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51.

ANSWER: D
The mucosa of the lining epithelium of the ductus (vas) deferens forms low longitudinal folds.
It is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium.

52. ANSWER: C
The sacrotuberous ligament (called also the great or posterior sacrosciatic ligament) is situated at the lower and
back part of the pelvis. The lower border of the ligament was found to be directly continuous with the tendon of
origin of the long head of the biceps femoris in approximately 50% of subjects.
(Which means that the biceps femoris could therefore act to stabilize the sacroiliac joint via the sacrotuberous
ligament).
Another question asked in the board exam is, Which of the following arteries is contained in thr sacrotuberous
ligament? The sacrotuberous ligament contains the coccygeal branch of the inferior gluteal artery.

53. ANSWER: B
The superior hypogastric block is an injection into the collection of hypogastric nerves that pass to and from all
pelvic viscerae such as the bladder, uterus, vagina, prostrate, and rectum. Letter A is wrong because the pelvic
splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to
provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut. Letter C is wrong. The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves,
sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by
a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts: lumbar
plexus, sacral plexus, pudendal plexus and none of these plexuses supply pain fibers to the uterus. Letter D is
definitely wrong. However if your uterus is in the thoracic cavity it may be innervated by the upper sympathetic
trunk. He he he...

54. ANSWER: A
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In
embryology, the gonadal ridge (or genital ridge) is the precursor to the gonads.
The gonadal ridge initially consists mainly of mesenchyme and cells of underlying mesonephric origin.

55. This PRC question is erroneous. Letters A & D are possible answers. The vitelline arteries give rise to the celiac
artery, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery.

56. ANSWER: D
Haversian canals (sometimes Canals of Havers, named after British physician Clopton Havers) are a series of tubes
around narrow channels formed by lamellae. This is the region of bone called compact bone. Osteons are
arranged in parallel to the long axis of the bone. The Haversian canals surround blood vessels and nerve cells
throughout the bone and communicate with osteocytes in lacunae (spaces within the dense bone matrix that
contain the living bone cells) through canaliculi. They usually run at obtuse angles to the Haversian canals

Letter C is wrong because Sharpey's fibres (bone fibres, or perforating fibres) are a matrix of connective tissue
consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibres connecting periosteum to bone. They are part of the outer
fibrous layer of periosteum, entering into the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae of bone tissue.

Letter B is wrong because the Canaliculi are microscopic canals between the various lacunae of ossified bone. The
radiating processes of the osteocytes project into these canals. These cytoplasmic processes are joined together
by gap junctions. Osteocytes do not entirely fill up the canaliculi. The remaining space is known as the
periosteocytic space, which is filled with periosteocytic fluid.

57. ANSWER: D
Basophils usually make up the fewest number of circulating WBCs and are thought to be involved also in allergic
reactions.

58. ANSWER: D
Ang golgi complex ay maihahantulad sa isang post office: it concentrates, packages, and labels items which it then
sends to different parts of the cell.

59. ANSWER: D
The myeloblast is the first recognizable cell of the granulopoiesis. Granulopoiesis constitutes 40-80% of the
hemopoietic cells in the normal bone marrow. So, the closest answer to this question is Letter D.


60. ANSWER: B
The amorphous ground substance of connective tissues principal constituents are large carbohydrate molecules or
complexes of protein and carbohydrate, called glycosaminoglycans (formerly known as mucopolysaccharides). One
of these carbohydrates is hyaluronic acid.

61. ANSWER: C
During muscle contraction, the A-bands do not change their length whereas the I-bands and the H-zone shorten.
This causes the Z lines to come closer together.
62. ANSWER: B
The tunica externa, also known as the tunica adventitia, is the outermost layer of a blood vessel, surrounding the
tunica media. It is mainly composed of COLLAGEN and is supported by external ELASTIC lamina. The collagen
serves to anchor the blood vessel to nearby organs, giving it stability.

63. ANSWER: B
The tunica externa, also known as the tunica adventitia, is the outermost layer of a blood vessel, surrounding the
tunica media. It is mainly composed of COLLAGEN and is supported by external ELASTIC lamina. The collagen
serves to anchor the blood vessel to nearby organs, giving it stability.

64. .

65. ANSWER: C
Monocytopoiesis is the process which leads to the production of monocytes (and, subsequently, macrophages) in
the bone marrow. It can be induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor. It is a component of myelopoiesis.

66. ANSWER: B
Letter C is wrong. The keratinocytes of the stratum lucidum do not feature distinct boundaries and are filled with
eleidin (not eukeratin), an intermediate form of keratin.
The stratum basale is primarily made up of basal keratinocyte cells, which can be considered the stem cells of the
epidermis. They divide to form the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum, which migrate superficially. Other types
of cells found within the stratum basale are melanocytes (pigment-producing cells), Langerhans cells (immune
cells), and Merkel cells (touch receptors).

67. ANSWER: D
Upon inhalation, gas exchange occurs at the alveoli, the tiny sacs which are the basic functional component of the
lungs. The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx. 0.2 micrometers). These walls are composed of a single layer
of epithelial cells (type I and type II epithelial cells) close to the pulmonary capillaries which are composed of a
single layer of endothelial cells. The close proximity of these two cell types allows permeability to gases and,
hence, gas exchange.

68. ANSWER: D
69. ANSWER: D.
During the proliferative phase, increasing amounts of estrogen secreted from the developing follicle stimulates the
mitotic cell division of the stratum basalis layer of the endometrium. These cells differentiate and mature into
stratum functionalis cells and replace the tissue that was lost during the previous menstrual cycle. Estrogen also
stimulates significant angiogenesis which increases the blood supply to provide energy and raw materials for cell
growth and nourishment for the implanted zygote

70. ANSWER: D.
During the proliferative phase, increasing amounts of estrogen secreted from the developing follicle stimulates the
mitotic cell division of the stratum basalis layer of the endometrium. These cells differentiate and mature into
stratum functionalis cells and replace the tissue that was lost during the previous menstrual cycle. Estrogen also
stimulates significant angiogenesis which increases the blood supply to provide energy and raw materials for cell
growth and nourishment for the implanted zygote.

71. ANSWER: A
The smooth muscle of the lower esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter are derived from the mesenchyme
of the somites surrounding the foregut. The vagina is fibromuscular.

72. ANSWER: C
The prostate gland has fibroelastic stroma containing randomly orientated smooth muscle bundles.

73. ANSWER: C

74. ANSWER : D
Cross-striations in the cardiac muscle are apparent but they are not as regular nor as prominent as those of
skeletal muscle. In fibrocartilage, Type II collagen makes up 40% of its dry weight and are arranged in cross-
striated fibers.

75. This PRC question is erroneous because all of the above structures are present in the stomach bed.

76. ANSWER: C
The prostatic utricle by the way is often asked in the boards primarily because it is the male homologue of the
female uterus and vagina.

77. ANSWER: C
Letter A & B are wrong because the perilymph is similar to ordinary interstitial fluid and fills the spaces of the bony
labyrinth surrounding the membranous labyrinth.

78. ANSWER: C
Letter A & B are wrong because the perilymph is similar to ordinary interstitial fluid and fills the spaces of the bony
labyrinth surrounding the membranous labyrinth.

79. ANSWER: C
Barium double meal contrast and xray

80. ANSWER: A
The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart
muscle.
81. ANSWER: A
Its origin is at the lower margin of the teres major muscle and a continuation of the brachial vein.


82. ANSWER: A
Letter C is wrong. The ulnar nerve originates from the C8-T1 nerve roots (and occasionally carries C7 fibres) which
form part of the medial cord of the brachial plexus.
Letter D is wrong. Three muscles compose the thenar eminence: Abductor pollicis brevis (innervated by median
nerve), Flexor pollicis brevis (can be innervated by both ulnar and median nerves), and Opponens pollicis
(innervated by median nerve).The ulnar nerve is exclusively responsible for the innervations of the hypothenar
eminence that includes: Opponens digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi brevis, Abductor digiti minimi.

83. ANSWER: C
The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch of the internal thoracic artery. It accompanies the phrenic
nerve, between the pleura and fibrous pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed. It anastomoses
with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries.

84. ANSWER: A
The nerve to obturator internus is a nerve that innervates the obturator internus and gemellus superior muscles.

85. ANSWER: D
Nerves to the obturator internus (L5, S1, and S2) innervates the Obturator internus muscles.

86. ANSWER: D
Rectus sheath is a long fibrous sheath in the center of the anterior abdominal wall. It encloses the rectus
abdominis and pyramidalis muscles and contains the anterior rami of the lower six thoracic nerves, superior and
inferior epigastric vessels and lymph vessels.


87. ANSWER: C
Major parts of the nephron are the renal corpuscle (glomerulus), the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of
Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule.
88. ANSWER: C
The esophagus does not contain lymph nodes. Instead its lymph nodes are found just along the side of the
esophagus (peri-esophageal lymph node.)

89. ANSWER: D
The ciliary body receives parasympathetic innervation from the oculomotor nerve.


90. ANSWER: C
Ribonucleoproteins can be stained with Bernhard staining technique. RNA identification is further ascertained by
NaOH-treatment.

91. ANSWER: This PRC question is erroneous.
Letter A is wrong because solitary or single lymphatic nodule is a feature of the small intestine and the large
intestine but not the stomach.
Letter C is wrong. The gastric glands of the stomach are located in the mucosa. The submucosa of the stomach is
generally unspecialized.
Letter D is correct. A simple columnar epithelium is a columnar epithelium that is uni-layered. In humans, a simple
columnar epithelium lines most organs of the digestive tract including the stomach, small intestine, and large
intestine. Simple ciliated columnar epithelia line the uterus. Simple columnar epithelia are further divided into two
categories: non-ciliated and ciliated.
Letter B is also correct. The stomach, colon, and small intestines have muscularis mucosae.

92. ANSWER: D
Because the mucous glands in the esophagus are submucosal in location.

93. ANSWER: C
Letter A is correct, The acidophilia is This slide demonstrates due to a large volume of lysosome containing acid
phosphatases.
Letter B is correct. The osteoclasts are capable of mitosis but the osteoblasts are not.
Letter D is correct. The typical distinguishing characteristics of an osteoclast: a large cell with multiple nuclei and a
"foamy" cytosol.ANSWER: D
94. ANSWER: D
95. ANSWER: B
The pancreas forms from the embryonic foregut and is therefore of endodermal origin. Pancreatic development
begins with the formation of a ventral and dorsal buds (not midline). Each structure communicates with the
foregut through a duct. The ventral pancreatic bud becomes the head and uncinate process, and comes from the
hepatic diverticulum.

96. ANSWER: D
The lateral longitudinal arch is composed of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals.

97. ANSWER: D
The deep external pudendal artery instead will supply the integument of the scrotum and perineum in the male,
and the labia majora in the female. Its branches anastomose with the scrotal (or labial) branches of the perineal
artery.

98. ANSWER: D
Maxillary sinus is also known as antrum of Highmore. Infection here is quite common due to its closeness with the
frontal sinus, maxillary teeth and anterior ethmoidal air sinus. Maxillary sinusitis is a form of paranasal infection
that spreads rapidly, if not treated early.

99. ANSWER: D
The palatoglossus is the only muscle of the tongue that is not innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). It is
innervated by the Vagus nerve (CN X). But some sources state that the palatoglossus is innervated by fibres from
the cranial part of the accessory nerve (CN XI) that travel via the pharyngeal plexus.

100. ANSWER: C
The atlanto-axial joint is between the first two vertabrae and allows LATERAL motion of the head. This is why the
atlanto-axial joint is called the joint of "no" or "negative expression" because that is the motion it allows the head
to make.