## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BUKIT KEMUNING

40460 SHAH ALAM

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT

ALUMINUM TIN

Student’s Name

Form

I.C. No.

Teacher’s Name

: CHIN WYNN

: 4 SCIENCE 1

: 910715-14-5397

: MADAM ONG LIN LIN

CHIN WYNN

CONTENTS

NO.

TITLE

1.

Acknowledgement

PAGE

2

2.

Introduction

3

3.

Conjecture

6

4.

Discussion

6

5.

Identifying Information

8

6.

Strategy

9

7.

Results

41

8.

Conclusion

42

9.

Appendix

44

2

CHIN WYNN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I would like to thank our Additional

Mathematics Teacher, Madam Ong Lin Lin for guiding us

throughout this project. She explained and showed us every

contents of this project clearly.

Next, I would like to thank my friends for giving

assistance and advice about this project. Besides that, they

also gave me some mental support to doing this project.

Last but not least, I appreciate that my parents fully

believed and supported me. They sacrificed their time to

send me to my friend’s house in order to complete this

project. They also contributed money for me to carry out

this assignment.

3

CHIN WYNN

INTRODUCTION

I am doing a project work to calculate on how to reduce the production

cost of a cylindrical aluminum can company when its production cost is

proportional to the area of the aluminum sheet used.

**History of the Aluminum Can
**

The earliest kind of metal beverage can was made out of steel (similar to a tin

can) and had no pull tab. Instead, it was opened by using a tool called a can

opener or bottle opener (colloquially, a church key). The opener resembled a

bottle opener but had a sharp point. The can was opened by punching two holes

in the lid, a large one for drinking through, and a smaller one that allowed air in

to replace the displaced fluid. Further advancements saw the end pieces of the

can made out of aluminum instead of steel.

In North America, the standard can size is 12 fluid ounces (335 ml). In most of

Europe, standard cans are 330 ml, which is approximately 1/3 of a liter. In

Australia, the standard can size is 375 ml. In South Africa, standard cans are

340 ml. In India, the standard can size is 300 ml.

An empty aluminum can weigh approximately 15 grams, or 0.5 ounce. Therefore,

there are roughly 30 empty aluminum cans to an avoirdupois pound.

**The Benefits of Aluminum Can Recycling
**

Environmental Benefits

Recycling aluminum cans save precious natural resources, energy, time and

money - all for a good cause - helping out the earth, as well as the economy and

local communities.

Aluminum cans are unique in that in 60 days a can is recycled, turned into a new

can & back on store shelves. Aluminum is a sustainable metal and can be recycled

over and over again. In 2003, 54 billion cans were recycled, saving the energy

equivalent of 15 million barrels of crude oil - America's entire gas consumption

for one day.

4

CHIN WYNN

Economic Benefits

The aluminum can is the most valuable container to recycle and is the most

recycled consumer product in the U.S. today. Each year, the aluminum industry

pays out over $800 million dollars for empty aluminum cans - that's a lot of

money that can go to organizations, like Habitat for Humanity, the Boy or Girl

Scouts of America, or even a local school. Money earned from recycling cans

helps people help themselves and their communities. Recycling helps build new

homes, pays for a group trip, supports a project or buys a lunch! Today it is

cheaper, faster and more energy-efficient to recycle aluminum than ever

before. The aluminum can is 100 percent recyclable and can be recycled

indefinitely. The can remains the most recyclable of all materials. Used

aluminum beverage cans are the most recycled item in the U.S., but other types

of aluminum, such as siding, gutters, car components, storm window frames, and

lawn furniture can also be recycled. Aluminum has a high market value and

continues to provide an economic incentive to recycle. When aluminum cans are

recycled curbside, they help pay for community services.

Community Benefits

Aluminum can recycling enables charitable organizations and groups to earn

funds to further local projects. The money earned enhances programs,

communities and improves the quality of people's lives. From a local can drive to

raise money for school improvements, to a Boy or Girl Scout troop "Cans Into

Cash" competition to pay for camp, recycling is used all over the country to help

others.

A perfect example of this is the Cans for Habitat program. Through a national

partnership between the Aluminum Association and Habitat for Humanity

International, aluminum cans are recycled via a network of drop-off locations to

raise money for Habitat for Humanity to build decent, affordable housing with

low-income families. To think, just by recycling a can once destined for the

landfill, you are keeping our local environment clean, providing a needed resource

for the aluminum recycling process, and most importantly, helping provide local

housing to those in need. It's a win-win for the individual, community, business,

industry and the environment.

5

CHIN WYNN

**ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK
**

FORM 4 YEAR 2006

PACKAGE: SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Aluminum Can

Problem Being Investigated

The Muhibbah Company is a manufacturer of cylindrical aluminum tins. The manager

plans to reduce the cost of production. The production cost is proportional to the

area of the aluminum sheet used. The volume that each tin can hold is 1000 cm3 (1

liter).

1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total

surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm the

radius of the tin.

2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from square-shaped

aluminum sheets.

Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the total

area of the aluminum sheets used for making the tin is minimum. (Refer to the

diagram below.)

r cm

Top Surface

h cm

r cm

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

**3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from
**

(i) Equilateral triangle.

(ii) Regular hexagon.

Find the ratio of h/r for each case.

Further Investigation

Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from

aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your

investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio of

h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?

Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in

shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to

reduce the production cost.

6

CHIN WYNN

CONJECTURE

Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and smaller surface area.

DISCUSSION

By using mathematical facts, formulae and methods such as differentiation,

trigonometry and trial and improvement, the minimum areas of aluminum differ

according to the shape cut from it.

Below are some mathematical facts and formulae used for determining the

answers for each question. Furthermore, diagrams, tables and graphs are also

inserted to help presenting the data and information. Also, all answers in this

folio are in at least 4 significant figures.

Mathematical Facts and Formulae that are Used

a) Volume of the tin = 1000cm3

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

b)

**Total surface area of tin,
**

A = 2(Area of top surface) + Area of curved surface

= 2πr2 + 2πrh

= 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)

= 2πr2 + 2000/r

c)

When A is minimum, dA = 0

dr

7

CHIN WYNN

d)

r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

e)

A (cm2 )

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

r (cm)

Check the answer from the graph by getting the minimum point.

8

CHIN WYNN

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION

To find the minimum area of the cylinder tin

The production cost is proportional to the surface area of the aluminum

sheets used

The volume of each tin is equivalent to 1000cm3 or 1 liter

Question 1

Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when the total

surface area of each tin is minimum.

Question 2

The top and bottom pieces of the tin are cut from square-shaped aluminum

sheets. Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when

the total surface area of each tin is minimum.

Question 3

The top and bottom surfaces are cut from equilateral triangle and regular

hexagon. Determine the ratio of h/r for each case.

Further Investigation

Aluminum sheets are cut from regular polygons. Based on the results of the

investigation, derive a conclusion from the relationship of the ratio of h/r and

the number of sides of the regular polygon. Suggest the best shape of aluminum

sheets to be used so as to reduce the production cost.

9

CHIN WYNN

STRATEGY

1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total

surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm

the radius of the tin.

Volume of the tin = 1000cm3

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

r cm

Top Surface

h cm

r cm

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

**Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
**

= 2πr2 + 2000

r

**Method 1: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

1

2006.28

2

1025.13

3

723.22

4

600.53

5

557.08

6

559.53

7

593.59

8

652.12

9

731.16

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

10

CHIN WYNN

652.12

593.59

559.53

557.08

500

723.22

1000

600.53

1500

1025.13

A (cm 2)

2000

731.16

2006.28

2500

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.0

557.08

5.1

555.58

5.2

554.51

5.3

553.85

5.4

553.59

5.5

553.70

5.6

554.18

5.7

555.01

5.8

556.19

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.4 cm.

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

556.19

555.01

554.18

553.70

553.59

553.85

554.51

557.08

558

557

556

555

554

553

552

551

555.58

A (cm 2)

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.8

r (cm)

11

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.40

553.588

5.41

553.583

5.42

553.581

5.43

553.583

5.44

553.589

5.45

553.599

5.46

553.612

5.47

553.629

5.48

553.650

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.42 cm.

553.56

553.612

553.599

553.589

553.583

553.58

553.581

553.60

553.583

553.62

553.588

A (cm 2)

553.64

553.629

553.66

553.650

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.54

5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.418

553.581075

5.419

553.581046

5.420

553.581055

5.421

553.581102

5.422

553.581186

5.423

553.581308

5.424

553.581468

5.425

553.581665

5.426

553.581900

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.419 cm.

12

CHIN WYNN

553.581186

553.5808

553.581102

553.5810

553.581055

553.5812

553.581046

553.5814

553.581075

A (cm 2)

553.581900

553.5816

553.581308

553.5818

553.581468

553.5820

553.581665

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.5806

5.418 5.419 5.420 5.421 5.422 5.423 5.424 5.425 5.426

r (cm)

r = 5.419 cm

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.419)2

= 10.84 cm

h = 10.84

r 5.419

= 2.000

13

CHIN WYNN

Method 2: Differentiation

Volume = πr2h

1000 = πr2h

h = 1000

πr2

Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr (1000/πr2)

= 2πr2 + 2000

r

dA = 4πr – 2000

dr

r2

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

4πr – 2000 = 0

r2

4πr = 2000

r2

4πr3 = 2000

r3 = 2000

4π

r = 5.419 cm

h = 1000

πr2

h=

1000

π(5.419)2

= 10.84 cm

h/r = 10.84

5.419

= 2.000

14

CHIN WYNN

2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from squareshaped aluminum sheets.

Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the

total area of the aluminum sheets are used for making the tin is minimum.

2r

r cm

2r

r cm

h cm

Top Surface

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

V = 1000

πr h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

2

**Total Surface Area,
**

A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh

= 8r2 + 2πr(1000)

πr2

= 8r2 + 2000

r

**Method 1: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)

1

2008.00

2

1032.00

3

738.67

4

628.00

5

600.00

6

621.33

7

677.71

8

762.00

9

870.22

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

15

CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

870.22

762.00

677.71

621.33

500

600.00

1000

628.00

1500

1032.00

A (cm 2)

2000

738.67

2008.00

2500

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.0

600.000

5.1

600.237

5.2

600.935

5.3

602.078

5.4

603.650

5.5

605.636

5.6

608.023

5.7

610.797

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.0 cm.

595

608.023

603.650

602.078

600.935

600

600.237

605

600.000

A (cm 2)

610

605.636

615

610.797

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

590

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

16

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.00

600.000

5.01

600.002

5.02

600.010

5.03

600.022

5.04

600.038

5.05

600.060

5.06

600.086

5.07

600.117

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.00 cm.

599.95

600.086

600.038

600.022

600.010

600.00

600.002

600.05

600.000

A (cm2)

600.10

600.060

600.15

600.117

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

599.90

5.00

5.01

5.02

5.03

5.04

5.05

5.06

5.07

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)

5.000

600.00000

5.001

600.00002

5.002

600.00010

5.003

600.00022

5.004

600.00038

5.005

600.00060

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.000 cm.

17

CHIN WYNN

599.9998

600.00022

600.0000

600.00010

600.0002

600.00002

600.0004

600.00000

A (cm2)

600.0006

600.00038

600.0008

600.00060

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

599.9996

5.000

5.001

5.002

5.003

5.004

5.005

r (cm)

r = 5.000 cm

Substitute into h = 1000,

πr2

h=

1000

π(5.000)2

= 12.73 cm

h = 12.73

r 5.000

= 2.546

18

CHIN WYNN

Method 2: Differentiation

Volume of the tin = 1000 cm3

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

Total surface area of tin,

A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh

= 8r2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)

= 8r2 + (2000/r)

dA = 16r – 2000

dr

r2

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

16r – (2000/r2) = 0

16r = (2000/r2)

16r3 = 2000

r3 = 2000/16

= 125

r = 5 cm

h = 1000

π(5)2

= 12.73 cm

h = 12.73

r

5

= 2.546

19

CHIN WYNN

3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from

(i) Equilateral triangle

(ii) Regular hexagon

Find the ratio of h/r for each case.

(i) Equilateral triangle

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

r

60o

x

30o

Top and Bottom Surface

h

Curved Surface

tan 60o = x/r

x = r tan 60o

Area of the triangle = 0.5 x (2x)(r) x 3

= 3 xr

= 3(r tan 60˚)(r)

= 3r2√3

(tan 60˚ = √3)

Total Surface Area,

A = 2 x (3r2√3) + 2πrh

= 6r2√3 + 2πr(1000)

πr2

= 6r2√3 + 2000

r

(h = 1000)

πr2

20

CHIN WYNN

dA = 12r√3 – 2000

dr

r2

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

12r√3 – 2000 = 0

r2

12r√3 = 2000

r2

r3 = 2000

12√3

r = 4.582 cm

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(4.582)2

= 15.16 cm

h/r = 15.16

4.582

= 3.309

**Method 2: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)

1

2010.392

2

1041.569

3

760.197

4

666.277

5

659.808

6

707.456

7

794.937

8

915.108

9

1063.999

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

21

CHIN WYNN

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

915.108

794.937

707.456

500

659.808

1000

666.277

1500

760.197

A (cm 2)

2000

1041.569

2010.392

2500

7

1063.999

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

8

9

r (cm)

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)

4.4

655.740

4.5

654.889

4.6

654.684

4.7

655.098

4.8

656.105

4.9

657.683

5.0

659.808

5.1

662.461

5.2

665.623

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.6 cm.

662.461

657.683

656.105

655.098

650

654.684

655

654.889

660

655.740

A (cm 2)

665

659.808

670

665.623

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

645

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2

r (cm)

22

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)

4.55

654.707

4.56

654.690

4.57

654.679

4.58

654.674

4.59

654.676

4.60

654.684

4.61

654.698

4.62

654.718

4.63

654.744

From the tables above, A is minimum when r = 4.58 cm.

4.55

4.56

4.57

4.58

4.59

4.60

4.61

4.62

654.744

654.718

654.698

654.684

654.676

654.674

654.679

654.70

654.68

654.66

654.64

654.62

654.690

A (cm2)

654.76

654.74

654.72

654.707

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

4.63

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)

4.580

654.6743661

4.581

654.6742455

4.582

654.6741874

4.583

654.6741916

4.584

654.6742582

4.585

654.6743871

4.586

654.6745783

4.587

654.6748317

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.582 cm.

23

CHIN WYNN

654.6743871

654.6740

654.6742582

654.6742

654.6741916

654.6744

654.6741874

654.6746

654.6742455

654.6743661

A (cm 2)

654.6748

654.6745783

654.6750

654.6748317

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

654.6738

4.580

4.581

4.582

4.583

4.584

4.585

4.586

4.587

r (cm)

r = 4.582 cm

Substitute into,

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(4.582)2

= 15.16 cm

h/r = 15.16

4.582

= 3.309

24

CHIN WYNN

(ii) Regular Hexagon

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

30o

r

2x cm

Top and Bottom Surface

tan 30˚ = x/r

x = r tan 30˚

=r(1)

√3

= r

√3

h

Curved Surface

(tan 30˚= 1 )

√3

**Area of the hexagon = 0.5 x (2x)r x 6
**

= 6xr

= 6( r)r

√3

= 6r2

√3

Total Surface Area,

A = 2(6r2) + 2πrh

√3

= 12r2 + 2πr(1000)

√3

πr2

= 12r2 + 2000

√3

r

25

CHIN WYNN

dA = 24r – 2000

dr √3

r2

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

24r – 2000 = 0

√3

r2

24r = 2000

√3

r2

r3 = 2000√3

24

r = 5.246 cm

h = 1000

πr2

= 1000

π(5.246)2

= 11.57 cm

h/r = 11.57

5.246

= 2.205

**Method 2: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

**A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
**

√3

r

1

2006.928

2

1027.713

3

729.020

4

610.851

5

573.205

6

582.749

7

625.196

8

693.405

9

783.407

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

26

CHIN WYNN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

783.407

693.405

0

625.196

500

582.749

1000

573.205

1500

610.851

A (cm 2)

2000

729.020

2500

1027.713

2006.928

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

8

9

r (cm)

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)

√3

r

5.0

573.205

5.1

572.359

5.2

571.954

5.3

571.972

5.4

572.397

5.5

573.215

5.6

574.411

5.7

575.975

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.

5.0

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

575.975

574.411

573.215

572.397

571.972

572.359

5.1

571.954

577

576

575

574

573

572

571

570

569

573.205

2

A (cm )

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

27

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)

√3

r

5.21

571.9370

5.22

571.9242

5.23

571.9156

5.24

571.9112

5.25

571.9110

5.26

571.9149

5.27

571.9229

5.28

571.9351

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.25 cm.

571.900

571.9351

571.9229

571.9149

571.9110

571.910

571.9112

571.920

571.9156

2

A (cm )

571.930

571.9242

571.940

571.9370

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

571.890

5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

**A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
**

√3

r

5.245

571.9105827

5.246

571.9105795

5.247

571.9106180

5.248

571.9106980

5.249

571.9108195

5.250

571.9109825

5.251

571.9111870

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.246 cm.

28

CHIN WYNN

571.9104

571.9102

5.245

5.246

5.247

5.248

5.249

5.250

571.9111870

571.9106980

571.9106

571.9106180

571.9108

571.9105795

571.9110

571.9105827

A (cm 2)

571.9112

571.9108195

571.9114

571.9109825

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.251

r (cm)

r = 5.246 cm

Substitute into,

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.246)2

= 11.567

h = 11.57

r 5.246

= 2.205

29

CHIN WYNN

Further Investigation

Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from

aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your

investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio

of h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?

Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in

shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to

reduce the production cost.

Answer

To determine the relationship between the ratio of h/r and the number of sides

of a regular polygon, different types of regular polygons are used, such as an

equilateral triangle, a square, a regular pentagon, a regular hexagon and a

regular octagon.

From the answers of Question 2, 3(i) and 3(ii), we already calculated the ratios

of h/r of a square, an equilateral triangle and a regular hexagon. However, we

still have to calculate the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular octagon.

The calculations for determining the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular

octagon are shown below.

**Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Pentagon
**

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

h

r

x

Top and Bottom Surface

x

Curved Surface

x/r = tan 36˚

30

CHIN WYNN

x = r tan 36˚

= 0.7265r

Area of the small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r

= xr

= 0.72654r x r

= 0.7265r2

Total surface area,

A = 2[5(0.7265r2)] + 2πrh

= 7.265r2 + 2πr(1000)

πr2

= 7.265r2 + 2000/r

dA = 14.53r – 2000/r2

dr

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

14.53r – 2000/r2 = 0

14.53r3 – 2000 = 0

14.53r3 = 2000

r3 = 2000

14.53

r = 5.163 cm

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.163)2

= 11.94 cm

31

CHIN WYNN

h/r = 11.94

5.163

= 2.313

**Method 2: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

**A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

2007.27

1029.06

732.06

616.25

581.64

594.89

641.72

714.99

810.72

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
**

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2007.27

2500

714.99

641.72

594.89

581.64

500

616.25

732.06

1000

810.72

1500

1029.06

A (cm2)

2000

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

32

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

**A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

581.636

581.131

581.072

581.444

582.230

583.415

584.987

586.931

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.
**

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

584.987

583.415

581.444

581.072

580

581.131

582

582.230

584

581.636

A (cm 2)

586

586.931

588

578

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm )

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18

5.19

5.20

5.21

5.22

**A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

581.0468

581.0432

581.0440

581.0492

581.0587

581.0725

581.0906

581.1130

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.16 cm.
**

33

CHIN WYNN

581.02

581.0725

581.0587

581.0492

581.04

581.0440

581.06

581.0432

581.08

581.0468

A (cm 2)

581.10

581.0906

581.12

581.1130

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

581.00

5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18

5.19

5.20

5.21

5.22

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

5.160

5.161

5.162

5.163

5.164

5.165

5.166

5.167

5.168

**A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

581.0432066

581.0430919

581.0430209

581.0429934

581.0430096

581.0430693

581.0431726

581.0433195

581.0435099

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.163 cm.

581.0435099

581.0431726

581.0430693

581.0430096

581.0428

581.0429934

581.0430

581.0430209

581.0432

581.0430919

A (cm2)

581.0434

581.0432066

581.0436

581.0433195

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

581.0426

5.160 5.161 5.162 5.163 5.164 5.165 5.166 5.167 5.168

r (cm)

34

CHIN WYNN

r = 5.163 cm

V = 1000

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.163)2

= 11.94 cm

h/r = 11.94

5.163

= 2.313

**Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Octagon
**

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

r

h

x x

Top and Bottom Surface

Curved Surface

35

CHIN WYNN

x/r = tan 22.5˚

x = r tan 22.5˚

= 0.4142r

Area of small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r

= xr

= 0.4142r x r

= 0.4142r2

Total surface area,

A = 2[8(0.4142r2)] + 2πrh

= 6.6272r2 + 2πr(1000)

πr2

= 6.6272r2 + 2000

r

dA = 13.2544r - 2000

dr

r2

When A is minimum,

dA = 0

dr

13.2544r – 2000/r2 = 0

13.2544r3 – 2000 = 0

13.2544r3 = 2000

r3 = 2000/13.2544

r = 5.324 cm

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.324)2

= 11.23 cm

36

CHIN WYNN

h/r = 11.23

5.324

= 2.109

**Method 2: Trial and Improvement
**

r (cm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

**A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

2006.63

1026.51

726.31

606.04

565.69

571.92

610.46

674.15

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
**

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2006.63

2500

610.46

571.92

565.69

500

606.04

726.31

1000

674.15

1500

1026.51

2

A (cm )

2000

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

r (cm)

37

CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table

r (cm)

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

**A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

565.685

564.536

563.821

563.523

563.626

564.116

564.979

566.202

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.3 cm.
**

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

566.202

564.979

564.116

563

563.626

564

563.523

565

563.821

A (cm 2)

566

564.536

565.685

567

562

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

**A More Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

5.30

5.31

5.32

5.33

5.34

5.35

5.36

5.37

**A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

563.5226

563.5151

563.5117

563.5121

563.5166

563.5250

563.5374

563.5536

**From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.32 cm.
**

38

CHIN WYNN

5.30

5.32

5.33

5.34

5.35

563.5536

563.5374

563.5250

563.5166

563.5121

563.5151

5.31

563.5117

563.56

563.55

563.54

563.53

563.52

563.51

563.50

563.49

563.5226

A (cm 2)

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.36

5.37

r (cm)

**The Most Comprehensive Table
**

r (cm)

5.320

5.321

5.322

5.323

5.324

5.325

5.326

5.327

5.328

**A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
**

563.5116565

563.5115267

563.5114368

563.5113866

563.5113762

563.5114056

563.5114747

563.5115835

563.5117321

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.324 cm.

563.5112

563.5117321

563.5115835

563.5114747

563.5113

563.5114056

563.5114

563.5113762

563.5115

563.5113866

A (cm2)

563.5116

563.5114368

563.5117

563.5115267

563.5118

563.5116565

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

563.5111

5.320 5.321 5.322 5.323 5.324 5.325 5.326 5.327 5.328

r (cm)

39

CHIN WYNN

r = 5.324 cm

V = 1000

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000

πr2

=

1000

π(5.324)2

= 11.23 cm

h/r = 11.23

5.324

= 2.109

**A table is drawn to conduct comparisons on the ratio of h/r of different regular
**

polygons, so as to see the relationship of the ratio of h/r and the number of

sides of a regular polygon.

Regular Polygons

h

r

h/r

10.84

5.419

2.000

11.23

5.324

2.109

Circle

Octagon

40

CHIN WYNN

Hexagon

11.57

5.246

2.205

11.94

5.163

2.313

12.73

5.000

2.546

15.16

4.582

3.309

Pentagon

Square

Equilateral Triangle

**From the table above, we can conclude that polygons with more sides have
**

smaller value of h/r and it is near to 2. Also, the more the sides of a polygon,

the more minimum the area is. Therefore, aluminum sheets with more sides like

regular octagons are used to save the production cost of aluminum can.

41

CHIN WYNN

RESULTS

Question 1

Minimum radius, r = 5.42 cm

Minimum height, h = 10.84 cm

Ratio of h/r = 2

Minimum area, A = 553.581 cm2

Question 2

Minimum radius, r = 5.00 cm

Minimum height, h = 12.73 cm

Ratio of h/r = 2.546

Minimum area, A = 600.000 cm2

Question 3(i)

Minimum radius, r = 4.582 cm

Minimum height, h = 15.161 cm

Ratio of h/r = 3.309

Minimum area, A = 654.674 cm2

Question 3(ii)

Minimum radius, r = 5.246 cm

Minimum height, h = 11.566 cm

Ratio of h/r = 2.205

Minimum area, A = 571.911 cm2

Further Investigation

Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and it is near to 2.

The best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to reduce the

production cost is a regular octagon.

42

CHIN WYNN

CONCLUSION

1.

**Wastage is reduced when the number of sides of the aluminum sheets
**

used is increased. (Regular polygon-shaped)

2.

**Types of shapes that can be used are as below:
**

a) equilateral triangles

b) squares

c) regular hexagons

d) regular octagons

3.

**So, circles should be cut from those shapes stated above.
**

a)

Wastage

sheets of equilateral triangles are used.

is very high when aluminum

b)

W

**astage is still high when aluminum
**

sheets of squares are used.

43

CHIN WYNN

c)

Wastage is low when aluminum sheets of regular hexagons are used.

d)

Wastage is very low when aluminum sheets of regular octagons are used.

**Therefore, aluminum sheets of regular octagons are the best solution for
**

minimum wastage so as to reduce the production cost.

44

CHIN WYNN

APPENDIX

http://nextlevel.com.sg/question/1074

2. Exploring Additional Mathematics Project

1.

45

- RABBITO's ADDMATHuploaded byrabbito-bonbon
- ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT 2012 SABAHuploaded byEwra Evanna Ruth
- ADDMATH PW 2012uploaded byAqilah Udin
- ADD MATH PROJECTuploaded byanon-592784
- Project work add math 2009uploaded byaizat
- Add Maths Project 2007 by Chin Wynnuploaded byChinWynn.com
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011uploaded byAmirul Mukminin
- Add Math Complete task4 2010(sample)uploaded bySyahiera Apyka
- Project Work Additional Mathematics by NKSuploaded byMila Ila
- Add Math Project 2009uploaded bydora indigoo
- Additional Mathematics Project 4 2010uploaded bySkayline Cruise
- Project Work for Additional Mathematics 2009uploaded bymedablurp
- Add Math Project 2007uploaded byapi-3804926
- 99093402 Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012 Sabahuploaded byJazilah Jaz
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2009uploaded byfifineni
- Project Add Math 2010 Index Numberuploaded byAshraf Shaharudin
- ADD MATHS PROJECT WORK 1/2010uploaded byathirah hani
- add mathuploaded byLie Fonda
- Add Math Project 2012uploaded byRyan Liew
- 58409913-add-math-folio-2011-work-1uploaded byAhmadi Ahmad
- Ch. 2 - Practice Problemsuploaded byyay111
- Additional Mathematic Project Work 1/2010uploaded byτάΓ
- Project Work for Additional Mathematics 2010uploaded bykhairul_sakirin
- 57580276 Additional Mathematics 2011 Project Work 2uploaded bymuhdikhwan
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012uploaded byFarah Amalina Adanan
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2012 in Sarawakuploaded byMartin Kho
- History of Index Numberuploaded bymeifong93_08
- Project Work for Additional Mathematics 2009uploaded bygrace77
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012uploaded byGraceChen28
- Additional Mathematicsuploaded byOrkid Fazz

- pmr percubaan 2009 perak sejarahuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah sejarahuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah english languageuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang sejarahuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 perak pendidikan islamuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 perak mathematicsuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 perak bahasa melayuuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 perak geografiuploaded byChinWynn.com
- PMR Percubaan 2009 MRSM Science Paper 2uploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah scienceuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah kemahiran hidup - ertuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah pendidikan islamuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 perak english languageuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah mathematicsuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sabah bahasa melayuuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang scienceuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang bahasa melayuuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang kemahiran hidup - ertuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang geografiuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka kemahiran hidupuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang english languageuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang pendidikan islamuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka mathematicsuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 sarawak sejarahuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka sejarahuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang kemahiran hidup - ktuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka english languageuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka bahasa melayuuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 melaka pendidikan islamuploaded byChinWynn.com
- pmr percubaan 2009 pahang mathematicsuploaded byChinWynn.com

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading