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Lambda

View of Adult Skull 成人颅的整体观
Lambdoid
suture
Superior aspect of calvaria 颅顶上面
Sagittal suture
Coronal suture 冠状缝 Bregma 前囟点
Sagittal suture 矢状缝
Lambda 人字点
Lambdoid suture 人字缝 Bregma
Coronal suture
Internal aspect of cranial base 颅底内面
1. Anterior cranial fossa 颅前窝
Crista gali 鸡冠
Cribriform foramina Olfactory nerve Anterior cranial fossa
筛孔 嗅神经

Crista gali Orbital plate of Middle cranial fossa
frontal bone
Cribriform plate
Cribriform foramina Ethmoid bone
Lesser wings of Posterior cranial fossa
sphenoid bone
Internal aspect of cranial base 颅底内面
2. Middle cranial fossa 颅中窝
Hypophysial fossa 垂体窝 : a shallow depression lodging the pituitary gland
Carotid sulcuses 颈动脉沟  Carotid canals 颈动脉管 ( 内口 )
Chiasmatic sulcus 交叉沟  Optic canals 视神经管 Paths
Superior orbital fissure 眶上裂 Marks
Foramen rotundum 圆孔 For
Foramen ovale 卵圆孔 Nerve
Foramen spinosum 棘孔 s
Trigeminal impression 三叉神经压迹
Vessel
Tegmen tympani 鼓室盖  the roof of the tympanic cavity 鼓室上壁
s
Chiasmatic sulcus & optic canals Tuberculum sellae
Superior orbital fissure
Foramen rotundum Hypophysial fossa

Foramen ovale
Carotid
Foramen spinosum sulcus
& Carotid
canal
Trigeminal Petrous part of
impression temporal bone
Tegmen
Arcuatetympani
Dorsum sellae
eminence
Internal aspect of cranial base 颅底内面

3. Posterior cranial fossa 颅后窝
Foramen magnum 枕骨大孔 Paths
Hypoglossal canals For
舌下神经管 ( 内口 ) Nerve
Internal acoustic pore 内耳门 s Foramen
Vessel magnum
Internal acoustic meatus
内 耳 道 s

Sagittal sulcus 上矢状窦沟
↓ Marks for
Transverse sulcuses 横窦沟 dural venous
↓ sinuses
Sigmoid sulcuses 乙状窦沟 硬脑膜窦

Jugular foramen 颈静脉孔
External aspect of cranial base 颅底外面
Alveolar arch 牙槽弓 Hard palate 骨腭 Incisive foramenHard palate
Incisive foramen 切牙孔 Greater palatine foramina
Posterior nasal apertures Alveolar arch
Greater palatine foramina 腭大孔
Medial & lateral
pterygoid plates
Posterior nasal apertures 鼻后孔
Medial & lateral pterygoid plates Foramen lacerum

翼突内外侧板 Foramen ovale
Sealed by Foramen
Foramen lacerum 破裂孔 cartilage in spinosum
living body
Carotid canal
Foramen ovale 卵圆孔
Jugular foramen
Foramen spinosum 棘孔
Stylomastoid
Carotid canal 颈动脉管 ( 外口 ) Foramen
Paths (located between
Jugular foramen 颈静脉孔 the bases of the
For styloid & mastoid
processes)
Stylomastoid foramen 茎乳孔 N. V.
Canal for facial nerve 面神经管 Foramen magnum

Foramen magnum 枕骨大孔 Occipital condyles
Hypoglossal canal 舌下神经管外口 with hypoglossal canal
passing through its base

Occipital condyles 枕髁 Mandibular fossa Articular tubercl
Ant. branch of middle meningeal
Lateral aspect a.
Pterion Pterygomaxillary fissure
(entrance of
pterygopalatine fossa)
of skull 颅的侧面 Temporal
line

Temporal fossa 颞窝
Pterion 翼点 The weakest
site of the calvaria
Infratemporal fossa 颞下
窝 ↑
→Pterygomaxillary fissure 翼上颌裂
Pterygo- →Foramen rotundum 圆孔 Middle cranial fossa 颅中窝
palatine →Inferior orbital fissure 眶下裂  Orbit 眶
Fossa
翼腭窝 →Sphenopalatine foramen 蝶腭孔 Nasal cavity 鼻腔
→Greater palatine foramina 腭大孔  Oral cavity 口腔
Temporomandibular joint 颞下颌关节
Mandibular fossa 下颌窝 + Articular tubercle
Composition Articular
关节结节 disc 关节盘
Head of mandible 下颌头
Depression ↔ elevation: Open ↔ close mouth
Movements Protrusion ↔ retrusion & lateral movements Bite & Chew
Anterior aspect Frontal tubers

of Skull 颅的前面
1. Important Landmarks
Frontal tubers 额结节
Zygomatic arches 颧弓
Angles of mandible 下颌角
Mental protuberance 颏隆凸

Key factors to determine the profile of
an individual face 面部轮廓决定标志

Supraorbital foramen/notch 眶上孔 / 切迹
Infraorbital foramen 眶上孔
Mental foramen 颏孔
Block anaesthesia for
Outlets for branches of trigeminal nerve releasing a severe
supplying the major part of the face pain in the face
Superior Lacrimal fossa
orbital
Anterior Aspect of Skull 颅的前面 fissure

2. The Orbit 眶
Supraorbital margin Supraorbital notch
Outlet 眶上缘
眶口 眶上切迹
Infraorbital margin Infraorbital foramen
Apex : Optic canal眶下缘 Middle cranial fossa
尖 眶下孔
视神经管 颅中窝
Roof 上壁 : Lacrimal fossa 泪腺 Inferior Fossa for
orbital lacrimal sac
窝 fissure
Superior orbital fissure 眶上裂
Lateral wall 外侧壁
Inferior orbital fissure → Pterygopalatine fossa
眶下裂
翼腭窝
Floor: Infraorbital → Infraorbital → Infraorbital
下壁 groove 眶下沟 canal 眶下管
foramen 眶下孔
Medial wall: Fossa of lacrimal→Nasolacrimal→Nasal cavity
内侧壁 sac 泪囊窝 canal 鼻泪管
鼻腔
Anterior Aspect of Skull 颅的前面 Spheno- Sphenopalati
ethmoidal ne Foramen
Recess
3. The bony nasal cavity 骨性鼻腔
Openings Piriform aperture 梨状孔
Posterior nasal apertures 鼻后孔
Nasal septum: Perpendicular plate + vomer
鼻中隔 of ethmoid 筛骨垂直板 犁骨
Floor 底 : Bony palate 骨腭
Roof: Cribriform Cribriform → Anterior cranial
上壁 plate 筛板 foramina 筛孔 fossa 颅前窝
Lateral wall 外侧壁 Sphenoethmoidal recess 蝶筛隐

Superior nasal concha 上鼻甲 Sphenopalatine
Superior nasal meatus 上鼻道 Foramen 蝶腭孔
Middle nasal concha 中鼻甲
Middle nasal meatus 中鼻道
Inferior nasal concha 下鼻甲
Inferior nasal meatus 下鼻道
Nasolacrimal canal 鼻泪管
Nasal septum
Anterior Aspect of Skull 颅的前面
4. Paranasal sinuses 鼻旁窦
 Air-filled cavities inside the cranial bones
surrounding the nasal cavity Ethmoidal sinus

Frontal sinus 额窦
Maxillary sinus 上颌窦  Middle nasal
Ethmoidal sinuses 筛窦 meatus 中鼻道
Anterior group 前群
Middle group 中群 Sphenoethmoidal
Posterior group 后群 Superior nasal meatus 上鼻道 recess

Sphenoidal sinus 蝶 Rod from frontal
窦 ↓ sinus to middle
Opening of posterior ethmoidal
sinuses
nasal meatus
Sphenoethmoidal Opening of phenoidal
sinus
recess 蝶筛隐窝
An infection in nasal Opening
of
cavity Hiatus anterior &
middle
semilunaris
Nasosinusitis 鼻旁 ethmoidal
sinuses
Opening of maxillary
Opening of
窦炎 nasolacrimal canal sinus
Features of Infant Skull 新生儿颅的特征
1. In comparison with the adult skull
the cerebral cranium of an infant skull is
much larger than the facial cranium
2. The cranial bones in an infant skull
are connected by fibrous membrane
Fontanelle 囟  a large membranous
area between adjacent cranial bones
Anterior fontanelle 前囟
Posterior fontanelle
Posterior fontanelle 后囟
Sphenoidal fontanelles 蝶囟 Sphenoidal
fontanelle
Mastoid fontanelles 乳突囟

A soft bregma in a child after age of 2
Acalcerosis 缺钙症
Mastoid fontanelle
Anterior fontanelle
Highlights
Important concepts 重要概念
Pterion 翼点 Pterygopalatine fossa 翼腭窝
Frontal fontanelle 前囟
Important contents 重要内容
1. Important paths or marks (sulcuses, fissures, foramina,
and canals) for nerves and vessels in the cranial base
颅底内、外面的重要神经血管通道
2. Anatomy of the orbits, bony nasal cavity and paranasal
sinuses 眶、骨性鼻腔及鼻旁窦
3. Features of the infant skull 新生儿颅的特征