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locomotor system

Bones and joints of
lower limb

Department of anatomy Wuhan university school of medicine
Bones of lower limb(62)
Pelvic girdle
Bones of free lower limb
Femur
Patella talus
calcaneus
Tibia navicular
cuboid
Fibula
lateral cuneiform
Tarsals Intermediate cuneiform
medial cuneiform
Metatarsals
distal
Phalanges middle
proximal

Anterior view of pelvic girdle
and left lower limb
pelvic girdle
Hip bone
 Ilium
ala
arcuate line
body
 Ischium
body
ramus
 Pubis Obturator
foramen

inferior ramus
superior ramus
body
Lateral view of the medial view of the
right hip bone right hip bone
bony pelvis
sacrum
coccyx
2 pelvic girdles
false pelvis (greater pelvis)
true pelvis (lesser pelvis)

Terminal line (inlet)
The true and false pelvis
sacral promontory

arcuate
line

pecten
of pubis
pubic crest
upper margin of
the symphysis
Outlet
Female male
Comparison of the
male and female
pelvis
general structure

Identify the pelvis of
female and male from the
anterior view
following aspects:
 pelvic inlet
 subpubic angle
 distance between posteroinferior view

the acetabulum
 pelvic outlet
 sacrum
 coccyx
Left lateral view
femur
upper end:
head neck
lesser and greater trochanter

shaft
lower end: lateral, medial
condyle
patella
tibia
upper end:
lateral, medial condyle
tibial tuberosity
intercondylar eminence
anterior view of posterior view of
anterior view posterior view
shaft the right femur the right femur

lower end: medial malleolus
fibula
upper end: fibular head
shaft
lower end: medial malleolus superior view
anterior view posterior view
talus
navicular
calcaneus
cuboid
Tarsals lateral cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
foot medial cuneiform

Metatarsals
distal
Phalanges middle

proximal
Upper view
The articulations of pelvic
girdle include 3 groups:

1) Sacroiliac joint

2) The ligaments between hip bone

and spinal column:
greater sciatic
notch
Greater
sacrotuberous sciatic
ligament foramen anterior view

Lesser sacrospinous
sciatic
ligament
foramen
lesser sciatic Sagittal section of the pelvis
notch

3) pubic symphysis

coronal section of the pubic posterior view
symphysis
hip joint
Structure:
head of the femur
acetabulum of hip bone
Accessory structure:
acetabular labrum
transverse acetablar ligament
ligament of the femoral head
the opened hip joint coronal section
iliofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament
zona orbicularis
Movement:
flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction,
circumduction and
rotation anterior view posterior view
knee joint
Structure:
medial and lateral condyles of femur
medial and lateral condyles of tibia
patella
patellar surface of the femur
Accessory structures:
1) extra-capsular ligaments:
patellar ligament
tibial collateral ligament
fibular collateral ligament
oblique popliteal ligament
2) intra-capsular ligaments:
anterior cruciate ligament
posterior cruciate ligament posterior view anterior view
1) Menisci
medial meniscus: semicircular
lateral meniscus: nearly circular
Clinical applications
4) alar folds and synovial bursa:
suprapatellar bursa inferopatellar
bursa
Movement: flexion, extension

superior view
Sagittal section
Articulations between
tibia and fibula
tibiofibular joint
interosseous membrane
tibiofibular syndesmosis
Ankle joint
structures
distal ends of the
tibia and
fibula of the talus
trochlea
Accessory structures
Anterior view Posterior view Posterior view
Movement: dorsiflexion and
plantarflexion, inversion and
eversion
Clinical applications

Lateral view Medial view
Foot arch
Medial longitudinal arch
Lateral longitudinal arch
Transverse arch