgil and Kasturirangans recommendations- which one is
more suitable for the conservation of Western Ghats? Why?
3. List the applications of nanotechnology in the area of clean energy.
[Sci-Tech]TheHindu Sep-Oct-Nov(Part 2of4): Agriculture, Public Health, Medical
research related
1. Prologue
2. Foodcrops related
1. #1: Trombay Crop varieties
2. #2: Navara Rice
3. #3: Rice-Fish-Poultry Integrated Model
3. Milk/Meat/Fish related:
1. #1: Poultry Meat to Biodiesel
2. #2: Sea Ranching
3. #3: TMR (Total mixed ration)
4. #4: FMD outbreak in South India
4. Public Health/Policy related
1. #1: B.Sc (Community Health)
2. #2: Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) 2013
3. #3: Brainmapping, Lie Detection and Narco Analysis
4. #4: Eye Donation
5. Disease/Anatomy related
1. #1: Wifi Pacemaker
2. #2: Rabies
3. #3: Kala Azar
4. #4: Goose bumps
5. #5: Pediatric TB
6. Medical research related
1. Nano capsule vaccine
2. Regenerative Medicine
3. 4D printing
4. In-vivo iPS cell
5. 3 parent baby
6. DNAs half life
7. Mock Questions
Prologue
In the previous article (part 1 or 3) we saw the environment and biodiversity
(EnB) related topics from Sep-Oct-Nov months of TheHindu click me
Now (part 2 of 3): time for agriculture and public health related topics.
part (3 of 3): dealing with IT, Space and other misc. topics coming soon.
Foodcrops related
#1: Trombay Crop varieties
by BARC scientists.
Using radiation induced mutation and cross-breeding.
Agro. Ministry has permitted their commercial cultivation.
In the 70s, BARC started with Trombay Groundnut (TG-1) for Guj-Maharashtra
region
Crop No. of Trombay varieties
Groundnut 15- large seeds, drought resistant, no sprouts/germination during storage
Mustard 3
Soya 2-more resistant to bacteria
Sunflower 1
Mooong 8- can survive salinity, disease-resistant, early maturing
Tuvar 4
Urad 5
Chouli 1
Rice 1
Jute 1
Total 41
Benefits: individual crop varietys feature may vary but by and large
takes less time to mature
drought/ pest tolerant
longer shelf life
#2: Navara Rice
Navara is a medicinal rice variety.
Red colored.
Grown in Kerala.
used in Ayurveda remedies for rheumatisms, neuro muscular disorders
and body rejuvenation.
enjoys geographical indication (GI) status. (Pokkali rice=another Kerala rice that
enjoys GI status=Pokkali rice)
but Navara rice cultivation is almost extinct. Why?
o pure seeds not available
o low yield, high production cost
Now farmers trying to revive this via concept of Navara Eco Farm- with organic
farming
Pesticides not used. Instead, they plant Tulsi and marigold to repel the insects.
#3: Rice-Fish-Poultry Integrated Model
In this model, farmer uses
% of his
land
To grow
90% Paddy (rice)
5% Fishes carp, roghu, cutla etc.
5%
Poultry cage. Erected in such a way that one part is over the fishes and one
part over the paddy crop. This way, bird dropping help as fish-feed + farm-
manure.
Benefits
1. Recycling waste products-using them as fish feed and manure
2. Additional income from poultry and fishes
3. bio-control of pests: fish feed on the pests and insects attacking the rice plant
4. Similar triple-income model can also be constructed with silkworm rearing, or
apiary.
Madurai malli
Flower in TN
Enjoys GI status (click me for earlier article)
Why in news? Because theyre looking for exprort potential in Malaysia
Problem: rainfall scarcity, Labor shortage because of MNREGA,
Cotton Duty
(Although not really a sci-tech topic)
Currently, duty-free cotton exports are permitted (after registering contracts with
the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT).
Textile minister wants to impose 10% duty on overseas sale of cotton.
But Group of Ministers (GoM) headed by Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar
said not a good idea sir-ji
Reasons:
o Indias cotton production has been increasing every year.
o In such a situation, there should be no restrictions on export of raw cotton
and no duty on export.
o any quantitative restriction or export duty would penalise farmers
Milk/Meat/Fish related:
#1: Poultry Meat to Biodiesel
Namakkal district of TN= leading producer of poultry. (for more on [food
processing] click me)
Avg. 4000 birds die here every day and discarded in the open=>foul smell,
contamination of ground water, health hazards, house flies and diseases.
Now a TN researcher designed method to extract bio-diesel out of dead poultry.
Each dead chicken weighs about 1.5 kg and ~15% of its body has fat.
Using solvent extraction method, we can extract this fat and turn it into body
diesel. This way six birds=1 litre of bio-diesel. This bio-diesel can be blended
with regular diesel in 20:80 ratio and can be used in regular vehicles.
#2: Sea Ranching
Sea ranching is a process of releasing artificially cultured juvenile fishes into the
sea or estuarine waters=> let them mature=>fishing.
can be used for shrimps, sea cucumber, sea urchin, variety of fishes.
New sea ranching project in Kozikode- 4 lakh larvae of tiger prawns released.
This would help inland fishermen of the district- who are negatively affected by
overfishing practices and climatic changes
Economies of sea ranching=> 4 lakh larvae = only 20% survive= 1,600 kg of
prawn, and at an average Rs.250 a kg, this will amount to Rs.3 lakh to Rs.4 lakh
in returns.
#3: TMR (Total mixed ration)
New type of cheap cattle feed being tested in Kerala.
Uses mixture of ground nuts, sesame, red gram, molasses, toxin binder, salt and
vitamin mineral mixtures.
Cheaper than commercial feeds
Can also be given to goats, sheep etc.
Reduces the green fodder requirement
Increases milk output.
#4: FMD outbreak in South India
In [Food Processing] Milk sector article, weve already seen theory Foot and
Mouth disease (FMD) and how it affects the supply line of milk/meat
industry. click me
FMD is in news because of outbreak reported in Andhra.
There are four type of FMD virus: A, C, O and Asia1.
Indian cattle is given vaccines against all these FMD viruses- twice a year.
Sheep and goats (cloven hoofed animals) are also susceptible to the FMD viral
disease.
FMD is not a public health hazard. It doesnt spread to humans.
Public Health/Policy related
#1: B.Sc (Community Health)
Union cabinet approved this new degree course.
3 years course in state university => Community health officer under health
ministry.
Syllabus designed by National Board of Examinations (NBE). (and not the
medical council of India MCI)
Will help in: diarrhea, pneumonia, vaccination, TB, fever, skin infection, normal
delivery etc.
will act as a bridge between village midwife/ASHA work vs a doctor
Opposition Why?
MBBS lobby
1. Course Syllabus not designed by MCI= such
graduates cannot be expected to provide
professionaldiagnosis and treatment.
2. This B.Sc course will create two tiers of medical
professionals.
parliamentary standing
Committee on Health and
Family Welfare
1. these half-baked doctors will endanger the lives of
the patients.
2. Instead of such fancy new courses- better make it
mandatory for new MBBS to serve in rural areas for
the first few years.
3. 12
th
FYP already proposed setting up medical
colleges in every district. So doctor shortage will be
removed soon, then why are you making new
degree?
#2: Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) 2013
By Department of Pharmaceutics under ministry of Chemical and fertilizer. (and
not health ministry).
To fix ceiling price of essential medicines on the basis of market-based pricing.
DPCO 2013 empowers the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
to regulate prices of 348 essential drugs.
How?
Make a list of all pharma companies with marketshare of atleast 1% or more.
observe their prices for given drug-
take simple average of those prices
+local taxes and 16% profit margin for retail chemist.
Decide ceiling price based on that.
Sounds well and good, whats the problem?
1. Patented drugs not covered. So most of the MNC pharma brands are out of the
scope.
2. AYUSH drugs are not covered.
3. Only applies to 348 drugs. There are total ~900 allopathic drugs in India.
4. Companies can still evade price ceiling by adding / changing a few ingredients
in their drug formulation.
5. Doesnt not apply to newly patented within India (for first five years).
=companies might file frivolous patents by slightly modifying existing mixtures-
to evade price ceiling.
6. Even within ceiling, Doctors can still prescribe most expensive variety of drug
and patient will buy it. (and doctor mints commission from pharma company.)
Anyways, but why in News?
become Some NGO filed court case- alleging that
DPCO encourages profiteering. Government prince regime guided by market-
driven forces= bad idea.
National List of Essential Drugs consists of only 348 drugs and left out many
essential medicines from price control.
Drugs in news (DIN?)
Mycidac-
C
Cadilas new New drug
For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Price: 40000 for 10 injections (still cheaper than its rival Avastin by
Roche pharma.)
Got permission from to sell in India
Metformin
used for treatment of type II diabetes.
some researchers believed It also helps in heart-diseases-even in non-
diabetic patients. But the clinical trials have been inconclusive so far.
Ranbaxy
Indian drug company Ranbaxy Laboratories used fraudulent data to
approval from USAs FDA to sell generic drugs in America. (according to
its whistleblower employee.)
#3: Brainmapping, Lie Detection and Narco Analysis
Polygraph
Popularly called Lie detection test. Been used since 1920s.
Lie detection instrument connected with suspects body. He is asked
series of questions.
Principle: deceptive/wrong answers produce physiological responses
different than true answers e.g. BP, pulse rate, respiration and skin
temperature.
Thus you can find lie by monitoring his physiological indices.
Narco
Analysis
Suspect is given injection of truth serum e.g. sodium thiopental/ Sodium
Pentothal/ Sodium Amytal. (one type of barbiturate derivate.)
Principle: truth serums act on the central nervous system (CNS). They
reduce anxiety and self-control. Suspect becomes woozy/ trance/half-
unconscious. Then you ask questions, hell (most likely) tell the truth.
Brain
Mapping
Sensors attached to Suspects head. He is shown audio/video/images
related to crime scene.
Principle: suspects brain recognizes things from a crime scene and
produces different type of brain waves (while innocent person who has no
knowledge of crime scene- will not produce those brain waves).
In a typical criminal investigation, suspects first undergo a lie detection test, then
brain mapping and narco-analysis.
As per an expert committee of NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health
and Neuro Sciences) says Brain mapping = unscientific and should be
discontinued as an investigative tool and as evidence in courts.
As per Supreme court directive: police cannot do Brain mapping, polygraph and
brain-mapping tests without consent of the accused person.
fine but Why in news? Because LeT bomber Abdul Karim Tunda refused to give
consent for brain mapping, citing his old age and health problems. (September
2013 news)
#4: Eye Donation
National Eye Donation fortnight was held in Aug-September period.
India has around 20 lakh people with corneal blindness they can see again with
eye transplantation.
eye donation does not disfigure the dead body and the procedure takes only
about 10 to 15 minutes.
shelf life of a retrieved eye is 12 days- it is given to needy patient based on
waiting list.
We have to motivate people to donate eyes. but only signing forms alone is not
sufficient. A person must inform his friends and relatives. (that if I die, contact
this xyz number to get my eye donated)
World Sight Day= celebrated on second Thursday of October. This year it was on
10th Oct.
Disease/Anatomy related
#1: Wifi Pacemaker
Normal heart
beat
60-90 times per minute. (72 to be exact)
bradycardia heart beats at a slower rate than 60 beats per minute
Tachycardia Heart rate >100 beats per minute.
arrhythmias irregular heartbeat
sinoatrial (SA)
node.
Group of cells- that generate electrical signal . This signal
controls heartbeat rate.
Faulty electrical = arrhythmias=irregular heartbeat.
During Tachycardia (too fast heart beats), upper chambers of heart cannot fill up blood
within the fast beat= blood flow become irregular=>fatigue, dizziness, fainting, and/or
chest pain even death.
Pacemaker
Implantable Cardio
Defibrillator. (ICD)
Generates low energy electrical impulses= to
make the heart beat at normal rate.
same. but not just impulse- it can
also give an electrical high-shock
during emergency.
Pacemaker runs on a battery- need
replacement @4-5 years. same
Latest models of pacemaker even have wifi-
feature. It can directly send messages to the
doctor, about patients heart rate.
same
ok but Why in news?
Because ex-Vice President Dick Cheney had turned off wifi feature in his defibrillator-
because of fear that terrorists could hack it to kill him, via wifi!
Speaking of fancy heart gadgets:
AED
Automated External Defibrillator
Shocks the heart back to its normal rhythm. You may have seen this
in many Hollywood movies.
Anyone can use AED device on the patient during emergency.
But need to educate people and need to place AEDs
@commonplaces like railway station, bus complex, and a shopping
malls.
Holter
Monitor
A small, portable ECG. Can be worn over chest to track your heart
rate for 24 hours and doctor can use this data for diagnosis.

#2: Rabies
is a zoonosis disease (transmitted from animals to humans) other examples of
such diseases are Anthrax, Bovine tuberculosis, Plague, Ringworm.
Virus is present in the salivary glands of rabid animals. When rabid animal bites
human= virus transmitted.
Raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, dogs, and cats, among other smaller animals can
spread rabies through their bites.
Rabies virus infects the central nervous system. Causes hypersalivation (increase
in saliva), hydrophobia (fear of water), partial paralaysis, hallucinations and
finally death. (India: >20,000 per year)
Louis Pasteur (French)= pasteurization, anthrax vaccine, rabies vaccine.
earlier, you had to get 16 injections of anti-rabies vaccine on the abdomen.
Today, with advanced care, just 4-5 injection sufficient.
No treatment is required if a person feeds or touches a rabid dog.
No treatment required if rabid dog licks intact skin of human.
But if the rabid dog causes a skin injury or licks the mucus membrane like in the
mouth, eyes and nose, vaccination is must.
#3: Kala Azar
Also known visceral leishmaniasis. caused by Parasite: Leishmania
Spread by female sand-fly (it bites for blood meal)
Affects spleen, liver and bone marrow. (Parasite cannot synthesize iron
containing haem molecule on its own. So, it attacks those organs in search of
hemoglobin.)
In terms of death record by parasitic diseases: #1 Malaria and #2 is Kala Azar.
Our national health policy aims to eliminate Kala-azar by 2015 i.e. less than 1
case per 10,000 population at sub-district level.
Weve also signed Tripartite Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Nepal
and Bangladesh to eliminate Kala-azar from the South East Asia region by 2015,
Drugs used: Miltefosine capsule, Amphotericin B injection. (brandname
Fungisome) By and large, Kala Azar drugs are toxic and expensive. No vaccine
has yet been licensed.
ok but why in news? Because an
American institute
testing vaccine in India.
#4: Goose bumps
Goosebumps are caused by extreme cold or intense emotions
How? electric impulse passing thru tiny muscles below skin=>skin contracts and
the hairs get erect.
Fur animals use goose bumps for insulation against coldness. (because erect
hairs trap more air=more insulation)
in cats and rats- goose-bumps make their bodysize appear bigger= to frighten
their enemies.
ok but what is the use of goosebumps in humans? Nothing. Its just a vestigial
reflex.
Other examples of vestigial traits=appendix, tailbone, wisdom teeth and tonsils.
#5: Pediatric TB
1997: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) started
Limitation?
Passive
approach
RNTCP waits for the patient to come to the clinic and get his
sputum tested.
But in the meantime, hed have infected dozen more.
Children
neglected
WHO recommends that if an adult has TB, then all children (below
5 years age in his house must be tested for TB. Because children are
particularly susceptible to TB bacteria. But RNTCP doesnt do this.
DOTS workers dont inquire about children living in TB patients
house either.
Result? Highest number of TB patients found in India- ~3.5 million and >10% of
them are children.
TB in Children: detection problems?
Unlike adult, children donot product sputum= hard to diagnose in lab.
Smear microscopy and other traditional methods to detect TB= dont give
conclusive result when used on children.
Solution? Use Xpert MTB test on children to detect TB. (we already saw this test
under GeneExpert device click me)
Xpert MTB is a rapid molecular test.
WHO recommends it for diagnosing Multi-drug resistant TB (MTB)
this test can give result within two hours.
even if very few TB bacteria present in the sample.
Limitation: barely ~30 Xpert diagnostic machines in India.
Brighter side: if Child is infected but has not yet developed TB disease, just give
him isoniazid drug for six month and problem solved.
Medical research related
Nano capsule vaccine
Nanocapsule vaccines give better protection than normal vaccine
Doesnt require injection /needle.
Mucosa tissues= found in Human respirator track, alimentary canal, and the
reproductive tract.
If Nano-capsule vaccine is delivered to any of these one sites- it gives immunity
to all other sites as well.
e.g. if future HIV vaccine is given through inhaler in nose= will grant immunity
to genitals (from where HIV virus can enter body.)
Thus nanocapsule vaccines delivered through inhalers=future of medicine-
especially HIV, human papillomavirus (Cervical cancer), herpes, influenza and
tuberculosis and other diseases that pass through mucosal tissues.
Regenerative Medicine
It is a branch of medical science which studies the replacement or regeneration of
human cells, tissue and organs.
This helps in chronic (long term) diseases.
Involves use of stem cells and now 3D printing (for example: 3d printed liver,
kidney, ears etc.)
Latest in this area is 4D printing.
4D printing
4D printing=3D printing + time / place dimension.
For example,
A soldiers uniform that can alter its color pattern depending
on time/season/surrounding place
A soldiers armor that can alter its defense-mechanism based on type of attack:
bullet/acid/fire/radiation/chemical etc.
An artificial organ that can adapt based on lifestyle, diet, blood group, and
infection etc. of the patient.
In-vivo iPS cell
Adult cell (e.g. from skin, muscle etc)=>reprogram=> becomes iPS cell (induced
pluripotent stem cells)
Use this iPS stem cell to grow liver, heart, kidney etc. in lab.=>organ transplant.
Last year, Nobel was given for this iPS research.
So far, iPS cells could be grown only in labs (in-vitro)
But now researcher working on how to grow iPS cells right inside the body (in-
vivo)
Benefit? Theyll have more uses as regenerative medicine than lab grown iPS
cells (in-vitro)
3 parent baby
already covered in june-july-august series click me
same story repeated in October edition as well. Anyways, lets check
Mitochondria= powerhouse of cell, help oxidizing food and generate energy.
Also help coordinating several molecular events.
During fertilization
Embryo gets mitochondria DNA from mother side.
Fathers sperm also contain mitochondria in its tail- but not given to the embryo.
If mother has Defective mitochondria=> baby likely to have liver, heart and
respiratory disease.
What is the solution? In mothers egg, replace mitochondria with healthy from a
donor lady. Then use this modified egg in the fertilization with fathers sperm.
Thus three-parent baby is born:
Father Gave sperm
Mito-mom Donor lady, Gave mitochondria DNA
Geno-mom Gave the egg
UK gave permission for clinical trials.
USA still contemplating over the biological, ethical and legal issues involved in this
technology.
1978 Invitro fertilization
1996 Dolly ship clone
2013 Three parent baby
Exact years not important but chronology is. Incase UPSC asks an like they did in
CAPF-2013 for plasma, LED and CRT televisions chronology.
DNAs half life
New research found DNA has a half-life of 521 years.
That means that after 521 years, half of the bonds between nucleotides in DNA
would have broken; after another 521 years half of the remaining bonds would
have gone.
ok but how is that even relevant?
Because in Hollywood sci-fi movies, you may have seen how scientist would use
DNA sample from dinosaurs and ancient insects are trapped in amber and breed
a new dinosaur or some other massive creature.
This is implausible because dinosaurs died 65 million years ago. And given that
DNAs half-life is just 521 years- their DNA has become junk- there is no way
you can decode it and create new dinosaur.
Cytoskeleton
This material in our cells, determines the mechanical properties of
the cell.
If the cytoskeleton is damaged, cell-division is affected, too.
Cancer damages this cytoskeleton, rendering cells softer and
smoother.
Thus, by studying cytoskeleton we can detect cancer. Research on
going in this area.
Botulism
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic bacteria=can only grow in
the absence of oxygen.
Botulinum = toxin produced by this bacteria.
It can enter human body through contaminated food, wounds,
water=> botulism=death if untreated.
ok but why in news?
Scientists have discovered a new strain of this bacteria- its toxin
has no antidote.
Theyve not published all details- otherwise terrorists can use it
for making bioweapons.
Polonium
Polonium (Po) is a radioactive element. Marie Curie had
discovered it and named after her homeland- Poland.
Polonium is deadlier than cyanide.
ya but why in news?
A Swiss scientist found high levels of Polonium on blood-saliva
stains on Yasser Arafats clothes- suggesting that someone
(=Israelis) had poisoned him.
DEET
DEET ( N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the most widely used insect
repellant
Problem: costly, dissolves plastics and synthetic fabrics, But now
scientists looking for natural alternative made from grape.
Mock Questions
1. Which among the following set of agriculture produce, enjoys GI status?
a. Madurai Malli, Trombay groundnut, Pokalli rice
b. Trombay groundnut, Navara Rice, Madurai Malli
c. Pokkali rice, Navara Rice, Madurai Malli
d. None of Above
2. Sea Ranching
a. is an adventure sport
b. is a novel method for mining metals from Polymetallic nodules in the sea
bed.
c. is a method where juvenile organisms are released in the sea /inland
water to increase their harvestable stock.
d. none of above
3. find Correct statement(s)
a. Foot and mouth Disease (FMD) is a viral disease that can only spread
among domestic animals.
b. FMD can spread from animals to humans, therefore it is not advisable to
eat the meat of an animal died of FMD.
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B
4. Find correct statement(s) about Trombay Crop varieties
a. Theyre developed by ICAR
b. Environment ministry has banned their commercial usage due to presence
of Bt-strain.
c. both A and B
d. Neither A nor B
5. What is the principle behind polygraph tests?
a. Deceptive answers produce notable difference in pulse rate, respiration
and other physiological parameters.
b. Injection of certain drugs can inhibit self-control and suspect would give
true answers.
c. Brain can automatically generate specific type of waves, when it
recognizes a sound / picture / video of a place the suspect had earlier
visited.
d. None of above
6. What is the principle behind narco-analysis tests?
a. Under influence of truth serums, deceptive answers produce notable
difference in pulse rate, respiration and other physiological parameters.
b. Injection of certain drugs can inhibit brains self-control and suspect
would give true answers
c. Under influence of truth serums, Brain can automatically generate specific
type of waves, when it detects a sound / picture / video of a
place/person that suspect had earlier visited.
d. None of above
7. What is the principle behind brain mapping tests?
a. Deceptive answers generate notable different type of brain waves in the
suspects brain, compared to true answers.
b. Injection of certain drugs can inhibit brains self-control and suspect
would give true answers.
c. Brain can automatically generate specific type of waves, when it detects a
sound / picture / video of a place/person that suspect had earlier visited.
d. None of above
8. Incorrect statements about eye donation
a. If the donated eye is not transplanted to patient within 3 days, it becomes
useless.
b. Donated eye cannot restore vision of a patient suffering from corneal
blindness.
c. both A and B
d. Neither A nor B
9. Correct statements about mitochondria
a. Mitochondria helps coordinating several molecular events.
b. If mother has defective mitochondria, baby will not be affected because an
embryo gets mitochondria from fathers side through sperms.
c. Both A and B
d. neither A nor B
10. Incorrect statements about Botulism
a. Botulism is a genetic disorder found in the next generations of survivors
of nuclear disaster.
b. Polonium can used as a medication to treat botulism
c. Both A and B
d. neither A nor B
11. Correct statements about Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) 2013
a. It is formulated by the Ministry of Health and family welfare
b. It fixes ceiling price of both allopathic and AYUSH drugs in India.
c. Both A and B
d. neither A nor B
Q12. Consider following statements about Navara Rice
1. It is a green colored rice having anti-cancer properties.
2. grown in Mizoram
3. enjoys GI status
Correct statements:
A. Only 1
B. Only 1 and 2
C. Only 2 and 3
D. Only 3
Q13. Consider following statements
1. Tachycardia is a condition where heart beats at lower rate than 72 beats per
minute.
2. Kala-Azar is a viral disease spread via sand fly
3. Human appendix is an example of non-vestigle organ
Which of them are incorrect?
A. only 1 and 2
B. only 1 and 3
C. only 2 and 3
D. All of them.
Q14. Consider following statements about Rabies
1. Only the mammals from dog family (Canis lupus familiaris) can spread rabies
virus.
2. In humans, rabies virus decreases salivation and induces hydrophobia.
3. Jonas Salk had developed vaccine against Rabies.
4. Even if a rabid dog licks intact human skin, the person must get rabies vaccine
shots.
Correct Statements are:
A. only 1
B. only 1 and 2
C. only 2 and 3
D. None
Q15. Which of the following is/are capable of spreading rabies?
1. Raccoons
2. bats
3. dogs
4. cats
Answer choice
A. only 3
B. only 1 and 3
C. only 2 and 3
D. All of them
Mains
5marks
1. Trombay Crop varieties
2. Navara Rice
3. Sea Ranching
4. B.Sc (Community Health)
5. Mycidac-C
6. Xpert MTB
7. Regenerative medicine
12marks
1. Write a note on the community health care initiatives by Government of
India.
2. Discuss the salient features and limitations of Drug Price Control Order
(DPCO) 2013.
3. What are the salient features Revised National TB Control Programme
(RNTCP). Suggest improvements to make RNTCP more effective.
[Sci-Tech]TheHindu Sep-Oct-Nov(Part3of4): Computer/IT/Mobile Tech: Gecko, Street
View Trekker, Param Yuva, EMF Radiation
1. Prologue
2. ICT for Public welfare
1. #1: C-DAC mobile app for womens safety
2. #2 VithU App
3. #3: Google for Indian women
4. #4: Google to defend freedom of expression
5. #5: Street View Trekker
6. #6: Param Yuva II
3. ICT: new Technology by Indians
1. #1: Gecko: Bluetooth device
2. #2: Zendrive
3. #3: ZoomCar Pvt. Ltd
4. ICT: Government Rules/Policy
1. #1: EMF radiation limit
1. Electromagnetic field (EMF)
2. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
3. Electromagnetic spectrum
4. Mobile Frequencies
5. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
6. Mobile towers- radiation limits
2. #2: Preferential market access (PMA) policy
3. #3: IT Potential in Africa
5. IT: Misc.
6. Mock Questions
7. Mains
Prologue
So far
Part 1 of 4: Environment-Biodiversity
Part 2 of 4: Agriculture and Healthcare
Part 3 of 4: IT/Computers related (youre here)
Part 4 of 4: Space and defense related (Coming in a few hours)
ICT for Public welfare
#1: C-DAC mobile app for womens safety
C-DAC=Centre for Development of Advanced Computing under Department of
Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)
Made new mobile app for women.
Just by presing a button on the phone- the women in distress can send automatic
message to nearest police control room. Then police can track the women based
on her mobile location- send nearby PCR van etc.
Pilot project in Rajasthan.
financed by Nirbhaya fund
but What is Nirbhaya fund?
In 2013s budget, Chindu came up with two new initiatives for women
1. all India bank for women
2. Nirbhaya fund. (Named after Delhi rape victim Nirbhaya)
This Nirbhaya fund has 1000 crore rupees- to support women centric projects by
government and NGOs.
#2 VithU App
VithU, is an emergency App for mobile phones. (you may have seen its ad on
TV)
App launched by Channel V (of Star India pvt. ltd.) in response to Delhi and
Bombay gangrape incidents
With only 2 clicks of the power button, person can send SOS message to their
guardian along with location on google maps.
App keeps sending the message repeatedly every two minutes with new location
updates.
Limitation: Phone must have GPS+ internet connection.
#3: Google for Indian women
Only 1/3rd of Indian internet users are women. Google India came up with new project
to get 50 million Indian women online by the end of 2014.
How?
1. Via a new website hwgo.com. This website will provide very basics of the
Internet, special content for women like childcare, cooking recipes, household
management etc .
2. Available in Hindi + English. (Similarly, Intel designed a mobile app easy step
to promote digital literacy)
3. Toll free helpline number where women can call and get free answers about
internet/computer. (1800 41 999 77)
4. A pilot project in Rajasthan to train computer-net surfing to 1 lakh women.
Benefits:
New opportunity for women to get education, freedom of expression and self-
esteem. Ultimately
Less MMR and IMR
Higher GDP and HDI
#4: Google to defend freedom of expression
Google funded following projects to fight against online barriers
Project
shield
to protect websites against distributed denial of service (DDoS)
attacks.
Google gave money to defend websites related to independent
newsreporters, human rights, and elections-related bloggers (whom
hackers/secret government spy agencies try to shut down)
Digital
Attack
Map
is a live data visualization to map DDoS attacks across globe.
shows real-time anonymous traffic data related to these attacks.
uProxy
is a new browser extension under development
lets friends provide each other with a trusted pathway to the web-
thus protects your net surfing from filtering, surveillance or
misdirection.
#5: Street View Trekker
wearable backpack with a camera installed at the top
Camera has 15 lenses, takes picture every 2.5 seconds. The images are stiched
together with software= you get a 360 degree view of the location.
For streetviews (under google maps) they mount this camera on top of a car.
but @certain places like ancient monuments or natural sites, the car cannot go.
and person has to take this camera on foot.
why in news? Because Google India and the Archaeological Survey of India
(ASI) announced partnership to create 360-degree online imagery of 100 most
important heritage
including Taj Mahal, Khajuraho, Qutub Minar, Humayuns Tomb and Ajanta
and Ellora caves.
will help people virtually visit those site.
Concept already used for Grand Canyon in the US and Mt Fuji in Japan. click me
to see
Speaking of monuments and culture
Kittur Utsav-
2013
In Karnataka
to celebrate the historical revolt of Rani Chennamma. She was
queen of Kittur in N.Karnata, fought against the British in 1824.
Janapada Kalavahini: Cultural procession showing traditional
art forms of north Karnataka region.
Ayyappan
Theeyyattu
Ayyappan Theeyyattu is an age old temple art form from
Kerala.
There are no training schools and it is practised and propagated
by a handful of members of a few families known as Thiyyadi
Nambiars,
Udayasthamanakoothu: performance of the art in full by a
single performer that ends with breaking of 12,000 coconuts.
Bidar
Bidar is a city of Karnataka.
In the 1400s, it was the capital of Bahamani kingdom.
Bahamani kings used Persian style to construct the palace,
water system etc. here
The karez water system= a complex system of aqueducts used
for agricultural irrigation.
has three national monuments Bidar Fort, Ashtur tombs and
the Madrasa of Mahmud Gawan
ok but why in news?
World Monuments Fund (WMF) gave ca$H to Following desi
monuments:
1. Bidar in Karnataka
2. house of Sheikh Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri,
3. Juna Mahal in Rajasthan
PIN 110201
this has nothing to do with Sci-tech or Culture. but came across
while going through Thursday newspaper.
Department of Posts has given this separate PIN code 110201
for the Supreme Court of India.
before this PIN: letter to SC=>sorting office => delivery post
office=>reaches to SC.
After: letter to SC=>sorting office=>directly reaches SC.
Benefit? faster delivery + cost savings for post office
Soon, Separate PIN codes for High courts as well.
anyways back to the topic: IT topic.
#6: Param Yuva II
super computer by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing)
launched in early 2013
capacity: 524 teraflops but consumes 35% less electricity than other
supercomputers of same capacity.
Uses?
1. Precise weather forecast
2. faster tapping of natural resources in the sea
3. design customised drugs for individuals
4. solve large and complex computational problems
Ok but why in News?
This supercomputer has been ranked in the list of top 500 Green
supercomputers in the world.
In terms of Power efficiency, Params ranking: 1
st
in India, 9
th
in Asia-Pacific and
44
th
in world
IT: new Technology by Indians
#1: Gecko: Bluetooth device
Gecko is a Bluetooth device- size just little bigger than a coin. by Banglore
based startup company.
it also has an accelerometer sensor to detect motion.
You can pair it with an apple or android phone/device.
ok but whats the use?
1. Since it can detect motion- you put it in the doorknob- everytime someone opens
door, itll notify you on phone. If someone opens door at odd hours- say 2AM, it
can make your phone raise the burglar alarm.
2. similarly can be put in a pillbox- to ensure the person doesnt forget to take
medicine. (if he forgets=pillbox doesnt move=gecko sends remainder via phone)
3. you can even pair it with a camera- once you can get in the frame, wave your
arm and Gecko will trigger the camera to shoot photo
Why in news? because Apples co-founder Steve Wozniak gave funding.
#2: Zendrive
Another startup company- one of its founder from India- Pankaj Risbood.
Zendrive aims to make driving better by using data from smartphone sensors.
insurance companies can use its data to determine auto-insurance premium e.g.
if person has erratic driving habit=more likely to accident=should be charged
higher insurance premium.
Similarly, Parents could also use the system to track their teenagers driving
habits.
Determining best route based on real time traffic data and so on.
Why in news? Because Jerry Yang (of Yahoo) gave funding to them.
#3: ZoomCar Pvt. Ltd
This is Indias first and only car-sharing company (similar to Zipcar in the US).
allows individuals to hire cars by the hour or by the day.
You can rent a car as low as Rs 225 an hour- for personal driving. (you must be
minimum 23 years old)
Reservations are made through the website or through mobile.
If you get in car accident- they coordinate everything with the police, insurance,
and road-side assistance.
Available only in Bangalore at the moment.
Why in news? Because former US treasury secretary Larry Summers gave
funding to this startup company.
IT: Government Rules/Policy
#1: EMF radiation limit
DoT (Department of Telecom) panel has recommended 10 lakh fine if cell tower
violates EMF (electro magnetic field) radiation limits. (0.45 watts per sq metre)
More background news covered in an earlier article: click me
Lets check the theory
Electromagnetic field (EMF)
as the name suggests: Electrical field + Magnetic Field= Electromagnetic field
(EMF)
EMF is created when electric and magnetic waves travel to space together.
for example: electricity supply, radio waves from TV, radio devices, medical
devices mobile phones, radar and satellite communications.
EMF strength is measured in units watt per square meter(W/m
2
).
EMF radiation weakens very quickly as we move away from the source /
antenna.
EMF strength is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
source.
e.g. when distance from antenna doubles (2x) the EMF strength is reduced to
(1/4)th
Similarly when distance 3times (3x), strength reduced to 1/9
th
.
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
Its source can be of two types
natural manmade
UV, visible light radio, TV, mobile phones etc.
we can further classify electromagnetic radiation based on can they ionize (and hence
damage) biological molecules?
Non Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation
1. mobile handsets and antenna
2. radiation from visible light
3. infra-red radiation
1. X-ray radiation
2. gamma ray radiations
has relatively low energy and low frequency relatively higher
cant break chemical bonds in body cells.
cant cause ionization of atoms and molecules.
cant damage DNA
Can do those damages.
Electromagnetic spectrum
Observe following photo-From left to right: frequency increases and wavelength
decreases.

Mobile Frequencies
mobile handset frequency
CDMA 869 890 MHz
GSM900 935 960 MHz
GSM1800 1805 1880 MHz
3G 2110 2170 MHz
4G 2300-2400 MHz
Observe frequency increases with new technology. Meaning wavelength must decrease.
Speaking of mobile phones
A mobile phone is two way radio.
It contains a transmitter and a receiver.
It emits electromagnetic radiation to exchange information with nearest base
station.
but the strength of electromagnetic field decreases rapidly as we move away
from source- so we need to setup more and more mobile towers to have good
connectivity.
Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
It is the Rate at which Radio Frequency energy is absorbed in the human body
Unit of SAR = watts per kilo gram (W/kg) of tissue.
Every model of mobile handset has specific SAR value.
SAR Limit in India: 1.6 w/kg (effective from Sep.2012)
SAR matter falls under Department of Telecom.
myth fact
It is safer using a mobile
from car because the car
shields from the radiation.
Mobile phone generates more RF radiation to overcome
the shielding of car and reach the tower. so infact, using
phone while in car=more harmful.
mobile phone emits
radiation only when you are
talking with someone.
As long as mobile is on it automatically transmits
Radio frequency signal to check (poll) the network with
nearest tower. it doesnt matter where youre talking or
not.
Mobile Base stations are
dangerous and we should
keep distance from it.
We need to keep distance from the antenna of base
station.At the ground level, the radiation intensity is
much lesser than @Antenna.
Metal & water are good conductors of radio waves so avoid using a mobile
phone while wearing metal-framed glasses or having wet hair
People having active medical implants should preferably keep the cell phone at
least 15 cm away from the implant
Mobile towers- radiation limits
for mobile phones, Telecom department has prescribed SAR limits (1.6 w/kg)
similarly for Mobile towers, Telecom department has prescribed EMF radiation
limits:
Nation EMF limit for mobile towers
India 0.45 watt/m
2

China 0.9 watt/m
2

Italy 0.1 watt/m
2

Even Italians are more conscious about mobile tower radiation than India/China.
Anyways, if a mobile tower operator doesnt comply with this limit, hell have to
pay 10 lakh rupees fine per tower.
Telecommunications Engineering Centre (TEC) under Department of Telecom
measures these radiation levels.
UV radiation: three types
Ultra violate light (UV) has three subtypes based on their wavelength
Shorter the wavelength=more dangerous for body.
UVA
wavelength
longest among
3
Majority of UV radiation coming to earth, is of this type.
UVB medium
As Ozone layer depletes, more and more of this UVB light
incoming. It cannot penetrate beyond skin layer. Hence does all
its damage to skin itself e.g. tanning, burning, skin cancer.
UVC
shortest among
3
but doesnt reach earths surface. Most damaging- upto cells
DNA. Artificial UVC lights used in food/medical/pharma
industry to kill germs.
#2: Preferential market access (PMA) policy
By Department of Electronics and IT (DEITY)
PMA policy makes it mandatory for the government and private companies to
procure a certain percentage of its requirements from desi manufacturers.
This was opposed by American companies including Apple.
Now government revising this policy to give some exemption to private
companies
And limit to the scope of PMA policy to only the supply of electronic and
telecom equipment that has security implications.
#3: IT Potential in Africa
Nothing sci-tech but some fodder material:
Scope of Indian IT Companies in Africa because of following reasons:
1. Most of the African countries are seeing political stability and better economic
growth than ever before.
2. Indian companies can create digital infrastructure for in e-governance, e-
banking, e-learning- especially for maths+science.
3. IIT Delhi actively involved in the training, particularly vocational training and
training of teachers in some African countries.
4. Nearly 30% Of Africas demand for CRT, picture tubes, inverters, radios, sound
equipment, medical equipment, etc. is met from India imports.
5. Indian government setting up IT parks and other ICT related activities in a
number of African countries like Ethiopia, Senegal, Mozambique, Rwanda and
Tanzania.
IT: Misc.
chromebook
it is a netbook, but instead of Microsoft windows, it runs on
googles chrome operating system. (OS)
Snapchat
photo messaging system.
you take a picture, send it to friend. itll automatically disappear
from his phone after 24 hours. American teenagers like this.
Mark Zukerburg (facebook) wants to bring them to facebook-
hence offered 3 billion $ cash to snapchat maker, but he refused.
Windows
8.1
Its a patch released by Microsoft to add new features in the
existing Window8 Operating system
Yahoo
Lookflow=Yahoo bought this company, to provide image recognition
facility in Yahoos photo website flickrTumblr=Yahoo bought this
blogging companyMarissa Mayaer=Yahoos female CEO.
Mock Questions
1. Arrange the given mobile phones in the ascending order of the frequency they
use: (1) 3G (2) GSM (3) CDMA
a. 123
b. 321
c. 213
d. All work on same frequency
2. Arrange these in ascending order of wavelength (1) Visible Light (2) Gamma
Rays (3) Radiowaves (4) Microwaves
a. 1234
b. 4321
c. 1243
d. 2143
Q3.Consider following statements
1. Rani Chennamma was the queen of Southern Kerala.
2. Rani Chennamaa was a contemporary of Rani Gaidinliu.
3. Both Rani Chennamma and Rani Gaidinliu had fought against the British.
Correct Statement(s)
A. Only 1
B. Only 2 and 3
C. Only 1 and 3
D. Only 3
Q4. Consider following statements
1. Bidar fort is located in Balasore, Odisha.
2. Bidar was once the capital of Bahmani kings
3. Bahmani architecture is influenced by Persian style.
Correct Statement(s)
A. Only 1
B. Only 2 and 3
C. Only 1 and 3
D. Only 3
Q5. Consider following statements
1. SAR is the rate at which base tower receives signals from mobile phones in the
given cell region.
2. In India, SAR limit for mobile phones is 0.45 watts/sq.meter
3. The SAR and EMF radiation limits are administered by Ministry of Environment
and Forest
Correct statements
A. Only 1 and 2
B. Only 2 and 3
C. only 1 and 3
D. None
Mains
5 marks
1. Nirbhaya Fund
2. VithU App
3. Street View Trekker
4. Kittur Utsav
5. Ayyappan Theeyyattu
6. Bidar Fort
7. Rani Chennamma
8. Ayyappan Theeyyattu
9. Param Yuva II
10. Gecko Bluetooth device
11. Zendrive
12. Preferential market access (PMA) policy
12marks
1. Discuss the significance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as
a tool for empowerment and safety of women.
2. Write a brief note about any five women freedom fighters of India- except Rani
Laxmibai, Annie Besant, Meeraben, Kasturba and Sarojini Naidu.