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Highlights of the systemic anatomy

Highlights of the introduction and skeleton
Important concepts
Variation, Epiphyseal plate, Epiphyseal line
Important contents
1.Structure of bones
2.Chemical components and physical properties of bones

Highlights of the introduction of joints
Important concepts
Important contents
1. Essential and accessory structures of synovial joints
2. Movement types of synovial joints
3. Types of synovial joints

Highlight of the skull
Important concepts
Pterion, Pterygopalatine fossa, Frontal fontanelle
Important contents
1. Important paths or marks (sulcuses, fissures, foramina, and canals) for nerves
and vessels in the cranial base
2. Anatomy of the orbits, bony nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
3. Features of the infant skull

Highlights of the bones of trunk and their Joins
Important Concepts
sacral promontory, Intervertebral disc, sacral cornua, costal arch, sternal angle
Important Contents
1. Main characterstics of vertebrae in each regions
2. Joints of vertebral bodies
3. Joints of vertebral arches
4. Vertebral column as a whole and its movements
5. The structure of thoracic cage

Highlights of the joints of upperlimb
Important Contents
1. the structure of the shoulder joint
2. the structure of the elbow joint

Highlights of the joints of lowerlimb
Important Contents
1. The structures of the hip joint, knee joint, ankle joint
2. Concept: terminal line

Highlights of the introduction of the muscle, the muscle of the trunk, face, neck
Important Contents
1. Describe the general shape of muscles and the functions of agonists,
antagonists, synergists, and fixators;
2. List the criteria used in naming muscles;
3. Define the origin and insertion ;
4. Describe the formation of the tendinous sheath;
5. Name and identify the muscles of the back, muscles of the thorax, diaphragm,
muscles of the abdomen, the muscles of mastication, infrahyoid muscles, deep
muscles of the neck;
6. Define the rectus sheath and the inguinal canal

Highlights for the muscle of upperlimb
Important Contents
1. Musculotendinous cuff
2. Please remember the groups of upper limb muscles, and comprehend the
actions of each group.
3.Please remember the origins, insertions and actions of deltoid, biceps brachii,
and triceps brachii muscles.

Highlights for the muscle of the lower limb
Important Contents
1. gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis;
2. Sartorius, quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis
and vastus intermedius), biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus;
3. triceps surae (gastrocnemius and soleus)

Highlights of the alimentary system
lImportant consepts
Isthmus of fauces, Tonsilar ring, ileocecal valve, Mcburne’s point, Houston’s
valve, anorectal line, pectinate line, Porta hepatic, hepatic pedicle, ampulla of vater,
major duodenal papilla
Important contents
1. reference lines of the thorax, regions of the abdomen
2. composition of the alimentary system
3. types, features, dentition and dental formula of the teeth
4. position, division and features of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
5. division of the small intestine
6. division and features of the large intestine, features of the rectum and anal
7. composition of the extrahepatic bile ducts

Highlights for the respiratory system
Important concepts
Upper respiratory tract / Lower respiratory tract /Costomediastinal recess /
Mediastinum / Pleural cavity/ Paranasal sinus/ Carina of trachea / Bronchial tree
/Bronchopulmonary segments / Hilum of lung / Root of lung / Pulmonary ligament /
Vocal folds
Important contents
1. Positions and openings of paranasal sinuses
2. Divisions of laryngeal cavity
3. Features of left and right principal bronchi
4. External features of lung
5. Divisions of parietal pleura

Highlights for urinary system and male genital system
Important concepts
Renal hilum; renal pedicle; renal sinus; renal column; trigone of bladder;
interureteric fold; spermatic cord; urethral crest
Important contents
1. The three layers of coverings of each kidney
2. The three parts of each ureter;
3. The three narrowed place of each ureter
4. The empty urinary bladder consists of four portions
5. The composing of internal and external genital organs
6. The three parts of epididymis;
7. The four parts of ductus deferens
8. Three parts of prostate
9. Three parts of penis
10. The three cavernous bodies of penis
11. Three parts of male urethra
12. The two curves, three constrictions and three dilated places of male urethra

Highlights for the joints of the female genital system and peritoneum
Important concepts
posterior fornix of vagina, suspensory lig. of the mamma, parietal peritoneum,
visceral peritoneum, peritoneal cavity, omental foramen, omental bursa.
Important contents
1. the components of the female internal genital organs
2. the ligaments of the ovary
3. the division of the uterine tube and clinical application of each part
4. the division, posture and ligaments of the uterus
5. the structures formed by the peritoneum

Highlights for the heart and artery
1. Organization of Cardiovascular System
2. Concept of blood circulation (Pulmonary and Systemic circulation)
3. Position and Shape of Heart
4. Chambers of Heart:
5. Structures of right atrium (Three inlets\Oval fossa\Triangle of Koch)
6. Structures of right ventricle (trabeculae carneae-septomarginal trabecula 、
Tricuspid complex )
7. Structures of left ventricle (Mitral complex \aortic sinus)
4. Fibrous cardiac skeleton (Four annuli\Two trigones)
5. Septums (interatrial and interventricular septum:muscular part\membranous
6. Components of cardiac conduction system
7. Main branches and distributions of coronary arteries
8. Composition and Sinuses of Pericardium
1. Concept of artery and arterial ligament
2. Subsection of Aorta
3. Aortic arch and its branches
4. Concept and function of Carotid sinus (Pressure receptor) and Carotid body
(Chemical receptor)
5. External carotid artery and its branches
6. Subclavian artery and its branches(vertebral and inferior thyroid a.)
7. Aterial trunk of upper lombs:axillary artery 、brachial artery 、radial artery
、ulnar artery;
8. Composition of superficial palmar arch and deep palmar arch
9. Arteries of thoracic wall (Internal thoracic artery and Posterior intercostal
10. The unpaired visceral branches(Celiac trunk,Superior mesenteric
artery,Inferior mesenteric artery ), its branches and distribution
11. Internal iliac artery and main branches(uterine artery, obturator artery and
internal pudendal artery)
12. Aterial trunk of lower lombs : femoral a. , popliteal a. , anterior tibial a. ,
posterior tibial a.

Highlights for the vein
Important concept
1. Dangerous triangle of the face
2. Venous angle
Important contents
1. Routs that facial vein communicates with cavernous sinus
2. Superficial veins in upper and lower limbs
3. Names of deep veins that accompany no artery
4. Main tributaries of hepatic portal vein
5. locations that hepatic portal venous system communicates with vena caval

Highlights for the lymphatic system
Important concepts
Regional lymph nodes, Cisterna chili, Thoracic duct
Important contents
1. What are five groups of axillary lymph nodes?
2. What are nine major lymphatic trunks?
3. What are two great terminal lymphatic vessels?

Highlights for the visual organ
Important Concept
Proprioceptor; Conjunctival sac ; Scleral venous sinus. Limbus corneae; Optic
disc; Macula lutea; Central fovea
Important Contents
1. The layers of the eyeball wall and their features
2. Refractive media of the eye
3. Aqueous humor circulation and its physiological importance.
4. The origins, insertions and functions of the ocular muscles.

Highlights for the vestibulocochlear organ
Important Concepts
Cone of light Ossicular chain Oval window Round window
Important Contents
1. The walls of the tympanic cavity.
2. The features of the auditory tube in child & the clinical importance
3. Pathways of sound conduction

Practicals for the skull
Part 1. individual cranial bones
1. Recognize positions of all individual bones on skull (using the colored skull)
2. Observe structures of separated frontal bone, occipital bone, temporal bone,
maxillary bone & mandible; the structures of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones can be
observed on the models or skull (showed by teachers)
Part 2. Views of skull
1. Observe structures in each aspects of the skull, especially in internal &
external aspects of the cranial base (note the relationship between the
foramen lacerum and the carotid canal)
2. Observe the temporomandibular joit
3. Observe the structures of the orbits & bony nasal cavity (some structures
of the nasal cavity may be broken)
4. Pterygopalatine fossa (showed by teachers)
5. Observe fontanelles of infant skull

Practicals for the lower limb muscles
1. Iliopsoas, tensor fascia lata, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus
minimus, piriformis;
2. Sartorius, quadriceps femoris, pectineus, adductor longus , gracilis, adductor
brevis, adductor magnus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus;
3. Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus,
peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, triceps surae (gastrocnemius and soleus),
flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus