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Yuan Yulin

●Conducting part:
Nose pharynx larynx
upper respiratory tract

trachea principal bronchi

lower respiratory tract
●Respiratory part:
left and right lungs
● External nose
● Nasal cavity
● Paranasal sinuses
Ⅰ.External nose

Root of nose
Back of nose
Apex of nose
Two alea nasi
Two nares
Ⅱ.Nasal cavity
1. Nasal vestibule:hairs of
nose, sweat and sebiferous

2. Proper nasal cavity:
Superior : cribriform plate
Inferior : palate
Medial : nasal septum plate choanae
Limen nasi
Anterior: limen nasi
Posterior : choanae
Lateral : nasal conchae and
Nasal mucous membrane:
olfactory region
respiratory region: little region:
Ⅲ. Paranasal sinus
Names Positions Openings

1.Frontal In the frontal Middle nasal
sinus bone meatus

2.Ethmoidal Within Superior ,mid- 2
sinus ethmoid dle and
bone possterior
nasal meatus 1

3.Maxillary In the Middle naso- 3

sinus bodies of nasal lacrimal
maxilla meatus canal

Within the Sphenoethm-
4.Sphenoidal body of the
oidal recesses
sinus sphenoid

●Laryngeal cartilages
● Laryngeal joints
● Laryngeal ligaments
● Laryngeal membranes
● Muscles of larynx
● Laryngeal cavities
Ⅰ.Laryngeal cartilages
1.Thyroid cartilage:
Laryngeal prominence
Superior thyroid notch
Superior cornu /Inferior cornu
2.Cricoid cartilage:
Laminae of cricoid cartilage
arch of cricoid cartilage

3.Arytenoid cartilages
Base :muscular process
vocal process

4. Epiglottic cartilage:
Ⅱ. The Laryngeal
membranes & ligaments

1. Thyrohyoid membrane :
between thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone

2. Conus elasticus :
vocal ligaments /vocal folds/fissure of glottis

3. Quadrangular membrane :
vestibular ligaments / vestibular folds/rima
Vocal muscle+vocal ligament+vocal fold
= vocal cord
Ⅲ. Laryngeal joints
1. Cricothyroid joint
It can be rotated around
the coronal axis,so that
the length and the
tenseness of the vocal
fold may be changed.

2. Cricoarytenoid joint
It allow the rotation of
arytenoid cartilage on
the lamina of cricoid
cartilage, so that
apposition and
abduction of vocal folds
can be occured
Ⅳ. Muscles of larynx

1.Posterior cricoarytenoid :
open glottis and tense vocal fold
2.Transverse arytenoid the
oblique arytenoid::close

3. Cricothyroid and the
posterior cricoarytenoid:
tense and lengthen the vocal fold

4. Thyroarytenoid: 4 1
relax and shorten the vocal fold
Ⅴ. Laryngeal cavity

1.Aperture of larynx Epigottis /Aryepigottic folds /
Interarytenoid notch
2.Two pairs of folds
① Vestibular folds
② Vocal folds

3.Two fissures
Vocal folds
Rima vestibuli ①

Fissure of glottis

4. Three parts
① Laryngeal vestibule ③
② Intermedial cavity of larynx: ventricle of larynx

③ Infraglottic cavity
Carina of trachea

Cricoid cartilage (superior)
bronchi (inperior)

Wall of trachea: of trachea

tracheal cartilages
smooth muscle
connective tiusse
Bifurcation of trachea
Carina of trachea

●The right principal bronchus
shorter ,wider and more vertical in position than left
●The left principal bronchus
longer,finer and less vertical in position than the right
● Structure
similar in structure to the trachea
●Bronchial tree

Bronchi →Lobar bronchi ·
→Segmental bronchi→
Bronchioles→Terminal bronchioles

Ⅰ. External Features
1.Apex of lung :Round and extends to
2-3 cm above the level of the medial
one-third of the clavicle
2.Base of lung (Diaphragmatic surface)
3. A costal surface
4. A medial surface (mediastinal
surface) :Hilum of lung and root
of lung 1

5. Anterior border:
①Cardiac notch of left lung 3
5 6
②lingula of left lung ①
6.Posterior border 4

7. Inferior border
7 2
Ⅱ. Lobes ﹠Segments of lungs
1.Two fissures:
oblique fissure
horizontal fissure
Left lung :
superior and inferior lobes
Right lung :
Superior, middle and
inferior lobes
Cupula of Pleura Mediastinal Pleura
Pleura Costal Pleura

The pleura is a thin, glistening,
slippery serous membrane.Some of
them lines the inner surface of the
thoracic wall(parietal pleura) and some
of them covers with the surfaces of
lungs and extends into the pulmonary
fissures(visceral pleura) Diaphragmatic Pleura
Ⅰ. Parietal Pleura (PP)
Costal Pleura/ Diaphragmatic
Pleura/Cupula of Pleura/Mediastinal Pleura
Ⅱ.Visceral Pleura (VP)
The pleura is reflected from the mediastinum to the surface of lung,
where it is called visceral pleura covering the lungs and extending
into the fissures of lung .Below the root of lung the mediastinal pleura
extends as a double layer to the mediastinal surface of lung.This
double layer is called the pulmonary ligament
Ⅲ. Pleural Cavity and ecesses
1.Pleural cavity (PC):Only a
potential and sealed space
between the parietal and ②
visceral pleurae / containing 1

little serous fluid in health/
separated from each other
by the mediastium/present a
negtive pressure.
2.Pleural recess: parts of
PC/ in deep breathing
inferior border of lung no 1
completely reaching
reflexion of PP with
inserting slit/containing
serous fluid, such as
recess(between costal and
diaphragmatic pleura) and
②costomediastinal recess.
Ⅳ. Projection of the Inferior Posterior median line

Margins of Lungs ﹠Pleurae
On the surface of the body, the projections
of the inferior margins of the lungs and
PP lines of reflection are shown in the
images. 1o

1.Surface projection of the inferior 12

margins of lung is located in the
Midclavicular line Midaxillary line
junctions of 6th rib and Midclavicular

line, 8th rib and midaxillary line, and 10th
thoracic spinal process and posterior median

2. Surface projection of PP ines of 6
reflection is located in the junctions of 8th
and midclavicular line, 10th rib and
midaxillary line, and 12th thoracic spinal 8
process and posterior median line.

● Difinition: It is generally
defined as the interval between
the right and left pleural sacs
● Boundaries:
sternum and costal cartilages(in
front) thoracic vertebrae (behind)
mediastinal pleura (on both sides )
thoracic inlet (above)
diaphragm (below)
● Division
Superior mediastinum
Inferier mediastinum:
anterior mediastinum
middle mediastinum
posterior mediastinum
superior mediastinum

anterior mediastinum

middle mediastinum

posterior mediastinum

inferior mediastinum
Important concepts
Upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract
Costomediastinal recess, mediastinum pleural cavity

Paranasal sinus, carina of trachea, bronchial tree
bronchopulmonary segments, hilum of lung, root of
lung, pulmonary
Important lingament, vocal folds
1. Positions and openings of paranasal sinuses
2. Divisions of laryngeal cavity
3. Features of left and right principal bronchi
4.External features of lung and lobes of lungs
5.Divisions of parietal pleura
What to observe in the practice ?
1.Nose: Limen nasi / superior, middle and inferior conchae
and corresponding the meatus / nasal septum /choanae /alae nasi /
paranasal sinuses
2. Larynx: thyroid cartilage- laryngeal prominence ,inferior
and superior cornu,superior thyroid notch / arytenoid cartilage–
apex and base (vocal process and muscular process) / epigottic
cartilage/ cricoid cartilage –lamina and arch/ laryngeal cavity-
aperture of larynx(epigottis, aryepiglottic folds, interarytenoid
notch)vocal folds, vestibular folds, ventricle of larynx
3.Lungs: apex of lung / base of lung / anterior ,posterior and
inferior borders/ costal surface / medial surface-pulmonary
ligament and hilum of lung, root of lung (pulmonary artery, vein,
4.Trachea and bronchi: posterior wall of trachea /
bifurcation of trachea/ carina of trachea / bronchial tree