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6.0 Develop and Manage Human Capital
7.0 Manage Information Technology
8.0 Manage Financial Resources
9.0 Acquire, Construct, and Manage Assets
10.0 Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, and Resiliency
11.0 Manage External Relationships
12.0 Develop and Manage Business Capabilities
Experience shows that benchmarkings potential to drive
dramatic improvement lies squarely in making out-of-the-box
comparisons and searching for insights not typically found
within intra-industry paradigms. To enable this type of benecial
benchmarking, the APQC Process Classication Framework

(PCF) serves as a high-level, industry-neutral enterprise model
that allows organizations to see their activities from a cross-
industry process viewpoint.
The PCF enables organizations to understand their inner
workings from a horizontal process perspective, rather than a
vertical functional viewpoint. The PCF does not list all processes
within a specic organization, and every process listed in the
framework is not present in every organization.
Originally created in 1992 by APQC and a group of members, the
framework has experienced more than twenty years of creative
use by thousands of organizations worldwide. The PCF is
supported by APQCs Open Standards Benchmarking research.
It is continuously enhanced as APQCs Open Standards
Benchmarking team further develops denitions, processes, and
measures. Please visit APQCs web site periodically for updates.
The PCF is available for organizations of all industries and sizes
at no charge by visiting
The Process Classication Framework was originally envisioned
as a taxonomy of business processes. The initial design
involved more than 80 organizations from the United States
and worldwide. Since its inception, the PCF has been updated
several times to reect changes in the way organizations do
In response to feedback from users of the PCF, APQC regularly
engages practitioners, consultants, and academics to develop
denitions based on real-world experience with the processes.
That collaborative effort resulted in this document: a listing
of processes with denitions and selected key performance
indicators from APQCs Open Standards Benchmarking
repository. The denitions contained in this document are to
be considered in conjunction with the PCF. The content in this
document will be updated according to research performed by
APQC and subsequent updates to the PCF. This document was
created using PCF version 6.0.0.
Version 2.0.0
Version 2.0.0 October 2012
2.0 Develop and Manage Products and Services
2 Permission granted to photocopy for personal use. 2012 APQC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2.0 Develop and Manage Products and Services Defnitions and Key Measures TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.2 Develop products and services___________________5
Key Performance Indicators _____________________5
2.2.1 Design, build, and evaluate products
and services_____________________________5
2.2.2 Test market for new or revised products
and services_____________________________5
2.2.3 Prepare for production ____________________6
2.1 Manage product and service portfolio _____________3
Key Performance Indicators _____________________3
2.1.1 Evaluate performance of existing products/
services against market opportunities ________3
2.1.2 Defne product/service development
requirements ___________________________3
2.1.3 Perform discovery research ________________4
2.1.4 Confrm alignment of product/service concepts
with business strategy _____________________4
2.1.5 Manage product and service life cycle ________ 4
2.1.6 Manage product and service master data _____ 4
APQC encourages the wide distribution, discussion, and
use of the PCF and PCF denition documents for classifying
and dening processes. APQC grants permission for use
and adaptation of the PCF for internal use. For external use,
APQC grants permission for publication, distribution, and
use, provided that proper copyright acknowledgment is made
to APQC. No modications to the look or content should be
made in external venues.
Please use the following text when reusing the PCF in
external print or electronic content.
The PCF was developed by APQC and member companies
as an open standard to facilitate improvement through
process management and benchmarking regardless of
industry, size, or geography. The PCF organizes operating and
management processes into a number of enterprise-level
categories, including categories, process groups, and over
1,000 processes and associated activities. The PCF and its
associated measures and benchmarking surveys are available
for download and completion at no charge at www.apqc.
APQC is a member-based nonprot and one of the
worlds leading proponents of knowledge management,
benchmarking, and best practices business research. Working
with more than 750 organizations worldwide in all industries,
APQC provides organizations with the information they need
to work smarter, faster, and with condence. Visit www. or call +1-713-681-4020 and learn how to Make
Best Practices Your Practices
Version 2.0.0 October 2012 3
2.1.1 Evaluate performance of existing products/services against market opportunities (10063)
The Evaluate performance of existing products/services against market opportunities process is used to identify gaps
between existing product/service capabilities or performance levels and the current market demand, available technologies,
and customer requirements. This process culminates in the decision of whether or not to proceed with investments in
the development of new deliverables. Input gathered from customers through exercises such as focus groups assess
marketplace need. In addition, input can be gathered from internal or third-party service organizations to support the
product/service evaluation.
Process Insight
Although the marketplace may look for new technologies or techniques to enhance existing products and services, customers
may not be willing to pay more for them. Accordingly, remember that perfection can be the enemy of good enough. Find out
exactly what customers are willing to pay for, and ensure that efforts do not exceed the parameters of the development
business case. This is especially important with global products for which cost and availability issues may be more apparent.
2.1.2 Defne product/service development requirements (10064)
Dene product/service development requirements encompasses the identication of new products/services or potential
improvements to current products/services. This process entails collaboration with members of the supply chain to ensure
the feasibility of what is being dened in the requirements. For example, a product with manufacturing requirements that
supply chain cannot currently fulll requires a corporate decision to either upgrade manufacturing capabilities or abandon the
new product.
Process Insight
Depending on the nature of the nal product or service, product/service development requirements are often dened as a set
of abilities, such as availability or reliability, that inuence product development decisions.
Total cost to generate new product/service ideas per
$1,000 revenue
Total R&D cost per business entity employee for the
current reporting period
2.1 Manage product and service portfolio (10061)
This process group encompasses all processes associated with product and service portfolio management, including the analysis
of the current portfolio compared to market opportunities and the denition of requirements for new/evolved products and
services using that analysis. This group also includes activities related to the alignment of new additions to the portfolio with
corporate business strategy as well as the management of the product or service lifecycle. Preliminary research and development
falls in this group, under 2.1.3 Perform discovery research.
Key Performance Indicators:
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( 2.1 Manage product and service portfolio continued )
2.1.3 Perform discovery research (10065)
The Perform discovery research process encompasses tasks and decisions associated with early-stage research and
developmentwhen product/service assumptions are greater than knowledge. Based on the gap between current product/
service characteristics and new/changing requirements (from the marketplace, customers, or other business forces),
organizations use this process to identify and develop new technologies in support of a new product. This process also
includes an assessment of how feasible it is to incorporate those new or potential technologies into products and services.
It guides the funding and documentation of preliminary research and development projects and ensures that any ndings
(related to feasibility of technology or other recommendations) translate into stage-gate processes that drive overall
product/service development.
Process Insight
Consider the ramications of being too bleeding-edge (as opposed to being on the leading or cutting edge) with new
products. Key stakeholders in the marketplace may not be ready to adopt the latest and greatest technologies, increasing the
risk that the product or service will not succeed or be adopted.
2.1.4 Confrm alignment of product/service concepts with business strategy (10066)
The Conrm alignment of product/service concepts with business strategy process is a reality check prior to signicant
investment by the organization. It ensures that the new product/service concepts are in line with overall business strategy.
This process involves planning and developing cost and quality targets for the new products/services. It can also involve
the prioritization and timing of development activities if there are a number of concepts vying for funding or other scarce
resources. Regardless of the number of product/service concepts, this process includes planning for product/service offering
Process Insight
This process is most useful when the business strategy is current. If the strategy is outdated, this process may trigger a review
of the corporate business direction and drivers.
2.1.5 Manage product and service life cycle (10067)
The Manage product and service life cycle process includes the introduction of new products/services to the market and the
retirement of outdated products/services. This process also encompasses the identication and renement of performance
Process Insight
Introduction of the new product/service may be timed to coincide with key marketing opportunities. Products and services
should be retired when their marketplace or cost effectiveness begins to decline below a predetermined threshold. Once a
product or service has reached marketplace maturity, its performance indicators should be continuously rened.
2.1.6 Manage product and service master data (14192)
The Manage product and service master data process consists of activities related to the creation and storage of information
related to both new and current products and services. This information may include design specications, part descriptions,
material data sheets, product history, and any documents associated with the product or service development process.
Process Insight
Internal stakeholders may need access to product and service master data. Consider creating a central repository that is
accessible by multiple groups across the enterprise.
Version 2.0.0 October 2012 5
2.2.1 Design, build, and evaluate products and services (10080)
The Design, build, and evaluate product and services process describes the core engineering design and development of any
new product/service or existing product/service upgrade. The process includes planning the development of the product/
service and assigning resources to deliver the plan. Building on the research and development efforts carried out earlier in
the development lifecycle, the process activities dene a high-level business case and technical assessment. Product/service
design specications are developed and documented as part of this process, and both mandatory and elective external reviews
are conducted with regard to legal, regulatory, and standards concerns. Additional activities that occur during this process
include the building of prototypes, elimination of quality and reliability problems, conduct of in-house product/service testing
and evaluation of feasibility, identication of design/development performance indicators, and collaboration on product/
service design with suppliers and contract manufacturers.
2.2 Develop products and services (10062)
Average time-to-market in days for new product/service
development projects
Average time-to-protability in months for:
existing product/service improvement projects
new product/service development projects
Number of FTEs who develop and manage products and
services per $1 billion revenue
Percentage of existing product/service improvement
projects launched:
on budget
on time
Percentage of new product/service development projects
on budget
on time
Total cost per $1,000 revenue to:
develop and manage products and services
support product manufacturing or service delivery
design and develop products/services
test market products/services
This process group relates to the design, development, and in-service conguration control of products and services. It
encompasses traditional design, build, and evaluation processes; conguration and change management; manufacturing and
production process planning; and nal product validation and verication. This process is where most of the product or service risk
is identied, controlled, and mitigated.
Key Performance Indicators:
2.2.2 Test market for new or revised products and services (10081)
Test market for new or revised products and services is a more detailed iteration of the marketplace analysis that took place
earlier in the product development lifecycle. It involves preparing a detailed market study, conducting customer tests and
interviews, nalizing product/service characteristics and business cases, nalizing technical requirements, and identifying
requirements for changes to the manufacturing and delivery processes that support market delivery.
Process Insight
To prepare a detailed market study that accounts for any changes in the global environment, consider conducting a series of
interviews, workshops, and focus groups with potential and existing customers.
( 2.2 Develop products and services continued )
2.2.3 Prepare for production (10082)
In the Prepare for production process, the organization develops and tests a prototype production and/or service delivery
process to ensure optimal production time and alignment with cost targets. This process also ensures that the production/
assembly/manufacturing lines are suitably equipped to meet the demands of the new product. If they are not, new material
and equipment can be designed and obtained. With the prototype process successfully tested and production or assembly
rates realized, the full-scale production process or methodology can be installed and validated.
Process Insight
The Prepare for production process is often a key target for Lean initiatives to ensure operational and cost efciency.
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