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About the function of the nervous system

1.The reaction of fighting for food
2.The reaction of flight from enemy
3.The reaction of pursuit of mating

The nervous system is the master controlling system of
the body.
It has three main functions: 1) It monitors changes
occurring both inside and outside the body by means of
millions of receptors; 2) It processes and interprets the
sensory input and makes decisions about what should be
done – integration; 3) It dictates a response to activate the
effector organs by means of motor output.

Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Neuropathology
Neurophamocology Neurobiology Neuroscience
Nervous system 神经系统

Part 6 Introduction
Major divisions of the nervous system:
Central nervous system CNS 中枢神经系统
consisting of brain and spinal cord, is the
integrating and command center of the nervous

Peripheral nervous system PNS 周围神经
consisting of cranial and spinal nerves
extending from brain and spinal cord, serves as
communication lines linking all regions of the
body to CNS
Sensory (afferent )part and motor
(efferent )part of nervous system

Somatic nerves 躯体神经
Visceral nerves 内脏神经
Visceral nerves 内脏神经

Autonomic nervous system ANS
is the system of motor neurons that
innervate the smooth muscle, cardiac
muscle and glands, which consisting of
two parts:
Sympathatic nerve 交感神经
Parasympathatic nerve 副交感神经
Both divisions innervate the same
visceral organs but cause opposite

The visceral nerves also contain sensory
part which monitor tretch, temerature,
chemical changs, and irritation within the
visceral organs
Born in Corteno (Brescia), Italy, Golgi received his
education at PAVIA (Italy) and then became assistant
to the great Cesar Lombroso at the Institute di
Patologia Generale. His work on pellagra early and
psammomas later brought him great recognition but
the development of the Golgi method to stain
neuroglia achieved for him permanent fame. His
studies on gliomas were monumental. Together with
Santiago Ramon of Cajal (1852-1934) when he even
denunciated, they jointly received the Nobel Prize
in 1906.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
Chapter 1 Gereral Description
Neuron nerve cell
The basic functional unit of the nervous system;
a highly specialized cell
Cell body (soma):
Nissl bodies (chromophil substance)
Dendrite: dendritic spines
Axon: synaptic terminals
Nissl body: the material
consisting of granular
endoplasmic reticulum and
ribosomes that occurs in nerve
cell bodies and dendrites.

Neurofibril: a
filamentous structure
seen with the light
microscope in the nerve
cell's body, dendrites,
axon, and sometimes
synaptic endings,
Classification of neurons
1.Unipolar, bipolar and multipolar
2.Sensory neurons, interneurons and
3.Golgi typeⅠandⅡ, Amacrine
4.Monoaminergic, cholinergic and
peptidergic neurons
Neuroglial cell (Neuroglia)
Supporting cells that interact with neurons and regulate the
extracellular environment, provide defense against pathogens
and perform repairs within neural tissue




Ependymal cell
Grey matter: neural tissue dominated
by neurons’ soma and dendrites
Cortex: a layer of grey matter at the
surface of the brain, cerebrum and
Nucleus: a group of nerve cell bodies
in the brain or spinal cord that can
be demarcated from neighboring groups
on the basis of differences in cell
White matter: neural tissue dominated
by myelinated axons
Medullary substance: consisting
of the lipid material present in
the myelin sheath of nerve fibers,
lies deep to the cortex in
cerebrum and cerebellum
Tract (fasciculus): a bundle of axons
within CNS that share a common origin,
destination and function

Ganglion: a distinct collection of sensory or
postganglionic cell bodies within PNS

Nerve fiber: the axon of a nerve cell,
ensheathed by oligodendroglia cells in brain and
spinal cord, and by Schwann cells in peripheral

Nerve: a bundle of axons in PNS
Chapter 2 Central Nervous system

Section 1 spinal cord 脊髓
Ⅰ. external Features:
cervical enlargement 颈膨大
Lumbosacral enlargment 腰骶膨大

2.external longitudinal fissures and
anterior median fissure 前正中裂
posterior mediansulcus 后正中沟
anterolateral sulcus 前外侧沟
posterolateral sulcus 后外侧沟

Conus medullaris 脊髓圆锥
Filum terminale 终丝
3.Segments of the spinal cord
The short part of spinal cord associated with a pair of spinal nerves is
called a segment of spinal cord; A segment correspond to the dorsal
and ventral roots of a pair of spinal nerves
31 segments of spinal cord:
8 cervical segments
12 thoracic segments
5 lumbar segments
5 sacral segments
1 coccygeal segemnts
4.Location of spinal cord in relation to vertebral
1) In the third month of fetal life, the cord is as long as the
vertebral canal;
2) At birth, the cord ends at the level of the 3th lumbar vertebra;
3) In the adult, the cord ends at the level of the lower border of 1st
lumbar vertebral body;

Corresponding position of cord to vertebral bodies
segments of cord vertebral bodies
C1-4 C1-4
C5-T4 C4-T3
T5-8 T3-6
T9-12 T6-9
L1-5 T10-12
S1-4,Co1 L1
Ⅱ.Internal structure of the spinal
gray matter 灰质

anterior horn 前角 posterior horn 后角
lateral horn 侧角 intermediate zone 中间带
anterior gray commissure 灰质前连合
Posterior gray commissure 灰质后连合

white matter 白质

anterior funiculus 前索
posterior funiculus 后索
lateral funiculus 外侧索
anterior white commissure 白质前连合
reticular formation 网状结构

central canal 中央管
Relationship between the grey matter and the spinal nerve: 1)posterior
horn links with sensory fibers; 2)anterior horn links with somatic
motor fibers; 3)lateral horn links with sympathetic motor fibers
The nuclei located in grey matter Posteromarginal nucleus

Substantia gelatinosa
Posteromarginal N. 后角边缘核 receive incoming
fibers of dorsal root
Substantia gelatinosa 胶状质
receive fibers of pain and
Nucleus proprius
temperature sensation
Nucleus proprius 后角固有核
receive all sensory Thoracic nucleus
Thoracic nucleus 胸核 give
fibers to dorsal
spinocerebellar tract in
segments T1-L3
Motoneurons of anterior horn
αmotoneuron innervate
Medial motor neurons
skeletal muscles Lateral motor neurons
γmotoneuron innervate
Medial motor neuron axial muscles
intrafusal muscle
Lateral motor neuron distal muscles of arm
and leg
Lamina of Rexed a division of the gray matter of the spinal cord into nine
laminae (I–IX) and a gray area around the central canal (area X) based on
cytoarchitectural features; the dorsal (posterior) horn is composed of laminae I–
VI, the intermediate zone of lamina VII, and the ventral horn of laminae VIII and

General correlation of laminae with some of the major nuclei:
I : posteromarginal
nucleus; II :
gelatinosa; III and
IV : nucleus
proprius; V and VI :
sometimes described
as containing the
spinal reticular
formation; VII :
Clarke nucleus
(thoracic nucleus),
cell column; VIII :
commissural nuclei,
interneurons; IX :
motor nuclei of
ventral horn.
All fibers in the cord are assigned
to 5 groups: 1)affenrent fibers
2)efferent fibers 3)intersegmental
fibers 4)long ascending fibers
conducting afferent impulses to
supraspinal levels 5)long descending
fibers from supraspinal souces to
synapse with spinal neurons

Fibers of the type 4 and 5 form
longitudinal bundles with more
or less distinct demarcation;
Fiber bundles having the same
origin, course and termination
are known as tracts or
fasciculi occupying particular
Organization of the dorsal root and its relationship with the main
ascending tracts: 1)lateral division convey impulses related to pain,
thermal and light touch sense, pain and thermal fibers enter lateral
spinothalamic tract, light touch fibers enter anterior spinothalamic tract;
2)medial division convey sensation of fine touch, movement and
proprioception, which enter posterior funiculus to form gracile and cuneate
Fasciculus gracilis FG 薄束
Dorsal column system
fasciculus cuneatus FC 楔束

Position: within the posterior funiculus /
FG in most medial part; FC lateral to FG;
arising from the thick and large fibers of
the medial part of dorsal root and ending in
the gracile and cuneate nuclei in the medulla
Function: convey sensation of fine touch,
vibration, two-point discrimination,
proprioception and position sense
FG conducts input from the lower half of
the body; FC transmits input from the upper
half of the body. Thoracic 4 is the
demarcation for FG and FC
Somatotopic organization: Fibers
are arranged in an orderly fashion
from medial to lateral in relation
to the regions of the body from
down up

Fasciculus gracilis and
Spinothalamic tract STT 脊髓丘脑束

Position: anterior STT in the anterior
funiculus fuses laterally with lateral STT in
the lateral funiculus;

Function: 1) anterior STT convey impulses of
light touch and pressure sensations ; 2)
lateral STT conducts pain and temperature
Some anatomical details: 1) all the fibers
come from the lateral part of the dorsal root;
2) all primary fibers relay in laminae Ⅰ and
Ⅵ-Ⅷ; 3) majority of fibers cross the median
line in anterior white commissure to
contralateral tract; 4) decussation
is completed in the segment above
the entrance of the dorsal root
Somatotopic organization: fibers from
lower part of body is sited in lateral
part of the tract;fibers from upper
part in medial part
Spinothalamic tract
Spinocerebellar tracts SCT 脊髓小脑

Posterior SCT: originates from the
ipsilateral dorsal nucleus / ascends
in lateral funiculus / transmits
subconscious proprioceptive impulse
via inferior cerebellar peduncle
Anterior SCT: originates from
neurons spreading in the
intermediate zone / lies anterior
to pSCT / relay internal feedback
signals to cerebellum via
superior cerebellar peduncle

Spinocerebellar tracts
Corticospinal tract CST 皮质脊髓束
descending projection pathway for controlling
voluntary movements / arise mainly from
precentral motor cortex and premotor area /
majority of fibers cross over to form lateral
CST and uncrossed fibers form anterior CST
Lateral CST: ends primarily in lateral portion
of the intermediate zone and anterior horn of
the cervical and lumbosacral enlargment to
contral distal limb muscles / somatotopic
organization: fibers controlling the lowest
part of the body are most laterally placed
Anterior CST: descends in anterior funiculus
and extends only to the upper thoracic cord /
ends in the same area with lateral CST to
control axial and girdle muscles of the upper
part of the body bilaterally

Corticospinal tract
Rubrospinal tract: facilitates flexor
muscles and inhibits extensor ones
Vestibulospinal tract: excite motor
neurons of extensor muscles and inhibit
those of flexor muscles
Reticulospinal tract: control axial and
girdle muscles and regulate posture;
help control automatic movements
Medial longitudinal fasciculus: help
control head position
Tectospinal tract: coordinate head
movements with eye movements, maybe
cause turning in response to sudden
visual or auditory stimuli

Minor descending tracts