You are on page 1of 26

Urinary System &

Male Genital System

Dezhi Wang
Department of Anatomy,
Medical School of Wuhan University
Manneken Pis, a small
bronze statue of a little boy
peeing, is one of Brussels
most famous landmarks.

Q: 1. Which organ produces urine?
2. To transport urine to the environment, how many organs serve as

Composing and
Kidney 肾
produce urine Ureter 输尿管 carry urine to the bladder
Urinary tract Urinary bladder 膀胱 stores urine
Urethra 尿道 carry urine to the
genital functions (male)
Other functions :
Regulating blood volume and blood
pressure by adjusting the volume of
water lost in urine…
Regulating ions in blood by controlling
the quantities lost in urine…
Helping to stabilize blood pH
Helping the liver to detoxify poisons
such as urea and uric acid…
Features of kidneys
bean-shaped, the size : 10cm x 5cm x 4cm
Two extremities:
Superior extremity (broader)
Inferior extremity (thicker)
Two surfaces:
Anterior surface (convex)
Posterior surface (plane)
Two borders:
Lateral border (convex)
Medial border (concave)

Renal hilum 肾门 a slit where vessels and
nerves ant.
enter and leave the kidney post.
Renal pedicle 肾蒂 the structures Main structures V A P
which sup. inf.
pass through the renal hilum A V P
and the connective tissue
Renal sinus 肾窦 an internal cavity within the kidney, containing
Coverings of kidney Maintaining the kidney’s shape
and forming a barrier from the
surrounding region
Three layers (from inside to outside)
Fibrous capsule: a layer of fibers that covers the outer surface of kidney closely

Adipose capsule: a thick layer of adipose tissue act as a soft cushion

Renal fascia: a dense, fibrous outer layer which enclose the kidneys and
suprarenal gland, can be divided into anterior and posterior layers

Fibers from the renal fascia cross
the adipose capsule to the fibrous
capsule to fix the kidney
Location of kidneys

The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall,
either side of the vertibral column.
The kidneys extend from the level of the 11th or 12th thoracic vertebra
superiorly to the third lumbar vertebra inferiorly.
The 12th ribs are behind the posterior surface of the kidneys
The right kidney Lies slightly inferior to the left kidney
of kidney

Renal cortex The superficial area
Renal column Inward extensions of the renal cortex
Renal medulla The deep darker area
of kidney


Renal papillae

Papillary foramina

Minor renal calices

Major renal calices

Renal pelvis

Becomes narrow Ureter 输尿管
Junction of ureter and the renal pelvis
Abdominal part
terminal part of left common iiliac
Three A. beginning of right external iiliac
parts Pelvic part A.
Junction of ureter and
the wall of bladder
Intramural part
Ureteric orifice
ureter Junction of ureter and
the renal pelvis The first narrowed place
Abdominal part
terminal part of left common iiliac The second
Three A. beginning of right external iiliac narrowed place
parts Pelvic part A.
Junction of ureter and
the wall of bladder
Intramural part
Ureteric orifice
Kidney stones tend to lodge in
the three narrowed places

A radiographic view of the urinary system
(Posterior view. Obtained by taking an
x-ray of the kidneys after a radiopaque
compound has been administered.)
location of urinary bladder
Empty bladder
Lies entirely within the pelvis
Posterior to the pubic symphysis
Anterior to the rectum (male)
or the vagina and uterus (female)
Full bladder
roughly spherical and expands
superiorly into the abdominal cavity
Features of empty bladder
Empty bladder has the shape of an upside-down pyramid with
four parts Apex, fundus, body and neck

four triangular surfaces and

four angles
Structure of urinary bladder

Trigone of bladder
A triangular smooth area at the base of the The trigone is of special
bladder between the openings of the two clinical importance because
ureters and that of the urethra infections and cancers tend
to persist in this region
Each year in the US, approximately 52,000

new cases of bladder cancer are
diagnosed, and millions of new cases in India
and China. The bladder cancer rate is highest
among cigarette smokers and employees of
chemical and rubber companies.
Interureteric fold
A fold of mucous membrane between the
ureteric orifices

It is the landmark to find the
ureteric orifices when the urinary
bladder is examined with
cystoscope in the living body
Extends from the neck of the urinary bladder to the exterior,
between internal and external urethral orifice.

Male urethra has three parts

Female urethra short and straight

Urinary tract infections occur in
about 40% of women.
Most urinary tract infections occur in
sexually active young women, because
intercourse drives bacteria from the
vagina and the external genital region
(and from the anus as well) through the
nearby opening---the short urethra and
toward the bladder. The infection of the
bladder, can spread superiorly to infect
the ureters and kidneys.
Urethral sphincter
Internal urethral sphincter: A thickening of the smooth muscle around the
internal urethral orifice

External urethral sphincter:
A circular band of skeletal
muscle in the urogenital
diaphragm, which can be
used voluntarily to inhibit
urination until the proper
Male genital organs
Internal genital organs
Gonad Testes 睾丸
Produce sperms and sex hormones

Epididymis 附睾 (store
Reproductive sperms)
duct Ductus deferens 输精管
Ejaculatory duct 射精管
Serve asUrethra 尿道 of sperms; stores sperms

Seminal vesicles 精囊
Accessory Prostate gland 前列腺
Bubourethral glands 尿道球腺
Secrete the fluid to maintain the
nutrition and activity of the sperms

External genital organs
Scrotum House the testes
Penis Sexual intercourse
Testes and epididymis

testes shape: flattened egg with
two extremities,
two surfaces and
two borders
Size: 4cm x 3cm x 2cm
Tunica albuginea

Septa testis  

Lobules of testis

Seminiferous tubules

Testes and epididymis


Rete testis

Efferent ductules of testis

Head of epididymis

Body of epididymis epididymis

Tail of epididymis

Ductus deferens
Ductus deferens

The level of tail of epididymis
Testicular part The shortest part
The level of head of epididymis
Funicular part Can be palpated easily
The superficial inguinal ring
Inguinal part Lies in the inguinal canal
The deep inguinal ring

Pelvic part The longest part
The junction of the semianl
vesical and ductus deferens
Spermatic cord and scrotum

Spermatic cord Deep inguinal ring upper extremity of testis
Ductus deferens
Testicular artery
Contents Pampiniform plexus of vein
Nervous plexus
Lymphatic Vessels
Spermatic cord and scrotum
Covering Skin
of testis Dartos Scrotum
External spermatic fascia
Cremaster Covering of Spermatic cord
Internal spermatic fascia

Sperm cannot be produced at the
core body temperature of 37℃,
the scrotum’s superficial position
provides an environment that is about
3 ℃ cooler, an essential adaptation.
Furthermore, the scrotum responds
to changes in external temperature. If
the external temperature is too high…
Seminal vesicles and ejaculatory duct

Seminal vesicle location

Posterior to
the fundus of urinary bladder

The yellow secretion
constitutes 60% of the
volume of semen

The end of Excretory duct of
ductus deferents seminal vesicle

Ejaculatory duct

Open into

Prostatic urethra
Prostate gland

Inferior to the neck of urinary bladder
Superior to the urogenital diaphragm
Posterior to the pubic symphysis
Anterior to the ampulla of rectum
Apex of prostate
Three parts Base of prostate
Corpus glandulae
The milky secretion constitutes
about 1/3 of the volume of semen Prostate enlargement occurs in
about 50% of men at age 50 and 80% of
men at age 70. It often begins with the
hesitation to urinate, a weak
stream and increased urinary urgency
and frequency and may cause urinary
obstruction finally.
A digital rectal exam can help
diagnose the disease, because there is a
shallow sulcus lies in the midline of the
posterior wall of prostate, the shallow
sulcus disappears when the
prostate enlarges.
Bulbourethral gland
Pea-sized glands (round and with the diameters approaching 10 mm
inferior to the prostate, within the urogenital diaphragm
The bulbourethral glands produce a thin, clear fluid, some of which enter
the spongy urethra when a male becomes sexually excited prior to
ejaculation. which constitutes less than 5% of the volume of semen.

Three parts:
Glans of penis: thickened distal end
Neck of penis
Body of penis: the movable portion
Root of penis: the posterior portion
Covering skin and fascia
the folded skin upon
the neck and glans

Orifice The free border
of of the prepuce
Cavernous bodies
Long cylindrical erectile bodies
Covered with albuginea
Two cavernous body of penis
The proximal end crus penis
One cavernous body of urethra
The enlarged distal end glans penis
The enlarged proximal end bulb of penis
male urethra
Prostatic portion pierces the prostate
Urethral crest: a longitudinal mucosal fold on the posterior wall
Anterior Seminal colliculus: a prominence on the urethral crest
urethra Openings of ejaculatory duct, prostate

Membranous portion pierces the urogenital diaphragm
Cavernous portion pierces the Cavernous body of urethra

Two curves
the prepubic curve
the subpubic curve

Three constriction
the internal orifice
the membranous portion

the external orifice the prostatic portion
Three dilated places the bulbous portion of urethra
the navicular fossa