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Section 3 cerebellum

The cerebellum is an automatic processing center that has two
primary functions:
1) serve to maintain posture and equilibrium by adjusting the
postural muscles of the body
2) smoothes and coordinates voluntary and involuntary
movements ordered by other brain regions

Damage to the cerebellum will cause victims:
1) disorders of equilibrium exhibiting a wide stance and
unsteady drunken sailor gait
2) disorders of coordination exhibiting slow or jerky
movements that are inaccurate and tend to overreach
their targets;
The position of the cerebellum 位置
Lies in the posterior fossa of the cranial
cavity / inferior to the occipital lobe of the Superior
cerebrum / posterior to the brain stem cerebellar
peduncle
Connected to midbrain, pons and medulla
oblongata by superior, meddle and inferior Meddle
peduncles respectively cerebellar Inferior
peduncle cerebellar
pecuncle
Vermis
External appearance
Primary fissure
Hemispheres 半球
Division
Vermis 蚓
Superior
semilunar
Structures on the surface lobule
Primary fissure 原裂
Horizontal fissure 水平裂 Horizontal
fissure
Flocculus 绒球
Inferior semilunar
Nodule 小结 Superior aspect lobule

Tonsil of cerebellum 小脑扁桃体
Vermis Meddle cerebellar
( tonsillar hernia 扁桃体疝 ) peduncle
Uvula of vermis 蚓垂 Flocculus
Superior
Pyramid of vermis 蚓锥 cerebellar
Nodule peduncle

Tonsil of
cerebellum
Uvula of
vermis Posterolateral
Pyramid of fissure
vermis

Inferior aspect
Lobes of the cerebellum
Flocculonodular lobe 绒球小结叶 : The oldest part of
the cerebellum / archicerebellum 古小脑 ; being
vestibular in its connections / vestibulocerebellum 前庭
小脑

Anterior lobe 前叶: appear next to flocculonodular
lobe / paleocerebellum 旧小脑 ; being spinocerebellar
in its connections / spinocerebellum 脊髓小脑

Posterior lobe 后叶 spinocerebellum Anterior lobe
: appear the latest /
neocerebellum 新小脑
; being
corticopontocerebellar
in its connections /
pontocerebellum 脑桥 pontocerebellum Posterior lobe
小脑

vestibulocerebellum Flocculonodular
lobe
Cerebellar nuclei 小脑核

The cerebellar hemisphere is covered by a layer of grey matter called cerebellar
cortex, and deep to it is the white core consisting of nerve fibers. Three groups of
grey masses are embedded in the
core:
1) Dentate nucleus 齿状核

2) Emboliform nucleus 栓状核
globose nucleus 球状核
3) Fastigial nucleus 顶核
Association cortex Motor cortex

Vestibular vestibulocerebellum
Corticopontine T. ganglion (Flocculonodular lobe)

Pontine nuclei Oculomotor N.
Thalamus
Troclear N. Vestibular nucleus
Pontocerebellum
Red Spinocer
N. ebellum
Abducent N.
Motor cortex Vestibulospinal T.
Reticular
formation
Motor cortex
Rubrospinal Spinocere Oculomotor
belar T. vestibulocerebellum
tract N.
Troclear N.
Reticulospinal T.
thakamus
Spinsl
gsnglion Abducent
N.
Red N. Vestibular
Spinocerebellar T. N.
Corticopon Vestibular
tine T. Spinocerebellum Vestibulospinal ganglion
tract
Thalamus Red nucleus
Lateral
Motor cortex vestibulospinal
Pontine tract
nuclei Rubrospinal T.
Corticospi
nal T. Corticospinal T.
Motor neuron
The cerebellar peduncles The fibers tract conveying information into or out of cerebellum
Inferior cerebellar peduncle: composed mainly of posterior spinocerebellar T., vestibular
nerve and nuclei;
Meddle cerebellar peduncle: ( brachium pontis 脑桥臂 ) composed almost exclusively of
the pontocerebellar fibers;
Superior cerebellar peduncle: consisting mainly of the efferent fibers from the dentate,
Globose and emboliform
nuclei; afferent fibers of
anterior spinocerebellar tract

Anterior
spinocerebellar
T.

Dentate N.
Superior
Superior
cerebellar
peduncle
cerebellar
peduncle Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Meddle cerebellar peduncle
Diencephalon 间脑

Three main structures: dorsal
thalamus 背侧丘脑 , hypothalamus
下丘脑 and epithalamus 上丘脑 ;
Minor structures: subthalamus 底丘
脑 and metathalamus 后丘脑
The superior view of the diencephalon:
1) Medial part of the dorsal thalamus is
visible and the third ventricle lies
between two thalamus
2) Lateral part of the dorsal thalamus is
covered by caudate N.
Lateral to thalamus is the lentiform N.
View on the horizontal section
1) Dorsal thalamus lies
posteromedial to the lentiform N.
and internal capsule is visible
between them;
2) Head of the caudate N. is visible
anterolateral to thalamus;
3) The third ventricle lies between
left and right thalamus
View on the coronal section:
1) On both sides of the third
ventricle are the left and right
thalamus
2) Internal capsule separates the
thalamus from lentiform N.
3) Caudate N. is above the
thalamus
4) The subthalamic N.is under
the thalamus and so is the red
N.
The nuclear groups of thalamus:
Anterior group
Medial group dorsomedial nucleus
Lateral group:
1) dorsal part 2) ventral part
ventral posterolateral N. ,ventral
posteromedial N. ,medial and lateral
geniculate N. The thalamus is divided into
three main groups of grey
matter by internal medullary
lamina;
All nuclei of the thalamus are
functionally distinguished as
1) specific thalamic nuclei
( ventral posterolateral N.
ventral posteromedial N.
medial geniculate N. and
lateral geniculate N.)
2) nonspecific thalamic
nuclei
View of the thalamus in situ :
1) The thalamus consists of A, VA,
MD, MTT;
2) IC represents the internal
capsule;
3) C represents the caudate N.
4) The lentiform N. is composed of
P, GPI and GPM
About specific thalamic nuclei:
The ventral posterior nucleus are specific sensory
nucleus;
1) The ventral posterolateral nucleus relays the
sensory fibers from the medial lemniscus and
spinothalamic lemniscus;

The relayed fibers
leaving the ventral
posterolateral
nucleus, travel
through the internal
capsule and terminate
in the sensory area of
cortex in the parietal
lobe.
2) The ventral posteromedial nucleus relays the fibers
from the trigeminal lemniscus;

The relayed fibers travel through the
Internal capsule and end in
the primary somatic sensory
area of the cortex
Lateral geniculate body
LGB and medial geniculate
body MGB are specific
relay nuclei for the fibers of Lateral geniculate body
optic tract and the fibers of
hearing from cochlear
nucleus respectively ;
Medial geniculate body
LGB gives rise to the optic
radiation ending in visual
area of cortex; MGB gives
rise to the acoustic radiation
ending in auditory area of
cortex
Metathalamus 后丘脑
Medial geniculate body 内侧膝状体
Lateral geniculate body 外侧膝状体
Epithalamus 上丘脑
Thalamic medullary stria 丘脑髓纹
Hebenular trigone 缰三角
Hebenular commissure 缰连合
Pineal body 松果体
Subthalamus 底丘脑
Subthalamic nucleus 底丘脑核
Hypothalamus 下丘脑
The portion of the
diencephalon ventral to the
hypothalamic sulci
surrounding the third
ventricle; It is divided into
1)optic chiasma 视交叉
2) tuber cinereum and
infundibulum 灰结节、漏斗
3)mamillary body 乳头体

Functions of the hypothalamus
Hypothalamus contains nuclei
involved in visceral processes
and emotions, forms the link
between the nervous and
endocrine system;
It has also been demonstrated
to control a variety of
autonomic functions
The main nuclei of the
hypothalamus:
1) Supraoptic nucleus 视上
核 secretes antidiuretic
hormone
2) Pareventricular nucleus
室旁核 secretes
oxytocin, causing
smooth muscle
contractions in uterus

3) Suprachiasmatic nucleus 视交叉上核
regulates daily rhythms
4) Preoptic nucleus 视前核 regulates
body temperature via control of autonomic
centers in the medulla
5) Tuberal or arcuate nucleus 弓状核
produces inhibitory and releasing
hormones that target anterior pituitary
Electrical stimulation of some regions give rise to parasympathetic
response, and others give rise to sympathetic response;
Autonomic centers adjust and coordinate visceral activities, such as
heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and digestive functions