Chapter 3


Skeletal muscle: to move the skeleton Cardiac muscle: to form the heart Smooth muscle: to constitute viscera

Over 600 muscles in the body; Muscles are grouped by location: muscles of head; muscles of neck; muscles of thorax; muscles of Abdomen; muscles of upper limb; muscles of lower limb; ( muscles of pelvis and perineum ) Naming the skeletal muscles by sereral criteria: 1. location (brachialis); 2. shape (trapezius); 3. relative size of the muscle; 4. direction of the muscle fibers (rectus,oblique); 5. location of attachments(brachioradialis); 6. number of origins (biceps); 7. action (flexor,extensor)

Morphology of skeletal muscle
Belly: the fleshy part of a muscle Tendon: the bundles consisting of connective tissue blending with strong collagen Different patterns of arrangement of the fascicles in muscles 1. Parallel arrangement: the long axes of the fascicles run parallel to the long axes of the muscle itself 2. Pennate pattern: feather-like muscle including unipennate, bipennate and multipennate arrangemengs 3. Convergent pattern: with a broad origin the fascicles converge toward a tendon 4. Circular pattern: arranged in concentric rings rectus flate orbicular digastric Biceps unipennate bipennate multipennate

Origin, insertion and action of the muscles
Origin: a fixed (less movable) attachment of a muscle Insertion: a movable attachment of a muscle The origin lies proximal to the insertion in the muscles of limbs Agonists ( prime movers ): the main muscles which contract to produce desired movement Antagonist: the muscles which act to oppose the action of agonist Synergists: the muscles which cooperate in performing an action Fixators: the muscles which steady the proximal parts of a limb while movements occur in distal parts triceps

Fascia and tendinous sheath

Superficial fascia

1) Superficial fascia: lies under skin and covers the entire body containing a lot of fat / increase mobility of skin; thermal insulation; a store of energy / contain cutaneous nerve, blood vessels and skin muscles 2) Deep fascia: dense and inelastic membrane of collagenous fibers Deep fascia Intermuscular septa Visceral layer Parietal layer Fibrous sheath mesotendon

Tendinous sheath
Consist of synovial sheath and fibrous sheath; exist only in hand and foot Synovial sheath 1. visceral layer 2. parietal layer / mesotendon: conjunctive structure between visceral and parietal layer Fibrous sheath outmost layer consisting of fibrous tissue


Section 3

Muscles of Head and Neck

Muscles of the head 1. Craniofacial muscles: epicranius ( occipitofrontalis ) frontal belly + epicranial aponeurosis + occipital belly, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris 2. Masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid


Origin Near midline on ant surface of maxilla and mandible and modiolus at angle of mouth

Insertion Mucous membrane of margin of lips and raphe with buccinator at modiolus


Action Narrows orifice of mouth, purses lips and puckers lip edges

Nerve Accessory parts are incisivus labii superioris and inferioris

Origin Med orbital margin and lacrimal sac(orbital, palpebral and lacrimal parts)

Insertion Lat palpebral raphe


Action Closes eyelids , aids passage and drainage of tears


Nerve Temporal and zygomatic brs of facial N (VII)

Origin Ant two thirds of zygomatic arch and zygomatic proces of maxilla Action Elevates mandible (enables forced closure of mouth)

Insertion Lat surface of angle and lower ramus of mandible



Nerve Ant div of mandibular N (Vc)

Origin Temporal fossa between inf temporal line and infratemporal crest Action Elevates mandible and post fibres retract

Insertion Med and ant aspect of coronoid process of mandible


Nerve Deep temporal brs from ant div of mandibular N (Vc)


Origin Deep head. Med side of lat pterygoid plate and fossa between med and lat plates Superficial head : Tuberosity of maxilla and pyramidal process of palatine bone Insertion Med aspect of angle of mandible


Action Elevates, protracts and lat displaces mandible to opposite side for chewing

Nerve N to medial pterygoid (main trunk of mandibular N (Vc))


Origin Upper head: infratemporal surface of sphenoid bone. Lower head: lat surface of lat pterygoid plate Insertion Pterygoid fovea below condyloid process of mandible and intraarticular cartilage of temporomandibular jnt



Action Depresses and protracts mandible to open mouth. Pulls forward cartilage of jnt during opening of mouth Nerve Ns to lat pterygoid (ant div of mandibular N (Vc))

Muscles of the neck 1. Superficial group: platysma, sternocleidomastoid 2. Superhyoid muscles: digastric, mylohyoid, 3. Infrahyoid muscles: sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
4. Deep cervical muscles: scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, scalenus posterior


Origin Skin over lower neck and upper lat chest

Insertion Inf border of mandible and skin over lower face and angle of mouth


Action Depresses and wrinkles skin of lower face and mouth. Aids forced depression of mandible                           Nerve Cervical br of facial N (VII)


Origin Ant and sup manubrium and sup med third of clavicle
Insertion Lat aspect of mastoid process and ant half of sup nuchal line


Action Flexes and lat rotates cervical spine. Protracts head when acting together . Extends neck when neck already partially extended


Nerve Spinal accessory N (lat roots C1-5)

DIGASTRIC Origin Ant belly: digastric fossa on post surface of symphysis menti. Post belly : base of med aspect of mastoid process

Insertion Firbrous loop to lesser cornu of hyoid bone


Action Elevates hyoid bone: Aids swallowing and depresses mandible


Nerve Ant belly: mylohyoid N (Vc). Post belly: facial N (VII)


Origin Mylohyoid line on int aspect of mandible

Insertion Ant three quarters : midline raphe. Post quarter: sup border of body of hyoid bone


Action Elevates hyoid bone, supports and raises floor of mouth . Aids in mastication and swallowing


Nerve Mylohyoid N (Vc)


Origin Base of styloid process

Insertion Base of greater cornu of hyoid bone


Action Elevates and retracts hyoid bone. Aids swallowing and elevates larynx


Nerve Mandibular br of facial N (VII)


Origin Inf mental spine on post surface of symphysis menti

Insertion Sup border of body of hyoid bone


Action Elevates and protracts hyoid bone. Depresses mandible                                     Nerve C1 fibres carried by hypoglossal N (XII)


Origin Sup lat post aspect of manubrium

Insertion Inf border of body of hyoid bone


Action Depresses hyoid bone and hence larynx


Nerve Ansa cervicalis N (C1, 2, 3)

Origin Suprascapular lig and adjacent scapula

Insertion Inf border of body of hyoid bone


Action Depresses hyoid bone and hence larynx

Nerve Ansa cervicalis N (C1,2,3)


Origin Med post aspect of manubrium

Insertion Oblique line of lamina of thyroid cartilage


Action Depresses larynx

                                   Nerve Ansa cervicalis N (C1, 2, 3)


Origin Oblique line of lamina of thyroid cartilage

Insertion Inf border of body of hyoid bone


Action Elevates larynx or depresses hyoid bone

                                   Nerve C1 fibres carried by hypoglossal N (XII)

Origin Ant tubercles of transverse processes of C3-6 Action Accessory to inspiration. Lat flexion of neck when 1st rib fixed                              Nerve Ant primary rami of C5, 6

Insertion Scalene tubercle on sup aspect of 1st rib



Origin Post tubercles of transverse processes of C2-7

Insertion Sup aspect of neck of 1st rib


Action Accessory to inspiration

                             Nerve Ant primary rami of C3-8

Origin Post tubercles of transverse processes C4-6

Insertion Post/lat surface of 2nd rib


Action Accessory to inspiration

Ant primary rami of C6-8

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