# SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN

BUKIT KEMUNING
40460 SHAH ALAM

ALUMINUM TIN

Student’s Name
Form
I.C. No.
Teacher’s Name

: CHIN WYNN
: 4 SCIENCE 1
: 910715-14-5397

CHIN WYNN

CONTENTS
NO.
TITLE
1.
Acknowledgement

PAGE
2

2.

Introduction

3

3.

Conjecture

6

4.

Discussion

6

5.

Identifying Information

8

6.

Strategy

9

7.

Results

41

8.

Conclusion

42

9.

Appendix

44

2

CHIN WYNN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, I would like to thank our Additional
Mathematics Teacher, Madam Ong Lin Lin for guiding us
throughout this project. She explained and showed us every
contents of this project clearly.
Next, I would like to thank my friends for giving
also gave me some mental support to doing this project.
Last but not least, I appreciate that my parents fully
believed and supported me. They sacrificed their time to
send me to my friend’s house in order to complete this
project. They also contributed money for me to carry out
this assignment.

3

CHIN WYNN

INTRODUCTION
I am doing a project work to calculate on how to reduce the production
cost of a cylindrical aluminum can company when its production cost is
proportional to the area of the aluminum sheet used.

History of the Aluminum Can
The earliest kind of metal beverage can was made out of steel (similar to a tin
can) and had no pull tab. Instead, it was opened by using a tool called a can
opener or bottle opener (colloquially, a church key). The opener resembled a
bottle opener but had a sharp point. The can was opened by punching two holes
in the lid, a large one for drinking through, and a smaller one that allowed air in
to replace the displaced fluid. Further advancements saw the end pieces of the
In North America, the standard can size is 12 fluid ounces (335 ml). In most of
Europe, standard cans are 330 ml, which is approximately 1/3 of a liter. In
Australia, the standard can size is 375 ml. In South Africa, standard cans are
340 ml. In India, the standard can size is 300 ml.
An empty aluminum can weigh approximately 15 grams, or 0.5 ounce. Therefore,
there are roughly 30 empty aluminum cans to an avoirdupois pound.

The Benefits of Aluminum Can Recycling
Environmental Benefits
Recycling aluminum cans save precious natural resources, energy, time and
money - all for a good cause - helping out the earth, as well as the economy and
local communities.
Aluminum cans are unique in that in 60 days a can is recycled, turned into a new
can & back on store shelves. Aluminum is a sustainable metal and can be recycled
over and over again. In 2003, 54 billion cans were recycled, saving the energy
equivalent of 15 million barrels of crude oil - America's entire gas consumption
for one day.

4

CHIN WYNN
Economic Benefits
The aluminum can is the most valuable container to recycle and is the most
recycled consumer product in the U.S. today. Each year, the aluminum industry
pays out over \$800 million dollars for empty aluminum cans - that's a lot of
money that can go to organizations, like Habitat for Humanity, the Boy or Girl
Scouts of America, or even a local school. Money earned from recycling cans
helps people help themselves and their communities. Recycling helps build new
homes, pays for a group trip, supports a project or buys a lunch! Today it is
cheaper, faster and more energy-efficient to recycle aluminum than ever
before. The aluminum can is 100 percent recyclable and can be recycled
indefinitely. The can remains the most recyclable of all materials. Used
aluminum beverage cans are the most recycled item in the U.S., but other types
of aluminum, such as siding, gutters, car components, storm window frames, and
lawn furniture can also be recycled. Aluminum has a high market value and
continues to provide an economic incentive to recycle. When aluminum cans are
recycled curbside, they help pay for community services.
Community Benefits
Aluminum can recycling enables charitable organizations and groups to earn
funds to further local projects. The money earned enhances programs,
communities and improves the quality of people's lives. From a local can drive to
raise money for school improvements, to a Boy or Girl Scout troop "Cans Into
Cash" competition to pay for camp, recycling is used all over the country to help
others.
A perfect example of this is the Cans for Habitat program. Through a national
partnership between the Aluminum Association and Habitat for Humanity
International, aluminum cans are recycled via a network of drop-off locations to
raise money for Habitat for Humanity to build decent, affordable housing with
low-income families. To think, just by recycling a can once destined for the
landfill, you are keeping our local environment clean, providing a needed resource
for the aluminum recycling process, and most importantly, helping provide local
housing to those in need. It's a win-win for the individual, community, business,
industry and the environment.

5

CHIN WYNN

FORM 4 YEAR 2006
PACKAGE: SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Aluminum Can
Problem Being Investigated
The Muhibbah Company is a manufacturer of cylindrical aluminum tins. The manager
plans to reduce the cost of production. The production cost is proportional to the
area of the aluminum sheet used. The volume that each tin can hold is 1000 cm3 (1
liter).
1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm the
2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from square-shaped
aluminum sheets.
Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the total
area of the aluminum sheets used for making the tin is minimum. (Refer to the
diagram below.)

r cm

Top Surface

h cm

r cm

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from
(i) Equilateral triangle.
(ii) Regular hexagon.
Find the ratio of h/r for each case.
Further Investigation
Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from
aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your
investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio of
h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?
Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in
shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to
reduce the production cost.

6

CHIN WYNN

CONJECTURE
Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and smaller surface area.

DISCUSSION
By using mathematical facts, formulae and methods such as differentiation,
trigonometry and trial and improvement, the minimum areas of aluminum differ
according to the shape cut from it.
Below are some mathematical facts and formulae used for determining the
answers for each question. Furthermore, diagrams, tables and graphs are also
inserted to help presenting the data and information. Also, all answers in this
folio are in at least 4 significant figures.
Mathematical Facts and Formulae that are Used
a) Volume of the tin = 1000cm3
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
b)

Total surface area of tin,
A = 2(Area of top surface) + Area of curved surface
= 2πr2 + 2πrh
= 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
= 2πr2 + 2000/r

c)

When A is minimum, dA = 0
dr

7

CHIN WYNN
d)
r (cm)

A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

e)

A (cm2 )

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

r (cm)

Check the answer from the graph by getting the minimum point.

8

CHIN WYNN

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
 To find the minimum area of the cylinder tin
 The production cost is proportional to the surface area of the aluminum
sheets used
 The volume of each tin is equivalent to 1000cm3 or 1 liter

Question 1
Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum.
Question 2
The top and bottom pieces of the tin are cut from square-shaped aluminum
sheets. Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when
the total surface area of each tin is minimum.
Question 3
The top and bottom surfaces are cut from equilateral triangle and regular
hexagon. Determine the ratio of h/r for each case.
Further Investigation
Aluminum sheets are cut from regular polygons. Based on the results of the
investigation, derive a conclusion from the relationship of the ratio of h/r and
the number of sides of the regular polygon. Suggest the best shape of aluminum
sheets to be used so as to reduce the production cost.

9

CHIN WYNN

STRATEGY
1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm
Volume of the tin = 1000cm3
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
r cm

Top Surface

h cm

r cm

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
= 2πr2 + 2000
r

Method 1: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)
A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
1
2006.28
2
1025.13
3
723.22
4
600.53
5
557.08
6
559.53
7
593.59
8
652.12
9
731.16
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)
10

CHIN WYNN

652.12

593.59

559.53

557.08

500

723.22

1000

600.53

1500

1025.13

A (cm 2)

2000

731.16

2006.28

2500

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0
557.08
5.1
555.58
5.2
554.51
5.3
553.85
5.4
553.59
5.5
553.70
5.6
554.18
5.7
555.01
5.8
556.19
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.4 cm.

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

556.19

555.01

554.18

553.70

553.59

553.85

554.51

557.08

558
557
556
555
554
553
552
551

555.58

A (cm 2)

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.8

r (cm)

11

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.40
553.588
5.41
553.583
5.42
553.581
5.43
553.583
5.44
553.589
5.45
553.599
5.46
553.612
5.47
553.629
5.48
553.650
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.42 cm.

553.56

553.612

553.599

553.589

553.583

553.58

553.581

553.60

553.583

553.62
553.588

A (cm 2)

553.64

553.629

553.66

553.650

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.54
5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48
r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.418
553.581075
5.419
553.581046
5.420
553.581055
5.421
553.581102
5.422
553.581186
5.423
553.581308
5.424
553.581468
5.425
553.581665
5.426
553.581900
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.419 cm.

12

CHIN WYNN

553.581186

553.5808

553.581102

553.5810

553.581055

553.5812

553.581046

553.5814

553.581075

A (cm 2)

553.581900

553.5816

553.581308

553.5818

553.581468

553.5820

553.581665

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.5806
5.418 5.419 5.420 5.421 5.422 5.423 5.424 5.425 5.426
r (cm)

r = 5.419 cm
h = 1000
πr2
=
1000
π(5.419)2
= 10.84 cm
h = 10.84
r 5.419
= 2.000

13

CHIN WYNN
Method 2: Differentiation
Volume = πr2h
1000 = πr2h
h = 1000
πr2
Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr (1000/πr2)
= 2πr2 + 2000
r
dA = 4πr – 2000
dr
r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
4πr – 2000 = 0
r2
4πr = 2000
r2
4πr3 = 2000
r3 = 2000

r = 5.419 cm
h = 1000
πr2
h=
1000
π(5.419)2
= 10.84 cm
h/r = 10.84
5.419
= 2.000

14

CHIN WYNN
2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from squareshaped aluminum sheets.
Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the
total area of the aluminum sheets are used for making the tin is minimum.

2r

r cm

2r

r cm

h cm

Top Surface

Curved Surface

Bottom Surface

V = 1000
πr h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
2

Total Surface Area,
A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh
= 8r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 8r2 + 2000
r

Method 1: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)
A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
1
2008.00
2
1032.00
3
738.67
4
628.00
5
600.00
6
621.33
7
677.71
8
762.00
9
870.22
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
15

CHIN WYNN
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

870.22

762.00

677.71

621.33

500

600.00

1000

628.00

1500

1032.00

A (cm 2)

2000

738.67

2008.00

2500

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0
600.000
5.1
600.237
5.2
600.935
5.3
602.078
5.4
603.650
5.5
605.636
5.6
608.023
5.7
610.797
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.0 cm.

595

608.023

603.650

602.078

600.935

600

600.237

605

600.000

A (cm 2)

610

605.636

615

610.797

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

590
5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

16

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.00
600.000
5.01
600.002
5.02
600.010
5.03
600.022
5.04
600.038
5.05
600.060
5.06
600.086
5.07
600.117
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.00 cm.

599.95

600.086

600.038

600.022

600.010

600.00

600.002

600.05
600.000

A (cm2)

600.10

600.060

600.15

600.117

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

599.90
5.00

5.01

5.02

5.03

5.04

5.05

5.06

5.07

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.000
600.00000
5.001
600.00002
5.002
600.00010
5.003
600.00022
5.004
600.00038
5.005
600.00060
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.000 cm.

17

CHIN WYNN

599.9998

600.00022

600.0000

600.00010

600.0002

600.00002

600.0004
600.00000

A (cm2)

600.0006

600.00038

600.0008

600.00060

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

599.9996
5.000

5.001

5.002

5.003

5.004

5.005

r (cm)

r = 5.000 cm
Substitute into h = 1000,
πr2
h=
1000
π(5.000)2
= 12.73 cm
h = 12.73
r 5.000
= 2.546

18

CHIN WYNN
Method 2: Differentiation
Volume of the tin = 1000 cm3
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
Total surface area of tin,
A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh
= 8r2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
= 8r2 + (2000/r)
dA = 16r – 2000
dr
r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
16r – (2000/r2) = 0
16r = (2000/r2)
16r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000/16
= 125
r = 5 cm
h = 1000
π(5)2
= 12.73 cm
h = 12.73
r
5
= 2.546

19

CHIN WYNN
3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from
(i) Equilateral triangle
(ii) Regular hexagon
Find the ratio of h/r for each case.

(i) Equilateral triangle
Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

r

60o

x
30o
Top and Bottom Surface

h

Curved Surface

tan 60o = x/r
x = r tan 60o
Area of the triangle = 0.5 x (2x)(r) x 3
= 3 xr
= 3(r tan 60˚)(r)
= 3r2√3
(tan 60˚ = √3)
Total Surface Area,
A = 2 x (3r2√3) + 2πrh
= 6r2√3 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 6r2√3 + 2000
r

(h = 1000)
πr2

20

CHIN WYNN
dA = 12r√3 – 2000
dr
r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
12r√3 – 2000 = 0
r2
12r√3 = 2000
r2
r3 = 2000
12√3
r = 4.582 cm
h = 1000
πr2
=
1000
π(4.582)2
= 15.16 cm
h/r = 15.16
4.582
= 3.309

Method 2: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)
A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
1
2010.392
2
1041.569
3
760.197
4
666.277
5
659.808
6
707.456
7
794.937
8
915.108
9
1063.999
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
21

CHIN WYNN

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

915.108

794.937

707.456

500

659.808

1000

666.277

1500

760.197

A (cm 2)

2000

1041.569

2010.392

2500

7

1063.999

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

8

9

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.4
655.740
4.5
654.889
4.6
654.684
4.7
655.098
4.8
656.105
4.9
657.683
5.0
659.808
5.1
662.461
5.2
665.623
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.6 cm.

662.461

657.683

656.105

655.098

650

654.684

655

654.889

660

655.740

A (cm 2)

665

659.808

670

665.623

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

645
4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2
r (cm)

22

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.55
654.707
4.56
654.690
4.57
654.679
4.58
654.674
4.59
654.676
4.60
654.684
4.61
654.698
4.62
654.718
4.63
654.744
From the tables above, A is minimum when r = 4.58 cm.

4.55

4.56

4.57

4.58

4.59

4.60

4.61

4.62

654.744

654.718

654.698

654.684

654.676

654.674

654.679

654.70
654.68
654.66
654.64
654.62

654.690

A (cm2)

654.76
654.74
654.72

654.707

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

4.63

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.580
654.6743661
4.581
654.6742455
4.582
654.6741874
4.583
654.6741916
4.584
654.6742582
4.585
654.6743871
4.586
654.6745783
4.587
654.6748317
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.582 cm.

23

CHIN WYNN

654.6743871

654.6740

654.6742582

654.6742

654.6741916

654.6744

654.6741874

654.6746

654.6742455

654.6743661

A (cm 2)

654.6748

654.6745783

654.6750

654.6748317

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

654.6738
4.580

4.581

4.582

4.583

4.584

4.585

4.586

4.587

r (cm)

r = 4.582 cm
Substitute into,
h = 1000
πr2
=
1000
π(4.582)2
= 15.16 cm
h/r = 15.16
4.582
= 3.309

24

CHIN WYNN
(ii) Regular Hexagon
Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

30o

r
2x cm

Top and Bottom Surface

tan 30˚ = x/r
x = r tan 30˚
=r(1)
√3
= r
√3

h

Curved Surface

(tan 30˚= 1 )
√3

Area of the hexagon = 0.5 x (2x)r x 6
= 6xr
= 6( r)r
√3
= 6r2
√3
Total Surface Area,
A = 2(6r2) + 2πrh
√3
= 12r2 + 2πr(1000)
√3
πr2
= 12r2 + 2000
√3
r

25

CHIN WYNN
dA = 24r – 2000
dr √3
r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
24r – 2000 = 0
√3
r2
24r = 2000
√3
r2
r3 = 2000√3
24
r = 5.246 cm
h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.246)2
= 11.57 cm
h/r = 11.57
5.246
= 2.205

Method 2: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)

A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3
r
1
2006.928
2
1027.713
3
729.020
4
610.851
5
573.205
6
582.749
7
625.196
8
693.405
9
783.407
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
26

CHIN WYNN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

783.407

693.405

0

625.196

500

582.749

1000

573.205

1500

610.851

A (cm 2)

2000

729.020

2500

1027.713

2006.928

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

8

9

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3
r
5.0
573.205
5.1
572.359
5.2
571.954
5.3
571.972
5.4
572.397
5.5
573.215
5.6
574.411
5.7
575.975
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.

5.0

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

575.975

574.411

573.215

572.397

571.972

572.359

5.1

571.954

577
576
575
574
573
572
571
570
569

573.205

2

A (cm )

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

27

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3
r
5.21
571.9370
5.22
571.9242
5.23
571.9156
5.24
571.9112
5.25
571.9110
5.26
571.9149
5.27
571.9229
5.28
571.9351
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.25 cm.

571.900

571.9351

571.9229

571.9149

571.9110

571.910

571.9112

571.920

571.9156

2

A (cm )

571.930

571.9242

571.940

571.9370

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

571.890
5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28
r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)

A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3
r
5.245
571.9105827
5.246
571.9105795
5.247
571.9106180
5.248
571.9106980
5.249
571.9108195
5.250
571.9109825
5.251
571.9111870
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.246 cm.
28

CHIN WYNN

571.9104
571.9102

5.245

5.246

5.247

5.248

5.249

5.250

571.9111870

571.9106980

571.9106

571.9106180

571.9108

571.9105795

571.9110

571.9105827

A (cm 2)

571.9112

571.9108195

571.9114

571.9109825

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.251

r (cm)

r = 5.246 cm
Substitute into,
h = 1000
πr2
=
1000
π(5.246)2
= 11.567
h = 11.57
r 5.246
= 2.205

29

CHIN WYNN
Further Investigation
Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from
aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your
investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio
of h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?
Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in
shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to
reduce the production cost.

To determine the relationship between the ratio of h/r and the number of sides
of a regular polygon, different types of regular polygons are used, such as an
equilateral triangle, a square, a regular pentagon, a regular hexagon and a
regular octagon.
From the answers of Question 2, 3(i) and 3(ii), we already calculated the ratios
of h/r of a square, an equilateral triangle and a regular hexagon. However, we
still have to calculate the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular octagon.
The calculations for determining the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular
octagon are shown below.

Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Pentagon
Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

h
r
x

Top and Bottom Surface

x

Curved Surface

x/r = tan 36˚

30

CHIN WYNN

x = r tan 36˚
= 0.7265r
Area of the small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r
= xr
= 0.72654r x r
= 0.7265r2
Total surface area,
A = 2[5(0.7265r2)] + 2πrh
= 7.265r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 7.265r2 + 2000/r
dA = 14.53r – 2000/r2
dr
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
14.53r – 2000/r2 = 0
14.53r3 – 2000 = 0
14.53r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000
14.53
r = 5.163 cm
h = 1000
πr2
=

1000
π(5.163)2

= 11.94 cm

31

CHIN WYNN
h/r = 11.94
5.163
= 2.313

Method 2: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
2007.27
1029.06
732.06
616.25
581.64
594.89
641.72
714.99
810.72

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2007.27

2500

714.99

641.72

594.89

581.64

500

616.25

732.06

1000

810.72

1500
1029.06

A (cm2)

2000

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

r (cm)

32

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
581.636
581.131
581.072
581.444
582.230
583.415
584.987
586.931

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

584.987

583.415

581.444

581.072

580

581.131

582

582.230

584
581.636

A (cm 2)

586

586.931

588

578
5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm )

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22

A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
581.0468
581.0432
581.0440
581.0492
581.0587
581.0725
581.0906
581.1130

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.16 cm.
33

CHIN WYNN

581.02

581.0725

581.0587

581.0492

581.04

581.0440

581.06

581.0432

581.08
581.0468

A (cm 2)

581.10

581.0906

581.12

581.1130

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

581.00
5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18

5.19

5.20

5.21

5.22

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.160
5.161
5.162
5.163
5.164
5.165
5.166
5.167
5.168

A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
581.0432066
581.0430919
581.0430209
581.0429934
581.0430096
581.0430693
581.0431726
581.0433195
581.0435099

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.163 cm.

581.0435099

581.0431726

581.0430693

581.0430096

581.0428

581.0429934

581.0430

581.0430209

581.0432

581.0430919

A (cm2)

581.0434

581.0432066

581.0436

581.0433195

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

581.0426
5.160 5.161 5.162 5.163 5.164 5.165 5.166 5.167 5.168
r (cm)

34

CHIN WYNN
r = 5.163 cm
V = 1000
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
=

1000
π(5.163)2

= 11.94 cm
h/r = 11.94
5.163
= 2.313

Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Octagon
Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

r

h

x x
Top and Bottom Surface

Curved Surface

35

CHIN WYNN

x/r = tan 22.5˚
x = r tan 22.5˚
= 0.4142r
Area of small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r
= xr
= 0.4142r x r
= 0.4142r2
Total surface area,
A = 2[8(0.4142r2)] + 2πrh
= 6.6272r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 6.6272r2 + 2000
r
dA = 13.2544r - 2000
dr

r2

When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
13.2544r – 2000/r2 = 0
13.2544r3 – 2000 = 0
13.2544r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000/13.2544
r = 5.324 cm
h = 1000
πr2
=

1000
π(5.324)2

= 11.23 cm
36

CHIN WYNN
h/r = 11.23
5.324
= 2.109

Method 2: Trial and Improvement
r (cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
2006.63
1026.51
726.31
606.04
565.69
571.92
610.46
674.15

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2006.63

2500

610.46

571.92

565.69

500

606.04

726.31

1000

674.15

1500
1026.51

2

A (cm )

2000

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

r (cm)

37

CHIN WYNN
A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
565.685
564.536
563.821
563.523
563.626
564.116
564.979
566.202

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.3 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)
566.202

564.979

564.116

563

563.626

564

563.523

565

563.821

A (cm 2)

566

564.536

565.685

567

562
5.0

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
5.35
5.36
5.37

A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
563.5226
563.5151
563.5117
563.5121
563.5166
563.5250
563.5374
563.5536

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.32 cm.
38

CHIN WYNN

5.30

5.32

5.33

5.34

5.35

563.5536

563.5374

563.5250

563.5166

563.5121

563.5151

5.31

563.5117

563.56
563.55
563.54
563.53
563.52
563.51
563.50
563.49

563.5226

A (cm 2)

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

5.36

5.37

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table
r (cm)
5.320
5.321
5.322
5.323
5.324
5.325
5.326
5.327
5.328

A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
563.5116565
563.5115267
563.5114368
563.5113866
563.5113762
563.5114056
563.5114747
563.5115835
563.5117321

From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.324 cm.

563.5112

563.5117321

563.5115835

563.5114747

563.5113

563.5114056

563.5114

563.5113762

563.5115

563.5113866

A (cm2)

563.5116

563.5114368

563.5117

563.5115267

563.5118

563.5116565

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

563.5111
5.320 5.321 5.322 5.323 5.324 5.325 5.326 5.327 5.328
r (cm)

39

CHIN WYNN
r = 5.324 cm
V = 1000
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
=

1000
π(5.324)2

= 11.23 cm
h/r = 11.23
5.324
= 2.109

A table is drawn to conduct comparisons on the ratio of h/r of different regular
polygons, so as to see the relationship of the ratio of h/r and the number of
sides of a regular polygon.
Regular Polygons

h

r

h/r

10.84

5.419

2.000

11.23

5.324

2.109

Circle

Octagon

40

CHIN WYNN
Hexagon
11.57

5.246

2.205

11.94

5.163

2.313

12.73

5.000

2.546

15.16

4.582

3.309

Pentagon

Square

Equilateral Triangle

From the table above, we can conclude that polygons with more sides have
smaller value of h/r and it is near to 2. Also, the more the sides of a polygon,
the more minimum the area is. Therefore, aluminum sheets with more sides like
regular octagons are used to save the production cost of aluminum can.

41

CHIN WYNN

RESULTS
Question 1
Minimum radius, r = 5.42 cm
Minimum height, h = 10.84 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2
Minimum area, A = 553.581 cm2
Question 2
Minimum radius, r = 5.00 cm
Minimum height, h = 12.73 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2.546
Minimum area, A = 600.000 cm2
Question 3(i)
Minimum radius, r = 4.582 cm
Minimum height, h = 15.161 cm
Ratio of h/r = 3.309
Minimum area, A = 654.674 cm2
Question 3(ii)
Minimum radius, r = 5.246 cm
Minimum height, h = 11.566 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2.205
Minimum area, A = 571.911 cm2
Further Investigation
Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and it is near to 2.
The best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to reduce the
production cost is a regular octagon.

42

CHIN WYNN

CONCLUSION
1.

Wastage is reduced when the number of sides of the aluminum sheets
used is increased. (Regular polygon-shaped)

2.

Types of shapes that can be used are as below:
a) equilateral triangles
b) squares
c) regular hexagons
d) regular octagons

3.

So, circles should be cut from those shapes stated above.
a)

Wastage
sheets of equilateral triangles are used.

is very high when aluminum

b)

W

astage is still high when aluminum
sheets of squares are used.

43

CHIN WYNN
c)

Wastage is low when aluminum sheets of regular hexagons are used.

d)

Wastage is very low when aluminum sheets of regular octagons are used.

Therefore, aluminum sheets of regular octagons are the best solution for
minimum wastage so as to reduce the production cost.

44

CHIN WYNN

APPENDIX
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