A short revision

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Activation Energy

All About Enzymes

Lock & Key

Saturation

Effect of pH

Effect of Temperature

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How Does an Enzyme Function?
substrates

B

C
active site

A

enzyme

enzyme-substrate complex

enzyme

Union of two or more substrates creates one product (ANABOLIC REACTIONS)
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A Catabolic Example

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Activation energy
e n e r g y

reactant 1 + reactant 2 products

Course of reaction

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e n e r g y

enzyme present
reactant 1 + reactant 2 + enzyme products + enzyme Course of reaction

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Enzyme

Substrate

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Lock and Key Hypothesis
Enzymes are 3-D molecules. They have a shape (surface configuration). reactions are catalysed after formation unchanged enzyme free to bind to another substrate substrate released as products

Has active sites – depressions in molecule

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of complementary shape

Denaturation
enzyme’s 3D shape altered by high heat or chemicals. Enzyme becomes Enzymesoluble active less most and at thiscoagulated. of temp. Rate as temp.reaction is enzyme increases, maximum. activity increases. Everylost. Active sites 10 degrees increase in temp. fit Substrate cannot enzyme rate doubles into active sites. Enzymes and reactants have temp. act as catalyst Cannot increases, more kinetic energy, activity enzyme collide more frequently, more decreases until reactions occur

very inactive at very low temperatures enzymes and reactants has very low kinetic energy, less collisions, less reactions

2X

X

enzyme is denatured

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pH of solutions can affect enzyme activity.

At this pH, enzyme activity is maximum. Thisas pH increases, pH. is called optimum enzyme activity increases Enzyme activity Extremely LOW Different enzymes have different optimum decreases as pH and HIGH pH pH. increases after optimum causes pH denaturation of enzymes.

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Effect of substrate & enzyme concentration on rate of reaction
At all times, Higher enzyme concentration. Enzymes not saturated. all enzymes are solution. More enzymes in acting on substrates. Substrate More substrates that can be concentration Noand more products free enzymes. acted on increases, more formed per unit time. effective collisions Maximum rate of reaction for this with enzymes, more concentration of enzymes Rate increases significantly. reactions catalysed. All enzymes are saturated, no free enzymes to actstill reach aamount of However, will on higherreaction Rate of plateau when all substrates. being enzymes are with increases used. substrate Enzyme concentration = limiting concentration factor
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