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Department of Anatomy 武汉大学医学院人体解剖学教研室

Wuhan University School of Medicine

Angiology
(Circulatory system)

Cardiovascular system
Lymphatic system
Instructor : Zongwen Tian( 田 )
Cardiovascular system:
Heart
Vessels
Lymphatic system:
Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic tissues
Lymphatic organs
Functions:
Material transportation
Homoiostasis
Immunologic function
Endocrine function
Cardiovascular System
Section 1 General Description
I. Organization

1.Heart:
2.Arteries
3.Capillaries
4.Veins
continual , closed, tubular
system , filled with blood
Cardiovascular System
Section 1 General Description
I. Organization
1.Heart:
muscular pump
endocrine organ Aorta
Pulmonary A.
2.Arteries Atria

3.Capillaries
4.Veins
Ventricles
Aorta
Cardiovascular System Atria
Pulmonary A.

Section 1 General Description
I. Organization Ventricles

1.Heart: Right atrium
Right ventricle
muscular pump Left atrium
endocrine organ Left ventricle
2.Arteries
3.Capillaries
4.Veins
Cardiovascular System
Section 1 General Description
I. Organization
1.Heart
2.Arteries :
carry blood away from
the ventricles
larg A.-elastic A.
medium A.-muscular A.
small A.-arterioles
3.Capillaries :
4.Veins
Cardiovascular System
Section 1 General Description
I. Organization
1.Heart
2.Arteries :
3.Capillaries
material exchange
4.Veins
Cardiovascular System
Section 1 General Description
I. Organization
1.Heart
2.Arteries
3.Capillaries
4.Veins:
return blood from the
tissues to the atria
venule
medium vein
large vein
II. Blood circulation
Heart Artery Capilary
Vein Heart

Pulmonary circulation
Gaseous( O 2 、 CO2) exchange

Systemic circulation
Material exchange
Systemic circulation
Tissues or cells
nutriment
Vena cava
metabolite
体 Aorta and O2 CO2
Coronary
循 branches Capillaries of body sinus

Left V. Right A.

Left A. Right V.
肺 Capillaries of
Pulmonary trunk
循 Pulmonary alveolus and branches

环 vein
O2 CO2
Pulmonary circulation
Alveolus
Ⅲ. Vascular Anastomoses
arterial arch
1.Arterial Anastomoses
2.Venous Anastomoses
3.Arteriovenous
Anastomoses
arterial circle arterial network
4.Collateral Anastomoses
Collateral circulation Arterial Anastomoses

trunk trunk
collaterals

Arteriovenous Anastomoses
Collateral Anastomoses
Section 2 Heart
I.Position and Shape of Heart
1. Position :
•Enclosed in the pericardium
•Occupies obliquely the middle
mediastinum
•Two-thirds to the left of the midline
One–third on the right,
2. Shape : inverse cone, an apex\a base\two surfaces \
three borders\four grooves
The cardiac apex:
faces\formed\located\heartbeat
The cardiac base: faces\formed
Two surfaces:
the sternocostal surface(the anterior surface)
the diaphragmatic surface(the inferior surface)

9cm
Three borders
Four grooves:
coronary sulcus(atrioventricular groove)
anterior interventricular groove
posterior interventricular groove
interatrial groove
atrioventricular crux : the point of junction of the coronary
、 interatrial and posterior interventricular grooves

cardiac apical incisure
II.Chambers of Heart
1. Right Atrium
terminal groove
terminal crest
atrium proper

pectinate muscles
right atrioventricular orifice
right auricle

sinus venarum cavarum
II.Chambers of Heart
1. Right Atrium aorta
terminal groove SVC
terminal crest right auricle Pulmonary
atrium proper trunk

pectinate muscles
right atrioventricular orifice
right auricle

sinus venarum cavarum IVC
Sinus venarum cavarum
three inlets, one fossa and
one triangle

•Three inlets :
orifice of superior vena cava
orifice of inferior vena cava:
valve of inferior vena cava directs the
blood into the left atrium during fetus

orifice of coronary sinus:
valve of coronary sinus

•Oval fossa 卵圆窝
•Triangle of Koch
Oval fossa :
•A remnant of the
oval foramen
•Lies in the center of the
interatrial septum
•Atrial septal defect
•A ideal position of the
cardiac catheter puncture
•Important mark of
intracardiac exploration
Triangle of Koch
Position : inclosed by
•the attachment of the septal leaflet
of the tricuspid valve
•the anteromedial margin of the
orifice of coronary sinus
•tendon of Todaro
Significance :
•atrioventricular node
•important mark of open heart
operation
2.Right ventricle
Supraventricular crest

Supraventricular crest
Sinous part
Infundibular part
(1)Sinous part
trabeculae carneae :
septomarginal trabecula
•Prevent overdistension of the
ventricle (moderator band)

moderator band
•Right bundle branch passes
through it, should prevent the
damage of it in operation of
heart to avoid the conduction
block

Tricuspid complex
Tricuspid complex septal leaflet
tricuspid annulus

 tricuspid annulus posterior leaflet
 tricuspid valve:
anterior leaflet
anterior leaflet posterior
septal leaflet papillary

posterior leaflet anterior
papillary
 chordae tendineae
 papillary muscles
(anterior, posterior and septal papillary M.)

Commissure:
Anteroseptal
posteroseptal
anteroposterior
(2)Infundibular part
conus arteriosus (outflow tract)
orifice of pulmonary trunk
annulus of pulmonary trunk
pulmonary valve
anterior ,left and right semilunar valves
nodule of semilunar valve
pulmonary sinus
Aorta
Pulmonary A.
Atria

Ventricles
3. Left atrium
•left auricle : pectinate
muscles
•four pulmonary veins
•left atrioventricular orifice
4. Left ventricle
anterior mitral valve
trabeculae carneae
Sinous
part
mitral complex

Aortic vestibule
Mitral complex
 mitral annulus
 mitral valve :
anterior leaflet
posterior leaflet
 chordae tendineae
 papillary muscles
(anterior, and posterior papillary M.)
Aortic vestibule

aortic orifice
annulus of aortic valve
aortic valve
right ,left and posterior
semilunar valve
nodule of semilunar valve
aortic sinus
Ⅲ.Structures of heart
1.fibrous cardiac skeleton
Four annuli:
tricuspid annulus
mitral annulus
annulus of pulmonary trunk

pulmonary valve

aortic sinus
annulus of aortic valve

Two trigones:
right fibrous trigone
(central fibrous body )

tricuspid valve
left fibrous trigone
mitral valve
2.Layers of the cardiac wall
epicardium

Oval fossa
myocardium
endocardium

3.Septums
interatrial septum
interventricular septum:

membranous part muscular part
muscular part
membranous part
mitral valve
atrioventricular part
interventricular part papillary muscles
Ⅳ.Conduction system of heart
Highly specialized conducting fibers SVC

Sinuatrial node:
•the pacemaker of the heart
•located just deep to the epicardium at the
juction the SVC and righ atrium
Internodal tracts remains controversial
Atrioventricular node
•situated in the triangle of Koch ,deep to the
endocardium

A.V.bundle(His bundle)
Bundle branches
Purkinje fibers
Ⅴ.Vessles of heart
1.Coronary arteries
•Right coronary artery
posterior interventricular branch
posterior branch of the left ventricle
•Left coronary artery
anterior interventricular branch
circumflex branch
•Artery to the sinuatrial node
60% from the right coronary artery
40% from the circumflex branch
•Artery to the atrioventricular node
90% from the right coronary artery
10% from the circumflex branch
Ⅴ.Vessles of heart
1.Coronary arteries
•Right coronary artery
posterior interventricular branch
posterior branch of the left ventricle
•Left coronary artery
anterior interventricular branch
circumflex branch
•Artery to the sinuatrial node
60% from the right coronary artery
40% from the circumflex branch
•Artery to the atrioventricular node
90% from the right coronary artery
10% from the circumflex branch
Aortic arch Left coronary a.
Circumflex branch
Ascending aorta
Anterior
Right coronary a. interventricular
branch

Arterial cast of heart ( anterior view )
The partial or complete blockage
of coronary circulation will cause
the myocardial infarction---
cardiac cells will die from lack of
oxygen.

angiography
balloon angioplasty

stent
Coronary artery bypass graft
internal thoracic artery

Artery Bypass
2.Cardiac veins
Great cardiac V.
Coronary sinus Middle cardiac V.
Small cardiac V.
Anterior cardiac veins

Smallest cardiac veins
Ⅵ. Pericardium
1.Composition:

fibrous pericardium
pericardium parietal layer pericardial cavity
serous pericardium visceral layer epicardium
2. The sinuses of pericardium

transverse sinus
oblique sinus:
Here the pericardial pus often
accumulates

anteroinferior sinus :
The excessive
pericardial fluid
accumulated in the sinus in
pericarditis, it is the site for
pericardiocentesis
transverse sinus : lies between the ascending aorta and
pulmonary trunk anteriorly, and superior vena cava and left atrium posteriorly. The
ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk can be clamped by the sinus to block the
blood stream temporarily in open heart operation .