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Meng Yang

Anatomy Department, School of
Medicine, WuHan University
The veins carry deoxygenated blood
from the body tissues and organs to
the right atrium of the heart.

Feature of the vein
• Larger, thinner , the
capacity is grater
paired valves ;
• Two sets Sup. one
of veins Deep one follows
an a.
• Aboundant anastomoses
• Special forms inclouding
diploic vein and sinus of dura
mater .
Main System
Pulmonary veins
Systemic veins
V. V of heart Heart Head and neck
Superior vena cava Upper limbs
(Upper half of body)
Chest (except heart
and lungs)
Inferior vena cave
(Lower half of body)
Hepatic portal v. system
Abdominal region (un-
paired organs except liver)
Pelvic part
Lower limbs
1.Superior vena cava and its tributaries
Formation & Course of the Superior vena cava
Union of the brachiocephalic veins
Descends and drains in to the
right atrium

Tributaries of the Superior
vena cava
Brachiocephalic v.

Subclavian Upper limbs
Internal jugular Head and neck
Azygos v. Chest

Sup. vena cava Inf. vena cava. Azygos
v. v.
(1)Veins of the head and neck
1)Internal jugular v. 10
Facial v. 1
Sup. v.
Superficial temporal v. 2
Pterygoid venous plexus 3
Deep facial v. 4
Maxillary v 5
Retromandibular v. 6

2) External jugular v. 7
Posterior auricular v. 8 Sup. v.
Occipital v.
3) Subclavian v. 9

Venous angle
Communications of the veins in the
head and neck Sup. v.
IJV . Deep
Common Facial v. Angular v.
facial v.
Brachiocephalic v.

Anterior ee
p No valves
branche fa
c ia
l v.

Ophthalmic V.
Retroman Maxillary v. Pterygoid
dibular v. v. plexus
Posterior temporal
Foramen ovale

Foramen of
branche v.
Aurivular v. vesalius
Occipital v. Cavernous
EJV. sinus
SCV. Axillary v.

Dangerous Triangle of Face
(2)Veins of upper limb
Veins two sets , both are provided with valves
Superficial v.v.
radial side
palmar Cephalic v. dorsal
venous Median cubital v. venous
arches ulnar side network
Basilica v.

Site for veinpuncture
Deep v.v.

Ulnar v.
Brachial v. Axillary v.
Radial v.
Subclavian v.
(3)Veins of thorax Tributary v.
V. of thorax
Right Superior Brachiocephalic
atrinum vena cava

Azygos v. Post. intercostals v.
(upper part of left thorax)
Accessory hemiazygos v.
v. Hemiazygos v.
Bronchial v. Esophageal
Bronchial v.
intercostals Post. intercostals v.
v. (lower part of left

Right and left
ascending lumbar
2.Inferior vena cava and its tributaries
(1) Inferior vena cava
Formation & Course
Confluence of the common iliac veins
Ascends ant. the vertebral column ,
right to the abdominal aorta
thorax right atrium.

Tributaries of the IVC

Veins draining the pelvis
Veins draining the lower limb
Veins draining the abdomen
(unpaired organs except liver)
Hepatic portal venous system
(2) Veins of the pelvic part

Common iliac v. Ant. vertebra
L5 unite to
In front of the form the IVC
sacroiliac joint

Internal iliac v. External iliac v.
Greater sciatic
Veins draining the
Parietal Visceral lower limb and lower
tributaries part of the abdominal
Sup. gluteal v.
Int. pudendal v.
Inf. gluteal v.
Inf. rectal v.
Obturator v. Vesical v. venous
Uterine v.
(3)Veins of lower limb V. of lower limb Tributary v.
Veins: Two sets contain more plentiful valves
than those in the upper limb
Superficial v.v.
Med.s Ant. Med. medial side
ide malleolus
saphenous v. leg and thigh
arch Sup. iliac circumflex v
Sup. Lat. femoral v.
Lat. Sup.Med.femorl v.
side post. Lat. Small Ext.pudendlal v.
malleolus saphenous v. Sup.epigastic v.
back of leg

Deep v.v.
Post. Popliteal v. adductor Femoral v.
tibial tendinous
v. Ext. iliac
Communications between
superficial and deep veins

Varicosity of the lower limb
(4) Tributaries of the Inferior vena cave
Tributary v. of IVC
Parietal tributaries
Inf. phrenic v.
Lumbar v.
lumbar v.
Visceral tributaries

Testicular / Ovarian
Renal v.
Hepatic v.
(Left, middle and

Venous sinusoids of liver
(5) Hepatic portal venous system

Conception the veins drain blood from the abdominal part of GI tract,
spleen, pancreas and gallbladder, exception for the lowest part of the
rectum, anal canal and liver.

• Beginning with capillaries in the
viscera and ends with capillaries in
the liver.
• The hepatic portal vein and its
tributaries are devoid of valves.

• Having numerous connections
with the vena cava system.
Formation of the hepatic portal vein
union of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins behind the neck of

Main tributaries of the hepatic portal vein
Superior mesenteric v.
portal v. Splenic v.
Inferior mesenteric v.
left colic v.
superior rectal
Pancreatic v.
Left gastroepiploic v.
Right gastroepiploic
right gastric v.
left gastric v.
cystic v.
paraumbilical v.v
Ligamentum teres hepatis
Locations that hepatic portal venous system Portal tributary
Systemic tributary
communicates with vena caval system

Azygos Esophageal Left
v. v.v. gastric v.
caval Sup. recetal Inf.
system v.
mesenteric v.
Mid. and
I.V.C. inf. rectal v. Hepatic
Sup. and venous
inf. system
ical v.
Retroperi Twigs of
toneal v.v. Colic v.v.
Important concept
• Dangerous triangle of the face
• Venous angle
Important contents
• Routs that facial vein communicates with
cavernous sinus
• Superficial veins in upper and lower limbs
• Names of deep veins that accompany no artery
• Main tributaries of hepatic portal vein
• locations that hepatic portal venous system
communicates with vena caval system
Finding and observation
1.Superior vena cava and its tributaries
(1)Veins of the head and neck 1)Internal jugular v. Facial v., superficial
temporal v., pterygoid venous plexus, maxillary v., and retromandibular v.
2) External jugular v. Posterior auricular v. and occipital v. 3) Subcavian v.
(2)Veins of upper limb Cephalic v., median cubital v. and basilica v.
(3)Veins of thorax Superior vena cava, brachiocephalic v.v. , azygos v.,
hemiazygos v. and accessory hemiazygos v.

2.Inferior vena cava and its tributaries
(1) Inferior vena cava (2) Veins of the pelvic part Common iliac v., internal
and external iliac v. (3) Veins of lower limb Small and great saphenous v. (4)
Tributaries of the Inferior vena cave Inf. phrenic v., lumbar v., suprarenal v.,
renal v., hepatic v. and testicular v. (5) Hepatic portal venous system Hepatic
portal v., superior mesenteric v., splenic v., right gastric v. ,left gastric v. and cystic