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Department of Anatomy, Wuhan University School of Medicine

Systemic Anatomy 系统解剖学
Anatomy: A morphological study of the internal
& external structures of body through
Systemic Anatomy: presents the structures of
human body on the basis of functional systems
— How the human body is built for its functions
Regional Anatomy: presents the structures of
human body on the basis
of defined local regions
— How and why clinical
applications are performed
— Clinical Anatomy
Anatomical Terms 解剖学术语
1. Anatomical position 解剖学位置
2. Direction terms 方位术语
Superior ↔ Inferior 上  下
Anterior ↔ Posterior (Ventral ↔ Dorsal) 前  后
Medial ↔ Lateral 内侧  外侧
Superficial ↔ Deep 浅  深
Proximal ↔ Distal 近侧  远侧 Median plane

3. Plane terms 断面术语
Sagittal planes 矢状面
Coronal planes 冠状面
Transverse planes 水平面 Coronal plane
4. Variation 变异
 Structural patterns in some Transvers
normal individuals deviating from e
those observed in the majority of
the population. Sagittal
If function affected ─ Distortion 畸形 plane
Locomotor System 运动系统 Skull
Bones 骨 → Skeleton Body weight bearing
Diploë 板障
Joints 骨连接 骨骼 Vital organ protection Ribs
Skeletal muscles 骨骼肌 Postures & movements

General Description of Bones
1. Classification of Bones 骨的分类
Cranial Trunk Appendicular
Position bones bones bones Patell Femur
颅骨 躯干骨 附肢骨 a
Axial bones
Shape 中轴骨

Long bones 长骨 : Tubular
Short bones 短骨 : Cuboid
Flat bones 扁骨
Irregular bones 不规则骨
Sesamoid bones 籽骨
Epiphyseal Epiphyseal plate in a
line children’s bone
2. Structure of Bones 骨的构造
Osseous tissue Compact bone 骨密质
骨 质 Spongy bone 骨松质
Bone marrow Red marrow 红骨髓 : Hematopoiesis
骨 髓 Yellow marrow 黄骨髓
Periosteum Fibrous layer Vascular
骨 膜 Cellular layer Osteoprogenic
Endosteum 骨内膜 :Single-cellular

3. Chemical Components
Collagen fibers 胶原纤维 : flexible; 1/3 (w/w)
Calcium salts 钙盐 : hard & brittle; 2/3 (w/w)
─ A property between rigidity and flexibility
Hard & slightly flexible
Children’s bone: more flexible
Greenstick fracture
青 枝 骨 折
1. Blood & Nerve Supplies
Nutrient vessels 滋养血管
→Nutrient foramen Spongy bone
Bone marrow
Metaphyseal vessels 干骺血管
→ Metaphysis → End of the bone
Periosteal vessels 骨膜血管
Periosteum → Compact bone
Extensive stripping of periosteum
→ Bone death 过度撕脱骨膜将导致骨坏死

Sensory & Vasomotor nerves
→ Accompany blood vessels

Important concepts
Variation Epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal line

Important contents
1. Structure of bones
2. Chemical components and physical properties of

Website for downloading lecture sheets:
General Description of Joints 骨连接总论
Bones 骨
Joints 骨连接
Skeleton 骨骼

Bearing Protecting Allowing
Body Vital Various
Weight Organs Movements

Strong Immovable Highly
stability /Slightly Movable
Less Movable
General Description of Joints
Classification of Joints 骨连接的分

Fibrous joints 纤维连结 : join bones with fibrous tissue
─ Sutures in the skull 颅缝
─ Syndesmosis 韧带连接 : Junction formed by ligaments
Cartilaginous joints 软骨连接
Synchondrosis 透明软骨结合 : Hyaline cartilage
 gradually ossified after puberty
Symphysis 纤维软骨联合 : Fibrocartilage
 remains unossified throughout life
Synostosis 骨性结合 : a totally rigid bony fusion
─ Ossification of synchondroses or fibrous joints
Synovial joints 滑膜关节
─ the articulating bones are connected by
a soft capsule but separated by a cavity that
contains synovia 滑液  Diarthrosis 动关

Synovial Joints 滑膜关节

Articular head 1. Essential Structures 关节的基本结构
Articular surfaces 关节面
Articular fossa  opposing surfaces of the articulating bones,
covered by articular cartilage 关节软骨
Articular capsule 关节囊
Fibrous capsule 纤维囊Continues with
Synovial membrane 滑膜 : Produces Synovia
Medial & lateral menisci Articular cavity 关节腔
 enclosed by synovial membrane & articular
surfaces, & contains synovial fluid
2. Accessory Structures 关节的辅助结构
Ligaments 韧带 : Extra- / Intra-capsular
Articular disc & labrum 关节盘 / 关节唇
Synovial fold & bursa 滑膜襞 / 滑膜囊
3. Movements of Synovial Joints
Angular movements  axial movements
 paired antagonistic uniaxial or biaxial movements
On coronal axis: Flexion 屈↔ Extension 伸
On sagittal axis: Abduction 展 ↔ Adduction
On vertical axis: Rotation 转动 收
Medial↔lateral rotation 旋内↔旋外
Pronation↔supination 旋前↔旋后
Coronal + sagittal axes: Circumduction 环转 Abduction Adduction

Plane movement
Gliding / sliding 滑动 Vertical axis
axis Sagittal axis
3. Types of Synovial Joints
Uniaxial joints 单轴关节
Hinge joint 滑车关节 Extension
Pivot joint 车轴关节    Rotation
Biaxial joints 双轴关节
Saddle joint 鞍状关节 Extension
Ellipsoidal joint 椭圆关节 Adduction
Multiaxial joints 多轴关节
Ball and socket joints Abduction
球 窝 关 节 Circumduction
Plane joints 平面关节  Sliding

Important concepts

Important contents
1. Essential and accessory structures of synovial joints
2. Movement types of synovial joints
3. Types of synovial joints