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NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.

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Appliance Gas
Appliance Gas
Safety Devices
Safety Devices
and Gas Controls
and Gas Controls
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation
and Maintenance.
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Introduction
Introduction
1. Basic Requirement for controls
2. Reason why we have controls
3. The Control Rigs
4. Look at the 14 controls
What they do
How they work
Faults
Maintenance
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Overview
Overview
Gas safety device and controls
can be divided into 5 groups.
Pressure regulation
Gas Control
Flame protection control
Thermostats
Multifunction control
Over the years many specialised components and control
systems have been devised, but whatever the degree of
sophistication achieved modern appliances must
incorporate the following features:
Safety
Device
CH4
Ignition Controls
Flame
NG
21mb
+/- 2mb
Gas
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Basic Requirements
Basic Requirements
A safe and effective method or procedure for the initial
lighting of the appliance
A flame failure safeguard to prevent a dangerous situation
arising from the re-introduction of the fuel to the main
burner after flame failure has occurred
Safety devices at the appliance as a precaution against
excessive system pressures and over-heating
Control of the maximum heat input to the appliance so as to
prevent bad combustion or overheating under normal use
The provision of manually operated controls adjacent to the
appliance for the purpose of turning off the gas supply to the
main or pilot burner
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Reasons why we have controls
Reasons why we have controls
Safety
Comfort
Economy
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The Control Rigs
The Control Rigs
What they look like ..
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List of 14 Controls
List of 14 Controls
1. Gas Tap/Cock/Valve
2. Safety Cut-off Valve
3. Bi-Metal Strip
4. Thermo-electric
5. Liquid Expansion
6. Oxygen Depletion Device (ODS)
7. Flame Rectification
8. Solenoid valve
9. Mechanical Thermostat
10. Electric Thermostat
11. Relay Valves
12. Governor ( Regulator )
13. Multifunctional Valve
14. Zero Governor
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No.1 No.1
Gas Valves, Cocks and Taps
Gas Valves, Cocks and Taps
SEE PAGE SEE PAGE
12
12
These devices are the simplest forms of manual
control of any gas flow, but in the gas industry
each item is normally used with slightly different
applications of the gas flow, although there are
exceptions to the rule.
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Gas Valve
Gas Valve
Full Bore Lever Ball
Valve.
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Gas Cock
Gas Cock
This manual control is
normally located on
Installation pipework
and also as the emergency
(meter) control. The flow of
Gas is controlled by a slotted
Tapered plug which is rotated
Through 90 to turn
ON/OFF.
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NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Gas Tap
Gas Tap
A Gas tap operates in a similar
manner to the tapered plug gas
cock, but is fitted as an integral
part of a gas appliance.
Gas Taps can be found on
cookers for example.
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NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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See Page 13 See Page 13
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Gas Valves, Cocks and Taps can dry out and leak.
Appliance isolating cocks are seldom turned on and
off, so they become stiff to turn in the course of
time.
Use a High temperature Graphite grease
(Molykote)to lubricate or replace faulty unit.
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True or False
True or False
The MCV should have a
handle that falls to the open
position ?
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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True or False
True or False
The gas tap is the simplest
The gas tap is the simplest
form of manual control to
form of manual control to
turn a gas supply on or off?
turn a gas supply on or off?
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A cooker hob gas tap might leak gas
A cooker hob gas tap might leak gas
when it is turned to the off position
when it is turned to the off position
because?
because?
A:
A:
It gets too cold
It gets too cold
B:
B:
It
It

s designed to leak
s designed to leak
C:
C:
The heat from the cooker
The heat from the cooker
over
over
time dries out the grease.
time dries out the grease.
D:
D:
All of the above
All of the above
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No.2 No.2
Cooker Safety Cut
Cooker Safety Cut
-
-
off Valves
off Valves
Cooker hotplates are frequently supplied with drop-down lids.
These lids may be constructed of glass or metal. The British
Standards specify that any drop-down lid constructed of glass
must have a device that prevents any gas from flowing to the
burners on the hotplate when the lid is in the closed position.
Many manufactures provide a cut-off device even when the lid is
constructed of metal.
The majority of devices are operated by a lever which closes a
gas valve ( fitted at the rear of the appliance ) beneath the hob
as the lid is closed, thus shutting of the gas supply to any burner
whose tap/s are still in the on position.
SEE PAGE SEE PAGE
13
13
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Cooker Safety Cut
Cooker Safety Cut
-
-
off Valves
off Valves
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On the Rig
On the Rig
Lid closed Gas to hotplate
is therefore off.
Lid Open
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
It is possible that the valve can become stuck in the open
or closed position over time, due to a build up of grease
and grime.
Clean valve
Replace valve
If appropriate, it should be included in a Landlords Gas Safety
Record inspection.
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True or False
True or False
The cooker lid must be in the
The cooker lid must be in the
open position in order to
open position in order to
correctly carry out a gas
correctly carry out a gas
tightness test.
tightness test.
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No.3 No.3
Bi
Bi
-
-
Metal Strip
Metal Strip
This device works on the principle of two dissimilar metals
attached to each other, with different expansion coefficients.
When heat is applied to the strip ( via the pilot flame ), the
different expansion rates cause the strip to bend and open the
main gas valve.
See page See page 4 4
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Bi
Bi
-
-
metal strip flame supervision device
metal strip flame supervision device
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Operation
Operation
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Movie
Movie
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
If the metal strip becomes damaged in someway.
Examples bent out of shape or due to corrosion, breaks
apart. Then the device would fail. This device could stay
closed but is more likely to open the gas way ( Fail to
Danger ).
The valve spindle becomes bent keeping the gas valve
open or closed.
These Devices cannot be repaired and will need
replacing when they fail.
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True or False
True or False
A Bi
A Bi
-
-
metal strip flame
metal strip flame
supervision device needs a
supervision device needs a
pilot flame to be present to
pilot flame to be present to
open the gas valve?
open the gas valve?
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True or False
True or False
A Bi
A Bi
-
-
metal strip flame
metal strip flame
supervision device if found on
supervision device if found on
an appliance in working order
an appliance in working order
would be classified as ID?
would be classified as ID?
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No.4 No.4
Thermoelectric Valve
Thermoelectric Valve
Heat is used via a pilot to heat two different
metals. They, in turn generate a tiny
electrical current which passes down a wire
to a magnet in the main thermoelectric
valve. The magnet therefore becomes an
electro magnet keeping open the main gas
valve which is being pressed against the
magnet. Whilst heat is applied the valve
will remain open. When heat is removed the
valve will shut.
See page See page
6
6
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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Thermoelectric FSD
Thermoelectric FSD
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Push and Hold
Push and Hold
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Thermocouple
Thermocouple
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Identification
Identification
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Operation
Operation
When the joint is heated by a pilot flame, the voltage energises the
magnet thus holding the armature to it in a spring-operated gas
valve and allowing gas to flow to the main burner.
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Pilot Extinguished
Pilot Extinguished
Should the pilot be extinguished, the thermocouple would cool
down and stop producing a voltage, thus allowing the spring to
close the valve.
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Pilot flame. This must be adjusted to provide the required
temperature at the hot junction. Ensure that the flame is
correctly positioned, generally it should be on the tip, or the top
12 mm of the thermocouple.
Thermocouple lead. This must not be kinked or bent too
sharply otherwise the conductors may be short-circuited.
Thermocouple. The tip should be clean and undamaged
Electromagnet. The armature and magnet are housed in a
sealed unit which must be exchanged if failure occurs.
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Test Procedure (FSD)
Test Procedure (FSD)
1. Ensure that all primary and secondary controls are
set so that the burner will not be turned off during
this procedure.
2. Light the appliance, and allow the burner to reach
its normal working temperature.
3. Turn off the appliance shut-off device ( appliance
isolation valve ) and simultaneously start a stop
watch.
4. Halt the stop watch when the valve is heard to
close.
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Maximum shut
Maximum shut
-
-
down times
down times
Appliance FSD being
tested
Maximum shut-
down time in
seconds
DFE gas fire 120
Other gas fires 180
Cookers ( see next page ) 90
Circulators and storage water
heaters less then 8kw input
90
All other appliances 60
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Additional information
Additional information
Note: For cookers, the gas valve should shut down
within 60 seconds if the burner is situated in a
compartment (oven) and within 90 seconds in the
case of an open burner, covered burner or griddle.
Always take guidence from manufactures
instructions.
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If the thermocouple did not receive
If the thermocouple did not receive
heat from the pilot flame the gas valve
heat from the pilot flame the gas valve
would.
would.
A:
A:
Close the gas valve instantly.
Close the gas valve instantly.
B:
B:
Close the gas valve after a
Close the gas valve after a
short period of time.
short period of time.
C:
C:
Open the gas valve instantly.
Open the gas valve instantly.
D:
D:
Open the gas valve after a
Open the gas valve after a
short period of time.
short period of time.
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Maximum shut
Maximum shut
-
-
down time in
down time in
seconds of a DFE is?
seconds of a DFE is?
A:
A:
60 seconds
60 seconds
B:
B:
120 seconds
120 seconds
C:
C:
180 seconds
180 seconds
D:
D:
240 seconds
240 seconds
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Ensure that the flame is correctly
positioned, generally it should be on the
tip, or the top __ mm of the thermocouple.
A:
A:
16 mm
16 mm
B:
B:
3 mm
3 mm
C:
C:
12 mm
12 mm
D:
D:
2 mm
2 mm
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No.5 No.5
Liquid Expansion
Liquid Expansion
When liquids are heated sufficiently, they are
turned into vapour, or boil. The vapour has a much
greater volume than the liquid from which it came
and so causes a rapid increase in pressure which
can be made to operate the valve in the liquid
Expansion flame protection device.
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Vaporising liquid flame supervision device.
Vaporising liquid flame supervision device.
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The device is used for a number of appliances including room heaters,
water heaters and cooker ovens. Its advantage is that any damage
resulting in loss of liquid causes the valve to fail to a safe condition.
Some older devices contained mercury.
Control Rig
Control Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Apart from failure of the sealed system containing the
liquid, which entails changing the device, the lever
system and valve may require cleaning and lubricating
from time to time.
The main source of complaints results from incorrect
position of the probe ( Phial ), relative to the pilot
flame.
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No.6 No.6
Oxygen Depletion Device (ODD)
Oxygen Depletion Device (ODD)
Atmospheric Sensing Devices ( ASD )
Vitiation Sensing Devices ( VSD )
Oxygen Depletion Sensor ( ODS )
Also Known as
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Vitiation ?
Vitiation ?
Means to impair the quality of the combustion air.
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Answer: Answer: AN OXYGEN DEPLETION SYSTEM (O.D.S) IS A SAFETY
DEVICE, WHICH ACTIVATES THE APPLIANCES FLAME SUPERVISION
DEVICE IN ANY SITUATION RESULTING IN THE PRESENCE OF
EXCESSIVE LEVELS OF CO (and the deadly carbon monoxide),
WHICH REDUCE THE LEVELS OF OXYGEN CAUSING THE PILOT
FLAME TO BECOME UNSTABLE AND LIFT OFF THE THERMOCOUPLE
TIP. THE APPLIANCE WILL THEN BE AUTOMATICALLY TURNED OFF
LONG BEFORE THE SITUATION MIGHT BECOME DANGEROUS FOR
THE OCCUPANTS OF THE ROOM, IN WHICH THE APPLIANCE IS
INSTALLED.
Question:
Question:
WHAT IS AN OXYPILOT OR AN O.D.S.?
WHAT IS AN OXYPILOT OR AN O.D.S.?
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Types of appliance with ODS
Types of appliance with ODS
Mostly installed on domestic gas appliances where
there is a danger of products of combustion from the
appliance contaminating the air in the room in which
the appliance is fitted. Generally, these are flueless
space heaters and water heating boilers. This follows
a ruling from the European Gas Directive that from 1
st
January 1996 all appliances connected to a flue for the
dispersal of products of combustion must be so
constructed that in abnormal draught conditions there
is no release of products of combustion in a dangerous
quantity into the room concerned.
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Operation
Operation
The device relies on a precision pilot holding open a
thermo-electric valve via the thermocouple. The
positioning of the pilot flame in relation to the
thermocouple is critical. For this reason if the
thermocouple or pilot become faulty they must be
exchanged as a unit.
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How it works
How it works
Air supply satisfactory:
precision pilot heats
thermocouple tip
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As the air becomes
contaminated the
oxygen level falls, the
precision pilot lifts
away, cooling the
thermocouple. If this
situation persists the
thermo-electric valve
will shut off the gas.
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As the air becomes
further contaminated the
precision pilot hunts for
air and completely lifts
away from thermocouple
tip. The thermo-electric
valve will shut off the gas.
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ODS on the Rig
ODS on the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Because of the critical nature of this device it is essential
that the correct servicing procedure is used,
manufacturers instructions must be followed, and all
safety checks must be carried out if any work is carried out
on the appliance or there appears to be a problem. The
main checks to be applied are:
1. The ODS is complete and not damaged
2. The unit is securely mounted in its recommended position
3. The aeration port is clean and free from obstruction
4. The flame picture is not distorted and the sensor flame
and cross lighting flame are correctly positioned
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Yes or No
Yes or No
Vitiation means there is too
Vitiation means there is too
much combustion air.
much combustion air.
1:
1:
Yes
Yes
2:
2:
No
No
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No.7 No.7
Flame Rectification
Flame Rectification
The chemical reaction taking place in a flame produces
ions. These electrically charged particles can be made
to pass between two electrodes so a flow of electrons
is set up and the flame conducts a current.
Flame Rectification makes use of the fact that when
suitable electrodes are used, they rectify the a.c. and
produce a small d.c. output. So the flame acts as a
conductor for the a.c. input and, at the same time ,
rectifies it to d.c. The d.c. output is made to operate a
relay, through a suitable electronic circuit. This in
turn controls the electrically-operated gas valve.
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Flame Rectification
Flame Rectification
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Appliances that use FR
Appliances that use FR
These devices have the
advantages of instant
response and immediate
shut-down in the event of
flame failure. They are
commonly used in
conjunction with full-
sequence automatic
control of gas burners.
Commonly fitted to
Boilers.
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Flame Rectification on the Rig
Flame Rectification on the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Any build-up of dust or condensation cannot affect the
rectification and cannot simulate a flame.
These devices have high reliability, however proper
electrical polarity and grounding are critical to this type
of flame sensing system.
A FR device can be measured for correct operation
using a meter capable of measuring in A ( micro-Amps )
If the device is faulty then replace the unit.
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True or False
True or False
Flame rectification works on
Flame rectification works on
the principle of voltage
the principle of voltage
displacement ?
displacement ?
NVQ Level 2/3 Gas Installation and Maintenance.
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A FR device can be measured for
correct operation using a meter
capable of measuring in _____
A:
A: A ( micro-Amps )
B: V ( micro-Volts )
C: mV ( milli-Volts )
D: Either A or B above
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No.8 No.8
Solenoid Valve
Solenoid Valve
A Magnetic effect of an electric current operates the valve.
Attached to the valve is a soft iron rod ( an armature ) free to
slide within a brass tube. When the electric current is
switched on the magnetic effect lifts the armature and so opens
the gas valve. A return spring positively keeps the valve
closed when no current is passing.
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How it works
How it works
Must be
connected to
mains electricity.
Normally can be
found as part of
a multi- function
valve, or in
cooker ovens.
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Solenoid on the Rig
Solenoid on the Rig
Solenoid integrated as part of
a multi-function gas valve.
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
The solenoid can be prone to hum
The slug seizes up and will not open
1. It is possible to clean the iron slug, and generally
service the valve.
2. Replacement of the solenoid valve head or
complete unit.
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True or False
True or False
A solenoid valve is a direct
A solenoid valve is a direct
control device?
control device?
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What type of device is a solenoid
What type of device is a solenoid
valve ?
valve ?
A:
A:
Comfort control device
Comfort control device
B:
B:
Flame failure device
Flame failure device
C:
C:
Ignition device
Ignition device
D:
D:
Isolation device
Isolation device
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No.9 No.9
Mechanical Thermostat
Mechanical Thermostat
These devices are designed to control pre-determined
temperatures of gas fired equipment by controlling
the flow of gas to the burner.
The methods used to operate thermostats are:
differential expansion of metals
liquid expansion
vapour pressure
These methods can be used to control gas valves in
the gas supply to the burner by:
Direct acting or Indirect acting
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How it works
How it works

Rod Type
Rod Type
A temperature sensitive device consists of a rod of
nickel-steel alloy inside a tube made of brass. The
two metals are brazed together at one end. When
subjected to heat the expansion of the tube will draw
the rod into the tube. A valve and spindle is held to
the end of the rod by a spring. On heating the valve
closes and on cooling the valve is forced open.
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Liquid Expansion Thermostats
Liquid Expansion Thermostats
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Vapour Pressure Thermostats
Vapour Pressure Thermostats
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Phial requires correct positioning. These may
be displaced or distorted by the user when
cleaning the appliance.
Calibration may get out of adjustment and need
resetting.
If any damage is caused to the liquid system a
complete renewal is necessary.
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No.10 No.10
Electrical Thermostat
Electrical Thermostat
The electric thermostat is merely an on/off switch
controlled by temperature through the capillary tube.
The capillary tube is a hollow, sealed tube filled with a
liquid that expands and contracts with changes in
temperature. This movement of the liquid moves a
bellows, which in turn activates a spring loaded on/off
switch. Electrical thermostats are used in conjunction
with solenoid valves.
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Electric Thermostat
Electric Thermostat
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Phial requires correct positioning. These may
be displaced or distorted by the user when
cleaning the appliance.
Calibration may get out of adjustment and need
resetting.
If any damage is caused to the liquid system a
complete renewal is necessary.
Micro switch may fail
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True or False
True or False
A Mechanical Thermostat is an
A Mechanical Thermostat is an
indirect control device?
indirect control device?
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No.11 No.11
Relay Valve
Relay Valve
A relay valve controls gas supply using a remote control device ,
usually a mechanical thermostat. It is a pressure operated valve
controlled by a diaphragm. When the thermostat calls for heat,
gas flows through a weep orifice at a given rate into a weep
tube, this gas is then burnt off at the main burner.
Greater pressure below the diaphragm causes it to lift, allowing
gas to flow to the appliance burner. When the thermostat is
closes, the flow through the orifice stops and the pressure above
the diaphragm builds up, stopping the gas flow to the burner.
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Relay Valve on the Rig
Relay Valve on the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
The valve depends on the flow of gas through the orifice creating a
pressure loss above the diaphragm, so it will open, and on the
pressure building up in the weep tube and above the diaphragm so
it will close. Therefore, a blocked weep tube will cause the valve
to remain closed. The blockage may be in the tube, thermostat or
at the burner.
A leak in the sweep tube will prevent the valve from closing as this
simulates the thermostat calling for heat. A blocked orifice will
cause the valve to stay open. It Fails to Danger
Relay Valves have not been used in appliance for almost 30 years
now. Recommendation would be to replace appliance, even if
device appears to be working correctly.
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No.12 No.12
Governor ( Regulator )
Governor ( Regulator )
This device controls the pressure of gas to an appliance/s.
A weighted or sprung-loaded diaphragm moves to keep the gas
pressure to the system / appliance constant.
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Essential parts of a meter regulator
Essential parts of a meter regulator
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Cutaway
Cutaway
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Diaphragm can leak giving incorrect pressure:-
Replace Diaphragm
Gas valve can stick to seating:-
Clean valve seating
Always remember to check outlet pressure!
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True or False
Diaphragm can leak giving
incorrect pressure?
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No.13 No.13
Multifunction Valve
Multifunction Valve
A multifunction device can incorporate many if
not all, of the controls necessary to operate a gas
appliance in a single compact unit. This will
normally include gas flow control, gas pressure
regulation, flame protection, temperature control
and burner ignition. They will normally be a
component part of an appliance, but may allow for
separate parts of the valve to be changed as
necessary by a gas operative. Gas modulation can
also be a function of this type of valve, which is
common on the majority of combination boilers.
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Typical multifunction gas valve
Typical multifunction gas valve
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Operation and use
Operation and use
The valve is designed for use by the gas user to start the
appliance and by a gas operative to carry out work and
adjustments to the gas appliance. Different manufactures
utilise different controls on their valves.
Main burner flame protection will usually be via a
thermocouple or flame rectification.
Gas working pressure regulation on many types of Natural gas
models can be set by the gas operative within the specified
range given by the manufacture of the appliance.
A thermostat, bimetallic or electric contact or solenoid valve
may control flow to the main gas burner.
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
When working on the appliance, always ensure
that any flame protection device operates within
the maximum time period permissible. Any gas
control tap should have smooth operation.
Buzzing may indicate a faulty solenoid. Any gas
carrying joints that are disturbed should be tested
with leak detection fluid.
Refer to manufactures instructions for
replacement part numbers.
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No.14 No.14
Zero Governor
Zero Governor
Basic Principle of Operation
Functions according to the principle between the force of:
-the adjustable setpoint spring
- the defined counterspring
- the differential pressure at the working diaphragm based on zero atmosphere.
- the air impulse pressure
- the force due to the weight of the moving parts
The counter spring acts against the setpoint spring and the weight due to the
force of the moving parts. Depending on the adjustment of the setpoint spring and
the installation position, the force of the counterspring is compensated. When
used as proportionator, adjusting the setpoint spring or biasing for excess
air/excess gas should be performed at low fire. Outlet gas pressure from the FRG
is directly proportionate to the air impulse line pressure. I.e. increasing the air
impulse line pressure increases the outlet gas pressure.
In zero governor applications biasing (adjustment of the the setpoint spring leads
to negative or positive regulatory output pressures. Excessive adjustment of the
setpoint spring leads to positive regulator output pressures.
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1:1 Ideal Ratio
1:1 Ideal Ratio
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Sectional Diagram
Sectional Diagram
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How it works
How it works
The fan draws air in through the venturi which is
mounted on the side of the fan housing. This creates a
suction on the outlet of the 1:1 gas valve attached to
the venturi. When the gas valve is energised gas is
drawn out of the gas valve. With a 1:1 gas valve the gas
flow is proportional to the suction generated by the fan.
This means that the gas valve can be adjusted so it is
inherently safe, this adjustment is called the offset
adjustment.
No Air Flow = No Gas Flow
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Offset Adjustment
Offset Adjustment
Offset adjustment is achieved as a function of the zero
governor fitted to the gas valve. The offset is easiest
described as CO2 versus versus fan speed. A positive
offset adjustment would give an increasing CO2 level as
the fan speed is reduced and the gas valve would
continue to pass gas with a zero air flow ( Potentially
high CO). A negative offset would give a reducing CO2 as
the fan speed falls and the gas valve would stop passing
gas before zero air flow
( Inherently safe).
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On the Rig
On the Rig
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Faults and Remedies
Faults and Remedies
Incorrect adjustment of the Offset
Incorrect adjustment of the Throttle
Failed system component
Adjust Offset and/or Throttle, use
Gas Flue Analyser.
Replace failed component.
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Please refer to CITB
Please refer to CITB
Domestic Natural Gas Safety,
Domestic Natural Gas Safety,
Section 4, for further information
Section 4, for further information
regarding control devices.
regarding control devices.
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END
END
Last Update November 2003 V 1.1