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MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

**Mid-Term Examination Problem
**

Consider a NACA 1412 airfoil. Using Thin Airfoil Theory for a combined airfoil, estimate the

specified aerodynamic parameters specified below and compare them with experimental data in

order to validate the theory.

---------------------------------------- Part 1 ------------------------------------------Obtain the expression for zf and za in terms of x and c only.

The parametric equations for the camber line of a NACA 4 digit airfoil (NACA mpnk) are...

(1)

zf

=

c

(2)

m

=

c

2

x

c c

p

2

za

⋅ 2 ⋅ p ⋅

x

ahead of the max camber point

−

2

x

x

( 1 − 2⋅ p ) + 2 ⋅ p ⋅ −

2

c c

( 1 − p)

m

aft of the max camber point

**Since we are using a 1412 airfoil, we substitute can define the parameters m and p.
**

m := 0.01

p := 0.40

**Substituting these values into equation 1 and 2...
**

(3)

zf

c

(4)

0.40

za

2

2

x

c c

⋅ 2 ⋅ 0.40⋅

x

−

0.01

=

c

0.01

=

( 1 − 0.40)

2

⋅ ( 1 − 2 ⋅ 0.40) + 2 ⋅ 0.40⋅

x

c

−

2

x

c

**And multiplying both sides by c to find expressions for zf and za exclusively (also
**

simplifying a little)...

(5a, b)

zf = c⋅ 0.0625⋅ 0.8⋅

x

c

(6a, b)

2

c

−

za = c⋅ 0.02778 ⋅ 0.2 + 0.80⋅

2

x

x

c

zf ( x , c) := 0.050⋅ x −

−

2

x

c

0.0625⋅ x

c

2

za( x , c) := 0.005556⋅ c + 0.02222 ⋅ x −

---------------------------------------- Part 2 ------------------------------------------dzf

dza

Calculate the following:

dx

dx

Taking the derivative of equation 5b yields...

(7)

x

d

zf ( x , c) = 0.050 − 0.125⋅

c

dx

(

)

0.02778 ⋅ x

c

1 of 11

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

**Taking the equation of equation 6b yields...
**

(8)

x

d

za( x , c) = 0.02222 − 0.05556 ⋅

c

dx

(

)

---------------------------------------- Part 3 ------------------------------------------dzf

dza

dz

Obtain the expression for

and

in the form

= a⋅ cosθ + b

dx

dx

dx

Using a slightly modified version of book equation 4.21...

(9)

x

=

c

1

2

⋅ ( 1 − cosθ)

Substituting this identity into equation 7 and 8 yields...

(10)

1

d

zf ( x , c) = 0.050 − 0.125⋅ ⋅ ( 1 − cosθ)

dx

2

(11)

1

d

za( x , c) = 0.02222 − 0.05556 ⋅ ⋅ ( 1 − cosθ)

dx

2

Performing some simple expansion, the expressions simplify to the form desired...

(12)

d

zf ( x , c) = 0.0625⋅ cosθ − 0.0125

dx

(13)

d

za( x , c) = 0.02778 ⋅ cosθ − 0.005556

dx

---------------------------------------- Part 4 -------------------------------------------

**Calculate the angle θc that locates the max camber point.
**

Using the identity used for part 3 (equation 9), we realize the max camber occurs at 40% of c, as

defined by the NACA naming convention.

Plugging this value into equation 9 and solving for θ

(14)

0.4 =

1

2

⋅ ( 1 − cosθ)

**Rearranging to solve for θ...
**

(15)

0.8 = 1 − cosθ0

David Clark

2 of 11

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

( )

(16)

0.2 = cos θ0

(17a, b,c)

θ0 := acos( 0.2)

θ0 = 1.3694⋅ rad

θ0 = 78.463⋅ deg

---------------------------------------- Part 5 ------------------------------------------Calculate A0.

As defined by book equation 4.50, and accomidating for the two regions of integration...

(18)

⌠ θ0

d

A0 = α − ⋅

z ( x , c) dθ0 +

π dx f

⌡0

1

⌠

d

z ( x , c) dθ0

dx a

⌡θ

π

0

Substituting equation 12 and 13 into 18..

(19)

⌠ θ0

π

⌠

A0 = α − ⋅ 0.0625⋅ cosθ − 0.0125 dθ + 0.02778 ⋅ cosθ − 0.005556 dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

0

1

**To maintain clarity, we will analyze each integral separately.
**

First, consider the first integral in equation 19...

(20)

θ

⌠ 0

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) − 0.0125 dθ

⌡

0

**Performing the integration process and simplifying yields...
**

(21)

(0.0625⋅ sin(θ0) − 0.0125⋅ θ0) − (0.0625⋅ sin(0) − 0.0125⋅ 0)

(22)

( 0.0625⋅ sin( 1.3694) − 0.0125⋅ 1.3694) − ( 0.0625⋅ sin( 0 ) − 0.0125⋅ 0 )

(23)

**( 0.06124 − 0.01712 ) − 0 = 0.04412
**

Thus the result for the first integral in equation 19 is...

(24)

θ

⌠ 0

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) − 0.0125 dθ = 0.04412

⌡

0

**Now, consider the second integral in equation 19 ...
**

π

(25)

⌠

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) − 0.005556 dθ

⌡θ

0

David Clark

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MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

Performing the integration process and simplifying yields...

(

( )

)

(26)

( 0.02778 ⋅ sin( π) − 0.005556⋅ π) − 0.02778 ⋅ sin θ0 − 0.005556⋅ θ0

(27)

( 0.02778 ⋅ sin( π) − 0.005556⋅ π) − ( 0.02778 ⋅ sin( 1.3694) − 0.005556⋅ 1.3694)

(28)

**( 0 − 0.01745 ) − ( 0.02722 − 0.007608) = −0.03706
**

Thus, the result for the second integral in equation 19 is...

π

⌠

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) − 0.005556 dθ = −0.03706

⌡θ

(29)

0

To determine the value of A0, we will revisit equation 19

⌠ θ0

π

⌠

A0 = α − ⋅ 0.0625⋅ cosθ − 0.0125 dθ + 0.02778 ⋅ cosθ − 0.005556 dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

0

1

(19)

**... and substitute the values for both integrals as found in equation 23 and 29.
**

(30)

1

A0 = α − ⋅ [ ( 0.04412 ) + ( −0.03706 ) ]

π

(31)

1

A0 = α − ⋅ ( 0.006965)

π

(32)

A0 ( α) := ( α − 0.002217)

---------------------------------------- Part 6 -------------------------------------------

Calculate A1.

As defined by book equation 4.51, and accomidating for the two regions of integration...

(33)

θ0

2 ⌠

d

A1 = ⋅ zf ⋅ cosθ dθ +

π dx

⌡

0

d z ⋅ cosθ dθ

a

dx

0

π

⌠

⌡θ

Substituting equation 12 and 13 into 33...

(34)

θ0

π

⌠

2 ⌠

( 0.0625⋅ cosθ − 0.0125) ⋅ cosθ dθ + ( 0.02778 ⋅ cosθ − 0.005556) ⋅ cosθ dθ

A1 =

π ⌡0

⌡θ

Distributing terms...

0

4 of 11

7/2/2007

(35)

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

5 of 11

θ0

π

⌠

2 ⌠

2

2

A1 := ⋅

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( θ) dθ +

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( θ) dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

(

)

(

)

0

**Consider the following algebraic identity..
**

(36)

2

cos( θ) =

1

2

+

cos( 2 ⋅ θ)

2

Substituting this into equation 35 and distributing terms...

(37)

θ0

2 ⌠

A1 = ⋅

π

⌡

0

π

⌠

0.0625 + 0.0625⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( θ) dθ + 0.02778 + 0.02778⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( θ) dθ

2

2

2

2

⌡θ

0

**To maintain clarity, we will perform the integration one term at a time...
**

Consider the first integral in equation 37 ...

(38)

θ

⌠ 0

⌡

** 0.0625 + 0.0625⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( θ) dθ = 0.036671226
**

2

2

0

Performing the integration process and simplifying yields...

(39)

** 0.0625⋅ θ0 0.0625⋅ sin( 2 ⋅ θ0 )
**

0.0625⋅ 0

0.0625⋅ sin( 2 ⋅ 0 )

+

− 0.0125⋅ sin( θ0 ) −

+

− 0.0125⋅ sin( 0 )

2

4

4

2

(40)

** 0.0625⋅ 1.3694 + 0.0625⋅ sin( 2 ⋅ 1.3694) − 0.0125⋅ sin( 1.3694)
**

2

4

(41)

( 0.04280 + 0.006124 − 0.01225 ) − ( 0 + 0 − 0 ) = 0.03667

−

Thus, the result for the first integral in equation 37 is...

(42)

θ

⌠ 0

⌡

** 0.0625 + 0.0625⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( θ) dθ = 0.03667
**

2

2

0

**Consider the second integral in equation ...
**

π

(43)

⌠

⌡θ

0

** 0.02778 + 0.02778⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( θ) dθ
**

2

2

** 0.0625⋅ 0 + 0.0625⋅ sin( 2 ⋅ 0) − 0.0125⋅ sin( 0 )
**

4

2

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

6 of 11

Performing the integration process and simplifying yields...

** 0.02778 ⋅ π + 0.02778 ⋅ sin( 2⋅ π) − 0.005556⋅ sin( π) − 0.02778⋅ θ0 + 0.02778 ⋅ sin( 2⋅ θ0 ) − 0.005556⋅ sin θ
**

( 0)

2

4

2

4

(44)

(45)

** 0.02778 ⋅ π + 0.02778 ⋅ sin( 2⋅ π) − 0.005556⋅ sin( π)
**

2

4

(46)

−

0.02778 ⋅ 1.3694

2

+

**0.02778 ⋅ sin( 2 ⋅ 1.3694)
**

4

− 0.005556⋅ sin( 1.3694)

( 0.04364 + 0 + 0 ) − ( 0.01902 + 0.002722 − 0.005444) = 0.02734

**Thus, the result for the second integral in equation 37 is...
**

π

⌠

⌡θ

(47)

** 0.02778 + 0.02778⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( θ) dθ = 0.02734
**

2

2

0

To determine the value of A1, we will revisit equation 37...

θ0

2 ⌠

(37) A1 = ⋅

π

⌡

0

π

0.02778

0.02778

⋅

cos

(

2θ

)

0.0625 + 0.0625⋅ cos( 2θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( θ) dθ + ⌠

+

− 0.005556⋅ cos( θ) dθ

2

2

2

2

⌡θ

0

**and substitute the values found in equation 42 and 47.
**

(48)

2

A1 = ⋅ ( 0.03692 + 0.02734 )

π

(49)

A1 = 0.04075

---------------------------------------- Part 7 -------------------------------------------

Calculate A2.

As defined by book equation 4.51, and accomidating for the two regions of integration...

(50)

⌠ θ0

⌠π

dz

dza

2

f

A2 = ⋅

⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ +

⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

π

dx

df

⌡0

⌡θ

0

Substituting equation 12 and 13 into 33...

(51)

θ0

π

⌠

2 ⌠

A2 := ⋅ ( 0.0625⋅ cos( θ) − 0.0125) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ + ( 0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) − 0.005556) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

0

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

7 of 11

Distributing terms yields...

(52)

⌠ θ0

π

⌠

A2 = ⋅ 0.0625⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ + 0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

0

2

**Consider the following identity...
**

(53)

cos( 2 ⋅ θ) = 1 − 2 ⋅ sin( θ)

2

**To maintain clarity, we will evaluate each integral of equation independently
**

Consider the first integral in equation 52 ...

(54)

θ

⌠ 0

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

⌡

0

Using the identity (equation 53 ) to further evaluate the integral, equation 54 becomes...

(55)

θ

⌠ 0

2

2

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ sin( θ) − 0.0125⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ sin( θ) dθ

⌡

(

)

(

)

0

Further distributing terms..

(56)

θ

⌠ 0

2

2

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) − 0.0625⋅ 2 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ sin( θ) − 0.0125 + 0.0125⋅ 2 ⋅ sin( θ) dθ

⌡

0

**Using mathcad to perform the integration of each part...
**

(57)

0.06124 − 0.03919 − 0.017118 + 0.01467 = 0.0196

Thus, the result for the first integral in equation 52 is...

(58)

θ

⌠ 0

0.0625⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ = 0.0196

⌡

0

**Consider the second integral of equation 52 ...
**

π

(59)

⌠

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

⌡θ

0

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

8 of 11

**Using the identity (equation 53 ) to further evaulate the integral, equal 59 becomes...
**

π

(60)

⌠

2

2

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ sin( θ) − 0.005556⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ sin( θ) dθ

⌡θ

(

)

(

)

0

π

(61)

⌠

2

2

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) − 2 ⋅ 0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ sin( θ) − 0.005556 + 0.005556⋅ 2 ⋅ sin( θ) dθ

⌡θ

0

**Using mathcad to perform the integration of each part...
**

(62)

−0.02722 + 0.01742 − 0.009846 + 0.01094 = −0.00871

**Thus, the value of the second integral in equation 52 is...
**

π

(62)

⌠

0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ = −0.00871

⌡θ

0

Now that we have evaluated both integrals, we will revisit equation 52

(52)

⌠ θ0

π

⌠

A2 := ⋅ 0.0625⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.0125⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ + 0.02778 ⋅ cos( θ) ⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) − 0.005556⋅ cos( 2 ⋅ θ) dθ

π ⌡0

⌡θ

0

2

and insert the values found in equation 58 and 62...

(63)

2

A2 = ⋅ [ 0.0196 + ( −0.00871 ) ]

π

(64)

A2 = 6.9302 × 10

−3

---------------------------------------- Part 8 ------------------------------------------Calculate cl and calculate the zero-life angle of attack.

The lift coefficient, as defined by book equation is...

(65)

cl = 2π⋅ A0 +

A1

2

**Inserting the results from part 5 and 6 (equation 32 and 49)
**

(66)

cl = 2π α − 0.002217 +

0.04075

2

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

**Thus, the coefficient of lift, as a function of alpha, is...
**

cl ( α) := 2π⋅ ( α + 0.018158)

(67)

To find the angle at which cl goes to zero, we will set equation to zero and solve for α

(

)

(68)

0 = 2 ⋅ π⋅ α0 + 0.018158

(69)

0 = α0 + 0.018158

(70a,b)

α0 := −0.018158rad

α0 = −1.04⋅ deg

**Cl vs Angle of Attack
**

3

Cl

2

cl( α) 1

0

−1

− 0.1

0

0.1

α

Angle (Radian)

(See solution for further solutions)

0.2

0.3

9 of 11

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

−8 deg

−4 deg

0deg

4deg

8deg

αplot :=

12deg

16deg

20deg

24deg

28deg

David Clark

10 of 11

0

0

-0.763

1

-0.325

2

0.114

3

cl αplot = 4

0.553

5

1.43

6

1.869

7

2.307

8

2.746

9

3.185

(

)

0.991

**The following matrix will be used for plotting
**

the calculated data against the experimental

data provided.

**---------------------------------------- Part 9 ------------------------------------------Calculate cl and calculate the zero-life angle of attack.
**

The slope of cl is, by definition...

d

cl ( α)

dα

(71)

**Taking the derivative of the lift coefficient yields...
**

d

d

[ 2 ⋅ π⋅ ( α − 0.018158) ] = ( 2 ⋅ π⋅ α − 2 ⋅ π⋅ 0.018158)

dα

dα

(72)

Thus...

(73)

d

cl ( α) → 2 ⋅ π

dα

---------------------------------------- Part 10 -------------------------------------------

**Calculate the moment about the quarter-chord
**

The moment coefficient about the quarter chord can be obtained using book equation 4.64

(74)

cmc4 :=

π

4

(

⋅ A2 − A1

)

**Substituting the values of A2 and A1, as found above in equation 54 and 49 respectively, yields...
**

(75)

(76)

cmc4 =

π

4

(

−3

⋅ 6.9302 × 10

− 0.04075

)

cmc4 = −0.02656

The value for the quarter chord varies slightly from actual data provided on the graph. In the given NACA 1412 Wing

Section chart, the moment coefficient behaves linear during many low angles of attack, however whener large angles

are applied, either positive or negative, the moment coefficient sharply increases or decreases. This is different from

thin airfoil theory, which assigns a constant value for the moment coefficient.

7/2/2007

MAE430 - Exam Problem

David Clark

11 of 11

**---------------------------------------- Part 11 ------------------------------------------A comment regarding the moment coefficient and the quarter chord...
**

On page 333 of Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, a comment is made regarding the quarter-chord acting as the

theoretical location of the aerodynamic center. From equation 66, we can determine the quarter chord is not the

actual center of pressure. If the quarter-chord was the center of pressure, we'd expect the net moment to be zero.

As shown further in book equation 4.66, the center of pressure is shown to be a function of the angle of attack, α.

Thus, the center of pressure can not be described as one single point on the foil since the point will change with the

angle. The center of pressure is needed, however, to further calculate aerodynamic properties for the foil. Performing

these calculations on a variable point is inconvienient.

Describing the quarter-chord as the theoretical center of pressure within the airfoil is an acceptable method of

overcoming this problem. Doing so allows the calculations on a force-and-moment system within predictable points

on the airfoil.

---------------------------------------- Part 12 ------------------------------------------Determine the lift-to-drag ratio at minimum drag...

Using the supplied NACA 1412 Wing Section Chart, calculate the minimum coefficient of drag and corresponding angle

of attack

(77,78)

cdmin := 0.006

at

clmin := 0.2

**Thus, the ratio of lift-to-drag is...
**

(79)

clmin

cdmin

= 33.333

References:

Anderson, John D. Jr. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.

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