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武汉大学医学院人体解剖学教研室

Department of Anatomy
Wuhan University School of Medicine

Skull (Cranium) 颅
— The skullis the skeleton of the head
formed by twenty-three cranial bones
Cerebral cranium 脑颅
→ Cranial cavity 颅腔 Calvaria 颅顶
Cranial base 颅底
Facial cranium 面颅 Orbits
→ The skeleton of the face Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
y cranium step by step
sitions of individual bones on skull
uctures of separated cranial bones
uctures of skull in whole
Positions of Individual Bones
on Skull
Bones of cerebral cranium 脑颅骨
Paired: parietal bones 顶骨 , temporal bones 颞骨
Unpaired frontal 额骨 , occipital 枕骨 ,
sphenoid 蝶骨 & ethmoid bones 筛骨
Bones of facial cranium 面颅骨
Paired: zygomatic bones 颧骨 , maxillary bones 上颌

nasal bones 鼻骨 , inferior nasal conchae 下鼻甲
lacrimal bones 泪骨 , & palatine bones 腭骨
Unpaired: mandible 下颌骨 , vomer 犁骨 , hyoid 舌骨
Hard palate

Nasal
septum
Structures of separated cranial
bones
Frontal bone 额骨 Frontal
squama
Frontal squama 额 鳞
Orbital plate Supraorbital margin 眶上缘
眶 部 Supraorbital notch/foramen 眶上切迹 / 孔
Occipital bone 枕骨 Supraorbital Supraorbital
Foramen magnum 枕骨大孔 margin notch / foramen
protuberance 枕外隆凸
External occipital crest 枕外嵴
Occipital Superior & inferior nuchal lines 上、下项线
squama protuberance 枕内隆凸
枕鳞 Internal occipital crest 枕内嵴
Sagittal 上矢状窦沟 & transverse sulcuses 横窦沟Orbital plates
Occipital condyle 枕髁 Occipital condyle
Hypoglossal
canal
Hypoglossal canal
舌下神经管 Foramen
magnum

Superior & inferior nuchal lines

External occipital crest

xternal occipital protuberance
Transverse Sagittal
sulcuses sulcus
Structures of separated cranial Zygomatic
bones process

Temporal bone 颞骨 External
acoustic
Zygomatic process 颧突 pore

Mastoid process 乳突
Temporal Styloid process 茎突 Articular
tubercle
squama External acoustic pore 外耳门
鳞部 Mandibular fossa 下颌窝 Mastoid
process
Articular tubercle 关节结节
Styloid process
Arcuate eminence 弓状隆起
Petrous Tegmen tympani 鼓室盖
Part
岩部 Trigeminal impression 三叉神经压迹
Internal acoustic pore 内耳门
Zygomatic
arch

Temporo-
Mandibular
joint
Structures of separated cranial
bones
Sella
Sphenoid Bone 蝶骨 turcica

Sella Anterior: Tuberculum sellae 鞍结节
turcica Posterior: Dorsum sellae 鞍背
Body 蝶 鞍 Lateral: Carotid sulcuses & canals
体 颈动脉沟  颈动脉管内口
Central: Hypophysial fossa 垂体窝
Chiasmatic sulcus 交叉沟
Lesser wings 小翼 : Optic canals 视神经管 Paths
Superior orbital fissure 眶上裂 for
Foramen rotundum 圆孔 Nerve
Greater wings 大翼 Foramen ovale 卵圆孔 s
Foramen spinosum 棘孔 Vesse
Pterygoid processes 翼突 : Lat. & Med pterygoid ls
plates
Chiasmatic sulcus Lesser wing Body
& Optic canals
Superior orbital Greater wing
fissure
Tuberculum sellae
Foramen rotundum Superior
Hypophysial fossa
Orbital
Carotid sulcuses
& canals fissure Lateral pterygo
Foramen ovale plate
Pterygoid Medial pterygoi
Foramen spinosum Dorsum sellae process plate
ructures of separated cranial bones

Chiasmatic
sulcus
Superior orbital fissure →
& Optic canals

Foramen rotundum →
←Carotid sulcuses
↑ & canals
Foramen ovale → Hypophysi
al
Foramen spinosum →
fossa
Cribriform
Structures of separated cranial
foramina Crista galli bones

Ethmoid bone 筛骨
Crista galli 鸡冠
Cribriform plate Cribriform foramina 筛孔
筛 板
Paths for olfactory nerves 嗅神经
Perpendicular Plate 垂直板 : Part of nasal septum
Ethmoidal sinuses 筛窦
Lateral masses
Superior & Middle nasal conchae
(Ethmoid labyrinths) 上鼻甲 中鼻甲
筛骨迷路
Ethmoidal
sinuses Crista galli
Cribriform plate
Crista
Cristagalli
galli Perpendicular
Plate
Lateral
masses

Nasal Superior & Middle nasal concha
septum
Superior Aspect Posterior Aspect
Frontal process Structures of separated cranial bones
Infraorbital
groove Infra-
orbital
margin
Infra-
Maxillary bone 上颌骨
orbital
forame
n Maxillary sinus 上颌窦
Alveolar Body Infraorbital margin 眶下缘
process 体 Infraorbital → Infraorbital → Infraorbital
groove 眶下沟 canal 眶下管
Zygomatic process Frontalforamen
process 眶下孔
额突
Zygomatic process 颧突
Maxillary
sinus Alveolar process 牙槽突 : holds the upper teeth
Palatine process 腭突 : anterior part of hard palate 硬腭
Hard palate

Palatine
Palatine Bone
process 腭 骨
Perpendicular plate
垂 直 板
Horizontal plate
水 平 板
Structures of separated cranial Head & neck Condylar process
bones of mandible Coronoid
process
Mandibula
Mandibular
notch
notch
Mandible 下颌骨 Mandibular
foramen
Body of mandible 下颌体 : Ramus

Alveolar arch 牙槽弓
Base & angle of mandible 下颌底、下颌角
Angle of mandible
Mental protuberance 颏隆凸 Base of mandible

Rami of mandible 下颌支 : Mental foramen

Coronoid process 冠突 Alveolar arch
 Mandibular notch 下颌切迹
Condylar process 髁突 Head of mandible 下颌头
Neck of mandible 下颌颈
Mandibular foramen→Canal→Mental foramen
下颌孔 下颌管
颏 孔
Hyoid 舌骨
Greater horn 大角
Body 舌骨体
Lesser horn 小角
Mental
protuberance
Highlights

Important contents 重要内容

1. The names of all individual cranial bones and their
positions in the skull
分离颅骨的名称及在整颅上的位置
2. The names of important sulcuses, fissures, foramina, and
canals in each individual cranial bones
位于各分离颅骨上的重要神经血管通道的名称