武汉大学

基础医学院解剖教研室

Muscles of Upper Limb

Wang Hao 汪 浩
Nov, 2006

Upper Limb Skeleton
• • • • • • Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius, ulna Carpals--proximal, distal Digits—metacarpals, phalanges

Muscles of scapula Muscles of upper arm Muscles of forearm Muscles of hand

act on the joint of shoulder

• • •

act on the joints of shoulder, elbow

act on the joints of elbow, wrist, digits

act on the joint of digits

Muscles of scapula
• There are six muscles in this group. They arise from the shoulder girdle, are attached close to the shoulder joint and inserted into the humerus. The functions are maintained under all static and dynamic conditions of the shoulder joint. This arrangement allows considerable freedom of movement in every direction while preserving the stability of this shallow joint.

Muscles of Scapula ◆ Deltoid 三角肌
Origin
Clavicle; acromion and spine of Scapula

Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity

Action
abducts arm; flex & medially rotate the arm; extend & laterally rotate the arm

Deltoid

anterior

posterior

◆Supraspinatus ◆ Infraspinatus ◆ Teres minor ◆ Teres major
冈上肌 小圆肌 大圆肌
Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major

冈下肌

greater tubercle

crest of lesser tubercle

Supraspinatus stabilizes shoulder joint and

abducts the shoulder joint.
Infraspinatus

stabilizes the shoulder joint and laterally rotates the shoulder joint laterally rotates and adducts the shoulder joint extends, adducts and medially rotates the shoulder joint

Teres minor

Teres major

◆ Subscapularis 肩胛下肌

Subscapularis

lesser tubercle

Subscapularis

medially rotates the humerus and stabilizes the shoulder joint

Musculotendinous cuff ( or Rotator Cuff ) 肌腱
袖 The anterior, superior, and posterior aspects of the capsule of the shoulder joint reinforced by the tendons of insertion of the subscapularis, supraspinatus and infraspinatus, teres minor muscles. The tendons of these blend into a musculotendinous sheath, called the rotator cuff. This cuff protects the shoulder joint and gives it stability by holding the head of humerus in the glenoid cavity, and limits the range of movement.

supraspinatus

infraspinatus

subscapularis teres minor

Lateral view

Muscles of upper arm
• There are four muscles in this group. They are divided into two groups, the anterior (flexor) group and the posterior (extensor) group. These two groups are separated by the medial and lateral intermuscular septa.

Muscles of Upper Arm
◆ Biceps Brachii
anterior (flexor) group 肱二头肌 Insertion Action
flexes the forearm and arm (long head), supinates
forearm

Origin
short head -
coracoid process

long head - supraglenoid tubercle

radial tuberosity

Biceps Brachii long head

Biceps Brachii
radial tuberosity

short head

◆ Coracobrachialis 喙肱肌 ◆ Brachialis 肱肌
coracoid process

Coracobrachialis Brachialis

Coracobrachialis

adducts and weakly flexes the arm synergistic to the biceps brachii muscle in flexing the formarm
ulnar tuberosity

Brachialis

posterior (extensor) group ◆ Triceps Brachii
肱三头肌 long head

lateral head

medial head

Origin
lateral head - humerus long head - infraglenoid tuberosity medial head - humerus

Insertion

olecranon process

extends the forearm; the long head extends and adducts arm

Muscles of forearm
• They consist of anterior and posterior groups. These muscles that cause wrist, hand and finger movements are positioned along the forearm. Most of these muscles perform four primary actions on the hand and digits: supination, pronation, flexion, and extension. Others actions of the hand include adduction and abduction. The precise actions of these muscles are complex, so they will be described briefly here.

anterior group

4 layers 9 muscles

Muscles
of Forearm 19s+Anconeus

flexors of wrist,hand and fingers pronators

extensor of wrist,hand and fingers supinators 2 layers 10 muscles Anconeus posterior group

anterior group
The first layer (1) Brachioradialis (2) Pronator teres (3) Flexor carpi radialis (4) Palmaris longus (5) Flexor carpi ulnaris Brachioradialis
flexs the elbow
Meidal epicondyle

Pronator teres Palmar Flexor carpi radialis aponeurosis Palmaris longus
flexes the wrist

Flexor carpi ulnaris

anterior group
The second layer

(6) flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor digitorum superficialis
muscle belly

II-V middle phalanges

anterior group
The third layer

(7) flexor pollicis longus (8) flexor digitorum profundus

flexor pollicis longus

flexor digitorum profundus

II-V base distal phalanges

anterior group
The fourth layer

(9) pronator quadratus pronator teres

pronator quadratus

posterior group
The superficial layer Brachioradialis (10) extensor carpi radialis longus (11) extensor carpi radialis brevis (12) extensor digitorum (13) extensor digiti minimi (14) extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor carpi radialis longus

Anconeus

Anconeus

extensor carpi radialis brevis

Extensor retinaculum

extensor digitorum extensor digiti minimi

extensor carpi ulnaris

posterior group
The deep layer

anconeus

(15) supinator (16) abductor pollicis longus (17) extensor pollicis brevis (18) extensor pollicis longus (19) extensor indicis supinator
abductor pollicis longus extensor pollicis brevis

extensor pollicis longus extensor indicis

Muscles of hand
• The hand is marvelously complex structure, adapted to permit an array of intricate movement. The muscles of the hand are divided in to thenar, hypothenar, and intermediate groups. The thenar eminence is the fleshy base of the thumb hand. The hypothenar eminence is the elongated, fleshy bulge at the base of the little finger. Muscles of the intermediate group are positioned between the metacarpal bones in the region of the palm.

Muscles of Hand
intermediate group

lumbricales palmar interossei dorsal interossei

abductor digiti minimi
flexor digiti minimi brevis

opponens digiti minimi

abductor pollicis brevis flexor pollicis brevis opponens pollicis adductor pollicis

hypothenar
Medial

thenar
Lateral

Highlights
Musculotendinous cuff Please remember the groups of upper limb muscles, and comprehend the actions of each group. Please remember the origins, insertions and actions of deltoid, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles.