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Skeletal muscle: to move the skeleton

Chapter 3 Myology Cardiac muscle: to form the heart
Smooth muscle: to constitute viscera

Over 600 muscles in the body;
Muscles are grouped by location:
muscles of head; muscles of neck;
muscles of thorax; muscles of Abdomen;
muscles of upper limb; muscles of lower
limb; ( muscles of pelvis and perineum )

Naming the skeletal
muscles by sereral criteria:
1. location (brachialis); 2.
shape (trapezius); 3. relative
size of the muscle; 4. direction
of the muscle fibers
(rectus,oblique); 5. location of
attachments(brachioradialis); 6.
number of origins (biceps); 7.
action (flexor,extensor)
Morphology of skeletal muscle
Belly: the fleshy part of a muscle
Tendon: the bundles consisting of
connective tissue blending with
strong collagen
Different patterns of arrangement of
the fascicles in muscles
1. Parallel arrangement: the long
axes of the fascicles run parallel
Biceps unipennate bipennate multipennate
to the long axes of the muscle
itself
2. Pennate pattern: feather-like
muscle including unipennate,
bipennate and multipennate
arrangemengs
3. Convergent pattern: with a broad
origin the fascicles converge
toward a tendon
4. Circular pattern: arranged in
concentric rings
rectus flate orbicular digastric
Origin, insertion and action of the muscles
Origin: a fixed (less movable) attachment of a muscle

Insertion: a movable attachment of
a muscle
The origin lies proximal to the
insertion in the muscles of limbs

Agonists ( prime movers ): the main
muscles which contract to produce
desired movement
Antagonist: the muscles which act
to oppose the action of agonist
Synergists: the muscles which triceps
cooperate in performing an action
Fixators: the muscles which steady
the proximal parts of a limb while
movements occur in distal parts
Superficial fascia
Fascia and tendinous sheath
Fascia
1) Superficial fascia: lies under skin and covers the
entire body containing a lot of fat / increase mobility
of skin; thermal insulation; a store of energy /
contain cutaneous nerve, blood vessels and skin
muscles 2) Deep fascia: dense and inelastic
membrane of collagenous fibers
Deep fascia

Intermuscular septa
Visceral layer
Parietal layer Tendinous sheath
Consist of synovial sheath and fibrous sheath;
Fibrous sheath exist only in hand and foot

mesotendon Synovial sheath 1. visceral layer 2. parietal
layer / mesotendon: conjunctive structure
between visceral and parietal layer
Fibrous sheath outmost layer consisting of
fibrous tissue
periosteum
Section 3 Muscles of Head and Neck

Muscles of the head
1. Craniofacial muscles: epicranius
( occipitofrontalis ) frontal belly +
epicranial aponeurosis + occipital belly,
orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris
2. Masticatory muscles: masseter,
temporalis, medial pterygoid, lateral
pterygoid
ORBICULARIS ORIS

Origin Action

 
Near midline on ant surface Narrows orifice of
of maxilla and mandible mouth, purses lips and
and modiolus at angle of puckers lip edges
mouth

                           
Insertion Nerve
Mucous membrane of Accessory parts are
margin of lips and raphe incisivus labii
with buccinator at modiolus superioris and
inferioris
ORBICULARIS OCULI

Origin Action

 
Med orbital margin and Closes eyelids , aids
lacrimal sac(orbital, passage and drainage
palpebral and lacrimal of tears
parts)

Insertion
                            Nerve
Lat palpebral raphe Temporal and
zygomatic brs of facial
N (VII)
MASSETER

Origin Action
Ant two thirds of Elevates mandible

 
zygomatic arch and (enables forced closure
zygomatic proces of of mouth)
maxilla

Insertion                                   Nerve
Lat surface of angle Ant div of mandibular N
and lower ramus of (Vc)
mandible
TEMPORALIS

Origin Action

 
Temporal fossa Elevates mandible
between inf temporal and post fibres
line and infratemporal retract
crest

                                 
Insertion Nerve
Med and ant aspect Deep temporal brs from
of coronoid process of ant div of mandibular N
(Vc)
mandible
MEDIAL PTERYGOID

Origin Action
Deep head. Med side of lat Elevates, protracts

 
pterygoid plate and fossa and lat displaces
between med and lat plates mandible to opposite
Superficial head : side for chewing
Tuberosity of maxilla and
pyramidal process of
palatine bone
                                 
Insertion Nerve
Med aspect of angle of N to medial pterygoid
mandible (main trunk of
mandibular N (Vc))
LATERAL PTERYGOID

Origin Action

 
Upper head: Depresses and
infratemporal surface of protracts mandible to
sphenoid bone. Lower open mouth. Pulls
head: lat surface of lat forward cartilage of jnt
pterygoid plate during opening of
                                  mouth
Insertion Nerve
Pterygoid fovea below Ns to lat pterygoid (ant
condyloid process of div of mandibular N
mandible and intra- (Vc))
articular cartilage of
temporomandibular jnt
Muscles of the neck
1. Superficial group: platysma,
sternocleidomastoid
2. Superhyoid muscles: digastric, mylohyoid,
3. Infrahyoid muscles: sternohyoid, omohyoid,
sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
4. Deep cervical muscles:
scalenus anterior, scalenus
medius, scalenus posterior
PLATYSMA

Origin Action

 
Skin over lower neck and Depresses and wrinkles
upper lat chest skin of lower face and
mouth. Aids forced
depression of mandible

                         
Insertion Nerve
Inf border of mandible and Cervical br of facial N
skin over lower face and (VII)
angle of mouth
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

Origin Action

 
Ant and sup Flexes and lat rotates
manubrium and cervical spine. Protracts
head when acting together
sup med third of
. Extends neck when neck
clavicle already partially extended

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Lat aspect of Spinal accessory N (lat
mastoid process and roots C1-5)
ant half of sup
nuchal line
DIGASTRIC (ANTERIOR VIEW)

DIGASTRIC

Origin Action

 
Ant belly: digastric fossa Elevates hyoid bone:
on post surface of Aids swallowing and
symphysis menti. Post depresses mandible
belly : base of med
aspect of mastoid
process
                                   Nerve
Insertion
Firbrous loop to lesser Ant belly: mylohyoid N
cornu of hyoid bone (Vc). Post belly: facial
N (VII)
MYLOHYOID

Origin Action

 
Mylohyoid line on Elevates hyoid bone,
int aspect of supports and raises floor
mandible of mouth . Aids in
mastication and
swallowing

Insertion                                   
Nerve
Ant three quarters : Mylohyoid N (Vc)
midline raphe. Post
quarter: sup border
of body of hyoid
bone
STYLOHYOID (ANTERIOR VIEW)

Origin Action

 
Base of styloid Elevates and retracts
process hyoid bone. Aids
swallowing and
elevates larynx

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Base of greater Mandibular br of
cornu of hyoid facial N (VII)
bone
GENIOHYOID

Origin Action

 
Inf mental spine on Elevates and
post surface of protracts hyoid
symphysis menti
bone. Depresses
mandible

                                   
Insertion Nerve
Sup border of body C1 fibres carried
of hyoid bone by hypoglossal N
(XII)
STERNOHYOID

Origin Action

 
Sup lat post Depresses hyoid
aspect of bone and hence
manubrium larynx

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Inf border of Ansa cervicalis N
body of hyoid (C1, 2, 3)
bone
OMOHYOID

Origin Action

 
Suprascapular lig and Depresses hyoid
adjacent scapula bone and hence
larynx

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Inf border of body of Ansa cervicalis N
hyoid bone (C1,2,3)
STERNOTHYROID

Origin Action

 
Med post aspect Depresses
of manubrium larynx

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Oblique line of Ansa
lamina of thyroid cervicalis N
cartilage (C1, 2, 3)
THYROHYOID

Origin Action

 
Oblique line of Elevates larynx or
lamina of thyroid depresses hyoid
cartilage bone

                                  
Insertion Nerve
Inf border of body C1 fibres carried
of hyoid bone by hypoglossal N
(XII)
SCALENUS ANTERIOR

Origin Action

 
Ant tubercles of Accessory to
transverse inspiration. Lat
processes of C3-6 flexion of neck when
1st rib fixed

                            
Insertion Nerve
Scalene tubercle on Ant primary rami of
sup aspect of 1st C5, 6
rib
SCALENUS MEDIUS

Origin Action

 
Post tubercles of Accessory to
transverse processes inspiration
of C2-7

                            
Insertion Nerve
Sup aspect of neck of Ant primary rami
1st rib of C3-8
SCALENUS POSTERIOR

Origin Action

 
Post tubercles of Accessory to
transverse inspiration
processes C4-6

                            
Insertion Nerve
Ant primary rami of C6-8
Post/lat surface of
2nd rib