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Department of Anatomy

Wuhan University School of Medicine

Blood Vessels
Artery
Capillary
Vein
Instructor : Zongwen Tian( 田 )
Arteries
What is the artery? Artery is the vessels
that carry blood away from the ventricles to
the capillaries.
Arteries of pulmonary circulation
Arteries of systemic circulation

Arteries of pulmonary circulation
carry oxygen-poor blood to the
lung , colored as blue.
Arteries of systemic circulation
supply oxygenated and nutrient-rich
blood to tissues, colored as red.
Arteries of pulmonary circulation
 pulmonary trunk
 left and right pulmonary arteries
 lobar arteries
Arterial ligament It is a fibrous band and
lies between the bifurcation of the pulmonary
trunk and the inferior surface of the aortic
arch. It is the remnant of the arterial duct .

Arterial duct After birth, the arterial duct is
gradually obliterated and transformed into the arterial
ligament
Patent ductus arteriosus
Leading to

High pulmonary artery pressure
Arteries of Systemic Circulation
Aorta It arises from the left ventricle

 Ascending aorta Aorta
Pulmonary A.
Atria
 Aortic arch
 Thoracic aorta
 Abdominal aorta Ventricles

1.Ascending aorta
It originates from the left ventricle behind the
pulmonary trunk, ascends obliquely and become
the aortic arch
The right and left coronary arteries----Heart
2.Aortic arch
It is the continuation of the ascending aorta , then
arches from right and anterior toward left and posterior,
reaches to the left side of the lower border of the fourth
thoracic vertebra where it becomes the thoracic aorta.
 Brachiocephalic trunk Right common carotid artery
 Left common carotid a. Right subclavian artery
 Left subclavian arteries

head and upper limbs
•Nerve terminal --the
pressure receptor
reflectively regulating the
blood pressure
•Aortic glomera-- the
chemical receptor
monitoring the levels of
CO2 in the aortic flow.
3.Thoracic aorta
Continuation of the aortic arch, the thoracic aorta descends along the
anterior surface of the vertebral column.
Numerous branches
-- the thoracic wall and organs

4.Abdominal aorta
Many branches--the abdominal wall and organs

Right and left common iliac arteries

Internal iliac artery --Pelvis
External iliac artery-- lower limbs
Aorta
Right and left
Ascending aorta Coronary A. Heart
R. common carotid A.
Right subclavian A. Head
Aortic Brachiocephalic trunk Neck
Left common carotid A.
arch
Left subclavian A. Upper
limbs
Thoracic aorta Thorax

Abdominal aorta Abdomen

Right and left
Internal iliac A. Pelvis
common iliac A. External iliac A.

lower limbs
Arteries of the neck and head
Common carotid arteries
Branches from subclavian artery
1.Common carotid arteries
They are the main source of the blood
supply for the neck and head

● External carotid artery
● Internal carotid artery
Carotid sinus --Pressure receptor
Carotid body --Chemical receptor

(1)External carotid arteries
● Superior thyroid artery
thyroid gland and larynx
● Lingual artery tongue
Arteries of the neck and head
Common carotid arteries
Branches from subclavian artery
1.Common carotid arteries
They are the main source of the blood
supply for the neck and head

● External carotid artery
● Internal carotid artery
Carotid sinus --Pressure receptor
Carotid body --Chemical receptor

(1)External carotid arteries
● Superior thyroid artery
thyroid gland and larynx
● Lingual artery tongue
● Facial artery
the skin and muscles in the anterior face

● Occipital artery the scalp in the occipital area
Near the temporomandibular joint, the external
carotid artery splits into two terminal branches

● Superficial temporal artery
temporal region
● Maxillary artery infratemporal fossa

Middle meningeal artery
● Facial artery Pterion
the skin and muscles in the anterior face

● Occipital artery the scalp in the occipital area
Near the temporomandibular joint, the external
carotid artery splits into two terminal branches
middle meningeal artery
● Superficial temporal artery
temporal region
● Maxillary artery infratemporal fossa

middle meningeal artery
meninges hit

Intracranial hematoma
(2)Internal carotid arteries
Pass through the carotid canal
into the skull; supply the brain
and the eyes; have no branches
in the neck

2.Subclavian artery
cupula of pleura

scalene fissure
(1)Vertebral artery
supply the brain and the spinal cord

(2) Thyrocervical trunk
Inferior thyroid artery
the thyroid gland

foramen magnum
Arteries of the upper limb
1.Axillary artery Thoracoacromial A.

Lateral thoracic artery
Supply the large part of the upper limb
Chief branches: circumflex scapular artery

(1)Thoracoacromial artery
the pectoral and deltoid muscles

(2)Lateral thoracic artery
the pectoral muscles, the serratus
anterior and the breast
(3)Subscapular artery

circumflex scapular artery thoracodorsal artery Subscapular artery
thoracodorsal artery
subscapularis and latissimus dorsi
(4)Anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
(3)Subscapular artery

circumflex scapular artery dorsal scapular region
thoracodorsal artery

(4)Anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries Wrap the surgical
neck of the humerus to supply the shoulder joint and the adjacent muscles.
Anterior circumflex humeral a.

circumflex scapular artery

posterior circumflex humeral a.
2.Brachial artery
sends branches to the flexor muscles of the
arm and to the elbow joint
Beep brachial artery the triceps brachii
A fracture of the humerus trunk easily injure the
artery and the nerve
3.Radial and Ulnar arteries
•The radial artery
palpate its pulse, branches to the
muscles of the lateral part of the
forearm

•The ulnar artery
branches to muscles of the
medial part of the forearm
A major branch : the common
interosseous artery
Supply the flexor and extensor
muscles of the forearm
a.
principal thumb
4.Palmar arches

palmar metacarpal a.
 Superficial palmar arch
the terminal part of the ulnar artery

anastomosis

the superficial palmar branch of the
radial artery
common palmar digital a.
 Deep palmar arch
the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery

anastomosis

the terminal part of the radial artery
Arteries of thorax
1.Arteries of thoracic wall
(1)Internal thoracic artery
Musculophrenic artery diaphragm
Superior epigastric artery abdominal wall
anterior intercostal branches anastomose with intercostal
a.
(2)Posterior intercostal arteries (nine pairs)
Subcostal arteries (one pair) bronchial arteries

2.Arteries of thoracic viscera

esophageal arteries
Arteries of abdomen
1.Parietal branches of the abdominal aorta
 Inferior phrenic arteries supply
the inferior surface of the diaphragm
•Superior suprarenal arteries
to the suprarenal glands
 Lumbar arteries (Four pairs )

Median sacral artery supplies the
sacrum and coccyx.
2.Visceral branches of abdominal aorta
(1)The paired branches of the abdominal aorta
 Middle suprarenal artery
supply the suprarenal glands
 Renal artery
•inferior suprarenal arteries to the
suprarenal gland
 Testicular/Ovarian arteries
through the inguinal canal to the scrotum
Or serve the ovaries
(2)The unpaired visceral branches
 Celiac trunk
 Superior mesenteric artery
 Inferior mesenteric artery
These vessels supply the unpaired abdominal
organs
 Celiac trunk
the lower part of the esophagus
1) Left gastric A. the lesser curvature

2)Splenic artery spleen
pancreas
Short gastric a. the fundus of
Left gastroepiploic a. stomach the
greater curvature
3)Common hepatic artery
right and left branches liver
Proper hepatic A. cystic a. gallbladder
right gastric a. lesser curvature

Gastroduodenal A.
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
right gastroepiploic a.

pancreas
duodenum
greater curvature
greater omentum
 Superior mesenteric artery
Jejunum

Jejunal artery
Jejunal artery and ileal A.
ileum
the terminal part of the ileum
Ileocolic A. cecum
appendix(appendicular artery)
the lower part of the ascending colon

Right colic A. the upper part of the ascending colon

ileal A.
Middle colic A. the transverse colon
 Inferior mesenteric artery
the last part of the transverse colon
Left colic artery
descending colon
Sigmoid artery sigmoid colon

Superior rectal artery the upper part of the rectum
3.Common iliac artery
Abdominal aorta
(At the level of fourth lumbar vertebra)

Right and left common iliac A.
(in front of the sacroiliac joint)

Internal iliac A. pelvis
External iliac A.

Femoral artery lower limbs
Arteries of pelvis
Superior gluteal artery
parietal (suprapiriform foramen) gluteal m.
Internal iliac A.

branches Inferior gluteal artery
(infrapiriform foramen )
adductor
Obturator artery
m.
( obturator foramen)
Anus
Internal pudendal perineal muscles
Visceral a.
Uterine genitalia
a. uterus
branches
Inferior rectal a. the lower part of the rectum
Superior/inferior vesicle a.

bladder
Arteries of lower limbs lateral circumflex femoral a.

Femoral a. deep femoral a. perforating a. posterior thigh m.

adductor canal medial circumflex femoral a.
Anterior tibial a. extensor m.
Popliteal a. dorsum of foot
dorsal pedal a.
and toes
Posterior tibial a. flexor m.
medial and lateral plantar a. sole and toes

medial malleolus