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fUGHT International, 7 November 1968

tte) Hawker Siddeley Dynamics Ltd, Manor

Road, Hatfield, Herts (Hatfield 62300) Hawker
Siddeley Dynamics is currently producing anti-
icing equipment for all versions of the Trident,
the complete system for which was developed
in the company's extensive air conditioning
test facilities at Hatfield. A similar system,
using slightly modified Trident somponents,
is now being supplied for the HS.801 Nimrod.
The Trident's hot air anti-icing installation
consists of two main systems. First, each
engine and its intake has an individual sub-
system that is selected and controlled indepen-
dently of the second main systemthat of the
airframealthough each draws high-pressure
bleed air from the final compressor stages of
the three engines. Engine low-pressure bleed
air, also, is fed into the airframe system, each
of the three supply circuits of which comprises
pneumatically operated high- and low-pressure
bleed air control valvesboth HSD com-
ponentsmanual shut-off valves, and a mixing
chamber incorporating temperature sensors
and cut-out switches. Mixing chamber output
passes, at the correct flow and temperature,
through non-return valves into the main dis-
tribution gallery leading to the wings and tail
(25) Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd, Mill-
bank, London SW1 (01-834 4444) IC1 silicone
rubber, produced in Scotland by the Nobel
Division Silicones Group, is used for flexible
connectorssuch as those supplied by Bell's
Asbestos & Engineeringin hot air ducting.
Silicone rubber can be fabricated to any shape,
remains flexible from 40C to 23OC, and is
unaffected by hydraulic fluid or condensation.
. Isopropanol, another ICI product (from the
' Heavy Organic Chemicals Division) is used
alone, or as a component, in aircraft de-icing
{26) Isopad Ltd, Barnet By-pass, Boreham
Wood, Herts (01-953 2817) Isopad electric
surface heaters, described in detail in Flight
as long ago as March 1, 1957, are still widely
used on Dowty Rotol propeller blades and
spinners in Dart-powered aircraft. The spinner
elements comprise practically alkali-free glass
yarn, interwoven with special resistance wire.
Isotapes, manufactured to suit any type of
voltage, are applied with thermal insulation for
frost protection of waste water lines in the B AC
One-Eleven, among other aircraft. Isotapes use
a high-temperature p.v.c. extrusion over the
heating elements, and are suitable for tempera-
tures up to 60C.
Isopad products are also used for frost pro-
tection on valves, cameras and missile com-
(27) Kigass Ltd, Kigass House, Chapel Street,
Leamington Spa, Warwicks (Leamington Spa
22241) Kigass produce a range of hand-
operated pumpswith capacities of 5, 10, 20
and 40 c.c. per stroke, and spray nozzle jet
unitswhich are suitable for windscreen fluid
de-icing systems in helicopters and light air-
: <28) Kilfrost Ltd, 162-164, Uxbridge Road,
, Hanwell, London W7 (01-567 7274) Pioneers
of chemical de-icing and de-frosting under
wartime conditions. Kilfrost have been
supplying defrosting fluids to the Services
and to airlines for some 25 years. More
recently this company has developed, in con-
junction with BEA, the hot defrosting tech-
nique for removing frozen deposits from
parked aircraft.
The original hot defrosting concentrate
U C2, and the later DC2A, have now been
superseded in Service and airline use by a
still more advanced productthe Kilfrost
Anti-icing Barrier Compound (ABC). This
can either be applied to aircraft during turn-
round as a hot defrosting fluid or, by
application as a cold concentrate, can give
Protection to parked aircraft for up to
fws, Kilfrost ABC is now used by three
air forces, 13 airlines and two airport
Other Kilfrost compounds include de-icing
nuids for T.K.S. airborne airframe de-icing
systems, hoar-frost remover and Arctic
ae-icing fluid for parked aircraft, and a wing
oe-icing paste designed for manual pre-fiight
Latest product for de-icing and cleaning
Pilots windshields is Windscreen Washing
fluid Mod. 2.
(29) Lucas Gas Turbine Equipment Ltd,
Shaftmoor Lane, Birmingham 28 (Spring-
field 3232) Lucas combustion heaters
represent the alternative to compressor
bleed, or exhaust gas heat exchangers, as
the heat source for built-in hot air anti-
icing systems. Temperature controlled, the
air combustion heaters take their fuel from
the aircraft main supply. The full system
comprises, in addition to the heater, fuel
and electrical control units, ram air pressure
switch, and control panel.
On the ground the output from Lucas
mobile air heaters, employing similar com-
bustion heaters to the airborne units, can
be used for external defrosting of parked
(30) Miraflores, The Friary, Old Windsor,
Berks (Windsor 63742) Kleerscreen rain
repellent, supplied by Miraflores in kit form
for external, pre-flight application by hand
in a matter of seconds, is in world-wide use
by airlines and light aircraft operators. One
kit is sufficient to treat 50 airliner wind-
screens, and each application should,
properly applied, last about 200 flying
hours. Kleerscreen is not a de-icing com-
pound, but its properties can deter the onset
of icing.
(31) Mobil Oil Co Ltd, Caxton House, Tot-
hill Street, London SW1 (01-839 6645) Mobil
aero de-icing fluid No. 1 is a special isopropyl
alcohol, supplied for use in propeller, wind-
screen, carburetter and other airborne fluid
de-icing systems.
(32) Negretti & Zambra Ltd, Aviation
Division, Stocklake, Aylesbury, Bucks
(Aylesbury 5931) Differential pressure
switches are supplied by Negretti & Zambra
for engine mounting, to detect changes in
pressure drop caused by ice accretion across
the engine fuel filter when there is no
provision for fuel heating other than
through the oil cooler. The type of switch
fitted to the Rolls-Royce Spey is designed to
signal when a differential of 51b/sq in exists
in the system. This operates a panel light to
give warning for reduction of the fuel flow
rates, thus permitting increased heat pick-
up through the oil cooler.
Negretti & Zambra also manufacture a
range of thermal unitstemperature-sensing
devices designed for servo control of
actuators or for electrical switching.
(33) Page Engineering Co (Sunbury-on-
Thames) Ltd, Page Works, Forge Lane,
Green Street, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middx
(01-768 4242) A two-minute delay device
is incorporated in the Trident's anti-icing
system to cater for intermittent icing con-
ditions while under automatic control. This
ice detector delay unit, manufactured by
Page Engineering, provides two controlled
outputs, one to the anti-icing control system
operated by the ice detector contacts; its
purpose is to maintain the anti-icing system
in operation after the detector contacts have
(34) Palmer Aero Products Ltd, Penfold
Street, Edgware Road, London NWS
(01-723 8822) Palmer aerofoil de-icer
equipment, Goodrich-licence manufactured
at the Leyland works of BTR Industries,
is produced in a range of systems to suit
small piston-engined aircraft such as the
Islander and Beagle B.206 series, and turbo-
props such as the HS.748, Skyvan and
These externally mounted, lightweight
rubber de-icers are attached with an air-
cure cement, and are manufactured to
tolerances approaching those of metal
leading-edge skin profiles. In the HS.748
installation, engine bleed air is used to
inflate the mainly chordwise tubes, through
solenoid-operated distributor valves; altern-
ate tubes are cyclically pulsated under the
control of an electronic timer. Tubes are
deflated under suction from ejectors, which
also derive their forcing pressure from com-
pressor bleed air.
In the light aircraft system, the spanwise
tubes are simultaneously inflated by air at
151b/sq in from the exhaust side of the
standard engine-driven vacuum pumps. A
transistorised electronic timer operates the
control valve solenoids and, when the
systems is de-energised, pump suction keeps
the deflated tubes flat against the skin.
(35) Plessey Co Ltd, Dynamics Group,
Ilford, Essex (Tel 01-478 3040) A miniature
temperature controller for electrically heated
windscreens or de-icer elements is now pro-
duced by Plessey. The operation-point of
this 28V d.c. controller is adjustable over
a wide range of settings, and its construction
lends itself to stacking. It may be used as an
ON/OFF control for any function which
can be sensed as a change of resistance.
Other Plessey products used in anti-icing
systems include hot-air stop-valve actuators
and ducting components.
(36) Porter Co (Great Britain) Ltd, H. K.,
Cameron Street, Hillington, Glasgow SW2
(Moss Heights 8771) Porter V-band
clamps, incorporating fail-safe protection,
provide a positively sealed, compact light-
weight joint suitable for use in hot air
ducting systems. Porter also supply heavy
duty Thermoid ground air starter delivery
(37) RoIIason Engineering Ltd, Croydon
Airport, Surrey (01-688 7238) Rollason's
Thawspray trolleys are supplied to airlines
and other operators, for ground application
of hot defrosting concentrates such as Kil-
frost's anti-icing barrier compound. This
mobile spraying plant is equipped with a
50gal insulated tank, petrol-engine-driven
pump, thermostatically controlled mains
powered immersion heaters, delivery hose
and two 9ft spray lances.
(38) Rosemount Engineering Co Ltd,
Durban Road, Bognor Regis, Sussex
(Bognor Regis 4101) Currently manufac-
turing a new type of miniature ice detector
suitable for both ground and airborne use.
It is capable of sensing very low thresholds
of ice accretion, is proof against dirt and
insects and has no moving parts. The
detector head can be mounted on the for-
ward fuselage or, alternatively, directly in
the engine intake. The output of the detector
can be processed further to give a measure
of icing intensity.
Rosemount manufacture two types of
miniature electrical heating cable capable
of producing a high power output per unit
length, and these cables are being used
for de-icing the intake leading-edges, variable-
geometry ramps and the extreme wing
leading-edges of the Concorde.
The Trident 1C, IE and Nimrod carry
Rosemount temperature-control equipment
which measures and controls the wing-skin
temperatures. For the Trident 2E this
equipment provides automatic control of
the hot air de-icing valves and controls
wing and tail skin temperatures automati-
Teddington's icing-rate
system. The leading
heater/sensor is exposed
to the airstream and
the rear heater/sensor
is shielded by an inenial
droplet separator. With
both maintained at con-
stant temperature, dif-
ference in power re-
quirement is a function
of cooling effect
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