You are on page 1of 275

1 www.visionias.

in ©Vision IAS




CURRENT AFFAIRS
JANUARY 2014









Note:
"The news articles related to the section 'India and World' and 'World Affairs' for the month of January
!1" will #e covered com$letely in the %e#rurary !1" current affairs issue."




VISIONIAS™
www.visionias.in
www.visionias.word$ress.com
Copyright © by Vision IAS
All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision
IAS
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
POLITY .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Jains granted minority status ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Capital Punishment .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
S& commutes death sentence for 1' ........................................................................................................................................................................................ '
()ecution of *hullar stayed #y S& ............................................................................................................................................................................................. '
+residents $ower to ,rant mercy .............................................................................................................................................................................................. -
.i,hts of a /eath convict ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... -
Judicial Reforms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
S&to &ut down on holidays ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... -
S& sets a S$ecial *ench for &riminal A$$eals ...................................................................................................................................................................... 0
SC on Dikshitars’ right to manage temple .......................................................................................................................................
SC on D!" tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................
!e# frame#ork for $% ratings.............................................................................................................................................................
!e# guidelines for phone interception ............................................................................................................................................. &
$ri'unals under ne# Companies "ct ................................................................................................................................................. (
)S need not 'e dissol*ed 'efore poll announcement ............................................................................................................... +,
-oogle’s proposal for *oter registration tool re.ected ........................................................................................................... +,
$elangana /ill ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ++
0ar'i "nglong clashes ........................................................................................................................................................................... ++
ECONOY .......................................................................................................................................... 12
1ndian 2conomy ........................................................................................................................................................................................ +3
.*I raises re$o rate........................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
1/+ ,rowth li2ely to #e revised u$ward .............................................................................................................................................................................1
World *an2 1rowth forecast .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13
.*I eases norms for ,old dore im$orts ................................................................................................................................................................................13
()ternal de#t dro$s........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13
4D1 related 1ssues ..................................................................................................................................................................................... +4
4i#erali5ation of %/I $olicy indicated ...................................................................................................................................................................................1"
India to see2 %/I in rail networ2 .............................................................................................................................................................................................1"
%/I in e)istin, $harma units .....................................................................................................................................................................................................1'
%/I in retail ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-
%/I in farm land ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-
R/1 mo*es to cur' 'lack money ........................................................................................................................................................ +
Report of Committee on 4inancial /enchmarks ........................................................................................................................ +
R/1 panel on credit access to all ....................................................................................................................................................... +&
Panel to re*ie# go*ernance of 'ank 'oards ............................................................................................................................... +(
Depositor 2ducation and "#areness 4und .................................................................................................................................. +(
R/1 standardises gold loan norms ................................................................................................................................................... +(
R/1 panel suggests 4 5 CP1 inflation target ............................................................................................................................... 3,
Retrospecti*e $a6ation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3+
)and "c7uisition "ct 3,+8 comes into effect .............................................................................................................................. 3+
9-!R2-S to include rural sanitation ............................................................................................................................................ 33
Sahara Pari#ar 1ssue ............................................................................................................................................................................. 38
1nno*ation fund set up to help 9S92s ........................................................................................................................................... 34
1ndian )eather De*elopment Programme ................................................................................................................................... 34
:niform ta6 rate for foreign portfolio in*estors ....................................................................................................................... 35
;il and -as related issues ..................................................................................................................................................................... 36
6ew natural ,as $ricin, ,uidelines notified ......................................................................................................................................................................-
7el2ar committee on $roduction sharin, model .............................................................................................................................................................-
4+1 ca$ hi2ed to 18 no cash transfers .................................................................................................................................................................................0
4+1 $orta#ility launched .............................................................................................................................................................................................................0
$ilaiya pro.ect of R<Po#er ................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
9ltra :e,a +ower +ro;ects <9:++= .......................................................................................................................................................................................>
&a#inet committee on Investment ..........................................................................................................................................................................................>
Changes to 9ega Po#er Policy .......................................................................................................................................................... 3(
;ne nation= one grid ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3(
SOCIAL ISSUES ................................................................................................................................. !1
!ational >outh Policy<3,+4 ................................................................................................................................................................ 8+
SC on ?uota in super<specialty posts .............................................................................................................................................. 8+
SC on fresh interpretation of term @.u*enile’ ............................................................................................................................... 8+
SC not to re*ie# .udgment against homose6uality .................................................................................................................. 83
S"9"R$A 3,+4......................................................................................................................................................................................... 83
(/9&ATI?6 ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
Scheme for esta'lishment of ne# medical colleges ................................................................................................................. 88
:!2SC; reporton 2ducation 4or "ll .............................................................................................................................................. 88
"S2R Sur*ey Report ................................................................................................................................................................................ 84
@(A4T@ ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3'
;rgans transplant "ct notified .......................................................................................................................................................... 85
Rashtriya 0ishor S#asthya 0aryakram BR0S0C ........................................................................................................................ 85
9ulti<sectoral !utrition Programme ............................................................................................................................................. 86
Polio<free 1ndia< 8
rd
Straight year .................................................................................................................................................... 86
4ungal infections ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 86
9ission to cut neonatal deaths .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
$hird line therapy for A1% patients ................................................................................................................................................. 8
ENVIRONENT ............................................................................................................................... !"
AC on !ational -reen $ri'unal ......................................................................................................................................................... 8(
SC on !ational -reen Regulator ....................................................................................................................................................... 8(
Sethusamudram pro.ect ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4,
IN#IA AN# $ORL# ........................................................................................................................ 41
1talian 9arines case ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4+
D0no# 1ndia ProgrammeE .................................................................................................................................................................... 4+
9aldi*esF -9R airport pro.ect 1ssue ............................................................................................................................................... 43
SCIENCE % TEC& ............................................................................................................................. 4!
Dia'etic testing kits ................................................................................................................................................................................ 48
ALSO IN NE$S ................................................................................................................................. 44
Posthumous "shok Chakra for -reyhounds 1nspector ........................................................................................................... 44
"ssam for local time ............................................................................................................................................................................... 44

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
POLITY
JAINS 'RANTE# INORITY STATUS
• The Union Cabinet decided to accord minority status to Jains but the decision would be subject to the
outcome of pending cases on the issue.
• If the court cases are settled in favour of the Jains, the community would become the sixth designated
minority community of the country.
• s per the Cabinet note, Jains would be included as a minority under !ection "#c$ of the National
Commission for Minorities (NCM) Act (NCM), 199.
• Article !"(1) of the Constit#tion of In$ia gives linguistic and religious minorities a fundamental right to
establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. The %ational Commission for &inority
'ducational Institutions ct #for short the (ct)$ has been enacted to safeguard the educational rights of the
minorities enshrined in rticle *+#,$ of the Constitution.
• It has been held by the 'leven Judges -ench of the !upreme Court in %&M&A& 'ai (o#n$ation )s& State of
*arnata+a ("") that a minority, whether linguistic or religious, is determinable only by reference to
demography of the !tate and not by ta.ing into consideration the population of the country as a whole.
• In "++/, the !upreme Court of India in ,al 'atil -#$gement case, declined to issue a writ of
&andamus towards granting Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India. The Court however
left it to the respective states to decide on the minority status of Jain religion.
$&AT INORITY STATUS $ILL EAN FOR JAINS(
• Tenants dwelling in prime properties of Jain temples for years may have to vacate these0
• 1overnment interference in institutions and trusts of the community will cease to exist0
• There will be /+ per cent reservation for Jain
students in colleges run by the community2
• Jain students whose family)s annual income
goes up to 3s. 4./ la.h are eligible for
Centrally5sponsored scholarships, with
national minority status accorded by Union
government.
• The community, which comprises only a
fraction of India)s population, now stands at a
par with five other minority communities 6
&uslims, !i.hs, Christians, -uddhists and
7arsis. It will avail of exclusive schemes run by
the ministry of minority affairs.
• -esides, Jains can teach culture and religion
in their institutions and see. government
funding for land.
JAINS IN IN#IA)
• There are about five million Jains in India, mostly in &aharashtra, 3ajasthan, &adhya 7radesh, 1ujarat,
8arnata.a, Uttar 7radesh and 9elhi.
• Though ,, states have given the minority community status, for the past six decades, Jains have been
demanding the Union government, too, do so. fter many twists, turns and legal hurdles, the move was
finally cleared by the Union cabinet. The literacy rate among Jains is about :+ per cent.
• ;ne should not confuse the issue of minority status with that of reservation in jobs and education institutes
such as IITs #Indian Institutes of Technology$ and II&s #Indian Institutes of &anagement$. The latter is only
for people who fall under the categories of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and ;ther -ac.ward Classes.
Jains are financially sound and most of them are out of these categories.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

' www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
CAPITAL PUNIS&ENT
S& &?::9T(S /(AT@ S(6T(6&( %?. 1'
• In a landmar. judgment, the !upreme Court in Shatr#ghan Cha#han . Anr& Vers#s /nion of In$ia . 0rs
held that unexplained and inordinate delay in deciding mercy plea of death row convicts will be a valid
ground for commutation of their death penalty to life imprisonment.
• In the process the Court declared its own judgment in 9evender 7al -hullar as per incuriam #delivered out of
error or ignorance$ and granted relief to ,/ petitioners including 4 aides of <eerappan. The principle that is
reaffirmed is that be they terrorists or murderers, their fundamental rights are not extinguished upon
conviction.
• /n$#e, inor$inate an$ #nreasonable $elay in e1ec#tion of $eath sentence does certainly attribute to
torture which indeed is in )iolation of Article 1 and thereby entails as the ground for commutation of
sentence. These grounds are applicable to all types of cases including the offences under T9.
IPLICATIONS
• It removes all lingering doubts about the rule against undue delay0
• It overturns the exception carved out in 9evendar 7al !ingh -hullar #"+,*$ for offences involving terrorism0
• It reminds jail authorities of the bar on .eeping death row convicts in solitary confinement before the
rejection of their mercy pleas0
• It lists mental illnesses and solitary confinement as new grounds for commutation.
• It mandates legal aid for convicts in drafting mercy petitions and exploring judicial remedies.
• It is necessary that the copies of relevant documents should be furnished to the prisoner within a wee. by
the prison authorities to assist in ma.ing mercy petition and petitioning the courts.
• 7rison authorities have to facilitate and allow a final meeting between the prisoner and his family and
friends prior to his execution.
• There should be a minimum period of ,4 days between the receipt of a written communication rejecting
the mercy petition by the convict and the scheduled date of execution.
(A(&9TI?6 ?% *@944A. STAB(/ *B S&
• !upreme Court bench stayed the execution of 8halistan =iberation >orce militant 9evinder 7al !ingh
-hullar, who is on a death row after being convicted in the ,::* 9elhi bomb blast case and agreed to review
its judgment by which it had rejected -ullar)s plea to commute his death sentence to life term.
• The four5judge bench of the apex court also issued notice to the Centre and 9elhi government on a curative
petition filed by -hullar)s wife %avneet 8aur.
• -hullar who is allegedly been suffering from a mental illness and is undergoing treatment at the Institute of
?uman -ehavior and llied !ciences #I?-!$, has been as.ed by the apex court to file a medical report
within a wee. on his health condition.
B&ULLAR CASE SO FAR
• In 2e)en$er 'al Singh ,h#llar )& State 0f N&C&%& 0f 2elhi, the convict had appealed to the 7resident for
clemency in "++*. The 7resident, after a lapse of over eight years, dismissed his mercy plea in "+,,.
• -hullar had sought commutation of his death penalty to life sentence by the !upreme Court on the ground
that there was inordinate delay by the 7resident over his plea for clemency.
• two Judge -ench by an order dated ,"th pril "+,* dismissed his plea holding that long delay as one of
the grounds for commutation of the sentence of death into life imprisonment cannot be invo.ed in cases
where a person is convicted for offence under T9 or similar statutes.
• Two wee.s later in Mahen$ra Nath 2as )& /nion of In$ia the same bench held that the convict)s death
sentence could be commuted to life imprisonment because much of the inordinate delay of ," years in the
rejection of his mercy petition by the 7resident was unexplained, and therefore, inexcusable.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

- www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ?owever, -hullar)s case got a new direction, with the larger bench verdict clarifying on "*rd January "+,4,
that unexplained and undue delay in deciding a mercy plea, as well as mental illness of a condemned
prisoner, were satisfactory grounds to commute the death sentence.
• =ast wee., !enior dvocate 8 T ! Tulsi, appearing for -hullar)s wife, mentioned the matter and pleaded the
court to direct his medical examination since he was suffering from mental illness. The court willingly
agreed to rush the hearing.
PRESI#ENTS PO$ER TO 'RANT ERCY
• In India, the deaths sentence is awarded in the @rarest of rareA cases and the punishment must be approved
by the !upreme Court, after which a convict can appeal to India)s president for clemency.
• Article 3 of the In$ian Constit#tion does confer on the 7resident the power to grant mercy, but in the
exercise of these powers, the 7resident is not supposed to act on his or her own judgment but is mandated
to act in accordance with the aid and advice of the 1overnment in terms of rticle B4 of the Constitution.
• The 7resident, under the Constitution, can return a recommendation to the government for reconsideration
only once0 if the government resubmits it then it is binding on the 7resident. The only thing heCshe can do is
to .eep it pending for inordinate time period as no time limit has been prescribed for the same.
• ?owever, the 7resident cannot act on the advice of a ?ome &inister who is no longer in office, especially if
the advice is to reject a mercy petition. !o when a new ?ome &inister ta.es office the 7resident reDuests
the &? to re5examine the merits of mercy pleas pending in his !ecretariat.
RI'&TS OF A #EAT& CONVICT
• convict sentenced to death has a constitutional right to petition the 7resident for relief against his
sentence, and the consideration of his petition is not an act of grace or mercy by the 7resident but a
necessary relief provided by the Constitution.
• 'ven after rejection of the mercy petition by the 7resident, the convict can approach a writ court for
commutation of the death sentence on the ground of supervening events, if available, and challenge the
rejection of the mercy petition.
• The right to see. commutation of a death sentence on the grounds of inordinate delay in disposing mercy
petitions has been granted by the !upreme Court)s five5judge Constitution -ench in Triveniben vs !tate of
1ujarat in ,:E:.
• 'arlier it was in %ri)eni ,en )& State of 4#5arat a constitution bench held that that undue long delay in
execution of the sentence of death will entitle the condemned person to approach this Court under rticle
*".
• The Court will only examine the nature of delay caused and circumstances that ensued after sentence was
finally confirmed by the judicial process and will have no jurisdiction to reopen the conclusions reached by
the court while finally maintaining the sentence of death.
• Court, however, may consider the Duestion of inordinate delay in the light of all circumstances of the case
to decide whether the execution of sentence should be carried out or should be altered into imprisonment
for life. %o fixed period of delay could be held to ma.e the sentence of death inexecutable.
JU#ICIAL REFORS
S&T? &9T /?W6 ?6 @?4I/ABS
• The apex court which still follows the -ritish legacy of two5month summer vacation, has decided to lessen
holidays to reduce the pendency list of the nation.
• The current provisions of the !upreme Court Judges #!alaries and Conditions of !ervice$ ct, ,:/E, for the
number of years a judge puts in the service, he is entitled to certain days of leave on full salary, certain
other offs on half salary, and some more days off on one Duarter salary.
• part from the apex court)s holidays and vacations, the individual judges are also entitled to their own
Duota of leave.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

0 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• There are more than F/,+++ cases in arrear this year. The 9elhi ?igh Court had calculated that 4F4 years
would be reDuired to clear the arrears with the present strength of the judges in the high court
S& S(TS A S+(&IA4 *(6&@ %?. &.I:I6A4 A++(A4S
• The Chief Justice of India, through a !upreme Court notification has ensured a creation of !pecial 3egular
-ench for Criminal ppeals to hear cases pending since ,::: involving interpretation of important Duestion
of law.
• !upreme Court stands as a criminal appellate body deriving its powers from article ,"4, ,*"5,*F of the
Constitution. <arious laws li.e the criminal procedure code and other special laws also envision the pex
Court to be the final appellate body.
• This power of appeal that the court exercises is a limited one. nd yet lately the !upreme Court has been
functioning more li.e an appellate body rather than deciding matters of constitutional importance, with
such matters being less than ,G of the cases disposed.
• There have been various attempts to create special benches to ensure speedy disposal of cases. =ast year
witnessed the creation of special !upreme Court benches for women and children, those awaiting death
row and also a special constitutional bench.
SC ON #I*S&ITARS+ RI'&T TO ANA'E TEPLE
• The !upreme Court Duashed the Tamil %adu 1overnment)s >ebruary "++: order appointing an 'xecutive
;fficer to manage the affairs and properties of the Chidambaram %atarajar temple.
• -ench of Justices upheld, that the right of the 9i.shitars to manage the temple could not be ta.en away
by the government.
• The -ench accepted the contention of 7odu 9i.shitars that they were a religious denomination as per
Article 6 of the Constit#tion, 78hich g#arantees right to establish an$ maintain instit#tions for religio#s
p#rposesA.
• Justice Chauhan pointed out that the right to manage the temple by the 9i.shitars had been recognised by
the !upreme Court in its judgment in ,:/" and it could not be ta.en away.
• The -ench faulted the &adras ?igh Court for re5opening the issue of whether 7odu 9i.shitars were a
religious denomination or not, even after the matter had been res 5#$icata #already been decided$.
• ;n the !tate government)s contention that it had a right to interfere when there was mismanagement, the
-ench said such interference could only be for a short period.
SC ON #NA TESTS
• !upreme Court bench held 9% test as the accurate proof in a dispute over the parenthood of a child.
• The !upreme Court held the proof based on scientific advancement @must prevailA over the definite proof
envisioned under law and said it was correct to determine the parenthood of a person through a 9% test.
• It stressed that the result of 9% test was said to be scientifically accurate and it could not force a man to
bear the fatherhood of a child when the scientific reports prove to the contrary.
T&E PARENTAL TEST
• 9% 7aternity test examines certain loci #regions$ on the chromosome. Comparing the 9% seDuence of a
child to that of an alleged father can show if the child)s 9% was derived from that man or not.
• Hhen possible, the mother should also be included in the testing, since she can provide additional genetic
information and simplify the testing process. -ut paternity can still be chec.ed without the mother)s 9%.
• The father)s identity is confirmed before the baby is born with prenatal testing.
NE$ FRAE$OR* FOR TV RATIN'S
• The Union Cabinet cleared a comprehensive regulatory framewor. proposed by the Information I
-roadcasting &inistry #II-$ for television rating agencies that includes procedures for registration, eligibility
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

> www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
norms, limits on cross5holdings, methodology for audience measurement, sale and use of ratings and a
complaint redress mechanism.
• The issue has been under review for several years now with Duestions being as.ed about the accuracy of
Television 3ating 7oints #T37s$ on the basis of which the visual media see.s advertisements and their rates.
• s per the new guidelines, which come into effect from the date of notification, all rating agencies, including
the existing ones, will have to obtain registration from the II- &inistry.
• %o single company or legal entity can either directly, or through its associatesCinterconnect underta.ings,
have substantial eDuity holding #,+ per cent or more of paid5up eDuity$ in both rating agencies and
broadcastersCadvertisersCadvertising agencies.
• 3atings have to be technology5neutral and should capture data across multiple viewing platforms including
cable television, direct5to5home television and terrestrial television.
• The guidelines also stipulate sample siJe for rating. To begin with, six months from the date of notification
the minimum panel siJe should be "+,+++.
• The panel siJe has to increase by ,+,+++ annually till it reaches /+,+++. !ecrecy and privacy of the panel
homes has to be maintained.
• -esides an effective complaint redress system with a toll free number, the rating companies have to set up
an internal audit mechanism to get its entire methodology audited internally on a Duarterly5basis and
through an independent auditor annually.
• ll audit reports have to be put on the website of the rating agency with the government and the T3I
reserving the right to audit their systems and procedures.
• There are also punitive provisions, including cancellation of registration and forfeiture of ban. guarantees
up to 3s. , crore, in the case of non5compliance.
TELEVISION RATIN' POINT ,TRP-
• Television 3ating 7oint #T37$ is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives
us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel.
• >or calculation purpose, a device is attached to the T< set in a few thousand viewersK houses for judging
purpose. These numbers are treated as sample from the overall T< owners in different geographical and
demographic sectors.
• The device is called as 7eopleKs &eter. It records the time and the programme that a viewer watches on a
particular day. Then, the average is ta.en for a *+5day period which gives the viewership status for a
particular channel.
NE$ 'UI#ELINES FOR P&ONE INTERCEPTION
No./ C $his issue contains detailed guidelines issued 'y the go*t.= #hich may not 'e asked directly in e6am. Ao#e*er= they
are important for understandingof procedure in such cases.
• The Union government has announced a fresh set of procedures for interception of telephones 5 @!tandard
;perating 7rocedures #!;7$ for =awful Interception and &onitoring of Telecom !ervice 7roviders #T!7$A.
• ccording to the norms, reDuests would include interception and monitoring under the Indian Telegraph
ct, ,EE/, for voice, !&!, 173!, &&!, <ideo and <oI7 calls.
• dditionally, authorised security agencies can see. information under !ection :" of the Criminal 7rocedure
Code #Cr7C$ of call records #C93s$, home and roaming networ., C93 by tower location and by callingCcalled
number, location details of target number within home or roaming networ., and so on.
• ;ne specification detailed in the section @<alidation of Interception 3eDuestA is that only the Chief %odal
;fficer of a telecom company can provide interception if the order is issued by the @!ecretary to the
1overnment of India in the ?ome &inistry, in case of 1overnment of India, or a !ecretary to the !tate
1overnment in charge of ?ome 9epartment, in case of !tate 1overnment.A In unavoidable circumstances,
such orders can be issued by an officer @not below the ran. of Joint !ecretary to the 1;I who has been fully
authorised by the Union ?ome !ecretary or the !tate ?ome !ecretary.A
• Interception is subject to eight chec.s before monitoring is allowed. These include receiving the reDuest @in
a sealed envelopeA, ensuring the delivery of interception by @an officer not below the ran. of sub5inspector
of police or eDuivalent.A
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

D www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ny inDuiry process could, under the new !;7, chec. @whether the reDuest was in original and addressed to
the %odal ;fficerA and from which @designated security agencyA it came from.
• The !;7 mandates that, any @reDuest received by telephone, !&! and fax, should not be accepted under
any circumstances.A This would mean that the government concerned would have to produce an original
copy of its reDuest that bears @the UnionC!tate !ecretary)s order number with dateA, or an order and date
by an officer of the ran. of @Joint !ecretary who has been duly authorisedA. %on5compliance with the
provisions can result in prosecution @as per the law of the landA.
• The !;7 reDuire that records pertaining to such interception, such as letter and envelope, intercept form
and internal interception reDuest form should be @destroyed within " months of discontinuance of
interception of such messages.A
• If, however, it is a case of @emergent reDuest where ?ome &inistry ;rder for approval was not conveyed to
the telecom company, then the telecom company cannot destroy such records until the ?ome &inistry
order is conveyed or a list of such numbers is provided to the concerned ?ome !ecretary intimating this
fact.A
• n inDuiry could see. to find out whether @an ac.nowledgement was sent within " hours of the receipt of
the LinterceptionM reDuest, to the reDuesting agency confirming that the reDuest has been complied withA,
from the mobile operator.
• @The date and time of the actual provisioning of target in the T!7 networ.A should be mentioned, too.
• part from the nine Central agencies 6 namely, the I-, the %C-, the 9', the C-9T, the 93I, the C-I, the %I,
3H and the 9efence &inistry 6 !tate 9irectors51eneral of 7olice and the Commissioner of 7olice in 9elhi,
are authorised to reDuest intercepts.
'UJARAT0BASE# SNOOPIN' SCAN#AL
• !ignificantly, this comes after the Central government set up a commission to inDuire into the 1ujarat5based
snooping scandal.
• The confusion in the case of the 1ujarat5based snooping case, over whether the Union ?ome !ecretary)s
permission is reDuired to intercept a subscriber roaming out of the !tate stands clarified. ccording to the
new !;7 document, @the interception order of the !tate ?ome !ecretary in which the subscriber is
registered should be honoured by the !tate in which the subscriber is roamingA. In effect, no new order
from a second !tate that may be involved, or from the Union ?ome !ecretary, is needed. ?owever,
evidence under the new !;7 will need to be provided to the effect that a formal reDuest was made to the
other !tate for interception while roaming.
• ny inDuiry process will eventually boil down to whether or not the entire paper trail, both internal and
between the government and telecom operators with appropriate internal justification and full compliance
existed prior to interception.
TRIBUNALS UN#ER NE$ COPANIES ACT
$&Y IN NE$S (
• The !upreme Court as.ed the Centre to reply on a petition, which sought to declare as ultra vires of the
Constitution some of the provisions of the new Companies ct.
• These provisions of the new Companies ct are related to the %ational Company =aw Tribunal #%C=T$ and
the ppellate Tribunal.
CRITICIS
• The aim of these provisions is to provide post retirement employment to several civil servants with the
alleged purpose of creating a specialiJed tribunal dealing with corporate laws.
• ccording to the association)s petition, the structure of the present tribunal is such, that no advocate or
chartered accountant would prefer to be elected as a member, as there are degrading conditions in the
draft rules for the chairperson and members of the tribunal.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The association, in its plea expressed the immediate need to stri.e down Chapter NN<II of the Companies
ct, "+,*, as it would abolish the independence of the judiciary and continue with the evil practice of
creating tribunals in the place of the high courts and convert them into departments of the respective
ministries.
• The !upreme Court has constantly emphasiJed for the need to separate the tribunals from executive and
political interference and influence.
• The petition stated the danger of the judiciary being replaced by a multitude of Duasi5judicial tribunals,
which function as departments of various ministries.

LS NEE# NOT BE #ISSOLVE# BEFORE POLL ANNOUNCEENT
• s the 'lection Commission is gearing up its machinery for holding elections to the ,Fth =o. !abha during
pril5&ay "+,4, in at least seven phases, it is stated that dissolution of the existing ,/th =o. !abha is not
necessary prior to poll announcement.
• The present =o. !abha has term till &ay *, and the new ?ouse has to be constituted before that.
PAST PRACTICE
• The <ajpayee government, which wanted to have an early poll in "++4, recommended dissolution of the
,*th =o. !abha with effect from >ebruary F, "++4 itself though the ?ouse had term till ;ctober ,: of that
year.
• The present &anmohan !ingh government, during its earlier rule in "++45"++:, had recommended
dissolution of the ,4th =o. !abha only after poll results were declared in the third wee. of &ay "++:.
• 7rior to the dissolution of the =o. !abha, both the %9 and the U75I governments had reconvened
7arliament, which was not prorogued then but had only been adjourned sine die after the winter session, to
pass @the vote on accountA and the @interim railway budgetA so that the administration could be run for a
few months until the next government presented the full5fledged generalCrailway budgets.
• The ?ouse can be reconvened after the 7arliamentary ffairs &inistry sends a reDuest to the =o. !abha
!pea.er and the 3ajya !abha Chairman and at least two days) notice is reDuired to be given to members.
-oth the ?ouses of 7arliament were adjourned sine die on 9ecember ,E after a brief winter session.
#ISSOLUTION OF T&E LO*SAB&A
• O9issolutionO of the ?ouse means the end of the life of the =o. !abha either by an order made by the
7resident under article E/ #"$ #b$ of the Constitution or on the expiration of the period of five years from the
date appointed for its first meeting.
• 9issolution puts an end to the representative character of the individuals who at the time compose the =o.
!abha.
'OO'LE+S PROPOSAL FOR VOTER RE'ISTRATION TOOL REJECTE#
• The 'lection Commission turned down the proposal of the U.!. based internet search engine 1oogle to have
an @electoral loo. up services for citiJensA.
• 1oogle made a presentation to the Commission for electoral loo. up services for citiJens to help in its
efforts for better electoral information services. ?owever, after due consideration, the Commission has
decided not to pursue the proposal any further.
• The 1oogle)s presentation was about @changing the way users access their electoral information, that is
publicly available, which would ma.e their experience simpler, faster and consistent through a national
online loo.5up tool.A
• @%o private information changes hands 6 this is all about ma.ing public information that)s already on the
Heb more useful to the publicA, claimed 1oogle.
• 1oogle had already helped governments of some countries to ma.e their public election information more
accessible to voters.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ?owever, the defence experts and the intelligence agencies are too worried about the growing clout of
1oogle and its explicit merican connections in view of the U.!. %ational !ecurity gency)s snooping
activities in India.
• 'arlier in another case, an >I3 had been lodged with the approval of the 1overnment of India by the
!urveyor51eneral of India in 9elhi against the security violations by 1oogle India private limited relating to
national map restriction policy by as.ing users to add information about their local area for its online map
services. In "+,,, police in -angalore ordered 1oogle to suspend a !treet <iew service over security
concerns, three wee.s after the company started collecting images from the city.
TELAN'ANA BILL
$&Y IN NE$S(
• ndhra 7radesh legislature rejected the Telangana bill by voice vote, capping days of acrimonious drama
and embarrassing Congress, but posing no real hurdle in the way of creation of the new state. LFor detailed
provisions of this bill, please refer to the current affairs notes of Dec, !"#M
• 9ominated by !eemandhra &=s, numbering ,F+ in the house with an effective strength of "B:, including
the spea.er and the chief minister, the assembly discarded the Centre5bac.ed 7 3eorganisation -ill "+,*,
on which no division was ta.en.
• The ?ouse while rejecting the 7 3eorganisation -ill, "+,*, resolves to reDuest the ?onourable 7resident of
India not to recommend it for introduction in 7arliament as the -ill see.s to bifurcate the state of ndhra
7radesh without any reasonCbasis and without arriving at a consensus, in utter disregard to the linguistic
and cultural homogeneity and economic and administrative viability of both regions.
• The -ill, which see.s to create a separate state of Telangana, was referred to the legislature by the
7resident under rticle * of the Constitution for eliciting its views and it is not incumbent upon the Centre
to go by the opinion of the legislature.
*ARBI AN'LON' CLAS&ES
• The 8arbi and 3engma %aga tribes have been ta.ing shelter in relief camps after they were forced to leave
their homes due to violent clashes between the ethnic insurgent 8arbi 7eople)s =iberation Tigers #87=T$ and
the 3engma %aga ?ills 7rotection >orce #3%?7>$.
BAC*'ROUN#
• The 87=T is a brea.away faction of the ethnic insurgent 8arbi =ongri %.C. ?ills =iberation >ront #8=%=>$.
• The 8=%=> is demanding a separate !tate comprising two hill districts 6 8abri nglong and 9ima ?asao and
is now engaged in tal.s with the Centre and the !tate government.
• Hhen the 8=%=> signed the !uspension of ;peration agreement with the Centre and the ssam
government, about "+ cadres of the outfit parted ways and formed the 87=T in "+,+.
• The 87=T has been demanding the creation of a ?empre. 8anthim #self5ruled homeland$ for the 8arbi
people.
• The 8=%=> was a brea.away faction of the erstwhile insurgent outfit United 7eople)s 9emocratic !olidarity.
• The 3%?7> was formed in "+," for protection of the 3engma %agas from 87=T attac.s. The outfit has been
demanding the creation of a regional council for the 3engma %agas of 8arbi nglong.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ECONOY
IN#IAN ECONOY
.*I .AIS(S .(+? .AT(
• 3eserve -an. of India 1overnor 3aghuram 3ajan raised the .ey repo rate, choosing once again to confound
expectations while renewing focus on inflation as also the threat stemming from the wea.ening of the
rupee amid a selloff that has rippled through emerging mar.ets.
• The repo rate, at which ban.s borrow short5term money from 3-I, was raised by "/ basis points, or +."/
percentage point, to E per cent.
• The reverse repo, at which 3-I borrows from ban.s, was raised "/ basis points to B per cent.
• The marginal standing facility, the penal rate of interest for ban.s, was raised "/ basis points to : per cent
to maintain the corridor.
• Indian bonds, stoc.s and the rupee fell after the rate hi.e but soon recovered most losses on the bac. of the
dovish statement. The benchmar. ,+5year bond yield which rose as much as : basis points following the
hi.e, retreated entirely to continue trading down / bps on the day at E.B" per cent.
• The cash reserve ratio was unchanged at 4 per cent.
$ORL# TREN#S AT T&E SAE TIE
• 3-IKs decision came amid worldwide mar.et turmoil spar.ed by fears of the U! scaling bac. its stimulus
programmes more sharply than expected, concerns that the Chinese economy may falter and a devaluation
of rgentinaKs peso raising the prospect of a contagion effect.
• Tur.eyKs lira fell for ,+ days in a row before the central ban. stepped in to call a meeting on the issue,
leading to the currency recovering on expectations that the countryKs central ban. will raise rates
effectively.
RBI+S REASONS
• Tighter policy action aimed at puncturing the inflation balloon will help revive growth, although industry has
been pushing for the opposite.
• There is enough liDuidity in the system, so there will be no immediate increase in deposit and lending rates.
• -an.s have seen huge inflows in the form of >C%3 deposits and they are loo.ing at opportunities at
deploying those funds.
• There was also a warning that If 3-I wants to .noc. out core inflation, the policy rate will li.ely have to be
hi.ed further.
• It is noted that bringing down inflation to a low and stable level that monetary policy can contribute to
reviving consumption and investment in a sustainable way.
1/+ 1.?WT@ 4I7(4B T? *( .(VIS(/ 9+WA./
• India set to declare that the slowdown in the economy has been overstated owing to faulty official data.
• It will soon peg the advanced estimate for gross domestic product #197$ growth during the current financial
year at / per cent.
• >or the last two financial years, the previous estimates will be revised upwards to B per cent5plus for "+,,5
," and between /./ per cent and F per cent for "+,"5,* by the end of this month.
• India remains one of the fast growing large economies of the world and it has grown at
o E.F per cent in "++:5,+
o :.* per cent in "+,+5,,
o F." per cent in "+,,5,".
• 197 growth during the first six months of the current fiscal was 4.F per cent. >or the whole year)s growth
rate to be / per cent, the rate during ;ctober "+,*5&arch "+,4 will have to be /.4 per cent.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

13 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The >irst 3evised 'stimate for "+,,5," 197 growth rate of F." per cent is being revised to more than B per
cent as faulty data had earlier underestimated industrial output by about B percentage points.
W?.4/ *A67 1.?WT@ %?.(&AST
• The global economy is estimated to expand at *."G this year from ".4G in "+,*, with growth pic.ing up in
developing countries and high5income economies, the Horld -an. said. ?owever, it lowered its India
expectations to F."G from an earlier estimate of F./G
• 1rowth prospects, however, remain vulnerable to U! tapering, the global lender said in its semi5annual
1lobal 'conomic 7rospects report.
• 1lobal 197 growth is expected to stabilise at *.4G and *./G in "+,/ and "+,F, respectively, the Horld -an.
said.
$&AT IT &OL#S FOR IN#IA(
• The development ban.Ks flagship publication, 1lobal 'conomic 7rospects, expects the economy to expand
F."G in "+,45,/, after hitting a ,,5year low of 4.EG in the current year, down from last yearKs /G.
• 1rowth in India will be led by recovery in global demand and an increase in domestic investment, but
warned that these forecasts faced downside ris.s from the general election in a few months that could
potentially undermine the sustained revival of business confidence and investment.
• =ac. of progress in reducing supply5side constraints #particularly in the electricity, infrastructure and
agricultural sectors$ could also pose significant downside ris. to the outloo..
• The withdrawal of the U! >ederal 3eserveKs stimulus programme isnKt li.ely to have too much of an impact
on investment in India.
.*I (AS(S 6?.:S %?. 1?4/ /?.( I:+?.TS
• The 3eserve -an. partly eased restrictions on import of gold dore by allowing refineries to import ,/ per
cent of their gross annual reDuirement in first two months and remaining as per export performance.
• !ubseDuent to this, the Duantum of gold dore to be imported should be determined lot5wise on the basis of
export performance.
• The central ban. further said before the next import, not more than E+ per cent should be allowed to be
sold domestically. The dore so imported shall be refined and shall be released based on >I>; basis following
"+2E+ principle.
BAC*'ROUN#
• mid widening Current ccount 9eficit and sliding rupee, the both 3-I and 1overnment had imposed curbs
on gold imports.
• In ugust, the 3-I had imposed curbs on gold imports and lin.ed it with exports. ccordingly, "+ per cent, of
every lot of gold imported had to be exclusively made available for exports and the balance #E+ per cent$ for
domestic use.
• Under >I>; methodology, the oldest entry, or bottom of the stac., is processed first.
• dor$ bar is a semi5pure alloy of gold and silver, usually created at the site of a mine. It is then transported
to a refinery for further purification.
(AT(.6A4 /(*T /.?+S
• The cover provided to India)s total external debt stoc. by foreign exchange reserves dropped from B* per
cent at end5&arch to F:.* per cent at end5!eptember. The total external debt stoc. stood at P4++.* billion
at end5!eptember, or P: million less than that at end5&arch, as per official data.
• ;f the total, ,:.* per cent or PBB.* billion was sovereign external debt. It has come down from PE,.B billion
at end5&arch. Component5wise, the share of commercial borrowings stood highest at *".* per cent of total
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
external debt, followed by non5resident Indians deposits #,E.E per cent$ and multilateral debt #,*., per
cent$.
• The long5term debt was BF.* per cent or P*+/./ billion and the balance short5term. The share of dollar5
denominated debt continued to be the highest in the external debt stoc. at F+.B per cent, followed by the
rupee #"+.: per cent$ and other currencies.
• The ratio of concessional debt to total external debt was ,,./ per cent at end5!eptember "+,* as compared
to ,,.4 per cent at end5&arch "+,*.
• The rupee)s depreciation against the dollar resulted in a change of P,+.: billion in the valuation of the debt
stoc., and thus causing the decline. 'xcluding the valuation effect, the external debt would have been
higher at P4,,." billion.
• The prudent external debt management policy of the 1overnment of India has helped in containing rise in
external debt and maintaining a comfortable external debt position.
#EFINITIONS
• %&ternal debt is the portion of a countryKs debt that was borrowed from foreign lenders including
commercial ban.s, governments or international financial institutions. These loans, including interest, must
usually be paid in the currency in which the loan was made.
• In order to earn the needed currency, the borowing country may sell and export goods to the lenderKs
country. The infamous 'debt crisis' occurs when some wea. economy is unable to do so, or can only do it at
unacceptably high social and environmental costs.
• n e&ternal commercial borrowing (%)*+ is an instrument used to facilitate the access to foreign money by
Indian corporations and 7!Us.
• 'C-s include commercial ban. loans, buyersK credit, suppliersK credit, securitised instruments such as
floating rate notes and fixed rate bonds etc., credit from official export credit agencies and commercial
borrowings from the private sector window of multilateral financial Institutions.
• 'C-s cannot be used for investment in stoc. mar.et or speculation in real estate.
F#I RELATE# ISSUES
4I*(.A4IEATI?6 ?% %/I +?4I&B I6/I&AT(/
• The 1overnment indicated further liberalisation of the >9I #foreign direct investment$ policy in the coming
wee.s to attract foreign investments into the country.
• =ast year, the 1overnment has relaxed foreign direct investment #>9I$ norms in several sectors such as
telecom, defence, 7!U oil refineries, commodity bourses, power exchanges and stoc. exchanges.
• It is now wor.ing to relax >9I norms in railways and construction activities. 9uring pril5;ctober this fiscal,
India attracted >9I worth P,".F billion, a decline of ,/ per cent over the same period last year.
• Hith these further liberaliJations a greater push for the development of industrial corridors across the
country is expected.
• The wor. will commence shortly for establishment of the first few cities along the 9elhi5 &umbai Industrial
Corridor #9&IC$. The P:+5billion 9&IC project is aimed at creating mega industrial infrastructure along the
9elhi5&umbai 3ail >reight Corridor, which is under implementation.
• Japan is providing financial and technical aid for the project, which will cover seven states totalling ,,4E*
.m.
I6/IA T? S((7 %/I I6 .AI4 6(TW?.7
• India will soon invite foreign businesses to help expand its once5mighty but now outdated railways, in a
move that would mar. the opening up of one of the country)s last great state5controlled industries.
• >oreign investors will be allowed to fully own new services in suburban areas, high5speed trac.s, and
connections to ports, mines and power installations.
• 'xisting passenger and freight networ. operations will not be open to foreign investors under the initiative,
which see.s to ease bottlenec.s that slow travel on the world)s fourth5largest rail system.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1' www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The plan is to allow ,++ per cent foreign direct investment in suburban corridors, high5speed train systems,
freight line projects implemented through public5private partnership.
• 'stablished under -ritish colonial rule, IndiaKs vast train networ. has been overta.en by ChinaKs rapid rail
expansion over the past two decades.
• Indian train travel is very cheap, and transports some "/ million passengers daily. >reight charges are
pegged far higher to subsidiJe the passenger services, driving much cargo transport onto clogged roads.
• The reform, which does not need parliamentary approval, has been agreed by the railways, industry and
finance ministries, and has been submitted for consideration by the Cabinet, which could sign off on it as
soon as possible.
ANALYSIS
• India has opened industries including retail, civil aviation, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications and
defence to foreign investors in recent years, with the goal of improving the nationKs finances and driving
economic growth.
• The liberalisation has had mixed results, with supermar.ets especially complaining that red tape, politics
and corruption ma.e it difficult to do business in India.
• >9I inflows during the pril5;ctober period were down ,/ percent from a year earlier at P,".F billion,
despite the opening of new sectors.
• The involvement of foreign firms in the main rail networ. is currently restricted to exporting rolling stoc.,
signalling systems and engines to Indian 3ailways, a state5run behemoth that employs around ,.4 million
people.
• Trade unions and many political parties oppose allowing foreign investment in railways, and Chinese
participation in particular could raise suspicion in security circles.
• India, which fought a brief war with China in ,:F", is cautious about its growing role in the Indian economy.
• In the past, the government of 7rime &inister &anmohan !ingh has bac.ed off liberalisation policies in the
face of public and political opposition.
• In ;ctober, India rejected bids from two Chinese companies C!3 Corp and China C%3 Corp #F+,"::.!!$ to
set up locomotive plants under the public5private partnership model.
• Current policy only allows direct foreign investment in urban metro projects.
• ny investors in building trac. will still have to overcome the administrative hurdles such as project
approvals and land disputes that meant investment by private Indian companies in railways has not met
government goals.
• In the five5year period to pril "+,", the railways only saw 4 percent of P,F billion investment targeted
through public5private partnerships.
• 1eneral 'lectric Co #1'.%$, the worldKs largest ma.er of diesel locomotives, said it would prefer a public5
private partnership to ma.e locomotives with Indian 3ailways for new projects, but despite a lot of
discussion, Oprogress has been very slowO.
• 1', which has operated in India since ,:+" and it has submitted a formal proposal to manufacture
locomotives in India and was also trying to sell its train signalling and speed control products for various
subway projects around the nation.
%/I I6 (AISTI61 +@A.:A 96ITS
• 1overnment decided to retain the policy of allowing ,++ per cent foreign investment in the existing pharma
firms, brushing aside concerns about non5 availability of affordable drugs in view of &%Cs ta.eovers.
• It has as.ed for a reduction in the >9I cap to 4: per cent from ,++ per cent in rare or critical pharma
verticals.
• The government cleared the 3s /,,FE5crore deal of the U!5based &ylan Inc for acDuiring -angalore5based
pharma firm gila !pecialties, a subsidiary of !trides rcolab.
• In "++E, Japanese firm 9aiichi !an.yo had bought out the countryKs largest drug ma.er 3anbaxy for P4.F
billion. U!5based bbot =aboratories had acDuired 7iramal ?ealth CareKs domestic business for P*.B billion.
• India permits ,++ per cent >9I in pharma through automatic approval route in the greenfield, or new
projects.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1- www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
#IPP NORS AN# ANALYSIS
• The 9epartment of Industrial 7olicy and 7romotion #9I77$ said however that as far as the contentious issue
of non9 compete cla#se is concerned, the >oreign Investment 7romotion -oard #>I7-$ will ta.e a view on it
on case5by5case basis.
• The freshly issued press note has restricted use of non5compete clauses in both 1reenfield and -rownfield
projects.
• The 9I77 had earlier proposed stringent norms to tighten the >oreign 9irect Investment #>9I$ policy for the
sector.
• The continuous acDuisition of Indian pharma companies will severely impact availability and affordability of
generic medicines in the country.
• 9I77 had said that over :F per cent of the total >9I in the sector between pril "+," and pril "+,* has
come into the brownfield pharma, or existing projects and companies.
NON0COPETE CLAUSE
• The non5compete clause is a standard feature of mergers5acDuisitions. This clause restricts a party from
competing with a business after termination of employment or completion of a business sale for a fixed
time.
• Hhen bbott =aboratories acDuired 7iramal ?ealthcare)s domestic formulations business, it signed an E
year non5compete agreement. This agreement prohibited promoters of 7iramal ?ealth care to enter into
similar business for E years.
• This duration of fixed period can be different from one agreement to another. It is not necessarily E years
for all non5compete agreements
%/I I6 .(TAI4
• Hhy in %ewsQ
• The Centre has rejected the 9elhi government)s proposed de5notification of >9I in the !tate.
• fter >9I in retail was notified by the &inistry in a !tate, the powers to de5notify it were with the Centre,
and not with the !tate government.
• 9e5notifying the >9I policy in 9elhi, for it will send out a wrong signal to foreign investors that India is an
unpredictable banana republic .
• !tates will be given an option to decide if they would li.e >9I in retail. ;nce they say (yes) and the Industry
&inistry notifies it, there can be no reversals.
• s the !hops and 'stablishments ct empowers the 9elhi government to regulate retailers, the sources
said, the 9elhi government could bar them from certain parts of the city. -ut, even under this ct, they may
not be able to bloc. >9I in retail as @a !tate government)s regulations cannot discriminate between foreign
and domestic investors .
• The previous 9elhi government has approved >9I in 9elhi. -ut the am admi 7arty government had
decided to de5notify >9I in retail.
%/I I6 %A.: 4A6/
• The U7 1overnment has formed a three5member Cabinet committee to examine the possibility of opening
up agricultural land to >oreign 9irect Investment #>9I$, following a Union Urban 9evelopment #U9$ &inistry
proposal on letting foreign realtors buy agricultural land.
• t present, >9I is banned in farm land. >urther, Indian ban.ing rules disallow loans for the purchase of farm
land even for domestic investors R except in the case of large5siJed projects Rto safeguard against
speculative land acDuisition and hoarding.
• The U9 &inistry)s argument is that as farm land is already being acDuired for township development,
permitting >9I will only help raise more funds for the purpose. 3eal estate developers will, in any case, be
applying for land use change after acDuiring farm land, the &inistry has said.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

10 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Hhen the proposal was put forth by the U9 &inistry, the department of industrial policy and promotion
#9I77$ declined to comment and said the decision rests with the 3eserve -an. of India.
• There were concerns from other &inistries over relaxation of norms, so the Cabinet has decided that a
three5member sub5committee will ta.e a call on the issue.
RBI OVES TO CURB BLAC* ONEY
• In a move that is li.ely to hit currency hoarders and counterfeiters, the 3eserve -an. of India #3-I$ has
decided to withdraw from circulation all currency notes issued prior to "++/.
• @>rom pril ,, the public will be reDuired to approach ban.s for exchanging these notes. -an.s will provide
exchange facility for these notes until further communication,)) the 3-I said, clarifying that notes issued
before "++/ would continue to be legal tender.
• The public can easily identify the notes to be withdrawn as the notes issued before "++/ do not have on
them the year of printing on the reverse side.
• >rom July ,, however, those wanting to exchange more than ,+ pieces of /++ and ,+++ rupee notes in a
ban. where they do not have an account will have to provide proof of residence and identity. The 3-I)s
move will have the effect of flushing out blac. money, according to ban.ers.
• The 3-I announcement would leave currency hoarders with no option but to liDuidate their unaccounted
holdings by spending or exchanging them. The move is a well thought out exercise by the 3-I to capture the
SSmoney flows)) into the system and also help flush out counterfeit notes.
• %otes issued after "++/ have added security features that ma.e counterfeiting difficult.
• 3eserve -an. of India 1overnor 3aghuram 3ajan sought to Duell fears over the decision to withdraw all pre5
"++/ currency notes from pril ,, "+,4, saying the 3-I notification was not aimed at demonetisation.
• ssuring the people that such currency notes would continue to be legal tender.
• It is only that the pre5"++/ currency notes can be easily forged, while the new currency notes being printed
now have more security features.
REPORT OF COITTEE ON FINANCIAL BENC&AR*S
• Committee on >inancial -enchmar.s, headed by 3eserve -an. of India 'xecutive 9irector 7. <ijaya
-has.ar, has suggested increased role for the apex ban. for the oversight of the benchmar. setting process.
• The committee was set up in the aftermath of revelations regarding manipulations of several .ey global
benchmar. rates, namely, =I-;3, 'U3I-;3 and TI-;3.
*EY RECOEN#ATIONS
• The committee has recommended a change in the way of determining the money mar.et benchmar.s so as
to remove any possible scope for manipulation.
• The report provides an in5depth analysis of the existing benchmar.5setting methodology and governance
framewor. of the major rupee interest rate and foreign exchange benchmar.s.
• The report, has recommended several measuresCprinciples to be followed to strengthen the benchmar.
Duality, setting methodology and governance framewor. of the benchmar. administrators, calculation
agents and submitters.
• -uilding on the cross5country experiences, the 3eport provides an in5depth analysis of the existing
benchmar. setting methodology and governance framewor. of the major Indian 3upee interest rate
benchmar.s and foreign exchange benchmar.s.
• Hhile the existing system was found generally satisfactory, the 3eport recommends several
measuresCprinciples to be followed to strengthen the benchmar. Duality, setting methodology and
governance framewor. of the -enchmar. dministrators, Calculation gents and !ubmitters.
• The 3eport reviews the existing regulatory powers of 3-I over the financial benchmar.s and recommends
suitable amendments of the 3-I ct, as a long term measure, to explicitly empower 3-I to determine policy
• Hith regard to benchmar.s used in &oney, 15sec, Credit and >oreign 'xchange mar.ets in India and to
issue binding directions to all the agencies involved in the benchmar. setting.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1> www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 7ending the amendments, the 3eport recommends appropriate regulatory and supervisory framewor. to
be put in place by 3-I for the above financial benchmar.s under its existing statutory powers.
• The committee feels that the 3-I could entrust the administration functions of the rupee interest rate and
foreign exchange benchmar.s to the >ixed Income &oney &ar.et and 9erivatives ssociation #>I&&9$
and the >oreign 'xchange 9ealersK ssociation of India #>'9I$, respectively.
• It has also favoured the setting up of an internal expert group to conduct periodic on5site inspection of the
benchmar. administrators and calculation agents, and also monitor their activities through an off5site
monitoring system.
RBI PANEL ON CRE#IT ACCESS TO ALL
• committee on comprehensi)e financial ser)ices for small b#sinesses an$ lo89income ho#sehol$s, set up
by the 3eserve -an. of India #3-I$, has suggested that each low5income household and small business
should be provided with convenient access to formally regulated lenders who have the ability to assess and
meet their credit needs and offer a full5range of suitable credit products at an affordable price.
• The committee, headed by Nachi+et Mor, Central -oard &ember of the 3-I, submitted its report. The
committee has set January ,, "+,F, as the deadline.
• ccording to the report, each district and every significant sector #and sub5sector$ of the economy would
have a credit to 197 ratio of at least ,+ per cent. This ratio would increase every year by ,+ per cent.
• The committee was hopeful that by January ,, "+,F, each district would have a total deposits and
investments to 197 ratio of at least ,/ per cent.
• The committee felt that everyone should have access to a range of insurance and ris. management
products at reasonable charges by January ,, "+,F. This will allow them to manage ris.s related to
commodity price movements, longevity, disability, and death of human beings, death of livestoc., rainfall
and damage to property.
• 'ach district should have a total term life insurance sum assured to 197 ratio of at least *+ per cent. This
ratio should increase every year by ,"./ per cent with the goal of reaching E+ per cent by January ,, "+"+.
• 'very resident should be issued a Universal 'lectronic -an. ccount #U'-$ automatically at the time of
receiving hisCher adhaar number.
• The committee said an instruction to open the ban.
account should be initiated by UniDue Identification
uthority of India #UI9I$ upon issuance of an adhaar
number to an individual over the age of ,E.
• ;n priority sector, the committee recommended
adjusted priority sector lending target of /+ per cent
against the current reDuirement of 4+ per cent with
sectoral and regional weightage based on the level of
difficulty in lending. It also recommended ris.s and
liDuidity transfers through mar.ets.
• ;n definition of non5ban.ing finance companies
#%->Cs$, the committee favoured two categories2 one
for core investment companies and another for all other
%->Cs.
• It advocated regulatory convergence between ban.s
and %->Cs based on the principle of neutrality with
regard to classification of non5performing assets and the
!ecuritisation and 3econstruction of >inancial ssets
and 'nforcement of !ecurity Interest #!3>'!I$ ct,
"++" eligibility.
• The committee suggested the creation of a state finance
regulatory commission #!>3C$. ll the existing !tate
1overnment5level regulators could be merged into it.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1D www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
PANEL TO REVIE$ 'OVERNANCE OF BAN* BOAR#S
• The 3eserve -an. of India constituted an expert committee to review governance of boards of ban.s under
the chairmanship of 7. J. %aya., former Chairman and C'; of xis -an..
• The Committee is expected to submit its report within three months from the date of its first meeting.
• The committee would review the regulatory compliance reDuirements of ban.s) boards in India, and judge
what could be rationalised and where reDuirements needed to be enhanced.
$&Y IS T&IS PANEL NECESSARY(
• The review is long overdue because the norms for ban. boards in India were formed when a set of ban.s
were nationaliJed and last nationaliJation too. place in ,:E+.
• The ban.ing agenda itself has changed It is time to change the scheme of nomination to a ban. board
because the business now involves different products and different .inds of people who are well5versed
with technology.
• The other terms of reference of the committee would be to analyse the representation on ban.s) boards to
see whether the boards have the appropriate mix of capabilities and the necessary independence to govern
the institution, and to investigate possible @conflicts of interestA in board representation, including among
owner representatives and regulators.
• It would also examine board compensation guidelines, and any other issue relevant to the functioning of
ban.s) boards and the governance they exercise.
#EPOSITOR E#UCATION AN# A$ARENESS FUN#
• The 3eserve -an. of India #3-I$, said that it would establish a fund to be called (9epositor 'ducation and
wareness >und), which would comprise unclaimed funds of depositors.
• 7ursuant to the amendment of The -an.ing =aws #mendment$ ct, "+,", !ection "F has been inserted in
the -an.ing 3egulation ct, ,:4:, that empowers the 3eserve -an. to establish a fund called 9epositor
'ducation and wareness >und .
REASONS BE&IN# CREATIN' T&E FUN#
• The >und will be created by ta.ing over inoperative deposit accounts which have not been claimed or
operated for ten years or more or any deposit or any amount remaining unclaimed for more than ,+ years
within three months from the expiry of the period of ten years.
• The >und would be utilised for promotion of depositors) interest and for such other purposes which may be
necessary for the promotion of depositors) interests as specified by the 3eserve -an. from time to time.
• The depositor would, however, be entitled to claim from the ban. his deposit or operate his account after
the expiry of ten years, even after the unclaimed deposit funds have been transferred to the >und.
• The ban. would be liable to pay the deposit amount to the depositor and claim refund of such amount from
the >und.
• The ban.ing company has paid outstanding amount or allowed operation of such account or deposit, such
ban.ing company may apply for refund of such amount in such manner as may be specified by the authority
or committee.
• The 3eserve -an. shall appoint a team, to administer the >und, and to maintain separate accounts and
other relevant records in relation to the >und in such forms as may be specified by the 3eserve -an..
• It shall be competent for the authority or committee to spend moneys out of the >und for carrying out the
objects for which the >und has been established.
RBI STAN#AR#ISES 'OL# LOAN NORS
• The 3eserve -an. of India #3-I$, said that it had been decided to prescribe a loan5to5value #=T<$ ratio of not
exceeding B/ per cent for ban.s) lending against gold jewellery, including bullet5repayment loans against
pledge of gold jewellery.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ?enceforth loans sanctioned by ban.s should not exceed B/ per cent of the value of gold ornaments and
jewellery.
• It has been decided that gold jewellery accepted as security C collateral will have to be valued at the average
of the closing price of "" carat gold for the preceding *+ days as Duoted by the India -ullion and Jewellers
ssociation =td.
• The 3-I had raised loan to value ratio to B/ per cent from F+ per cent. This was in view of moderation in the
growth of gold loan portfolios of non5ban.ing finance companies #%->Cs$ in the recent past.
• If the gold is of purity less than "" carats, the ban. should translate the collateral into "" carat and value the
exact grams of the collateral. In other words, jewellery of lower purity of gold shall be valued
proportionately.
• The central ban. reiterated that ban.s should continue to observe necessary and usual safeguards, and also
have a suitable policy for lending against gold jewellery with the approval of their boards of directors.
O$NERS&IP
• In view of the fact that it may not be possible for borrowers to produce receipts establishing ownership,
especially when the jewellery has been inherited.
• The 3-I clarified that the ownership verification need not necessarily be through original receipts for the
jewellery pledged.
• >or verification, a suitable document could be
prepared to explain how the ownership was
determined, particularly in cases where the gold
jewellery pledged by a borrower at any one time or
cumulatively on loan outstanding is more than "+
gm.
• %->Cs have been directed to put in place an explicit
policy in this regard.
PURITY
• The 3-I emphasised that the need to give a
certificate on the purity of gold cannot be dispensed
with.
• The certified purity shall be applied for determining
the maximum permissible loan and the reserve price
for auction.
• The %->Cs can, however, include suitable caveats to
protect themselves against disputes on redemption.
• This would standardise the valuation), and ma.e it
more transparent to the borrower.
RBI PANEL SU''ESTS 4 1 CPI INFLATION TAR'ET
• n expert committee headed by Urjit 3. 7atel, 9eputy 1overnor of the 3eserve -an. of India, appointe$ to
e1amine the c#rrent monetary policy frame8or+ of the :eser)e ,an+ of In$ia (:,I) has suggested that the
apex ban. should adopt the new C7I #consumer price index$ as the measure of the nominal anchor for
policy communication. The nominal anchor or the target for inflation should be set at 4 per cent with a band
of TC5 " per cent around it.
• The nominal anchor should be defined in terms of headline C7I inflation, which closely reflects the cost of
living and influences inflation expectations relative to other available metrics.
• This target should be set in the frame of a two5year horiJon that is consistent with the need to balance the
output costs of disinflation against the speed of entrenchment of credibility in policy commitment.
• 1iven the current elevated level of C7I inflation, it recommended a ,"5month target of E per cent and "45
month target of F per cent, before the inflation target is formally adopted.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The committee as.ed the Central 1overnment to ensure that the fiscal deficit as a ratio to 197 #gross
domestic product$ is brought down to *.+ per cent by "+,F5,B.
ONETARY POLICY COITTEE
• The 7atel panel felt that the monetary policy decision5ma.ing should be vested with a monetary policy
committee #&7C$.
• It went on to recommend that the 1overnor of the 3-I should be the Chairman of the &7C. It felt that the
9eputy 1overnor in5charge of monetary policy could be the <ice5Chairman. The 'xecutive 9irector in charge
of monetary policy could be its member. It could have two external members.
• The term of office of the &7C could be three years, without prospect of renewal.
• &inutes of the proceedings of the &7C will be released with a lag of two wee.s from the date of the
meeting.
CONCERNS
• It is premature to use the Consumer 7rice Index #C7I$ as anchor since the data had imperfections.
• Inflation targeting was done in countries which had more stable .ind of pricing. In India, it may be difficult
to do that .ind of targeting because that level of stability is not yet achieved in the prices where we can
curb certain volatilities or volatility in certain periods through a very specific targeting.
• !ome experts believe the panel recommendation for adopting monetary policy, which is centred on
inflation, will be a shift from traditional policyma.ing, and will also bring 3-I policy calibration closer to the
international practises.
• If the 3-I accepts the recommendations of the Urjit 7atel committee, interest rates are unli.ely to come
down in "+,45,/.
RETROSPECTIVE TA2ATION
• The Central 1overnment is yet to decide on the retrospective taxation issue.
• The government has accepted most of the recommendations on 1eneral nti5voidance 3ules #13$
suggested by the panel chaired by him. -ut the government is yet to accept the issue on retrospective
taxation
• !ince India followed the source5based taxation rule, it was imperative that transfer of shares of a company
abroad with assets in India be taxed, li.e what happened in the <odafone and I-& cases.
• 1iving a retrospective effect will send wrong signals to investors and cause uncertainty. It should be in the
rarest of rare cases.
• The government was wor.ing on a resolution which would be applicable to all companies facing this
problem.
• The government was also planning to include Controlled >oreign Companies #C>Cs$ within the 9irect Taxes
Code #9TC$ where Indian subsidiaries were operating abroad in low5tax jurisdictions. lso, thinly capitalised
companies, having more debt than eDuity, would be brought under 13.
• 13 would not be used as a tax generation tool, but to prevent erosion of the tax base by avoidance and
that the 9TC and the 1!T were li.ely to be introduced in "+,45,/ fiscal.
LAN# AC3UISITION ACT 201! COES INTO EFFECT
• The 3ight to >air Compensation and Transparency in =and cDuisition, 3ehabilitation and 3esettlement ct,
"+,*, commonly referred to as the =and cDuisition ct, came into effect from January ,, "+,4.
• The new legislation will guide all land acDuisitions of central and state governments, bringing in stricter
norms and increasing landowners) compensation significantly.
• The historic ct to replace a ,"+5year5old legislation and provide just and fair compensation to farmers was
passed by both ?ouses of 7arliament and received the 7residential assent on !eptember "B, "+,*.
• LFor detailed provisions of this act, please refer to the )urrent Affairs August, !"# notesM
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
PROVISIONS
• The law replaces the ;an$ Ac<#isition Act of 1=9> by establishing new rules for compensation as well as
resettlement and rehabilitation.
• The developers will need the consent of #p to =" per cent of people whose land is acDuired for private
projects and of B+ per cent of the landowners in the case of public5private partnership projects.
• It also provides for compensation as high as fo#r times more than the existing practice in rural areas and
two times in urban areas.
• !tate governments will have to set up at least si1 bo$ies, including the state5level =and cDuisition
3ehabilitation and 3esettlement uthority, to hear disputes arising out of projects where land acDuisition
has been initiated by the state or its agencies.
• >urther, the state governments should ta.e immediate steps to create and establish the !tate !ocial Impact
ssessment Unit, the office of the Commissioner 3ehabilitation and 3esettlement, and the !tate =evel
&onitoring Committee.

'NRE'S TO INCLU#E RURAL SANITATION
• India is the worldKs largest open air lavatory with over F"+ million people practising open defecation in the
country.
• !ee.ing to address this persisting problem, the government has widened the scope of its flagship &ahatma
1andhi %ational 3ural 'mployment 1uarantee !cheme #&1%3'1!$ to include wor.s relating to rural
sanitation in collaboration with the Nirmal ,harat Abhiyaan (N,A)&
• This interlin.ing is aimed at strengthening the base of rural livelihood and creating durable assets in rural
areas and infrastructure at a village level.
• It shall accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to provide privacy and dignity particularly to women.
• The payment shall be based on the actual value of wor. done, subject to the overall outflow from
&1%3'1! funds limited to 3s. ,+,+++ per Individual ?ousehold latrine #I??=$ including the wage rate and
material cost. ny expenditure over and above this amount shall be there beneficiary contributionA.
• The design and specifications shall continue to be laid down by the &inistry of 9rin.ing Hater and
!anitation.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The data of such I??=)s shall be shared with implementing agencies to ensure @no further incentive is paid
from %- fundsA. This will demarcate toilets ta.en up under %- in convergence with &1%3'1! and
independently of the scheme.
• >or all wor.s ta.en up by the 1ram 7anchayats, including the rural sanitation wor.s ta.en up based on the
above guidelines, the cost of the material component including the wages of the s.illed and semi5s.illed
wor.ers shall not exceed forty per cent at the 1ram 7anchayat level.
SA&ARA PARI$AR ISSUE
• The !upreme Court has once again reproached the !ahara 7ariwar, as the group li.es to be called, for its
endless machinations aimed at flouting its orders.
• The court stated that it was not @helplessA in ta.ing further action and might as. the C,I and the :egistrar
of Companies to probe the sources of funds.
• n earlier order barring the promoter !ubroto 3oy and a few of his associates from leaving the country will
remain.
• The specific issue now has been !ahara)s continued stonewalling of the court)s order to disclose the source
of the nearly 3s. "*,+++ crore with which it had claimed to have made refunds to a very large number of
investors in its controversial optionally fully convertible debentures #;>C9$.
BAC*'ROUN#
• ?hat is the case all abo#t@
• -etween "++E and "+,,, two unlisted !ahara group companies #!C!C= and !?IC=$ raised around 3s ,E,+++
Cr issuing ;>C9s #;ptionally >ully Convertible 9ebentures$ to roughly *+ million shareholders. In "+,,, !'-I
ordered the group to refund this money to investors with ,/G annual interest. This order was upheld by the
!upreme Court.
• ?hy $i$ SA,I as+ Sahara to ref#n$ the money@
• !'-I as.ed !ahara to refund investors because it felt !ahara was raising money in violation of capital raising
norms and certain sections of the Companies ct.
• !'-I found that under the garb of an ;>C9 the company was running an extensive para5ban.ing activity
without conforming to regulatory disclosures and investor protection norms pertaining to public issues.
• ?hat $i$ Sahara $o@
• !ahara challenged !'-I)s order saying the capital mar.ets regulator did not have any jurisdiction over the
group companies since they were not listed.
• The court dismissed !ahara)s petition, also hauling it up for not complying with its orders.
• ?hat or$ers $i$ Sahara not comply 8ith@
• The court directed !ahara to furnish details of the ;>C9s it had issued including subscriptions and refunds
within ,+ days and submit these to !'-I.
• It also gave !ahara :+ days to deposit roughly 3s "4,+++ Cr. !'-I which was given powers to freeJe !ahara)s
accounts, attach properties etc.
• !ahara has repeatedly missed deadlines to comply with the !upreme Court)s orders.
• It claims the total money due is only 3s. /,"++ Cr, as the balance amount has already been repaid. !'-I
meanwhile, told the court that while it had begun the refund process0 it couldn)t trace many of !ahara)s
investors as details submitted by !ahara were not in the prescribed format, with addresses and other details
missing in some cases&
• 0ptionally f#lly con)ertible $ebent#res (0(C2)
• 9ebentures are debt instruments issued by company to raise capital. ;ptionally fully convertible
debentures have option to convert the value of debenture to shares after maturity of debenture. The ratio
of conversion is decided by the issuer. Upon conversion the investor enjoys same status as ordinary
shareholders of the company.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
INNOVATION FUN# SET UP TO &ELP SES
• The %ational Innovation Council
#%InC$ and the &inistry of &!&',
announced the creation of India
Inclusive Innovation >und #III>$, a
fund that see.s to help small
entrepreneurs and innovators
turn their ideas into reality.
• The fund was conceived as a
uniDue concept that see.s to
combine innovation and the
dynamism of enterprise to solve
the problems of citiJens at the
base of the economic pyramid in
India.
• =ac. of capital has been one of
the major reasons why ventures and entrepreneurs see.ing to address the needs at the base of the
economic pyramid have failed to ta.e off, with III> see.ing to address exactly this gap. t least /+ per cent
of its investments initially would be to enterprises that fall in the &!&' stage.
• The III> would also partner the entire ecosystem in this space, including incubators, angel groups, and also
public research and development programmes and laboratories to support the commercialisation and
deployment of socially relevant innovative technologies and solutions.
ABOUT T&E FUN#
• The fund is the brainchild of the %ational Innovation Council #%InC$
• The fund will be registered under !'-I)s lternative Investment >und Category I guidelines.
• It will have an initial corpus of 3s. /++ crore, with the &inistry of &!&' committing to 3s. ,++ crore. The
balance will come from ban.s, insurance companies, and overseas financial and development institutions.
• The fund)s eventual aim is to expand the corpus to 3s. /,+++ crore over the next "4 months.
• The fund would invest in innovative ventures that were scalable, sustainable and, therefore, profitable.
?owever, it would also address the social needs of less privileged citiJens in areas such as healthcare, food,
nutrition, agriculture and education.
• The tenure of this joint venture fund is : years.
• The government would not be involved in the day to day operations of the fund, and it would be entrusted
to an sset &anagement Company.
C&ALLEN'ES A&EA#
• There are three big challenges the fund 55 which aims to promote businesses that target the bottom of the
pyramid and have a social hue 55 faces2
• ?ow to attract non5government capital,
• ?ow to draw fund managers from the private sector while paying below5mar.et salaries,
• ?ow to negotiate the pitfalls of transitioning to a new government.
IN#IAN LEAT&ER #EVELOPENT PRO'RAE
• The government approved the Indian ,eather Development -rogramme (I,D-+, entailing expenditure of
about 3s.::+ crore, for implementation during the NII 7lan #"+,"5,B$ for the overall development of the
sector.
• !ix sub5schemes are being proposed for continuation from the NI 7lan for implementation during the NII
7lan.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

' www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• %he schemes are2
o Integrated development of leather sector,
o ?uman resource development
o !upport to artisan
o =eather technology innovation and environmental issues
o &ega leather cluster and establishment of institutional institutes.
o round two la.h unemployed persons would be provided placement lin.ed s.ill development training
under the ?39 sub5scheme. !.ill upgradation of existing employees and training to trainers would also
be provided.
o Thirty thousand artisans would be covered through the common facilitating centre support, mar.eting
lin.ages, micro finance and by forming !elf ?elp 1roup for enhancing their s.ill and income.
o It also envisages infrastructure support in the form of mega leather clusters, establishing infrastructure
and pilot projects for environment protection, establishment of two new branches of >ootwear 9esign
and 9evelopment Institute #>99I$ and providing assistance for moderniJation and technology
upgradation of leather units.
• Implementation of I=97 would provide trained manpower to the industry and assistance to overcome the
constraints of infrastructure in the industry besides efforts for addressing environmental concerns. The
objective of the scheme is overall development of the leather sector.
UNIFOR TA2 RATE FOR FOREI'N PORTFOLIO INVESTORS
• !'-I has issued a new set of regulations governing institutional and non5institutional foreign investors
investing in the Indian capital mar.et, bringing them under the collective umbrella of @foreign portfolio
investorsA.
• The new >7I rules are based on the Chan$rase+har CommitteeBs recommen$ations for simplifying and
unifying the entry norms for all types of foreign investors who wish to invest in listed Indian securities.
• >7Is have been segregated into three categories under the new regulations, based on their perceived ris.
profile.
o 1overnment and government5related investors fall under Category5I,
o regulated entities li.e mutual funds, ban.s and portfolio managers under Category5II,
o Unregulated persons or entities such as individuals, corporates and trusts under Category5III.
• -ased on ris., these categories will entail progressively more stringent 8UC norms.
• -esides, the new class would be given a permanent registration, as against the current practice of granting
approvals for one year or five years to the overseas entities see.ing to invest in Indian mar.ets.
• =icencing and registration of >7Is will be done by domestic depository participants on behalf of !'-I,
thereby simplifying the process and reducing the time ta.en.
• !'-I has introduced minor changes in the new rules, such as the definition of a @broad5based fundA and how
investment limits are to be monitored by >IIs at an @investor group levelA.
• !'-I has doubled the investment limit for a single V>I in an Indian company from the current / per cent of
paid5up capital of the company to ,+ per cent. It has also doubled the investment limit for multiple V>Is in a
company from the current ,+ per cent of paid5up capital to "4 per cent or the prescribed sector cap.
• The C-9T recently notified that >7Is will be considered as >IIs for Indian tax purposes. s such, >7Is will be
eligible for the same concessional tax rates afforded to >IIs and sub5accounts in India.
IPLICATIONS
• 3ollout of the >7I regulations will cancel the existing >II regulations #applicable to institutional investors,
such as mutual funds, pension funds, ban.s and insurance companies$, as well as the Vualified >oreign
Investor #V>I$ regulations #for non5institutional investors such as individuals, corporates, trusts and family
offices$.
• >7Is can invest in the same types securities that >IIs are currently allowed to, including listed eDuities,
mutual fund units, 15!ecsCT5-ills, corporate debt and Indian depository receipts. The investment limits
applicable to >IIs will remain in force.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

- www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• -ut the regulations do not allow >7Is to invest in unlisted securities, as was permitted under the earlier
rules.
• The new rules significantly benefit non5institutional foreign investors, who were previously barred from
direct investment in listed securities, putting them on par with >IIs. V>Is are now allowed to invest in
various additional securities such as derivatives and I93s.
• >urthermore, V>Is will now be able to issue investment instructions directly to their stoc.bro.ers, as
opposed to the previous time5consuming practice of routing them through Dualified depository participants.
• %3Is till now, who could invest through the portfolio investment scheme for investing in Indian securities or
the V>I route, will be forced to come under the portfolio investment scheme only, which is not as flexible.
OIL AN# 'AS RELATE# ISSUES
6(W 6AT9.A4 1AS +.I&I61 19I/(4I6(S 6?TI%I(/
• The 7etroleum and %atural 1as &inistry, notified a new natural gas pricing guidelines under the 3angarajan
Committee formula that will lead to almost doubling of prices for all domestically5produced gas, including
conventional, shale, coal bed methane #C-&$, from the present price of P4." mbtu starting pril .
• The notification said gas from pril will be priced at an average price of liDuefied natural gas #=%1$ imports
into India and benchmar. global gas rates.
• This formula will be applicable till &arch *,, "+,:. The new rates will change every Duarter, based on the
,"5month average of global rates and =%1 import price with a lag of one Duarter.
• The guidelines shall also be applicable for natural gas produced by ;%1CC;I= from their nominated fields.
IPLICATIONS FOR RIL
• 3eliance Industries =imited #3I=$ will get the benefit of the new gas price for its existing fields li.e & in the
81 9F bloc. and newCupcoming ones li.e 35!eries and satellite in the 81 -asin bloc. and the ones in %orth
'ast Coast bloc. %'C5"/.
• ?owever, for the 9,I9* gas fields in 8159F bloc., it will have to submit a ban. guarantee to cover its
liability if the charges of hoarding gas by deliberately producing less during last three years are proved by
independent observers or an arbitrator.
• In respect of 9, and 9* gas discoveries of -loc. 8159H%5:EC*, these guidelines shall be applicable subject
to submission of ban. guarantees in the manner to be notified separately.
• The ban. guarantee will be encashed if it is proved that the company hoarded gas or deliberately
suppressed production at the main 9,I9* fields in the 'astern offshore 8159F bloc. since "+,+5,,.
• 'xperts estimate that price of gas from pril will be around PE to E.4 mbtu during "+,45,/ as against the
current rate of P4." per mbtu.
7(47A. &?::ITT(( ?6 +.?/9&TI?6 S@A.I61 :?/(4
• The <ijay 8el.ar Committee has favoured retaining the production sharing contract #7!C$ system for the oil
and gas exploration sector in the country.
• The &inistry has proposed to put before national and international delegates the profile of these oil and gas
bloc.s li.ely to be auctioned under the %ew 'xploration =icensing 7olicy #%'=7$ round N.
• The government has stated that it will issue the notice of bids under the revenue sharing regime next
month only after the Cabinet grants its approval, the 8el.ar Committee report is li.ely to further create
confusion.
ANALYSIS
• The committee, dwells on issues such as shifting to an open acreage regime, setting up a data repository,
administering signed contracts, and strengthening the 9irectorate51eneral of ?ydrocarbons #91?$. The
second part of the report is li.ely to be submitted next month.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

0 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The 8el.ar Committee, had favoured the production sharing model for deep5sea exploration because
guarantees for the recovery of all sun. costs were important to attract oil majors with proprietary
technology.
• Under the present regime, oil companies can recover all costs 6 of successful and unsuccessful wells 6
from sales of oil and gas before sharing profit with the government.
• The Comptroller and uditor 1eneral #C1$ had criticised the 7!C regime on grounds that it encouraged
companies to increase capital expenditure and delay the government)s share.
• The 3angarajan panel had last year suggested moving to a revenue sharing regime that reDuired companies
to state upfront the Duantum of oil or gas they would share with the government from the first day of
production.
• The 8el.ar panelfavours the revenue sharing model for shallow and on5land bloc.s that are less cost5
intensive than deep5sea exploration.
• It also reportedly calls for moving to an open acreage regime where companies can pic. exploration areas
through the year rather than wait for periodic auctions that offer areas identified by the government.
• To facilitate this, the panel has called for setting up a %ational 9ata 3epository #%93$.
4+1 &A+ @I7(/ T? 18 6? &AS@ T.A6S%(.S
• The Cabinet Committee on 7olitical ffairs raised the Duota of =71 cylinders from nine to ,".
• It also decided to put on hold the 9irect -enefit Transfer for =71 #9-T=$ under which consumers receive
subsidy in cash.
• 'very household will get one cylinder each in >ebruary and &arch in addition to the Duota of nine. >rom
pril, they will be entitled to ," cylinders, one a month at subsidised rates.
• The rise in Duota would result in an extra outgo of 3s./,+++ crore annually toward subsidy
• The increase in =71 cylinder Duota is termed by few as @misdirected subsidiesA because the move would
end up benefiting people who could afford to pay mar.et rates.
ABOUT #BTL
• 9irect -enefit Transfer for =71 consumer #9-T=$ is the scheme aimed to improve the subsidy administration
of =71 across the country. s per this scheme an =71 consumer will get hisCher cylinder at full mar.et price
and the differential between subsidiJed price and full mar.et price i.e. the subsidy will be transferred to
hisCher ban. account. >ollowing are the .ey features of this scheme2
• Under this scheme, all =71 consumers will start receiving their =71 cylinders at full mar.et price and will get
their subsidy directly in their ban. accounts upto a capped limit of =71 cylinder.
4+1 +?.TA*I4ITB 4A96&@(/
• 7etroleum and %atural 1as &inister, announced the launch of the portability of =71 connection scheme
across 4E+ districts of the country covering all the oil mar.eting companies #;&Cs$ and distributors which
have multiple =71 distributors of various ratings.
• %o Transfer fee or additional security deposit will be charged for transfer of connection under the
portability scheme.
• Hith the launch of this new initiative, consumers can now switch to the distributor of his choice within a
cluster of =71 distributors in the vicinity.
• This measure will bring great relief to those =71 consumers who are either unhappy with the services of
their current distributor or want to move to an =71 distributor closer to their place of residence.
TILAIYA PROJECT OF R0PO$ER
• The Cabinet Committee on Investment has cleared 3eliance 7ower)s 4+++ &H #ltra mega po8er pro5ect at
Tilaiya in Jhar.and, advising &inistry of 'nvironment and >orest #&o'>$ to ta.e necessary steps to treat it at
par with Central 1overnment underta.ing project for the purpose of rules for compensatory afforestation.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

> www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Under the clearance given by CCI headed by 7rime &inister, &anmohan !ingh, 3eliance 7ower may not
have to provide non5forest land to compensate for the loss of forest land acDuired for the proposed plant.
The plant will now be on a par with the other public sector projects and therefore would be exempted from
providing compensatory afforestation for the loss of forest land. t present, only central government or
public sector underta.ings have exemption from the obligation to provide non5forest land.
• T?' CCI as.ed &o'> to issue necessary clarification immediately to the >orest 9epartment of Jhar.hand
that Tilaiya U&77 and related mines for use of ,:.44 metric tonne per annum as indicated in the project
information report may be treated at par with Central 1overnment projects so that balance land for the
power plant could be transferred immediately to the developer.
• The Cabinet note states that the developer, in addition to cost of compensatory afforestation on double the
diverted forest land, be also as.ed to deposit the cost of land reDuired for the above compensatory
afforestation.
• Tilaiya U&77 is to be executed by a !pecial 7urpose <ehicle #!7<$, Jhar.hand Integrated 7ower =td, which
was handed over to 3eliance 7ower in January "++: by 7ower >inance Corporation 6 the nodal agency for
U&77s.
• Tilaiya would be the fourth U&77 to be awarded to a developer after !asan #&adhya 7radesh$,
8rishnapatnam #ndhra 7radesh$ and &undra U&77 in 1ujarat.
ULTRA E'A PO$ER PROJECTS ,UPP-
• Ultra &ega 7ower 7rojects #U&77$ are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the 1overnment of
India.
• Hith India being a country of chronic power deficits, the 1overnment of India has planned to provide
Opower for allO by the end of the 'leventh >ive5Uear 7lan #"++BR"+,"$.
• This would entail the creation of an additional capacity of at least ,++,+++ &H by "+,". Ultra &ega 7ower
projects, each with a capacity of 4+++ &H or above, are being developed with the aim of bridging this gap.
• The first U&77, developed by Tata 7ower at &undra, 1ujarat has been commissioned and contributes
4,+++ &H in power to the northern grid.
CABINET COITTEE ON INVESTENT
• The Cabinet cleared setting up of the Cabinet Committee on Investment for fast trac.ing decision on big
projects. 7rime &inister will head these super investment bodies which will fast trac. clearances for mega
projects.
• The proposed body will not be a substitute for the >oreign Investment 7romotion -oard #>I7-$.
• The functions of the Committee are as under2
o #i$ to identify .ey projects reDuired to be implemented on a time5bound basis, involving investment of
3s ,+++ cr or more, or any other critical projects, as may be specified by the Committee, in sectors such
as infrastructure, manufacturing, etc.
o #ii$ to prescribe time limits for issue of reDuisite approvals and clearances by the
&inistriesC9epartments concerned in respect of projects in identified sectors.
o #iii$ to monitor the progress of identified projects including the time prescribedCta.en to obtain each
approval each approvalCclearance and delays.
o #iv$ to review implementation of projects, that have been delayed beyond the stipulated timeframe,
including issues causing delay in grant of clearanceCapprovals.
o #v$ to review the procedures followed by &inistriesC9epartments to grantCrefuse approvals and
clearances.
o #vi$ to ta.e decision regarding grantCrefusal of approvalCclearance of specific projects that are unduly
delayed , if deemed necessary.
o #vii$ to consider and decide measures reDuired for expeditiously grantingCrefusing approvalsCclearances
in identified sectors including simplification of rulesCprocedures followed by the respective
&inistriesC9epartments for decision ma.ing.
o #viii$ to reDuire statutory authorities to discharge functions and exercise powers under the relevant
lawCregulation within the prescribed time frames for promoting investment and economic growth.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

D www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
C&AN'ES TO E'A PO$ER POLICY
• The Cabinet Committee on 'conomic ffairs #CC'$ relaxed the criteria for power generation projects to
Dualify as mega power projects. This will Dualify ,/ additional projects for the benefits under the mega
power project policy.
• The &ega 7ower 7olicy allows thermal power projects of ,,+++ &H and above capacity and hydro power
projects of /++ &H and above to import eDuipment duty5free. The fiscal benefits also include a tax holiday
for ,+ years.
• 'arlier, developers had to tie up E/G of a project)s installed capacity with states through competitive
bidding. lso, ,/G of electricity had to be tied up in an open sale. Hith the host states where these ,/
projects are located demanding that */G of the electricity be allotted to them, the developers were unable
to meet the E/G competitive bid criteria.
• %ow with the new changes, the developer must tie up at least F/ per cent of the installed capacity through
competitive bidding. The balance */ per cent of the installed capacity should be through the regulated tariff
according to the host !tate)s policy.
• total of "/ such projects were given provisional mega power status. They had furnished ban. guarantees
of the value of the duty exemption they are eligible for with the customs authorities.
• These ban. guarantees could only be released if they are able to meet the E/G criteria. %ow with the
relaxation to F/G they will become eligible to claim these fiscal benefits.
• nother relaxation concerns the rule under which the capacity through competitive bidding had to be tied
up within three years. Hith no states calling for bids for entering into power purchase pacts, developers
were unable to Dualify for the mega power project status. This period has now been extended to five years.
• The decision extends a lifeline to long5stuc. power projects with a combined capacity of **,+++ megawatts
#&H$. The unloc.ed capacities are set to improve power availability and ensure cash flows to these
projects, bringing relief to ban.s and financial institutions that have extended loans to them.
• The clearance follows the government)s move to integrate the power5deficient !outhern grid with the
national grid, creating for the first time a single grid for the nation.
BAC*'ROUN#
• The mega 7ower 7olicy was introduced in %ovember ,::/ for providing impetus to development of large
siJe power projects in the country and derive benefit from economies of scale.
• The cabinet committee on economic affairs has approved amendments in the &ega 7ower 7olicy "++: for
provisional mega power projects. The objective is to increase power availability to boost overall growth of
the country and also ensure that consumers are reasonably charged for electricity supplied.
• Investor interest in the sector suffered a setbac. due to the economic slowdown, high borrowing costs,
delays in land acDuisition and environmental clearances, and fuel shortages, which have caused power
plants to operate below capacity.
ONE NATION4 ONE 'RI#
• The integration of the southern power grid with the national grid fulfils a long5felt need of consumers and
state electricity utilities in the !outh.
• The integration was achieved when the 7ower 1rid Corporation of India commissioned a BF/5.ilovolt
transmission line between :aich#r an$ Solap#r on %ew Uear)s 9ay, five months ahead of schedule.
• The "+E5circuit5.m5long transmission line and BF/5 and 4++58< substations at 3aichur and !holapur have
been commissioned five months ahead of the contracted schedule.
• The southern grid is the third largest in terms of power consumption amongst the five regional grids and is
perennially starved of power.
ANALYSIS
• The absence of synchronous connectivity with the national grid meant that the southern states could not
ta.e advantage of surplus power available in other regions.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The southern grid has asynchronous connections with the other grids that enable transmission of high
voltage direct current. -ut this is a cumbersome and inefficient way to transmit power and the capacity is
limited.
• The completion of the commissioning process of the 3aichur5!olapur line will synchronise the southern grid
with the others in a single freDuency and allow seamless transmission across the country0 it will be a truly
(one5nation5one5grid) that will have "*" giga watts of installed capacity at its disposal.
• The national grid will help southern states, especially ndhra 7radesh, Tamil %adu and 8erala, which are
facing huge shortages, lift surplus power from other regions.
• In the absence of a national grid, these states were paying exorbitantly high prices for buying electricity
from the open mar.et because of uncertainty about power evacuation due to congestion in the
transmission networ..
• The Indian power system is operating through five regional grids and a 7an5India synchronous grid was
envisaged for optimal utilisation of the generation resources in the country.
• Till now, four regional grids 55 northern, eastern, western and north5eastern 55 were connected
synchronously and the southern region was connected to the other four grids via ?<9C lin.s.
EVOLUTION OF NATIONAL 'RI#
• 1rid management on regional basis started in sixties.
• Initially, !tate grids were inter5connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into / regions
namely %orthern, 'astern, Hestern, %orth 'astern and !outhern region.
• In ;ctober ,::, %orth 'astern and 'astern grids were connected.
• In &arch "++* H3 and '35%'3 were interconnected.
• ugust "++F %orth and 'ast grids were interconnected thereby 4 regional grids %orthern, 'astern, Hestern
and %orth 'astern grids are synchronously connected forming central grid operating at one freDuency.
• ;n *,st 9ecember "+,*, !outhern 3egion was connected to Central 1rid in !ynchronous mode with the
commissioning of BF/.< 3aichur5!olapur Transmission line thereby achieving C0NA NA%I0NC9C0NA 4:I2C9
C0NA (:AD/ANCEC



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

31 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SOCIAL ISSUES
NATIONAL YOUT& POLICY02014
• The Union Cabinet gave its approval for introduction of the %ational Uouth 7olicy5"+,4 #%U75"+,4$,
replacing %U75"++* currently in force.
• The vision of %U75"+,4 is to empower youth to achieve their full potential, and through them enable India
to find its rightful place in the community of nations.
• The 7olicy identifies five well5defined objectives and ,, priority areas and suggests policy interventions in
each priority area.
• The priority areas are education, s.ill development and employment, entrepreneurship, health and healthy
lifestyle, sports, promotion of social values, community engagement, participation in politics and
governance, youth engagement, inclusion and social justice.
• It will cover the entire country catering the needs of all youth in the age5group of ,/5": years, which
constitutes "B./ per cent of the population according to Census5"+,,, that is about ** crore persons.It will
replace %U75"++*, to ta.e care of developments since "++* and future policy imperatives.
• The %U75"+,4 proposes broad policy interventions for the youth consistent with the ,"th7lan priorities and
does not propose any specific programmeC scheme, having financial implications. ll concerned &inistriesC
9epartment would be reDuested to bring focus on youth issues within the framewor. of their plansC
programmesC schemes etc.
SC ON 3UOTA IN SUPER0SPECIALTY POSTS
• five5judge bench of !upreme Court favored the Centre in ta.ing a call on providing reservation in
appointment for faculty posts in specialty and super specialty posts in medical colleges including the ll
India Institute of &edical !ciences #II&!$.
• !C held that it is for the Central 1overnment to ta.e a decision as to whether there should be reservation in
specialty and super specialty posts.
• !ee.ing review of a Constitution -ench judgment which had said it cannot ta.e a view contrary to the one
expressed in ,::" by a nine5judge bench in the Indra !awhney case, also .nown as the &andal case, that
there could be no compromise with merit at super specialty stage0 the apex court was moved by the Centre.
• The -ench impressed upon the Central and !tate 1overnments to ta.e appropriate steps in accordance with
the views expressed in Indra !awhney)s case and in this case, as also the other decisions referred to above,
.eeping in mind the provisions of rticle **/ #claims of !CC!T to service and posts$ of the Constitution.
• The verdict was pronounced by the apex court on the plea of the >aculty ssociation of II&! against a
9elhi ?igh Court judgment, wherein the argument of the ssociation was that there cannot be any
reservation for faculty posts to specialty and super specialty faculty courses in II&!.
• II&! too. a contrary stand and the Centre had reDuested that the reservation be given to !CC!Ts and
-ac.ward classes candidates in appointment to assistant professors and other senior posts in specialty and
super specialty courses.
SC ON FRES& INTERPRETATION OF TER 5JUVENILE+
• The !upreme Court has reserved its verdict on the two petitions filed by -J7 leader !ubramanian !wamy
and parents of the victim of the 9ecember ,F gangrape, challenging the constitutional validity of the
Juvenile Justice #Care and 7rotection of Children$ ct "+++, which sought fresh interpretation of the term
(juvenile) in the statute and leaving it to the criminal court, instead of Juvenile Justice -oard, to determine
the juvenility of an offender in heinous crimes.
• ccording to the victim)s father, the verdict delivered by the Juvenile Justice -oard on ugust *,, "+,* was
not acceptable to the family and therefore they filed the petitions, challenging the ct, as there is no other
authority, which they can approach for such relief.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• direction to declare unconstitutional and void the Juvenile Justice ct was also sought by him, to the
extent it puts a complete prohibition on the power of the criminal courts to try a juvenile offender for
offences committed under the Indian 7enal Code.
• The bench had concluded the arguments on behalf of !wamy who sought fresh interpretation of the term
(juvenile) in the statute, saying the ct provides for a restrictive interpretation of the term (juvenile) that a
person below the age of ,E years is a minor.
• It violates the United %ations Convention for the 3ights of the Child #U%C3C$ and -eijing 3ules on the issue,
which says the presumption of the age of criminal responsibility, be fixed while bearing in mind the mental
and intellectual maturity of the offender.
SC NOT TO REVIE$ JU#'ENT A'AINST &OOSE2UALITY
• In a major setbac. to gay rights activists, the !upreme Court declined to review its 9ecember ,, judgment,
holding that homosexuality or unnatural sex between two consenting adults was illegal. LFor details of this
issue, please refer to the current affairs notes of Dec, !"#.M
• -ench of Justices ?. =. 9attu and !.J. &u.hopadhaya held that this provision #!ection *BB of the I7C$ did
not suffer from any constitutional infirmity and said there were no grounds to interfere with the order.
• ;n 9ecember ,,, "+,*, the !upreme Court ruled that gay sex was an offence @irrespective of age and
consentA, overturning the July "++: 9elhi ?igh Court verdict that found !ection *BB to be violative of
rticles ,4, ,/ and ", of the constitution.
• Hhile setting aside the July ", "++: judgement of the 9elhi ?igh Court, the apex court had held that !ection
*BB #unnatural sexual offences$ of the I7C does not suffer from the vice of unconstitutionality and that the
declaration made by the high court is legally unsustainable and threw the ball into 7arliamentKs court for
amending law.
$AY A&EA#
• Two options are now available before the government and the =1-T community to have the law
overturned2 the legal remedy of filing a curative petition in the !upreme Court, arguing the Duestion of the
constitutionality of I7C !ection *BB0 and see.ing the parliamentary route to amend the law.
• The curative petition has to be certified by a senior advocate and is then circulated to the three senior most
judges and the judges who delivered the impugned judgement. fter the curative petition is given to these
judges, it will be heard only if majority of the judges decide that matter needs urgent hearing.
• curative petition can be filed if the !C dismisses a review petition. In this the petitioner is allowed to
specifically point out the grounds which had been pointed out in the review petition filed earlier.
SECTION !66
• Under !ection *BB, voluntary @carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or
animalA is punishable with imprisonment from ,+ years to life.
• !ection *BB is a relic from the colonial age, introduced in the ,EF+s, and criminalises any .ind of sexual act
that is not peno5vaginal, including anal and oral sex
• The act, under section *BB, is a non5bailable cogniJable offence. Hhich means the police can brea. into any
house and pic. up a couple they suspect of being homosexuals under the claim of preventing a criminal
activity. !ince it is a non5bailable offence, getting the person out will depend on the wish and attitude of a
judge.
SAART& 2014
• !&3T? "+,42 Celebrating 9iversity is a national festival for showcasing the abilities of 7ersons with
9isabilities #7w9s$ is being organiJed by the 9epartment of 9isability ffairs under the &inistry of !ocial
Justice and 'mpowerment.
• mong the many commitments, a major one is building capacity among people with disabilities and raising
awareness about disability issues. !&3T? is an important step in this direction.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

33 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The objectives of organiJing !amarth are to showcase the abilities and potential of 7w9s0 create awareness
about their rights and entitlements0 and provide 7w9s and those wor.ing for them an opportunity for an
interface with each other.
E#UCATION
SC&EE FOR ESTABLIS&ENT OF NE$ E#ICAL COLLE'ES
• The Cabinet Committee on 'conomic ffairs has approved the proposal of the &inistry of ?ealth and >amily
Helfare relating to the Centrally sponsored scheme for establishment of new medical colleges attached
with existing districtCreferral hospitals.
• The approval is for establishment of /E new medical colleges by upgradation of existing district hospitals in
deficient states with inta.e capacity of ,++ &--! seats in each medical college. This will result in an
increase of about /E++ seats.
• The funding pattern will be :+2,+ by Central and !tate 1overnments respectively for %orth 'astern !tates
and special category !tates and in the ratio of B/2"/ for other !tates.
• The total cost of establishment of the one medical college is approximately about 3s.,E: crore. The distance
between the districtCreferral hospital and the medical college shall be within ,+ .ms and on two pieces of
land.
UNESCO REPORTON E#UCATION FOR ALL
• The latest 'ducation >or ll 1lobal &onitoring 3eport #1&3$ 6 released worldwide by the U%'!C;
ac.nowledges the headway made by India in improving access to education but the country)s population of
illiterate adults has been identified as the drag factor.
• India currently has the largest population of illiterate adults in the world with "EB million. This is *B per cent
of the global total. Hhile India)s literacy rate rose from 4E per cent in ,::, to F* per cent in "++F,
@population growth cancelled the gains so there was no change in the number of illiterate adults,A the
report stated.
• There are better tidings for India at the pre5primary and primary level. India features among the countries
li.ely to achieve the pre5primary enrolment target of at least B+ per cent by "+,/ along with countries li.e
ustralia, ustria, Canada, 9enmar., %orway, !weden and United 8ingdom.
• India is in the top brac.et of countries li.ely to achieve a primary enrolment target of at least :/ per cent by
"+,/.
• This league includes ustralia, -elgium, >inland, >rance, 1ermany, Japan, %etherlands, %ew Wealand,
%orway, !weden, United 8ingdom and United !tates.
• ?owever, the report Duestions the Duality of education0 placing India among the ", countries facing an
@extensiveA learning crisis.
• 7art of the learning crisis has been attributed to the ambitious curriculum drawn out for children in India0
including disadvantaged learners. India)s curriculum @outpaces what pupils can realistically learn and
achieve in the time givenA.
• ccording to the report, India, despite spending a considerable amount on education has reduced its
expenditure on education from ,* per cent of the entire government budget in ,::: to ,+ per cent in "+,+.
E#UCATION FOR ALL
• >ourteen years ago, education ministers from ,F4 countries, representatives of the civil society
organiJations and of leading international organiJations including U% agencies and Horld -an. met in 9a.ar
!enegal and set six goals for 'ducation >or ll ma.ing a collective commitment to rapidly expand education
for children, youth and adults by the year "+,/.
• 'very year an independent team produces a 1lobal &onitoring 3eport that aims to inform and influence
governments, international organiJations and civil societies to sustain commitments to achieve the '>
1oals. The 3eport is published by U%'!C;& 'ach report focuses on a specific theme.
• The six goals are2
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
o 'xpanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most
vulnerable and disadvantaged children0
o 'nsuring that by "+,/ all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances have access to,
and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good Duality0
o 'nsuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through eDuitable access to
appropriate learning and life5s.ills programmes0
o chieving a /+ per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by "+,/0
o 'liminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by "++/, and achieving gender
eDuality in education by "+,/0
o Improving all aspects of the Duality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recogniJed and
measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all.
ASER SURVEY REPORT
• 7rathamKs ninth nnual !tatus of 'ducation 3eport #!'3$ shows that school education in rural India is a
mixed bag of improving parameters li.e enrolment and compliance to 3ight to 'ducation norms but
declining learning outcomes.
• !'3 said over 96F of all r#ral chil$ren in the age gro#p of 6 to 1> 8ere going to school. There was
further good news as proportion of girls in the age group of ,, to ,4 not enrolled in schools dropped
from FG in "+," to /./G in "+,*.
• Though !'3 pointed to poor learning level of children, there was almost negligible increase in
enrolment in private schools0 ":G in "+,* to "E.*G in "+,". There were wide variations in private school
enrolment, !'3 said. -ut the prevalence of private tuition was on the rise across India.
• !ince last year there has been no significant improvement in children)s ability to read0 chil$ren are
str#ggling 8ith basic arithmetic. This is definitely worrisome and the long5term effects on the nation
would be disastrous.
• -ut what is new and must be ta.en seriously by the government is that r#ral pri)ate school enrolment
rose by 9F in "1!. In fact, after the 3T' law was passed, the pace of enrolment in private schools
Duic.ened. Three factors could be responsible for it2 migration, improvement in household income and
the aspiration to send children to ('nglish5medium schools) even if they are not really up to the
mar. and the failure of government schools to deliver.
• Considering that tax5payers for. out a F e$#cation cess, it)s not very heartening to hear that much of
that money has been not of any help to the children who need it the most.
ABOUT ASER AN# ITS SURVEY
• ser is the largest annual household survey of children in rural India that focuses on the status of
schooling and basic learning.
• >acilitated by 7ratham, an %1;, in each rural district, The ser survey is conducted by local organisations
and institutions.
• In "+,*, ser covered //+ districts and close to ,F,+++ villages0 *.* la.h households and six la.h children
in the age group of *5,F years.




Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3' www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
&EALT&
OR'ANS TRANSPLANT ACT NOTIFIE#
• The government has notified the Transplantation of ?uman ;rgans #mendment$ ct, "+,, that allows
swapping of organs and widens the donor pool by including grandparents and grandchildren in the list.
?owever, rules of the amended law are yet to be notified, without which the ct cannot be implemented.
• The ct, which has come into effect in 1oa, ?imachal 7radesh, Hest -engal, 9elhi and all Union Territories
from January ,+, also provides for the establishment of a %ational ?uman ;rgans and Tissues 3emoval and
!torage %etwor., and development and maintenance of a national registry of recipients of organ
transplants.
• Importantly, it prescribes stringent punishments for commercial dealing in human organs and contravention
of any provisions of the law.
• !ince health is a !tate subject, the government had to wait until some !tates passed this Central ct before
notifying it. The ct received 7residential assent in !eptember "+,,. The remaining !tates will have to pass
the ct in their respective ssemblies.
SALIENT FEATURES)
• The ct regulates the removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes, and
prevents commercial dealing in human organs.
• It enables a surgeon or a physician and an anaesthetist to be included on the medical board in the event of
non5availability of a neurosurgeon or a neurologist to certify brain death0
• ma.es it mandatory for the ICUCTreating &edical !taff to reDuest relatives of a brain5dead patient for organ
donation0
• provides for the establishment of a %ational ?uman ;rgans and Tissues 3emoval and !torage %etwor.
• and empowers the Union government to prescribe the composition of authorisation committees that grants
approvals for donating organs.
RAS&TRIYA *IS&OR S$AST&YA *ARYA*RA ,R*S*-
• Union &inister for ?ealth and >amily Helfare launched the 3ashtriya 8ishor !wasthya 8arya.ram #38!8$.
• The programme will comprehensively address the health needs of the "4* million adolescents, who account
for over ",G of the country)s population.
• The programme introduces community based interventions through peer educators, and is underpinned by
collaborations with other &inistries and !tate governments, .nowledge partners and more research.
• India is home to "4* million adolescents #,+5,: years$, accounting for ",.4G of the countryKs population. In
order to enable adolescents to fulfil their potential, substantive investments must be made for their
education, health, development and other areas.
• To guide the implementation of this programme, &o?>H in collaboration with U%>7 has developed a
%ational dolescent ?ealth !trategy.
• The programme is an effort to move away from a (doctor5driven) effort towards a holistic and participative
programme. The 38!8 recogniJes that all adolescents need attention even before the occurrence of any
disease or problem, and in order to ma.e informed decisions and choices.
• The 38!8 programme defines an adolescent as a person within ,+5,: years of age, in urban and rural areas,
includes both girls and boys, married and unmarried, poor and affluent, whether they are in school or out of
school.
• The programme emphasis six (CsA5 coverage, content, communication, counselling, clinics and convergence.
The active use of new technologies and social media platforms will form an integral part of the programme
to reach the adolescents in their own spaces, with strategic partnerships with communities and peers.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3- www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ULTI0SECTORAL NUTRITION PRO'RAE
• The Centre has finally approved the &ulti5sectoral %utrition 7rogramme to address the problems of
maternal and child under5nutrition in the country.
• The programme, recommended by the 7rime &inister)s %ational Council on India)s %utrition Challenges in
"+,+, will be implemented in "++ high5burden districts in two phases.
• It will be a Centrally !ponsored !cheme under the National N#trition Mission, with the Centre5!tate cost
sharing ratio :+2,+ for all components in the north5eastern !tates and special category !tates, and B/2"/ for
the other !tates and the Union Territories.
• The first phase will begin in ,++ districts in "+,*5,4, and the rest will be covered in the second in "+,45,/.
• The %ational &ission !teering 1roup and the 'mpowered 7rogramme Committee constituted for Integrated
Child 9evelopment !ervices #IC9!$ &ission will be the highest administrative and technical bodies for
ensuring effective planning, implementation, monitoring and supervision.
• The programme will bring in
o !trong nutrition focus in various sectoral plans and provide gap5filling support to .ey nutrition5related
intervention targets
o Contribute to the prevention of and reduction in child under5nutrition #underweight prevalence in
children under three$
o 3eduction in the levels of anemia among children, adolescent girls and women.
o It will also wor. for the establishment of !tate and 9istrict %utrition Councils.
o 7revention and reduction in child under5nutrition #underweight prevalence in children under * years of
age$
o 3eduction in levels of anemia among young children, adolescent girls and women.
POLIO0FREE IN#IA0 !
R#
STRAI'&T YEAR
• ;n ,*th January, "+,4, India completed three years without reporting any case of polio.
• It is only the second time in the history that a disease is being eliminated in India through immunisation
after small pox in &ay ,:E+.
• ?owever, officially the Horld ?ealth ;rganisation #H?;$ will certify India as polio5free on >ebruary ,, after
the last of random samples pic.ed up would be tested.
• India)s being declared polio5free is particularly important because it was the only country in the !outh 'ast
sian region with polio cases.
• ;nce India is declared polio5free, the entire H?; region would also become polio free. The H?; on
>ebruary "4, "+," removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio transmission.
• India carried a large burden of polio disease but has made impressive progress in the past */ months.
• The number of polio cases came down from B4, in "++: to 4" in "+,+ and just one in "+,, R from Hest
-engal.
• %o polio case has been reported in the country since then.
• India won the war against polio through intense 7ulse 7olio Immunisation under the 1lobal 7olio
'radication Initiative in ,:EE under which over ,B crore children were vaccinated in each round of
vaccination with the help of "4 la.h vaccinators.
FUN'AL INFECTIONS
• >ungal infections .ill close to ,.* million people globally every year, matching the mortality rate of I9!,
cancer, malaria and tuberculosis, and also cause blindness to *++ million people annually.
• million farmers get blind due to fungal .eratitis in India, ,B5*+ million suffer from asthma and ,.B54.B
million suffer from allergic asthma, also caused by fungal infections.
• The magnitude of the problem is particularly serious in India because of overcrowding in hospitals,
malnutrition and unhygienic tropical environs.
• The majority of our clinicians are poorly trained to recognise and manage these infections0
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

30 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• &ost microbiology laboratories across the country lac. even basic infrastructure and training to provide
diagnostic support or monitor antifungal resistance and most antifungal drugs remain prohibitively
expensive.
• >rom the limited data available in India, among the three major fungal infections in hospitals, the
prevalence of can$i$emia #*++5/++ cases per year$ at any tertiary care institute #with ,,/++ beds$ is more
than what obtains in the whole of ustralia.
• Unhygienic handling by healthcare staff causes invasive candidemia and the infection flows right up to the
blood stream.
INTERVENTION STEPS
• Hith a view to addressing these issues, international experts have come together and launched two
initiatives 5
• ;ea$ing International (#ngal A$#cation (;I(A) and 4lobal Action (#n$ for (#ngal Infections (4A((I) to
improve fungal infections outcomes in patients through awareness and education and access to appropriate
antifungal therapies.
• Up to F+ per cent of invasive infections, majority of which can be prevented with timely diagnosis and
appropriate treatment, eventually .ill a patient.
ISSION TO CUT NEONATAL #EAT&S
• *erala has an enviably low infant mortality rate #I&3$at ," deaths among children less than one year of age
per ,,+++ live births.0 it is far below In$iaBs a)erage of >. Uet, for years, the southern !tate has been unable
to reduce the mortality rate further to a single5digit figure to become comparable with the developed
countries.
• 8erala has always been at the forefront in setting the benchmar. for almost all the health indices. It
therefore comes as no surprise that the !tate has initiated steps to further beat down I&3.
• ?ence a pilot project is set to begin in "/ hospitals, including five private hospitals, to lower the neonatal
mortality rate by *+ per cent in "4 months.
• It is planning a targeted approach to tac.le the four major causal factors2 prematurity, congenital
anomalies, sepsis and birth asphyxia for neonatal deaths.
• 7re5term births #between "4 and *B wee.s of gestation$ combined with low birth weight account for the
lion)s share of about */ per cent of neonatal mortality in 8erala. India has the highest number 6 *./ million
6 of pre5term births in the world.
• side from improving the nutritional status of pregnant mothers, and .eeping their blood pressure and
diabetes under chec., delaying pre5term labour through medical intervention and administration of two
doses of steroid before delivery greatly improve neonatal survival.
• The steroid improves the three major parameters that are essential for survival2 lung maturity, preventing
hemorrhage of brain blood vessels and avoiding intestinal problems due to immaturity.
• Hhile sterile hospital conditions can prevent sepsis #:.* per cent$, the importance of the mothers) genital
hygiene is often missed or overloo.ed.
• <aginal and urinary tract infections are Duite li.ely to cause pre5term labour and sepsis.
• &ortality due to birth asphyxia in 8erala is E per cent. Improving the Duality of care during the delivery
process, including by preventing prolonged labour, can further cut birth asphyxia mortality.
T&IR# LINE T&ERAPY FOR &IV PATIENTS
• The Centre will soon include Third =ine therapy for persons living with ?I< in the government)s Anti9
:etro)iral %reatment programme.
• Third line drugs are said to be the only succor for ?I<5affected who have become resistant to second line
drugs.
• t present, patients reDuiring third line treatment are forced to go to the private sector for treatment.
• The government would have to identify the number of patients who need such treatment before it can
place orders for the medicines and formulate a budget .
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3> www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• It is expected that the third line treatment will be included in next year)s budget.
$&AT IS ART(
• nti5retroviral therapy #3T$ is a treatment for ?I<CI9!. It does not cure the disease0 rather, it aims to
increase life expectancy reduce opportunistic infections, and may potentially reduce the li.elihood that an
infected individual transmits the virus to another.
• successful 3T program reDuires all of the following2
o 2iagnosis. It means for testing individuals to identify those in need of treatment. In the case of 3T,
diagnosis consists of more than merely testing an individual for ?I<CI9!. This is because when the
disease is far enough along, the toxicity of the drugs may outweigh the benefits of starting treatment.
o 2istrib#tion& method for distributing the drugs to those who need them.
o 2r#gs. ntiretroviral drugs can be costly.
o 'atient a$herence to $r#g regimen. 3T consists of a relatively complex drug regimen to which
patients must strictly adhere. nd because 3T does not cure ?I<CI9!, patients must adhere to the
regimen as long as they remain alive.
o Monitoring of the patientCs response to treatment& 3T may cause negative side effects in a patient.
In addition, laboratory monitoring may be needed for purposes of noticing decreased efficacy or the
development of resistance.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3D www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ENVIRONENT
&C ON NATIONAL 'REEN TRIBUNAL
• Clipping the wings of the southern bench of the %ational 1reen Tribunal #%1T$, which has been ta.ing suo
motu cogniJance of issues at will and issuing directions, the Ma$ras high co#rt has restraine$ the for#m
from initiating procee$ings on its o8n&
• @%1T is not a substitute for high court in all respects. It is also noted that the tribunal has to function within
the parameters laid down by the %ational 1reen Tribunal ct, "+,+. It should act within the four corners of
the statuteA, said the judgement.
• @7rovisions of the Civil 7rocedure Code are extended to the tribunal only for a very limited purpose. It is
true that the tribunal is given power to regulate its own procedure and it is not bound by the strict rules of
evidence. ?owever, that would not convert the tribunal into a high court, to initiate suo motu proceedings.A
• The bench, citing the !C rulings, said while courts were entrusted with the inherent power for
administration of justice in general, tribunals are established under a statute and are meant to adjudicate
disputes arising under the particular legislation.
NATIONAL 'REEN TRIBUNAL
• The %ational 1reen Tribunal has been established on "+,+ under the %ational 1reen Tribunal ct "+,+ for
effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests
and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving
relief and compensation for damages to persons and property
• It is a specialiJed body eDuipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving
multi5disciplinary issues.
• The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil 7rocedure, ,:+E, but
shall be guided by principles of natural justice.
• The TribunalKs dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice
and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts.
• The Tribunal is mandated to ma.e and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within F
months of filing of the same.
• %ew 9elhi is the 7rincipal 7lace of !itting of the Tribunal and -hopal, 7une, 8ol.ata and Chennai are the
other 4 place of sitting of the Tribunal.
SC ON NATIONAL 'REEN RE'ULATOR
• Three Judge -ench of the !upreme Court directed the Union of India to appoint a green 3egulator with its
offices in as many states as possible rejecting the objection of &inistry of 'nvironment and >orests #&o'>$.
• The Centre had informed the court that there was no need for setting up of a green regulator to oversee
matters related to environmental clearances and had pleaded for modification of its order for setting up
such a body.
• %he bench ma$e it clear that the clearances #n$er the (orest Act 8o#l$ be grante$ by the MoA( b#t the
reg#lator 8ill see the implementation of the (orest 'olicy of 199=&
• The apex court directed that the 'nvironment Impact ssessment #'I$ notification of "++F would now be
dealt directly by the %ational 3egulator for every project.
• In "+,, the court adjudicated to appoint a national regulator for @appraising projects, enforcing
environmental conditions for approvals and to impose penalties on pollutersA. The petition was filed by
&o'> in the aftermath of this order, to reverse the same.
• ?owever, the Centre stated that an authority to supervise and facilitate implementation of the %ational
>orest 7olicy, ,::E will be constituted.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

"! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SET&USAU#RA PROJECT
• The Tamil %adu government has reiterated that the !upreme Court should direct the Centre not to
implement the !ethusamudram project, given that the 1ulf of &annar and surrounding areas are extremely
eco5fragile, and the economic values of the project are Duestionable.
• In its response to the Centre)s affidavit that it wanted to implement the project in the original alignment
that cuts through 3am !etu, Tamil %adu said ecological threats would be irreversible and could not be
assessed in monetary terms.
• The Centre had made it clear that it did not accept the recommendations of an expert committee, headed
by 3ajendra 8. 7achauri. The expert panel said neither alignment 4 #a route suggested by the court as an
alternative to the original alignment %o. F$ nor alignment F #which will cut through 3am !etu$met the
benchmar. Internal 3ate 3eturn of ,"G for the range of scenarios examined. It said it would be difficult to
rule out oil spills, even with stringent measures. In conclusion, the 7achauri committee has found the
project unviable both from the economic as well as the ecological angles.
• Tamil %adu said that since the 7achauri Committee had rightly concluded that the project was unviable, its
report should be accepted and the project scrapped. It also wanted dam)s -ridgeC3am !etu declared a
national monument to forbear the Centre from carrying out any activity which might affect it.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

"1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN#IA AN# $ORL#
ITALIAN ARINES CASE
$&Y IN NE$S(
• The %ational Investigation gency#%I$ is yet to get a response from the Union ?ome &inistry on a report
see.ing sanction for prosecution of the two Italian marines, who have been accused of gunning down two
8erala fishermen in >ebruary "+,", under the 7rovisions of the !uppression of Unlawful cts gainst !afety
of &aritime %avigation and >ixed 7latforms on Continental !helf ct #!U$that prescribes death penalty.
• 'arlier, the !upreme Court had handed over the probe to the %I which has 6 post investigations and
examination of the witnesses in the case 6 proposed prosecution of the two marines, &assimiliano =atorre
and !alvatore 1irone, under the !U.
ISSUE
• The !uppression of Unlawful cts gainst !afety of &aritime %avigation and >ixed 7latforms on Continental
!helf ct #!U$ provisions pertaining to acts causing death prescribe capital punishment for the offender,
but the Indian government has in the past ruled out death penalty for the accused marines.
• The ?ome &inistry is li.ely to either reject %I)s reDuest for prosecution sanction or treat the deaths not as
a scheduled offence.
• 'arlier, the home ministry sought clarifications from &' regarding the assurance given to Italy early last
year that the marines would not attract death penalty.
• Hhen the two Italian marines had refused to return to India in January "+,* after being allowed to briefly
visit Italy to cast their vote, India had prevailed upon 3ome to send them bac. based on OclarificationsO that
the accused would not face death penalty as the case did not fall in the Orarest of rare categoryO.
• The marines sought a direction that they be tried only under the &aritime Wone law, the Indian 7enal Code,
and the United %ations Convention on the =aw of the !ea and not under the anti5terrorism provisions of the
!U ct.
• Italy has opposed invo.ing the maritime law.
IPLICATIONS
• The Anrica ;e1ie case has soured relations between India and Italy. Italian foreign minister 1iulio TerJi Duit
in &arch after his government returned the marines to India for trial, saying he was stepping down to
protect the Ohonour of the country, of the armed forces, and Italian diplomacyO.
• If IndiaKs government decides to use the legislation, it would go against its earlier assurances that the men
would not face the gallows, seriously testing %ew 9elhiKs ties with both 3ome and the 'uropean Union.
• nother sore point between the two countries is a scrapped /F+5million5euro helicopter contract between
India and gustaHestland, a unit of ItalyKs state5owned and cash5strapped defense giant >inmeccanica.
• India canceled the contract on %ew UearKs 9ay over accusations that gustaHestland executives paid bribes
to land the deal, charges the company denies. The two parties have agreed to arbitration over the deal.
• The president of the 'uropean Commission has said the issue of the Italian marines in India may have an
@impactA on the 'uropean Union5India relations and @will be assessed carefullyA.
7*NO$ IN#IA PRO'RAE8
• The 1overnment has introduced a programme named @8now India 7rogrammeA for young persons of
;verseas Indians with a view to provide them an exposure to the country of their origin so that they can
understand it better and more intimately.
• Under the 7rogramme, "+ young persons of Indian origin in the age group of ,E to "4 from different
countries visit India extensively every year, which will provide them an opportunity to have a deeper insight
into Indian people and society.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 8now India 7rogramme of the &inistry is a three5wee. orientation programme for diaspora youth
conducted with a view to promote awareness on different facets of life in India and the progress made by
the country in various fields e.g. economic, industrial, education, !cience I Technology, Communication I
Information Technology, culture.
• 8I7 provide a uniDue forum for students I young professionals of Indian origin to visit India, share their
views, expectations I experiences and to develop closer bonds with the contemporary India. 45/ such
programmes are conducted every year in partnership with one or two !tate 1overnments.
AL#IVES) 'R AIRPORT PROJECT ISSUE
• &aldives is in tal.s with 1&3, whose over P/++ million &ale airport project was scrapped, for an out of
court settlement and not through arbitration, said &aldivian 7resident bdulla Uameen.
• ?owever, he appeared to rule out the Indian infrastructure giant)s comebac. in the &ale airport project,
saying it was a highly @politicised caseA in &aldives.
• 7resident Uameen was in his first visit to India after the %ovember election in his country. 7rime &inister
&anmohan !ingh during the tal.s reDuested the &aldives government to Oamicably settle the issue of the
&ale International irportO.
BAC*'ROUN#
• The 1&3)s project worth over U!9 /++ million was scrapped unilaterally ,4 months bac. by the &aldivian
1overnment which was then headed by &ohamed Haheed after a lot of domestic political pressure to do
so.
• The contract was for modernising the &ale Ibrahim %asir International irport. 1&3 too. the &aldivian
1overnment to court to fight its decision of cancelling the contract.
• The contract stipulates that any arbitration between the two parties has to be settled in !ingapore. fter
losing this battle, the group is now fighting another legal battle on the amount that it should be paid as
compensation for the cancelled contract.
• The 1&3 1roup has interests in roads, energy and airports. It is present in Tur.ey, !outh frica, Indonesia
and !ingapore and operates assets worth about P/ billion #over 3s "",+++ crore$. ssets worth about PF
billion are under construction.
• The &ale International irport was the group)s second project in modernising an international airport, the
first being in Tur.ey where it modernised Istanbul)s !abiha 1oc.en airport.
• 9omestically, the 1roup has built the ?yderabad airport but is perhaps best .nown for modernising the
9elhi airport)s Terminal * in record time.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

"3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SCIENCE % TEC&
#IABETIC TESTIN' *ITS
• The ?ealth &inistry launched indigenous, affordable testing .its, bringing relief to millions of diabetics
who spend a substantial amount of their earnings on testing their blood glucose level.
• The launching of two .inds of glucometers and testing strips will ma.e mass screening and detection
feasible.
• The glucometers will now cost between 3s. /++ and ,,+++ as against the price of 3s. ,,+++5",/++ for the
imported instrument. 'ach glucostrip will cost between 3s. " and 3s. 4, down from 3s. ,E5*/.
• The diabetes screening system and test strips have been developed by the Indian Institute of Technology
&umbai called S#che+ and the -irla Institute of Technology, ?yderabad .nown as D#ic+cheD with
funding from the Indian Council of &edical 3esearch.
• These will be manufactured by -iosense Technologies and will be available in the open mar.et in the
next six months.
BAC*'ROUN#
• India has an estimated F/ million people with diabetes with a prevalence rate of F per cent.
• There are BB million with pre5diabetes in whom, if altered glucose levels are detected early, the onset of
actual diabetes can be postponed for several years with dietary and lifestyle changes.
• India had already launched a screening programme for diabetes and pre5diabetes in ,++ districts which
indicated prevalence in the same range.
• It is estimated that the people with diabetes will cross ,++ million in the next ,+5,/ years unless major
steps involving government and people together are ta.en.
• In India, it is no longer a disease of the rich but has started affecting the middle class, the lower class,
and even youth and children.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

"" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ALSO IN NE$S
POST&UOUS AS&O* C&A*RA FOR 'REY&OUN#S INSPECTOR
• 8. 7rasad -abu, a 1reyhounds Inspector who laid down his life combating &aoists in the ndhra
7radesh5Chhattisgarh border region last pril was awarded the highest peace time gallantry award,
sho. Cha.ra, on the occasion of 3epublic 9ay.
BAC*'ROUN#
• fter Independence, India constituted its own 1allantry awards when it turned a 3epublic in ,:/+.
• >ollowing the -ritish pattern of awards, the Indian system incorporated a three5tier system.>oremost in
precedence the 7aram <ir Cha.ra, followed by the &aha <ir Cha.ra and the <ir Cha.ra, all given for
gallantry on the battlefield.
• t the same time, there were the wards granted for bravery and courage away from the battle front,
The sho.a Cha.ra, 8irti Cha.ra and the !haurya Cha.ra, These awards can be made to any member of
the armed forces as well as civilians in the war effort or during peacetime.
• !eperate range of decorations were instituted for !ervice and =eadership during wartime, These were
the <ishist !eva &edals which were also awarded during peacetime for distinguished service, to remove
confusion between both, In ,:E,, the Uudh !eva &edals were instituted.
ASSA FOR LOCAL TIE
• ssam Chief &inister said his government was contemplating the introduction of local time for the !tate,
which would be one hour ahead of the Indian !tandard Time.
• Tea gardens in ssam followed @1arden TimeA which was set by advancing the cloc. by one hour ahead
of the I!T. @The 1arden TimeA was introduced by -ritish tea planters to capitalise on daylight. The
system was no longer in practice.
$&Y LOCAL TIE(
• &ost of the tea gardens still followed the practice of early wor.ing hours.
• =ocal time would help the !tate save energy as the wor.ing hours would be advanced by an hour to
ma.e use of the daylight.
• It would help the seven north5eastern !tates.
• 9espite the two5hour times lag in sunrise between the eastern most and the western most corners, the
country continued to follow a single, undifferentiated time Jone.
#AYLI'&T SAVIN' TIE
• 9aylight !aving Time often referred to as O!ummer TimeO, O9!TO or O9aylight !avings TimeO R is a way of
ma.ing better use of the daylight in the evenings by setting the cloc.s forward one hour during the
longer days of summer, and bac. again in the fall.
• !aving time begins in the northern hemisphere between &archRpril and ends between !eptemberR
%ovember. !tandard time begins in the northern hemisphere between !eptemberR%ovember and ends
between &archRpril
$&Y OBSERVE #ST(
• &any countries observe 9!T, and many do not. &any countries use 9!T to ma.e better use of the
daylight in the evenings.
• &any people believe that 9!T could be lin.ed to fewer road accidents and injuries.
• The extra hour of daylight in the evening is said to give children more social time and can boost the
tourism industry because it increases the amount of outdoor activities.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

"' www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 9!T is also used to save energy and reduce artificial light needed during the evening hours 6 cloc.s are
set one hour ahead during the spring, and one hour bac. to standard time in the autumn.
• &any studies disagree about 9!TKs energy savings and while some studies show a positive outcome,
others do not.
• It is difficult to predict what will happen with 9aylight !aving Time in the future. The daylight saving date
in many countries may change from time to time due to special events or conditions.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS




CURRENT AFFAIRS
FEBRUARY 2014















VISIONIAS™
www.visionias.in
www.visionias.wordpress.com
Copyright © by Vision IAS
All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision
IAS
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
POLITY .................................................................................................................................................. 5
The Whistle Blowers Protection Bill, 2011...................................................................................................................................... 5
Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Re!lation of Street Vendin" Bill, 201#........................................... $
The %ndhra Pradesh ReoranisationBill, 201# ............................................................................................................................ &
Article 3 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
Special Category Status .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
Prevention of 'o((!nal Violence (%ccess to )!stice and Re*arations" Bill, 201# ...................................................... +
)!dicial Refor(s ........................................................................................................................................................................................... +
Appointment of udges ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... !
udicialAccounta"ility #ill ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................1$
,reedo( of S*eech................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
S' refers -!thanasia to 'onstit!tional Bench ............................................................................................................................ 11
S' on 'a*ital P!nish(ent .................................................................................................................................................................... 12
S' on 'hild %do*tion ./ 0inorities ................................................................................................................................................. 12
1' on 2ational e30ail Polic/ .............................................................................................................................................................. 14
P!.lic Partici*ation in Law 0a5in ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Settin !* of 'oalRe!lator ................................................................................................................................................................ 1#
Police 'o(*laint %!thorit/ ................................................................................................................................................................. 1#
6ndertrial Prisoners ............................................................................................................................................................................... 15
2ews Related to -lections .................................................................................................................................................................... 15
See%ing Vote on &eligious 'round ..........................................................................................................................................................................................1(
'uidelines on )arties* +anifestos ...........................................................................................................................................................................................1(
A #ig ump in ,lectoral Si-e .......................................................................................................................................................................................................1.
India*s +issing /omen and ,lections ...................................................................................................................................................................................1.
ECONOY .......................................................................................................................................... 1!
7ndian -cono(/ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1&
CS0 ,stimates for financial year 2$13 ..................................................................................................................................................................................11
LP8 S!.sid/ ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1&
S*ectr!( %!ction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
2-LP3: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
0icro ,inance 7nstit!tions (;evelo*(ent and Re!lation" Bill, 2012 ........................................................................... 1+
;raft Re*ort on -na.lin P<7 in Pa/(ent S/ste( %**lications ....................................................................................... 1+
8!idelines to deal with distressed assets ...................................................................................................................................... 20
RB7 chanes loan rate for(!la .......................................................................................................................................................... 21
,%T, (one/ la!nderin ....................................................................................................................................................................... 21
1o!sin start !* inde= (1S67" ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
,;7 in ,ar(land ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
2ational )olicy for 3armers4 2$$1 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................23
2SS>?s $9
th
Ro!nd 1ihlihts on 6ne(*lo/(ent ..................................................................................................................... 2#
The 8lo.al -(*lo/(ent Trends Re*ort 201# ............................................................................................................................ 25
-(*ower(ent Line ................................................................................................................................................................................. 25
SOCIAL ISSUES ................................................................................................................................. 2"
The Rihts of Persons With ;isa.ilities Bill, 201# .................................................................................................................... 2$
;iscri(ination aainst 2ortheast Peo*le .................................................................................................................................... 2&
1L' on Stat!s of Wo(en in 7ndia..................................................................................................................................................... 2&
Benefits toSenior 'iti@ens ..................................................................................................................................................................... 29
'onditions of )!venile 1o(es ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
5,A675 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
7ndian Phar(a sector ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2+
Ste*s to ,iht %7;S .................................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
5uman Immunodeficiency Virus Ac8uired Immune 9eficiency Syndrome :)revention and Control; #ill4 2$1< ...........................3$
%770S !nder P0SSA ................................................................................................................................................................................ 40
ENVIRONENT ............................................................................................................................... #1
,ield Trials of 80 ,ood 'ro*s ............................................................................................................................................................ 41
Water 'risis across the World ........................................................................................................................................................... 42
8reen -ner/ 'orridor .......................................................................................................................................................................... 44
;a(s onSian River ................................................................................................................................................................................ 44
-nviron(ental Perfor(ance 7nde= ................................................................................................................................................. 44
IN$IA AN$ %ORL$ ........................................................................................................................ #5
7ndia B )a*an .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
7ndia BSo!th <orea ................................................................................................................................................................................ 45
7ndia B Sa!di %ra.ia ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4$
Visit of Saudi Ara"ia*s )rince to India ...................................................................................................................................................................................3.
6a"our Cooperation Agreement ..............................................................................................................................................................................................3.
7ndia BPa5istan ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4&
Commerce +inisters +eet ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................31
7rade across 60C.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38
7ndia B 'hina .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 49
=ear of friendly e>c?ange ............................................................................................................................................................................................................38
+eetings on "order issues ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................3!
7ndia B Sri Lan5a ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4+
7ndia B 0aldives ........................................................................................................................................................................................ #0
7ndia B 8er(an/ ....................................................................................................................................................................................... #0
7ndia B 7tal/ ................................................................................................................................................................................................. #1
7ndia B 6S% .................................................................................................................................................................................................. #1
7ndia B Bahrain ......................................................................................................................................................................................... #2
7ndia B 'anada .......................................................................................................................................................................................... #2
7ndia B 7ran ................................................................................................................................................................................................. #4
7ndia B Vene@!ela ..................................................................................................................................................................................... #4
7ndia B 6%- ................................................................................................................................................................................................. #4
7ndia B %@er.aiCan ................................................................................................................................................................................... ##
7ndia 3 </r/@ Re*!.lic ......................................................................................................................................................................... ##
7ndia B >(an .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ##
7ndia B ,iCi .................................................................................................................................................................................................... #5
B'70 Trade 'orridor .............................................................................................................................................................................. #5
Visa on %rrival in 7ndia ......................................................................................................................................................................... #$
%ORL$ AFFAIRS ............................................................................................................................ 4!
65raine 'risis ............................................................................................................................................................................................. #&
-vents in Banladesh ............................................................................................................................................................................. #9
,lections in #anglades? ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................<8
#anglades? /ar Crimes 7ri"unal ...........................................................................................................................................................................................<!
9eat? Sentence to )ares? #arua ..............................................................................................................................................................................................<!
-vents in Pa5istan ................................................................................................................................................................................... #+
7al%s wit? 77) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................<!
&elations wit? C?ina ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................<!
)erve- +us?arraf to face trial on treason c?arges .........................................................................................................................................................($
-vents in 'hina .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Sout? C?ina Sea air -one..............................................................................................................................................................................................................($
+aritime Sil% &oad initiative .....................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
C?ina@Sri6an%a &elations ............................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
War 'ri(es in Sri Lan5a ....................................................................................................................................................................... 51
AS to press Sri 6an%a on war crimes allegations at A25&C .......................................................................................................................................(1
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
)ro"e into war crimes in sri lan%a ..........................................................................................................................................................................................(1
-vents in 6nited States .......................................................................................................................................................................... 52
anet =ellen to ?ead AS 3ederal &eserve .............................................................................................................................................................................(2
AS B 'ermany 2o Spying 7al%s .................................................................................................................................................................................................(2
o?n Cerry pus?es for Israel )alestine )eace 7al%s .......................................................................................................................................................(2
S/ria 7ss!e .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
'eneva II Conference .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3
Second &ound of 'eneva II .........................................................................................................................................................................................................(3
3riends of Syria +eet.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................(<
P5 D1 and 7ran ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5#
Latvia Coins -!ro@one ............................................................................................................................................................................ 55
%fhanistan li5el/ to Coin the WT> .................................................................................................................................................. 55
-/*t 7ss!e .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 55
,gypt*s new constitution .............................................................................................................................................................................................................((
+o?d. +orsI 7rials .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................((
)olitical developments .................................................................................................................................................................................................................(.
-lections ro!nd the world .................................................................................................................................................................... 5$
2epal .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(.
Sout? Africa ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
Afg?anistan ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
Italy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
+adagascar ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1
7unisia ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(8
0t. <el!d volcano er!*ts ...................................................................................................................................................................... 59
'entral %frican Re*!.lic dile((a for ,rance ............................................................................................................................ 59
ALSO IN NE%S ................................................................................................................................. 5&
Sachin Ra(esh Tend!l5ar ................................................................................................................................................................ 5+
Prof. '.2.R. Rao.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5+
Sat/a 2adella ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5+

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
POLITY
T'E %'ISTLE BLO%ERS PROTECTION BILL( 2011
• The Whistle Blowers Protection Bill, 2011 was passed by the Parliament.
• Whistleblowing is the act of disclosing information by an employee or any stakeholder about an illegal or
unethical conduct within an organisation.
• The bill aims to balance the need to protect honest officials from undue harassment with protecting
persons making a public interest disclosure.
IPORTANT PROVISIONS
• The Bill seeks to protect whistleblowers, i.e. persons making a public interest disclosure related to an act of
corruption, misuse of power, or criminal offence by a public serant.
• !t seeks to establish a mechanism to register complaints on any allegations of corruption or wilful misuse of
power against a public serant.
• "ny public serant or any other person including a non#goernmental organi$ation can file complaint
• Penalties for knowingly making false complaints.
SAFE)UAR$S
• !t proides safeguards against ictimisation of the person who makes the complaint.
• The %igilance &ommission shall not disclose the identity of the complainant e'cept to the head of the
department if he deems it necessary.
• !f the %igilance &ommission decides that a complainant ora witness or a person assisting an in(uiry needs
protection, it shall issue directions to the concerned goernment authorities to protect such persons.
E*EPTS
• )isclosure of proceedings of the &abinet if it is likely to affect the soereignty of !ndia, security of the state,
friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality.
• "rmed forces and intelligence agencies. *oweer, on the recommendation of parliament standing
committee, goernment deleted this e'emption from the bill that is now in +a,ya -abha.
PROCE$URE
• The %igilance &ommission has to erify the identity of the complainant, and then conceal his identity .unless
the complainant has reealed it to any other authority/. Then it shall decide whether the matter needs to be
inestigated based on the disclosure or after making discreet in(uiries. !f it decides to inestigate, it shall
seek an e'planation from the head of the concerned organisation.
• "fter conducting the in(uiry, if the %igilance &ommission feels that the complaint is friolous or there is no
sufficient ground to proceed, it shall close the matter. !f the in(uiry substantiates allegation of corruption or
misuse of power, it shall recommend certain measures to the public authority .anybody falling within the
,urisdiction of the %igilance &ommission/. 0easures include initiating proceedings against the concerned
public serant, taking steps to redress the loss to the goernment, and recommending criminal proceedings
to the appropriate authority
CRITICIS
• 1ery complaint has to include the identity of the complainant. !t is in contrary to the recommendations
made by 2
nd
"+& and also by 2aw commission. !n 34, 3-" and &anada, anonymous complaints are also
accepted.
• The &%& was designated to receie public interest disclosures since 2005 through a goernment
resolution. There hae been only a few hundred complaints eery year. The proisions of the Bill are
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
similar to that of the resolution. Therefore, it is unlikely that the number of complaints will differ
significantly.
• The power of the &%& is limited to making recommendations. "lso it does not hae any power to impose
penalties.
• The Bill has a limited definition of disclosure and does not define ictimisation. 6ther countries such as 3-,
34, and &anada define disclosure more widely and define ictimisation.
• &ases older than 7 years are not entertained
RECOEN$ATIONS OF PARLIAENTARY COITTEE
• The Bill should coer members of the &ouncil of 0inisters, the 8udiciary .including higher ,udiciary/ and
regulatory authorities.
• Wrongful gain accrued to any third party should be included in definition of 9disclosure:
• There should be a foolproof mechanism to ensure that the identity of the complainant is not compromised.
• "nonymous complaints hae supporting documents that substantiates the claims may be inestigated.
• 3ndue burden should not be placed on the complainant to proide proof to substantiate his case. "s long as
he is able to make out a prima facie case, the %igilance &ommissioner should follow up on the case.
• There is a high chance of non#compliance of orders of the &%&. Therefore, an effectie mechanism needs to
be chalked out to ensure that the orders of the &%& are complied with and stringent action may be taken
for non#compliance.
FAOUS CASES
• -atyendra )ubey # noble cause of e'posing corruption in highway construction.
• -an,i &haturedi ; !ndian <orest -erice of *aryana cadre. *e has e'posed arious scams. &entral
goernment has supported the cause of officer by negating arious steps taken by state goernment against
him. -tate goernment has gien him continuously $ero performance rating which would impact his
promotion in serice.
• 0an,unath -hanmugam, an !!0 graduate gae his life to the country while trying to e'pose the corruption in
petroleum marketing.
• -hehla 0asood, a =>#year#old businesswoman in Bhopal, used public documents obtained under !ndia:s
+ight to !nformation "ct to e'pose local political corruption after she kept losing on goernment contracts.
STREET VEN$ORS +PROTECTION OF LIVELI'OO$ AN$ RE)ULATION OF STREET
VEN$IN), BILL( 2014
• Parliament passed the -treet %endors .Protection of 2ielihood and +egulation of -treet %ending/ Bill, 2015,
which later receied the assent of President of !ndia.
• The Bill aims to protect the lielihood rights of street endors as well as regulate street ending through
demarcation of ending $ones, conditions for and restrictions on street ending.
• -treet %endors hae been defined to include 9any person engaged in ending of articles, goods, food etc or
offering serices to the general public in a street lane, side walk, footpath, paement, public park, or any
other public or priate area. !t includes hawkers, peddlers, and s(uatters.
• The Bill states that the minimum age of a street endor has to be 15 years.
• "ny person intending to take street ending should register with the Town Vending Committee (TVC).
• T%& would be constituted in each local authority for implementing its proisions, surey of all e'isting street
endors and subse(uent sureys once eery fie years and issuing certificate of vending to all street
vendors identified in the surey, giing preference to SCs STs !"Cs women persons with disabilities and
minorities.
• The Bill empowers the T%& to cancel or suspend the ending certificate. This may be done if the endor has
breached the conditions of street ending either under the Bill or under the street ending scheme.
• "n appeal can be made to the local authority against the decision of the T%&. The appeal shall be with
respect to .a/ decision regarding the grant of registration? or .b/ cancellation@suspension of the ending
certificate.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• " penalty may be imposed on the street endors if the endorA
o )oes not hae a ending certificate? or
o %ends beyond the designated $one or specified timings? or
o &ontraenes the ending certificate.
• " ma'imum penalty of +s 2000 may be imposed on the street endor.
• The Bill re(uires eery local authority to frame a street ending plan. The plan has to be reframed eery fie
years. The plan shall determine the ending $ones as .a/ restriction#free ending $ones? .b/ restricted
ending $ones? and .c/ no#ending $ones. The plan should also take into account that the areas aailable for
street ending is reasonable, does not lead to oercrowding and is consistent with natural markets.
• The Bill empowers the local authority to relocate street endors. The authority may do so, of the street
endors are causing a public nuisance or obstructing the moement of the public. " registered street endor
who has been relocated shall be entitled to new site for ending.
• The appropriate goernment may proide for credit, insurance and other welfare schemes for the street
endors.
ANALYSIS
• &onsidering the significant contribution made by street endors to the urban society, and to enable them to
earn a decent lielihood through creation of conditions for decent work, without causing obstruction to the
public and to reflect the spirit of the &onstitution of !ndia on the right of citi$ens to e(ual protection before
the law as well as their right to practice any profession, occupation, trade or business, the Boernment of
!ndia has reised the Cational Policy on 3rban -treet %endors in 200D and subse(uently introduced a bill in
the parliament.
• Bill was drafted under entries 20 .economic and social planning/, 2= .social security and social insurance?
employment and unemployment/, and 25 .welfare of labour including conditions of work, proident funds,
employers liability, workmen:s compensation, inalidity and old age pensions and maternity benefits/ of 2ist
!!! of the &onstitution. The Bill proides for protection of lielihoods rights, social security of street endors,
regulation of urban street ending in the country and for matters connected therewith or incidental
thereto.
• With passage of law, some 10 million of the most industrious workers of the country hae gained formal
recognition.
• &urrently, street ending is regulated under municipal laws enacted by state legislatures. Parliament:s
competence to legislate on this issue depends on whether the Bill is interpreted as substantiely addressing
rights and obligations of street endors .&oncurrent 2ist/ or relating to municipal $oning .-tate 2ist/.
• The Bill does not specify principles to be followed by goernments in issuing ending certificates, allocating
ending $ones and the number of endors per $one. "bsence of such norms could defeat the purpose of
enacting a law to ensure uniformity in the legal framework.
• The standing committee suggested reconsidering the non#inclusion of railway lands in the bill.
• 0obile endors should be proided more than one certificate.
• 2ocal authority has been gien power to determine the ending $one. Bill does not specify that local
authority consult T%& and other stakeholders in this process.
T'E AN$'RA PRA$ES' REOR)ANISATIONBILL( 2014
• The bill has been passed by the Parliament which proides for the reorganisation of the state of "ndhra
Pradesh. !t creates two states, namely "ndhra Pradesh and Telangana.
• The bill enisages *yderabad as the common capital. The "ndhra Pradesh Boernor will be Boernor for
both successor -tates of "ndhra Pradesh and Telangana.
• The common capital includes the e'isting area notified as Breater *yderabad 0unicipal &orporation. &entre
shall form e'pert committee to suggest a new capital of "ndhra Pradesh within 5E days.
• The &entre will set up an ape' council for the superision of 4rishna and Bodaari riers on water sharing.
• 2E 2ok -abha seats to be allocated to residuary "ndhra Pradesh and 17 2ok -abha seats to Telangana.
• +esiduary "ndhra Pradesh will get 17E 2egislatie "ssembly seats and Telangana 11D.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

8 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 1'isting admission (uotas in all goernment or priate, aided or unaided institutions of higher, technical and
medical education shall continue for 10 years during which common admission process shall continue.
• The Polaaram !rrigation Pro,ect will be declared as a national pro,ect and the &entre will take under its
control the regulation and deelopment and the Tungabhadra Board will continue to monitor the release of
water to high leel canal, low leel canal and +a,olibanda diersion scheme.
• The *igh &ourt at *yderabad will be common for both -tates till a separate *igh &ourt is set up for
residuary "ndhra Pradesh.
• "ny dispute, regarding financial assets and liabilities, shall be settled through mutual agreement failing
which by the &entre:s order on the adice of the &omptroller and "uditor Beneral.
• "ll properties situated outside e'isting "ndhra Pradesh will be apportioned between the successor -tates
on the basis of population ratio.
• Breyhound and 6&T6P3- forces of the e'isting "ndhra Pradesh will be distributed after seeking opinions
from the personnel and each of these forces.
• The award made by the 1=th <inance &ommission to the e'isting -tate of "ndhra Pradesh will be
apportioned between the successor -tates by the &entre on the basis of population and other parameters.
• The residual state is to get special category status for the purpose of central assistance and its backward
regions will be eligible for a special deelopment package.
• The 3nion goernment has put in place an action plan to deelop ma,or Tier !! and !!! cities@towns in
-eemandhra region as 9specialised mini#capitals$. The action plan submitted to the Broup of 0inisters and
&entre recommends deeloping %isakhapatnam, %i,ayawada, 6ngole, Tirupati, &hittoor, 4akinada and
"nantapur as specialised hubs or mini#capitals. %isakhapatnam may turn into the fisheries and sea#food
hub. 4akinada will become the focal point in the deelopment of petrochemical industries. Tirupati or
&hittoor are in the reckoning to turn into agro#based and food#processing hubs etc.
• &riticism
o -pecial powers gien to the Boernor under the proposed "ct are in contraention of the
proisions of the constitution as law and order is a state sub,ect.
ARTICLE #
• The bill has been decisiely re,ected by the "ndhra Pradesh legislature. This is the first time that an
amendment Bill been re,ected by the -tate legislature for formation of a new state.
• "rticle = of the &onstitution ests Parliament with the power to form a new -tate, proided that the Bill
creating such a -tate is introduced on the recommendation of the President and he has referred it to the
legislature of the affected -tate Ffor e'pressing its iews thereon.G "rticle = merely gies -tate "ssemblies a
consultatie role H their iews are not binding on Parliament in any way. Therefore, the formation of a new
state is solely the prerogatie of the goernment of !ndia.
• The current proiso to "rticle = was introduced by the &onstitution .<ifth "mendment/ "ct, 1DEE. Before
this amendment, the President could only introduce an "mendment Bill in Parliament after referring it to
the -tate legislatures concerned for their iews. This was a time#consuming process, allowing -tates to
acillate in responding, thereby frustrating the efforts of the goernment of !ndia. This amendment was
necessary to lay the groundwork for the smooth passage of the -tates: +eorganisation &ommission +eport.
SPECIAL CATE)ORY STATUS
• &entre has decided to gie special category status to residual "ndhra Pradesh.
• &riteria for -pecial category states is decided by Cational )eelopment &ouncil .C)&/ and any state must
fulfill following conditionsA
o hilly and difficult terrain
o low population density and@or si$able share of tribal population
o strategic location along borders with neighbouring countries
o economic and infrastructural backwardness
o Con#iable nature of -tate finances.
• &urrently, 11 states en,oy special category status which includes ; northeastern states including -ikkim,
8ammu I 4ashmir, *imachal Pradesh, and 3ttarakhand.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• +esidual -eemandhra state after bifurcation would be 12th state to en,oy this status.
• The &entral assistance to states en,oying special category status is D0 per cent.
• %arious other states such as Bihar, 6disha, 8harkhand and +a,asthan are demanding special category status
from long time.
PREVENTION OF COUNAL VIOLENCE +ACCESS TO -USTICE AN$
REPARATIONS, BILL( 2014
• !t was introduced in +a,ya -abha but was deferred on the ery first day of last session of the 1Eth 2ok -abha
• The Bill defines communal iolence to include any act of series of acts, whether spontaneous or planned,
resulting in in,ury or harm to the person or property knowingly directed against any person by irtue of his
or her religious or linguistic identity.
• )ereliction of duty will inite a punishment with imprisonment ranging from two years to fie years and
breach of command with imprisonment of up to 10 years.
• 1arlier the power of interention of the &enter in eent of riots was unilateral, that is, central could send
paramilitary forces without consulting the state goernments. This has been amended and now the -tate
goernments will hae discretion in deciding whether the assistance of the &enter is needed or not.
• The new bill makes bureaucrats and public serants accountable for any acts of commission and omission
while handling communal iolence. *oweer bureaucrats who refuse to obey unlawful orders of their
superiors during communal situations cannot be held responsible for willful neglect of duty.
• The Bill proide compensation of 7 lakh rupees to the ne't kin of those killed in communal iolence, E lakh
rupees for rape, = lakh rupees to E lakh rupees for disability and 2 lakh rupees for grieous in,ury.
-U$ICIAL REFORS
A))0I27+,27 03 A9',S
%'Y IN NE%S.
• The -upreme &ourt:s collegium withdrew from the law ministry the names of 12 persons recommended by
the collegium for eleation as ,udges of the 0adras *igh &ourt.
• !n the present case, it was alleged that there is lack of transparency in the selection process. But many
argue that the real issue lies in the casteism. !t cannot be a coincident where certain castes are not at all
represented in the 0adras *igh &ourt.
ANALYSIS
• The -upreme &ourt:s proposal to create a Fforum to address the grieances of lawyersG on ,udicial
appointments is a small step towards greater transparency in the functioning of the collegiums.
• The -&, notably, withdrew its nomination and returned the list to the 0adras *&. But its reason for doing so
H that the 0adras *& had a new chief ,ustice and therefore the list had to be considered afresh H skirts
the real problem of lack of accountability in ,udicial collegiums.
• The collegium system H a creation of the -& itself H comprises the chief ,ustice and the senior#most ,udges
of a high court or the -& and is not answerable to any constitutional functionary for its decisions.
• " ,udicial appointments commission is in the works, but it is unclear when Parliament will legislate it into
e'istence by way of a constitutional amendment. The proposed commission, which would replace the
collegiums, would still hae some discretion in the appointment process.
• 0eanwhile, till the commission is institutionalised, the ape' court should nudge the appointments process
towards greater transparency. The -& could prescribe eligibility criteria for selection to the higher ,udiciary,
beyond the basic re(uirements in the &onstitution. !t could e'hort high courts to make the shortlist of
candidates public. The -& could disclose why it has chosen to nominate ,udges from the short list to the
3nion goernment.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1$ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The appointment process should also take on board diersity concerns. *igher courts will indeed inite
criticism upon disclosing the rationale behind ,udicial appointments but that would arguably be a small price
to pay to shore up public confidence in the ,udiciary while retaining its independence.
A9ICIA6ACC0A27A#I6I7= #I66
• The bill has been lapsed, but still the bill constitutes one of the important 8udicial +eforms. The Bill seeks toA
o 2ay down ,udicial standards
o Proide for the accountability of ,udges
o 1stablish mechanisms for inestigating indiidual complaints for misbehaiour or incapacity of a ,udge
of the -upreme &ourt or *igh &ourts.
o "lso proides a mechanism for the remoal of ,udges.
• The procedure of remoal of ,udges is presently regulated by the 8udges .!n(uiry/ "ct,1DJ>. The Bill seeks to
repeal the "ct.
• The Bill re(uires ,udges to practise uniersally accepted alues of ,udicial life such as allowing family
members who are members of the Bar to use the ,udge:s residence for professional work, hearing or
deciding matters in which a member of the ,udge:s family or relatie or friend is concerned, declare their
assets and liabilities etc.
• The Bill establishes two authorities to inestigate complaints against ,udges. The Two authorities areA
o Cational 8udicial 6ersight &ommittee? and
o -crutiny Panel.
• !nitial complaints will be made to the 6ersight &ommittee, and they will be referred to the -crutiny Panel.
• <riolous or e'atious complaints may be penalised by the 6ersight &ommittee
• !f the charges against a ,udge are proed, the 6ersight &ommittee may recommend that ,udicial work shall
not be assigned to the ,udge. !t may also issue adisories and warnings if it feels that the charges proed do
not warrant the remoal of the ,udge. !f the &ommittee feels that the charges proed merit the remoal of
the ,udge, it shall re(uest the ,udge to resign oluntarily, and if he fails to do so, .b/ adise the president to
proceed with the remoal of the ,udge. !n such a case, the President shall refer the matter to Parliament.
• The Bill e'empts documents and records of proceedings related to a complaint from the puriew of the
+ight to !nformation "ct, 200E. The reports of the inestigation committee and the order of the 6ersight
&ommittee shall be made public.
E*ISTIN) EC'ANIS
• There is an !n#*ouse procedure to deal with complaints against ,udges of the -upreme &ourt and the *igh
&ourts. &omplaints receied by the &hief 8ustice of !ndia are e'amined and ultimately if it is found that a
deeper probe is re(uired into allegations, a three#member committee is constituted for a fact#finding
in(uiry.
• !f the committee reports that the misconduct disclosed is so serious as to call for initiation of proceedings
for remoal of the ,udge concerned, the &hief 8ustice of !ndia may adise the ,udge concerned to resign or
seek oluntary retirement or withdraw himself from ,udicial work, and the goernment may be intimated
that this has been done since allegations are so serious as to warrant initiation of proceedings for remoal
of the ,udge concerned. " copy of the report is furnished to the ,udge concerned.
• -ubordinate ,udiciary is under the control of respectie *igh &ourt. )ifferent *igh &ourts hae, oer the
years, eoled procedures for e'ercising control oer the subordinate courts.
FREE$O OF SPEEC'
%'Y IN NE%S.
Penguin !ndia withdraw "merican !ndologist Wendy )oniger:s book 9The *indusA "n "lternatie *istory: from
the !ndian market following an out#of#court settlement with )elhi#based complainants.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ANALYSIS
• The !ndian law makes it a criminal rather than ciil offence to publish a book that offends any group of
citi$ens, a law that ,eopardises the physical safety of any publisher, no matter how ludicrous the accusation
brought against a book.
• Penguin !ndia says that -ection 2DE" of the !ndian Penal &ode .!P&/ makes it difficult for any !ndian
publisher to uphold international standards of free e'pression. 2DE" section talks about deliberate and
malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs.
• -ection 2DE" was not part !ndian Penal &ode of 1>J0 in its original form. !t was added much later in 1D27.
The debates on the proposed amendment in the assembly make it abundantly clear that the proision was
iewed as a somewhat retrograde step. !t was argued that amendment is a Fdeath#blow to religious and
historical research.G
• The petitioner had argued that the book was inaccurate, presenting a Fshallow, distorted, non#serious
presentation of *induism filled with heresies.G 3ltimately it was about lowering of *indu culture and
cultural identity.
• *oweer, protestors are critici$ed on picking up isolated passages in the book that can be twisted into
controersies rather than genuine concern for cultural integrity.
• !t would be failure of democracy if whimsical decisions of the ma,ority are allowed to oerride the most
fundamental rights en,oyed by the citi$ens.
• 6ne sided information, disinformation, misinformation and non#information, all e(ually create an
uninformed citi$enry which makes democracy a farce. <reedom of speech and e'pression includes the right
to impart and receie information which includes freedom to hold opinions. "fter all, critical arguments
hae always broadened the scope of the religion.
OT'ER SIILAR CASES
• The -alman +ushdie affair for his noel, FThe -atanic %ersesG became the most important free speech
controersy of modern times. "nd yet, e'cept where there were state bans, Penguin refused to withdraw
the book. This preious stand of Penguin is in complete contrast to current stand of Penguin !ndia.
• The 0aharashtra goernment banned F-hia,iA *indu 4ing in !slamic !ndiaG.
• 0ore recently, cartoon depictions of B.+. "mbedkar had to be withdrawn from C&1+T te't#books.
• Bloomsbury !ndia:s decision to withdraw FThe )escent of "ir !ndiaG book after a complaint for defamation
filed by 0r. Praful Patel.
SC REFERS EUT'ANASIA TO CONSTITUTIONAL BENC'
• " fie#,udge constitutional bench would decide whether dying with dignity a fundamental right for
terminally ill patients or not.
• "ccording to one argument a terminally ill person should be gien the right to refuse the life support system
when a medical e'pert says she@he has reached a point of no return.
• The -& referred to an earlier &onstitution Bench ,udgment which, in the Bian 4aur case, Fdid not e'press
any binding iew on the sub,ect of euthanasia? rather it reiterated that the legislature would be the
appropriate authority to bring change.G
• Though that ,udgment said the right to lie with dignity under "rticle 21 was inclusie of the right to die
with dignity, it did not arrie at a conclusion on the alidity of euthanasia, be it actie or passie.
• The only ,udgment that holds the field with regard to euthanasia in !ndia is the ruling in the "runa -hanbaug
case .2011/, which upholds the alidity of passie euthanasia and lays down an elaborate procedure for
e'ecuting the same on the wrong premise that the &onstitution Bench in Bian 4aur had upheld the same.
• The Bench said that in iew of the inconsistent opinions rendered in the "runa -hanbaug case and the
important (uestion of law inoled, it was e'tremely important to hae a clear enunciation of the law.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

12 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SC ON CAPITAL PUNIS'ENT
DPlease also refer to the '!rrent %ffairs notes of )an!ar/ 201#, for the news related to the S' C!d(ent on 'a*ital
P!nish(ent.E
ANALYSIS
• The commutations of death sentences, in Shatrughan Chauhan v. Union of India, were primarily ordered on
grounds of delays by the President in disposing of petitions filed by felons praying for mercy. -upreme &ourt
held that to e'ecute a person who has been kept on death row for years on end with no answer to his or
her plea for clemency is an act of torture that iolates the prisoner:s fundamental right to life.
• The -upreme &ourt ruled that inordinate delay or mental illness constituted Fsuperening circumstancesG
re(uiring the President or the Boernor to e'ercise their constitutional duty in grating pardon under article
72 or 1J1. When they fail to do so, it becomes incumbent upon the &ourt to interene in the interests of
presering the due process of law.
• The legal issue at stake in Chauhan was simpleA are the powers of pardon ested in the President and the
Boernors under "rticles 72 and 1J1 of the &onstitution amenable to ,udicial reiewK The &ourt held that
these powers carried with them a concomitant constitutional duty for the authorities e'ercising the powers
to conform to due process. Therefore, in e'ceptional cases, where the authority concerned may hae
abdicated its responsibility in acting contrary to re(uirements of due process, its decisions would be
amenable to ,udicial scrutiny. The ,udgment emphasises the need for accountability in e'ercising
constitutionally enshrined powers in a responsible manner.
• This case also makes the important point that an inordinate and ine'plicable delay in e'ecution would
preclude carrying out the sentence een in cases where the conict in (uestion had committed an offence
of terrorism. !n so deciding, the &ourt has oerruled its own recent decision in evender Singh !hullar v.
State of NC" elhi. !n !hullar, decided in 0ay 201=, a two#,udge bench had ruled that a delay in disposing of
a mercy petition was, by itself, insufficient ground for commuting the sentence of those conicted to death
under anti#terrorism statutes.
• !n correcting this anomaly, Chauhan reiterates a long#standing constitutional alueA the &onstitution
demands that the state treats all those sub,ect to its powers as haing e(ual status? when there is no
constitutional basis for differentiating between conicts found guilty of offences such as murder and
conicts found guilty of terrorism offences, any delay in e'ecution is to be treated e(ually, as a iolation of
due process, irrespectie of the offence committed.
• "s the &ourt rightly held in Chauhan, the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed by "rticle 21 includes
within it a right to be treated with a certain dignity, een if you are a conict on the death row. "rticle 21 H
which now by interpretie design recognises a right to due process H is applicable not merely to you, me
and eery other aerage citi$en, but also to those condemned to the gallows. "ny inordinate, une'plained
delay in determining the merits of a mercy petition filed by a conict on the death row would be an
infraction of that right.
• !t is easy to wonder why the most brutal of men and women desere the protection of the law? but when
due process is disregarded for monstrous criminals, it also becomes simpler to disregard it for the rest of us.
SC ON C'IL$ A$OPTION BY INORITIES
• The -upreme &ourt said that religious minorities hae legal right to adopt children, een if it contradicts
personal laws, under 8uenile 8ustice .care and Protection of &hildren/ act, 2000.
• The -upreme &ourt has affirmed that under the 8uenile 8ustice .&are and Protection of &hildren/ "ct
amended in 200J, adopted children hae the same Frights, priileges and responsibilitiesG as biological
children, and !ndian citi$ens of any religion can legally adopt them.
• -o far, 0uslims, &hristians, Parsis and 8ews were allowed to be guardians, not legal parents, and their
children could not inherit property.
• The ,udgment has clarified that personal laws cannot oerride ciil laws and the rights they guarantee.
FPersonal beliefs and faiths, though must be honoured, cannot dictate the operation of the proisions of an
enabling statute,G said -upreme &ourt.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

13 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• !t is seen as a step towards uniform ciil court which is mentioned under article 55 of )irectie Principles of
-tate Policy .)P-P/.
• "part from pressing for formal rights, there is also a need to stress on internal reforms.
'C ON NATIONAL E/AIL POLICY
• The )elhi *igh &ourt has pulled up the &entral Boernment for its alleged failure to frame a national e#mail
policy for online communication of official records.
• The continuous use of priate e#mail ids like Lahoo and Boogle, which hae serers outside the country, by
goernment departments is in iolation of the Public +ecords "ct, 1DD=.
• The "ct prohibits sending of official records outside the country by e'changing communication of official
records through priate e#mail serice proiders.
• !n "ugust 201=, Boernment announced that the national e#mail policy would be released to protect
priacy of email users in !ndia.
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN LA% A0IN)
• &abinet -ecretary#led committee recently took decision to institutionalise public participation in the law#
making process. This will apply not only to legislation, but also the rules and regulations that will goern the
act, the administratie working manuals.
• The decision re(uires eery &entral goernment department to publicise the details of a proposed
legislation on the !nternet and other media before being introduced in Parliament.
• 3nder the decision, draft bills must be accompanied with an e'planatory note outlining the essential
proisions of the bill and its impact on the enironment and lies of affected people.
• The public must then be gien at least =0 days to comment.
• <ollowing publication, these comments are to be submitted to the releant parliamentary standing
committee e'amining the bill.
ANALYSIS
• !t is uncontroersial that pre#legislatie scrutiny enhances democratic goernance. !t has been done in a
number of other countries well accustomed to transparent legislatie processes.
• +ight to !nformation act, -e'ual harassment at workplace bill, the model police act and the land ac(uisition
bill are being recent e'ample of public participation in law#making process.
• &ommon sense dictates that people who are potentially affected by a proposed legislation H whether
adersely or faourably H should be able to hae a say in the law#making process at an early stage.
• "ppropriate sub,ect matter e'perts should also hae an opportunity to inform and refine draft bills.
• 1specially in a country as dierse as !ndia, transparent and inclusie law#making is more likely to reflect the
will of the people.
• That said, while !ndia has seen some good e'amples, often the only forum for inputs for legislation is behind
the closed doors of a parliamentary committee.
• Too often, laws are made in haste to please a particular interest group or as knee#,erk reactions to public
outcry, without the balance of competing iews.
• Too often, the impact on the lies of the ulnerable is thrown out of the window.
• Public participation in law making would take !ndia from a Frepresentatie democracy to a participatory,
deliberatie democracy.G
• *oweer, the mode of consultation must be made well#known, and the instruments for consultation will
hae to go beyond the !nternet and electronic media. Ceedless to say, in a country where !nternet
penetration and literacy rates are low, publicising information through written and electronic means will
effectiely shut out a large per cent of the population.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
0ERALA1S E*APLE
• " robust model of pre#legislatie consultation was carried out by 4erala in relation to police legislation in
2011. )raft bill was placed on 4erala police:s website with proper feedback channels aailable ia email etc.
-uggestions were incorporated into the draft.
• )ifferent groups were allowed to consult 02"s on the contents of the Bill
• The 1D#member -elect &ommittee, headed by the then *ome 0inister and comprising 02"s from almost
eery party, decided to tour the -tate and hold district#wide town hall meetings.
• Town hall meetings were held in all 15 districts of the -tate. "t least 500#E00 people attended eery
meeting.
• Cotices were placed in leading newspapers publicising the committee, its isit and its mandate.
• +esult was that the select committee suggested 7D0 amendments to the original Bill introduced in the
*ouse and in the end 250 amendments ; many based on public:s feedback ; were accepted and passed in
the legislature.
SETTIN) UP OF COALRE)ULATOR
• &entre has decided to set up a coal regulator through e'ecutie order.
• &oal regulatory authority .&+"/ bill is still pending in the parliament. +egulator would act as a substitute for
statutory authority.
• Without a legislatie mandate, the regulatory body will simply sere as an adisor to P-3s in the coal sector.
&oal !ndia 2imited would still hae the final say in important decisions like pricing as well as the allocation of
coal blocks
• The regulator will be empowered to specify principles and methodology for determination of price of raw
coal and washed coal and any other by#product generated during washing.
• !t would also regulate methods for testing for declaration of grades or (uality of coal, specify procedure for
automatic coal sampling and ad,udicate upon disputes between parties besides monitoring closure of mines
and approal of mining plans.
• The regulator will hae no decisie role in the cancellation or suspension of mining licences.
• *aing a regulatory authority in this field could bring in much#needed checks and balances in the process of
determining the sale of a scarce and aluable national resource. But if its recommendations hae no legal
bearing on e'ecutie decisions, the coal regulator will not hae any tangible effect on arbitrary or corrupt
practices.
POLICE COPLAINT AUT'ORITY
%'Y IN NE%S.
• 0aharashtra is planning to come up with a police complaint authority .P&"/.
ANALYSIS OF PCA
• !deally, the P&" should be a powerful body of independent people able to help the police weed out bad
indiiduals and bad practices, and to help the public trust the police.
• P&"s are already in e'istence in 11 -tates@3Ts. They face following challengesA
o <ractured mandates
o !mproper compositions ; appointments are made from sering or retired police or ciil
administration.
o !nade(uate staffing
o <ew financial resource
o 2ittle inestigating capacity
o Con#cooperation and outright defiance from the police
• Police officers hae strong resistance to such bodies. They argue that there is already an internal
mechanism as well as human rights commissions, anti#corruption bodies and courts to which the police
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
must answer. The police must not be demoralised by yet another body:s finger pointing. 6utside agencies
interfere with the police:s disciplinary function. Co one understands the pressures under which the police
work.
• 6n contrary, crime is on the rise in eery state. Public satisfaction leels with policing hae also dropped
steadily. )eath and iolence in custody, corruption and connections with malefactors and mafia abound,
and rapes by police personnel are on rise continuously.
• -trong accountable machinery is re(uired in !ndia as it e'ist world oer. !t is because the police hae the
power to take away life and liberty, and to use coercie force.
• P&"s at the state and district leels create local spaces for people:s complaints. They are not forced to go to
distant, already oerburdened bodies like the human rights commissions or the courts with their achingly
slow process.
UN$ERTRIAL PRISONERS
• !ndian ,ails are full of undertrial prisoners. "lone in Tihar ,ail of )elhi, around 7E per cent inmates are
undertrial.
• 3nder section 5=J" &rP& ; an amendment in the &rP& "mendment "ct 200E ; an undertrial, other than
someone accused of an offence for which the death penalty is prescribed, has to be released if he@she has
been in detention for more than half the prescribed period of imprisonment.
• Tihar 8ail authorities hae started identifying those who hae sered their half or more than half term but
are still lodged in the comple'.
NE%S RELATE$ TO ELECTIONS
S,,CI2' V07, 02 &,6I'I0AS '&0A29
• " seen#,udge Bench of the -upreme &ourt will pass a ruling on the interpretation of -ection 12= .=/ of the
+epresentation of the People "ct, deciding on whether an appeal for ote in the name of religion will come
within the ambit of 9corrupt practice:.
• -ection 12= .=/ of the +epresentation of the People "ct defines corrupt practice as Fthe appeal by a
candidate or his agent or by any other person with the consent of a candidate or his election agent to ote
or refrain from oting for any person on the ground of his religion, race, caste, community or language or
the use of, or appeal to religious symbols or the use of, or appeal to, national symbols, such as the national
flag or the national emblem, for the furtherance of the prospects of the election of that candidate or for
pre,udicially affecting the election of any candidate.G
• !n elections in 0aharashtra after the 1DD2#D= 0umbai riots, -hi -ena leader 0anohar 8oshihad promised
to turn 0aharashtra into !ndia:s first *indu -tate. The Bombay *igh &ourt nullified 0r. 8oshi:s election as by
seeking ote in the name of religion he iolated the constitutional commitment to secularism.
• *oweer, the former &hief 8ustice of !ndia, 8.-. %erma, heading a three#,udge Bench of the ape' court,
oerturned the *igh &ourt erdict.
• -ubse(uently, a fie#,udge Bench also held that a candidate would not be guilty of a corrupt practice if
he@she appealed to persons to ote or not to ote on grounds of religion as long as it was not his@her
religion.
'AI9,6I2,S 02 )A&7I,S* +A2I3,S70S
• -upreme &ourt has directed the election commission of !ndia to ask political parties to e'plain the rationale
behind the promises
• The -upreme &ourt said that though promises made in manifestos could not be construed as corrupt
practices as per law, the distribution of freebies of any kind FinfluencesG all people. !t would be helpful in
creating a leel#playing field before elections.
• -ubse(uently, the 1lection &ommission has issued fresh, comprehensie guidelines for political parties on
their conduct and manifestos, cautioning them against making tall promises because in reality distribution
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
of freebies of any kind Finfluences all peopleG and Fshakes the root of free and fair elections to a large
degree.G
• Parties: manifestos, as per the election commission:s direction, must reflect the rationale for the promises
and broadly indicate the ways and means of meeting the financial re(uirements.
A #I' A+) I2 ,6,C70&A6 SIF,
• !ndia:s electorate for the upcoming general election will be >1.E crore which is almost fie times what it was
when !ndia first oted, oer J0 years ago.
• The 1& has added nearly 10 crore new oters to the rolls between 200D and 2015, one of the largest#eer
such increases between two elections.
• 6er E2 per cent of the electorate is male, an electoral se' ratio that has remained unchanged oer time. !t
has skewed a little towards men in the last decade.
• "round D> per cent people of age 1> or aboe are there in the electoral list.
• 1lection commission has performed a rigorous e'ercise of identifying what populations were being e'cluded
and then focused our efforts on enrolling them.
I29IA*S +ISSI2' /0+,2 A29 ,6,C7I02S
• "ccording to an estimate, more than JE million women .appro'imately 20 per cent of the female
electorate/ are missing in !ndia and, therefore, these elections reeal the preferences .or the will/ of a
population that is artificially skewed against women.
• The phrase Fmissing womenG was coined by "martya -en when he showed that in parts of the deeloping
world, the ratio of women to men in the population is suspiciously low. *e estimated that more than 100
million women were missing due to gender discrimination.
• !n the last E0 years of !ndian democracy, the absolute number of missing women has increased fourfold
from 1E million to JE million. "s a percentage of the female electorate, missing women hae gone up
significantly H from 1= per cent to appro'imately 20 per cent. *ence, fewer female oters will oice their
opinions through elections. Political decisions which are based on election outcomes therefore under#
represent the female population. They are not a true reflection of the female policy preferences.
• !ndia remains one of worst performers with a rank of 1== out of 15J countries in the Bender !ne(uality
!nde' .B!!/ which captures the loss in achieement within a country due to gender ine(uality and is based on
measures of health, labour force participation and empowerment.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ECONOY
IN$IAN ECONOY
CSO ESTIATES FOR FINANCIAL YEAR 201#
• Lear • B)P Browth
• 2012#1= .<inal data/ • 5.EM .reised down from earlier
adanced estimates of EM/
• 201=#15 ."danced estimates/ • 5.DM
• B)P N1.7 trillion 3- dollars.
• Per capita income N 7E,E00 rupees.
• -ector#wise growthA
o "griculture and "llied actiities sector N 5.JM .against 1.5 per cent last fiscal./
o 0anufacturing sector N # 0.2M .contraction /
o 0ining sector N # 1.DM . contraction/
o -erices sector .including finance, insurance, real estate and business serices/ N 11.2 per cent
.compared with 10.D per cent in 2012#1=/
o 1lectricity, gas and water production N J per cent.up from 2.= per cent/
• !ther %iscellaneo&s observations'
• )ecrease inA
o *ousehold saings
o &orporate saings
o gross fi'ed capital formation .B<&</
• !ncrease inA
o &ost of energy has increased
o +eason for the sameA -talled &oal 0ining pro,ects owing to lack of clearances which has led to a
spurt in import of coal. "lso, rise in !mported coal prices owing to e'port country: local reasons
.flood in "ustralia/
ANALYSIS
• !n 2012#1=, the economy grew at 5.E per cent, the lowest in a decade.
• -ince the growth during "pril#-eptember 201= was 5.J per cent, a full#year &-6 estimate of 5.D per cent
implies that the economy is e'pected to grow at ,ust under E.5 per cent during the second half of 201=#15
• !t shows the worst may be oer and the economy will bounce back in the second half of the current fiscal.
LP) SUBSI$Y
• The &abinet approed raising the (uota of subsidised 2PB to 12 cylinders annually from D. "lso it decided to
put on hold linking the "adhaar platform to the subsidy scheme.
• )irect Benefit Transfer for 2PB .)BT2/ scheme, where consumers in as many as get 2>D districts in 1> states
get the subsidy amount in their bank accounts so that they could buy cooking gas at market rate, has been
put on hold.
• +aising the 2PB (uota will cost +s. E,000 crore in additional subsidy annually.
ANALYSIS
• "rguments against )BT .2PB/
o 2ogistic problems
o )BT re(uires three mandatory thingsA
"adhar number
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

18 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
2PB connection number
Bank account number
o Problem is that not eeryone has all or any of the three numbers with them at the same time.
<or e'ample according to &ensus 2011, only E5M rural and J7M urban families hae bank
accounts
o 2egal Problems
-upreme &ourt said "adhar card is not mandatory to claim benefits under goernment
schemes.
• "rguments against increasing the limit from D cylinders to 12 cylinders
o Boes against the logic of benefiting common man
o -ample thisA "ccording to statistics, OD0M families can surie with D cylinders per year. 6nly
bigger families or commercial enterprises would need 12 or more cylinders.
o "lso, This will increase black marketing actiity as this will lead to diersion of e'cess cylinders
from households to commercial enterprises
o <urther, cancelling )BT plan would lead to continued leakage of funds
o !mprudent consumption would be another as a result of freebie in form of subsidy.
SPECTRU AUCTION
• -econd generation .2B/ spectrum auction in D00 0*$ and 1,>00 0*$ airwaes ended after J> rounds of
bidding.
• +s.J1, 1J2.22 crore were reaped in by the goernment.
• Total spectrum on offer was 5J 0*$ in D00 0*$ band .only )elhi, 0umbai and 4olkata/ and =>E 0*$ in
1,>00 0*$ band .all 22 circles/ simultaneously.
ANALYSIS
• &oncerns hae been raised is#a#isA
• The impact of the auctions on the Cational Telecom Policy .CTP/ 2012 ob,ecties especially related to rural
penetration, broadband for all, internet access, etc.
• !t remains to be seen if the operators will hae the financial resources to inest in networks and marketing
after bearing the high spectrum costs
• !mpact of the spectrum price will pass on to tariff in the future. !f the input price goes upwards that will
naturally mean there will be upward pressure on the tariff rates, which the consumers will be e'pected to
pay.
NELP/*
• 5J blocks were to be put for offering in C12P#P. *oweer, they were delayed owing to Bu,arat goernment
withdrawing clearance for the nine areas falling in the state that were part of the offerings under C12P#P
• These blocks are made up of 17 on land areas, 1E shallow water and 15 deep sea blocks. 6f the 17 on land
blocks, nine are in Bu,arat.
• This was to be the first auction round in two years.
• C12P#P is to be done under the 3niform 2icensing Policy regime #e'plorers can look for all kinds of resources
# oil, gas, coal#bed methane or shale, without haing to get separate license for each work
• The auctions were being done according to +angara,an &ommittee recommendation
• The &ommittee had recommended +eenue -haring 0odel, wherein &ontractor needs to start sharing
profit with goernment as per productions immediately. !t doesn:t matter when his 9inestment: is
recoered.
ANALYSIS
• What the Bu,arat -tate Bot. wantsA
o Bu,arat wants a share of reenues that the &entre will earn from the oil and gas produced.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
o This share of the &entre:s reenue is additional to the royalty at the rate of 12.E per cent of price
realised on sale of crude oil and 10 per cent for natural gas that currently flows to the state
goernment.
• *oweer it doesn:t stand the test of legalityA
o "s per the &onstitution of !ndia, 3nion goernment owns all the hydrocarbon resources in !ndia
.both offshore and inland/
o *ence only union can 9auction: the e'ploration rights to priate companies.
o This is done by Cew 1'ploration 2icensing Policy .C12P/. Total nine rounds since 1DDD.
ICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS +$EVELOPENT AN$ RE)ULATION, BILL( 2012
• Parliament:s standing committee on finance is going to re,ect this bill. *oweer these were the main
proisions of the bill #
• The Bill seeks to proide a statutory framework to regulate and deelop the micro finance industry.
• The +esere Bank of !ndia .+B!/ shall regulate the micro finance sector? it may set an upper limit on the
lending rate and margins of 0icro <inance !nstitutions .0<!s/.
• 0<!s are defined as organisations proiding micro credit facilities up to +s E lakh, thrift collection serices,
pension or insurance serices, or remittance serices.
• The Bill proides for the creation of councils and committees at central, state and district leel to monitor
the sector.
• The Bill proides for a 0icro <inance )eelopment <und managed by +B!? proceeds from this fund can be
used for loans, refinance or inestment to 0<!s.
• The Bill re(uires the +B! to create a grieance redressal mechanism.
CRITICIS
• Cot strong enough to curb the menace of priate money lenders.
• There are ma,or contradiction between the statement of ob,ects and the title of the Bill. While the former
proides for promotion, deelopment, regulation and orderly growth of 0<!s, the latter is confined to their
deelopment and regulation.
• 3sing the 0alegam committee:s findings, one can say that insistence of guarantee or security on
borrowings will go against the poor borrowers.
• "lso, by not defining terms such as financial inclusion, micro finance and poor households, the Bill indicated
lack of focus on facilitating financial inclusion
• "gainst the federal principles
• )oesn:t help in financial inclusion
• Bies superisory powers to +B! but +B! already oerburned with so many things. Therefore, 0icrofinance
matter should be completely handed oer to -!)B! or C"B"+).
$RAFT REPORT ON ENABLIN) P0I IN PAYENT SYSTE APPLICATIONS
• " draft technical report on making payment system effectie was released by +esere Bank of !ndia
recently.
• 6b,ectie of P4! system is to ensure a safe, secure, efficient, robust and sound payment system in the
country.
• -alient points of the +eportA
• +eport brings out few statistics about current prealence of P4! in the financial systemA
• <or the year 2012#1=A
o The non#P4! enabled payment system like clearing of 0!&+@Con 0!&+, electronic credit system,
credit card and debit cards contributed to 7E percent, which in alue terms is only J.= percent.
o The payment systems enabled on non#P4!, 0!&+ clearing and non#0!&+ clearing contributed to
=7 percent and 10 percent in olume terms and JD percent and 2E percent in alue terms.
• The report in its highlights has also included security features in e'isting payment system applications and
feasibility in implementing P4! in all payments system applications.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2$ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The Broup has also recommended that banks may carry out in phases P4! implementation for
authentication and transaction erification.
• The report has also mentioned that the issuing banks will also hae to conert the older credit or debit cards
with the magstripe into 1%0 chip and pin#enabled ones.
%'AT IS P0I.
• Public#key cryptography is a cryptographic techni(ue that enables users to securely communicate on an
insecure public network, and reliably erify the identity of a user ia digital signatures.
• " public#key infrastructure .P4!/ is a system for the creation, storage, and distribution of digital
certificates which are used to erify that a particular public key belongs to a certain entity. The P4! creates
digital certificates which map public keys to entities, securely stores these certificates in a central repository
and reokes them if needed.
• " P4! consists ofA
o " certificate authority .&"/ that both issues and erifies the digital certificates
o " registration authority which erifies the identity of users re(uesting information from the &"
o " central directoryHi.e., a secure location in which to store and inde' keys
o " certificate management system
o " certificate policy
• Public 4ey !nfrastructure enabled electronic payment systems that has been introduced by the +B! are
o +TB-
o C1<T
o &B26
o <6+1P &learing
o Boernment -ecurities &learing
o &he(ue Truncation -ystem .&T-/
• The systems of payment are sub,ected to arious financial risks like
o &redit risk
o 2i(uidity risk
o -ystemic risk
o 6perational risk
o 2egal risk
• The need to recognise the security and safety to be robust was needed following the increase in the
adoption of electronic payment products and deliery channels for transactional needs.
)UI$ELINES TO $EAL %IT' $ISTRESSE$ ASSETS
• The +esere Bank of !ndia .+B!/ issued guidelines for reitali$ing distressed assets
• Salient points of the g&idelines'
• Before a loan account turns into a CP", banks are re(uired to identify incipient stress in the account by
creating three sub#categories under the -pecial 0ention "ccount .-0"1/ category. -0" -ub#categories.
o -0"#0A "ccount will fall in this category if the Principal or interest payment not oerdue for
more than =0 days but account showing signs of incipient stress.
o -0"#1A !f the Principal or interest payment oerdue between =1#J0 days
o -0"#2A !f the Principal or interest payment oerdue between J1#D0 days
• +B! to set up a &entral +epository of !nformation on 2arge &redits .&+!2&/ to collect, store, and disseminate
credit data to lenders
• The +B! suggested infusion of more e(uity into their companies by promoters and transfer of their holdings
to a security trustee or an escrow arrangement till the turnaround of the company.
• <orming of 8oint 2enders <orum .82</
o Banks are adised that as soon as an account is reported by any of the lenders to &+!2& as -0"#
2, they should mandatorily form a committee to be called 8oint 2enders: <orum .82</ if the
aggregate e'posure ."1/ of lenders in that account is 1000 million rupees and aboe.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

21 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
o The !ndian Banks: "ssociation .!B"/ would prepare a master 82< agreement and operational
guidelines for 82< which could be adopted by all lenders.
o While 82< formation and subse(uent correctie actions would be mandatory in accounts haing
"1 of 100 crore rupees and aboe, in other cases also the lenders would hae to monitor the
asset (uality closely and take correctie action for effectie resolution as deemed appropriate.
• "doption of &orrectie "ction Plan .&"P/
• <or accounts with "1 of E00 crore rupees and aboe, the techno#economic iability study and restructuring
package would hae to be sub,ected to an ealuation by an independent ealuation committee .!1&/
o The !1& would be re(uired to gie its recommendation in these cases to the 82< within =0 days.
o Thereafter, considering the iews of !1&, if the 82< decided to go ahead with the restructuring,
the restructuring package, including all terms and conditions as mutually agreed upon between
the lenders and the borrower, would hae to be approed by all the lenders and communicated
to the borrower within ne't 1E days for implementation.
RBI C'AN)ES LOAN RATE FORULA
• !n 2015 +aghuram +a,an has come up with a new formula for 0<!#loan rates. 0ethodology for calculating
rate is
• <irst we need to arrie at two figuresA " and B
o " N &ost of fund .i.e. how much did it cost to the 0<!, to arrange that loan money/ plus margin
.12M/
o B N "erage base rate of fie largest commercial banks .like -B!, !&!&! etc/ multiplied with 2.7EM
• The minimum amidst " and B would gie the final rate
• !t will be e(ual to the 0a'imum interest rate, an 0<! can charge on his borrower.
• -ystem will be effectie from <L15 .i.e. 1st "pril, 2015./
BAC0)ROUN$
• Till 2010, ery high interest rates were charged by microfinance companies.
• 0any poor in "ndhra commit suicide because of 0icrofinance loan#recoery agents.
• Then +B! creates new category under CB<&A FCB<&#0<!G
• Therein +B! ordered that 0<! cannot hae more than 12M profit margin on their loan products.
BENEFITS FRO T'E C'AN)E
• The new norm will bring in dynamic pricing that reflect the true cost of funds.
• The benefit of reduction in costs will hae to be passed on to the customer.
FATF ONEY LAUN$ERIN)
• E countries hae been reported under the +eport which tracked instances where diamond prices were
oeralued for purposes of laundering and suspected financingA
o !srael, Belgium, &anada, 3- and !ndia
• !t:s mainly done through oer#aluation of diamonds. These are then shipped at a alue that is tens of
millions of 3-) higher than the real alue.
• +eason for )iamond !ndustry being prone to itA
o leel of manipulation which may be done through the diamond trade is due to its specific
characteristics, such as the ery high alue and the lack of known and stable prices which allow
for the manipulation of price
o The report said as there were no set standards of diamond pricing in the country and as a result
agents were oeraluing the costly and pri$ed gemstones
• The report also puts forth its findings which comprises enhancement of regulatory mechanism to combat
and control laundering and financial crimes in this trade worldwide.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

22 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
'OUSIN) START UP IN$E* +'SUI,
• *ousing start up inde' is a ,oint initiatie by +B! and Cational -ample -urey 6rganisation.
• !t would be an indicator of olume of construction in the housing sector during a certain period
• !t would be coering 27 cities across the country.
• !t:s a first#of#its#kind initiatie in the country
• To measure housing growth in arious cities of !ndia. !t found that
o *ousing declined in big cities like 4olkata, &hennai and Bangalore
o But, showing growth in small cities like )ehradun, Bhopal and *ubli.
ANALYSIS
• *ousing sector contributes O10M B)P.
• !t will help both the priate and goernment sector in assessing the economic actiities in the region. !t will
also benefit consumers and promoters.
• !t is critical indicator of economic growth relating to arious sectors such as banking, mortgage, labour,
steel, cement and paint.
• !nternationally, only si' deeloped countries H &anada, 3-", 8apan, <rance, "ustralia and Cew Qealand H
are haing housing start up inde' on a regular basis and !ndia has become the seenth country to hae such
an e'ercise.
• -uch trends are useful indicators of the pattern of deelopment in our country, which is turn helps policy
makers and administrators understand the future focus and thrust areas not only in terms of housing
proision, but all the associated infrastructure and ciic amenities re(uired.
F$I IN FARLAN$
DPlease also refer to the )an!ar/ 201# c!rrent affairs notes, for the news related to this iss!eE
ANALYSIS
• &urrently, <oreign 1'change 0anagement "ct regulations prohibit the use of <)! funds to buy farmland.
*oweer, real estate companies hae tried to bypass these restrictions.
• The 0inistry of 3rban )eelopment now wants to ease these restrictions, and the goernment has
constituted a three#member &abinet committee to consider <oreign )irect !nestment .<)!/ in agricultural
land bought for real estate purposes.
• The reasoning behind this moe is that 100 per cent <)! is already permitted in deeloping townships,
housing and other infrastructure pro,ects. *ence, it would be only logical to e'tend it and allow the
purchase of agricultural land for construction purposes.
• The other arguments are that restrictions create bottlenecks and delay pro,ects, and that buying of
agricultural land on the outskirts of a city is ineitable and necessary.
• 6n the face of it, rela'ing <)! norms may appear to be a rational step, but in the absence of a clear#cut land
use policy and plans, it will hasten unrestricted ac(uisition and unplanned conersion of farmland and lead
to hoarding of land.
• !n 201=, the 0inistry of +ural )eelopment published a draft Cational 2and 3tilisation Policy. !t conincingly
argued that the shrinkage of per capita ownership of agricultural land and the demand to produce more
food necessitates the protection of fertile land.
• The Cational Policy for <armers, announced in 2007, insisted that the goernment consere productie land
and allow any change in use only under Fe'ceptional circumstances.G
• These two policies make no distinction between foreign and local inestment.
• The goernment has not acted on a recommendation to reie land use boards, which could proide
guidelines to -tate goernments. Cor has it implemented the idea of delineating and integrating land
utilisation $ones under the deelopment plans.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

23 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• These measures are necessary to map the aailability of land and coordinate demands for it. !t is imperatie
to correct any institutional deficiencies and strengthen local leel land#management plans to ensure an
orderly process of urban deelopment and preent detrimental effects on agriculture and enironment.
NATIONAL POLICY FOR FARERS( 200!
• *uman )imensionA <ocus to be on the economic well#being of the farmers than ,ust on production and
productiity and this is to be the principal determinant of <armers policy.
• )efinition of <armersA 1'panded to include all categories of persons engaged in the sector so that they can
be e'tended the benefits of the Policy.
• "sset +eformsA To ensure that eery man and woman, particularly the poor, in illages either possesses or
hae access to a productie asset.
• !ncome Per 3nit of WaterA The concept of ma'imi$ing yield and income per unit of water would be adopted
in all crop production programmes, stress on awareness and efficiency of water use.
• )rought &ode, <lood &ode and Bood Weather &odeA To be introduced in drought prone areas, flood prone
areas and in arid areas respectiely so as to ma'imi$e the benefits of monsoon and to be prepared for likely
contingencies.
• 3se of TechnologyA Cew technologies which can help enhance productiity per unit of land and water are
needed. Biotechnology, information and communication technology .!&T/, renewable energy technology,
space applications and nano#technology to proide opportunities for launching an F1ergreen +eolutionG
capable of improing productiity in perpetuity without harming the ecology.
• Cational "gricultural Bio#security -ystemA To be set up to organi$e a coordinated agricultural bio#security
programme.
• !nputs and serices#-oil *ealthA Bood (uality seeds, disease free planting material, including in#itro
cultured propagules and -oil health enhancement hold the key to raising small farm productiity. 1ery
farm family to be issued with a -oil *ealth Passbook.
• -upport -erices for womenA When women work in fields and forests the whole day, they need appropriate
support serices like crRches, child care centers and ade(uate nutrition.
• &redit I !nsuranceA &redit counseling centers to be established where seerely indebted farmers can be
proided a debt rescue package to help them out of debt trap. Ceed for both credit and insurance literacy in
illages, Byan &haupals to help in the task.
• -etting up of <arm -chools in the fields of outstanding farmers to promote farmer to farmer learning and to
strengthen e'tension serices.
• Byan &haupals to be established in as many illages as possible to harness the help of !nformation and
&ommunication Technology.
• " comprehensie Cational -ocial -ecurity -cheme for the farmers for ensuring lielihood security by taking
care of insurance needs on account of illness, old age, etc.
• 0inimum -upport Price .0-P/ mechanisms to be implemented effectiely across the country so as to
ensure remuneratie prices for agricultural produce.
• 0arket !nterention -cheme to be strengthened to respond speedily to e'igencies, specific crops to be
identified.
• &ommunity <oodgrain BanksA To be promoted to help in the marketing of unutili$ed crops.
• -ingle Cational 0arketA To deelop a -ingle Cational 0arket by rela'ing internal restrictions and controls.
• 1'panding <ood -ecurity Basket to include nutritious crops like ba,ra, ,owar, ragi and millets mostly grown in
dryland farming areas.
• <armers of the futureA <armers may adopt cooperatie farming, create serice cooperaties, undertake
group farming through self#help groups, establish small holders: estates, adopt contract farming and create
farmers: companies. This is e'pected to increase productiity, efficiency of small farmers and would create
multiple lielihood opportunities through crop liestock integrated farming systems as well as agro
processing.
• " &abinet &ommittee on <ood -ecurity is to be constituted.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
NSSO1S "2
T'
ROUN$ 'I)'LI)'TS ON UNEPLOYENT
• The recently released 1mployment and 3nemployment -ituation in !ndia report of the C-- J>th round
.2011#12/ highlights some sobering facts.
• 2abour force participation rate decreased for rural males by 1 per cent between 1DD=#D5 and 2011#12 and
increased by a meagre 2 per cent for urban males.
• Women:s participation rates declined across both rural and urban areas.
• The unemployment rate among the FyouthG .1E to 2D years/ is significantly higher H E and > per cent for
rural and urban males respectiely H than the oerall rate
• 3nemployment among Feducated youthG H >.1 and 11.7 per cent for rural and urban males respectiely H
is een higher.
ANALYSIS
• !ndia adds one million people to its working#age population eery month. 2abour force participation is
around E> per cent H this means, of eery 10 lakh persons between the age of 1E and ED, only E.> lakh will
actually seek a ,ob eery month. +est would be studying or working at home. With these numbers, !ndia is
re(uired to create E1 million ,obs by 201>#1D.
• &reating tens of millions of ,obs, especially in non#agricultural sector will be a stiff task for policymakers with
current rate of growth.
• !f !ndia is unable to generate the re(uired number of new ,obs, its much#aunted demographic diidend will
morph into its bugbear.
• !ndia:s growth prospects as well as its ability to translate growth into employment hae been curbed in
recent years. "ccording to a &+!-!2 study, E2 million ,obs were added in last seen years. &ompare to that,
only => million ,obs can be added between 2011#12 and 201>#1D in non#agricultural sector.
• "ggraating the slowdown is the sharp decline in the employment elasticity of the B)P. !t is defined as the
percentage increase in employment for eery percentage point increase in the B)P. The number
deteriorated sharply to 0.=> per cent between 2005#0E and 2011#12, from 0.E2 per cent in the fie
preceding years, for the non#agricultural sector.
• Two factors were responsible for this F,oblessG nature of growth.
• The growth in the B)P has been drien by the serices sector, which is less labour#intensie # finance, real
estate and business serices, including information technology and information technology enabled
serices. !n 2011#12, these serices, which account for 1D per cent of the B)P, employed only = per cent of
the workforce. These sectors grew at oer 11 per cent per year.
• 2abour#intensie serices such as health, education and recreation serices grew at less than 7 per cent. The
ability of labour#intensie sectors such as manufacturing to absorb workers has declined considerably.
!nfle'ible labour laws and increasing automation hae resulted in the large#scale substitution of labour by
capital.
• Boernment is re(uired to arrest the pace of decline in employment elasticity apart from pushing for
growth. !t will hae to raise the labour dependency of the manufacturing sector by simplifying labour laws
and encouraging the growth of labour#intensie industries such as te'tiles, gems and ,ewellery, handicrafts
and food processing.
• There is an emerging e'port opportunity in some of these low#cost@ labour#intensie sectors, such as
te'tiles, as wages in &hina rise and businesses there start e'iting these segments. Bangladesh is a good
e'ample of its low#cost structure and deeloped its te'tile sector.
• Boernment should also focus on deeloping the health and education sectors. This will not only create ,obs
as they are labour#intensie serices, but also raise !ndia:s growth potential by making the workforce
healthy, skilled and educated
• There is a need to focus on physical infrastructure and the construction sector. This sector not only has high
employment elasticity but can also absorb low#skilled labour from the agricultural sector.
• &onstruction has the highest employment elasticity among non#agricultural sectors. 0ore than JE per cent
of the labour force used in construction is unskilled or semi#skilled H a key characteristic of people coming
out of agriculture. " fast#growing construction sector can therefore create significant employment
opportunities for low#skilled surplus labour in agriculture.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 6ther roadblocks to employment generation that lie in areas such as infrastructure, finance and the myriad
interactions of the state with firms are need to be remoed.
• 0illions of small and medium#si$ed firms across the country need to be encouraged to grow, to be part of
the organised sector, access formal finance and adopt modern technologies.
• Power, water, roads, ports and airports are all of ital importance to the growth of firms. The growth of
firms translates into the growth of employment in an economy, and not ,ust of large manufacturing firms.
T'E )LOBAL EPLOYENT TREN$S REPORT 2014
• The !26 report on The Blobal 1mployment Trends 2015 says that 1 million young people ,oin the ranks of
the ,obless in 201=. !t is mainly due to continued impact of the 2007#0> financial and economic crises.
• The !26 report says that employment will continue to e'pand at a slower pace than the labour force,
resulting in a shortfall of some two million ,obs annually oer the ne't fie years.
• 6ne comparison in the report is instructie where monetary stimulus in the aftermath of the crisis induced
aggregate demand, a rising share of the additional li(uidity has not been feeding into the real economy.
• The 1=.1 per cent rate of unemployment in the 1E#25 years age#group globally is more than twice that
among the adult population. This is concerning !ndia where people below 2E years of age constitute more
than E0 per cent of the population.
EPO%ERENT LINE
• !t measure the minimum economic cost for a household to fulfill eight most basic needs # food, health care,
education, sanitation, water, housing, fuel, and social security H and Fothers: that included entertainment
and clothing.
• !t is deeloped by a global research organi$ation ; 0c4insey Blobal !nstitute .0B!/.
• J>0 million !ndians or EJ per cent of the population falls under this empowerment line. !t is nearly 1.E times
the number of people that !ndia:s official poerty line classifies as poor.
• 1mpowerment line comes out as aerage +s. 1,E55 per capita per month.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SOCIAL ISSUES
T'E RI)'TS OF PERSONS %IT' $ISABILITIES BILL( 2014
• The bill was introduced in the +a,ya -abha in this session and will be pending for the ne't 2ok -abha. SPlease
also refer to the &urrent "ffairs notes for )ecember 201= for the proisions of this bill.T
• The Bill e'pands the definition of disabilities to include 1D physical and mental disabilities as opposed to
seen under the 1DDE Persons with )isabilities "ct. The definition of disability in the Bill is a big departureA
it means all long#term physical, mental, intellectual and sensory impairments which, in interaction with
barriers in the enironment, hinder persons: effectie participation in society on an e(ual basis.
• !t proides for a E per cent reseration in goernment ,obs and reseration in higher educational institutions
from e'isting = per cent.
• Penal proisions to ensure accountability for law enforcement H a lacuna in the current law H could
potentially bridge the gap between professed intentions and practice.
CRITICIS
• The critics says that the Bill is Fregressie and retrograde,G and does not adopt the 3nited Cations
&onention on the +ights of Persons with )isability .3C&+P)/ in its true spirit, which !ndia ratified in 2007
• -ection 10D of the Bill proided that its proisions shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the
proisions of any other law in force, which effectiely meant that all laws which actiely discriminated
against persons with disabilities remained untouched. This iolates the 3.C. conention to take all
appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish laws, regulations, customs and practices
that constituted such discrimination.
• "ccording to the 3C&+P), state parties are to grant an unconditional right to e(uality and non#
discrimination to all persons with disabilities, on a par with others. !n this Bill, the +ight of 1(uality is
curtailed under -ection =.=/, which says the right against discrimination e'ists 9unless it can be shown that
the impugned act or omission is a proportionate means of achieing a legitimate aim.:G The terms
Fproportionate meansG and Flegitimate aim,G are highly sub,ectie and can perpetuate discrimination.
• The Persons with )isabilities .1(ual 6pportunities, Protection of +ights and <ull Participation/ "ct, 1DDE
.PW) act/ which is currently in force, defines a person with disability as someone who has 50 per cent or
more of any of the seen enumerated disabilities H blindness, low ision, hearing impairment, locomotor
disability, mental illness, mental retardation and leprosy. !t leaes people with disabilities at the mercy of
the state because they hae to obtain a disability certificate erifying that they are more than 50 per cent
disabled. The new +P) bill unfortunately reproduces this medical model of disability in its definition.
• The world oer, most progressie laws hae adopted definitions of disability that stem from social models
that define it as any long#term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment, which in interaction
with arious other barriers may hinder participation in society on an e(ual footing with others. The bill
adopts this definition selectiely H for clauses related to non#discrimination H but where positie benefits
are inoled, such as reseration in education and employment, a medical definition of Fbenchmark
disabilitiesG is used. The bill has e'panded the number of benchmark disabilities from seen to 1> and has
retained the 50 per cent re(uirement.
• The Bill does not proide for reseration of ,obs in the priate sector. Though parliamentary committee
recommended ,ob reseration in both public and priate establishments. Presently, een the = per cent
reseration in public sector ,obs is not being implemented. !ncreasing it to E per cent is merely lip serice.
• +ecognition of legal capacity of persons with disabilities, a ma,or feature of the 3C conention on +ights of
persons with )isabilities is diluted.
• -ections of the most ulnerable groups, children and women with disabilities are missing.
• The bill denies people with psychosocial disabilities the right to make their own life decisions, by permitting
plenary guardianship
• The bill allows discrimination on grounds of disability if it is appropriate to achiee a legitimate aim
• There are gaps in identification and recognition of ,obs. Bill runs counter to the -upreme &ourt:s own
decision by returning to the concept of Fidentified postsG for reseration in employment.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

21 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
$ISCRIINATION A)AINST NORT'EAST PEOPLE
%'Y IN NE%S.
• Cido Tania, the 1D#year#old boy from "runachal Pradesh, died after being attacked allegedly by shopkeepers
at 2a,pat Cagar, )elhi.
ANALYSIS
• -uch incidents bring into sharp focus the fact that racist and discriminatory attitudes are rampant.
• While racism occasionally manifests itself in the form of hate crime it is felt most acutely as an eeryday
phenomenon in the form of snideness, smirks
• -uch incidents create genuine apprehension in their minds that their lies would not be protected in other
parts of the country.
• )iscrimination takes place in arious forms such as landlords refusing accommodation, shopkeepers refusing
serice, abuses hurled on the streets, a rigid distance maintained by older inhabitants of the city.
• 2ack of assimilation is a threat to cultural integrity.
• Poor awareness of the cultural heritage and uni(ue identity of Cortheastern -tates makes people in Corth
!ndia discriminate against peoples belonging to these states.
• The cultural ignorance and pre,udices hae always e'isted in !ndia # all -outh !ndians are F0adrasisG and
those liing north of the %indhyas are clubbed FPun,abis.G
• 0ost often, northeastern people hae to proe their identity that they are !ndian too. 0any times, these
people are confused with Tibetans residing in !ndian cities.
• There is a need to moe from the idea of northeast ,ust a territory of !ndia to the people who inhabit it.
%AY FOR%AR$
• The 3nion goernment, constituted a committee under the chairmanship of 0.P. Be$baruah, a retired !"-
officer, to look into the problems faced by people from the northeast liing in other parts of the country,
especially in metropolitan cities, and suggest remedial measures. 0andated to e'amine arious kinds of
concerns, including those of security, the committee will e'amine the causes behind the iolence and
discrimination against people from the Cortheast. !t would suggest measures and legal remedies to be taken
by the goernment.
• The )elhi *igh &ourt directed the )elhi police to take on deputation police officers belonging to the
Cortheast to act as an interface with the people of that region staying in the &apital.
• The )elhi police announced the constitution of a -pecial &ell to monitor cases inoling residents of
northeast.
• The )elhi police should recruit more people of northeast origin at lower constabulary leel.
• The police, for one, must show $ero tolerance for incidents of hate crime, and be prompt in registering
complaints as well as taking action against the accused.
• 0ainstream celebrities can also being roped in to spread awareness on the issue.
• There is a need of more state support such as state bhawans, counseling centres.
• The &entre should gie their culture a place in the C&1+T syllabus. "part from it, space should be created in
the media, and showing their uni(ue culture through eents etc.
• There is a need to sensiti$e the police and localities, especially where these people hae larger population.
• There is lack of educational and economic opportunities in the northeast region that forces youth to migrate
to other parts of the !ndia. There is a need to deelop the regional economically and link it with rest of the
country and neighbouring countries also.
'LC ON STATUS OF %OEN IN IN$IA
• The goernment had in <ebruary 2012 set up a *igh 2eel &ommittee to undertake a comprehensie study
to understand the status of women and eole appropriate policy interentions based on a contemporary
assessment of women:s needs.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

28 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The 15#member committee, headed by Pam +a,put, submitted report in <eb, 2015 with the following
recommendations #
• E0 per cent reseration for women in all decision#making bodies and an oerhaul of the criminal ,ustice
system to ensure ,ustice for women.
• " separate panel be appointed by the goernment to study the status of 0uslim women in the country
• 3pgrade the 0inister of Women and &hild )eelopment to &abinet rank would reflect the goernment:s
concern on women:s issues.
• The Parliamentary &ommittee on the 1mpowerment of Women must e'amine the gender implications of all
proposed legislation
• The Cational &ommission for Women, as an ape' body responsible for and answerable to E0 per cent of the
population, must go beyond 9reactie interentions: to fulfill the proactie mandate of studying,
recommending and influencing policies, laws, programmes and budgets to ensure full benefits to the
stakeholders.
BENEFITS TOSENIOR CITI3ENS
• The population of senior citi$ens is e'pected to rise to 12.5 per cent by 202J against 7.E per cent in 2001.
• The standing committee of Parliament suggested following benefits to senior citi$ens.
o -pecial concessions for destitute widow and widowers who enter into matrimonial alliance after
J0 years
o raising the retirement age from J0 to JE years
o ta' e'emptions.
o setting up a directorate of employment and rehabilitation for senior citi$ens.
o the senior citi$ens should get a pension of at least +s. 1,000 per month.
o old#age homes be set up in all districts.
CON$ITIONS OF -UVENILE 'OES
• There are no proper rooms but only long dormitories. This leads to mi'ing up of all kind of offenders, as
they all end up staying in a single room. !deally, the serious offenders should be kept separate from the
first#timers.
• There is no space for recreation for ,ueniles lodged in these homes. They need to engage in positie
actiities like sports and ocational actiities to keep their mind off from crime
• Buidelines of 8uenile 8ustice Board are not followed fully. "s per the board guidelines, the inmates need
to be educated, taught to stay hygienic, imparted professional skills and should be gien good food.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
'EALT'
IN$IAN P'ARA SECTOR
• 3- <ood and )rug "dministration .<)"/ commissioner 0argaret *amburg came to !ndia for inspection
purposes ofA
o +anba'y, Wockhardt and other pharma companies.
o -pices processing companies in 4ochi.
• 3- <)" has already banned production in +anba'y:s factory in Toansa, Pun,ab.
• They hae turned down +anba'y 2aboratoriesU plea to allow drugmakers to continue e'porting from
banned manufacturing facilities while they take remedial measures to rectify the issues
• +anba'y had last year paid a VE00#million fine in the 3- and pleaded guilty to charges of falsifying data and
distributing UadulteratedU drugs, as part of a settlement with 3- authorities.
• +anba'y is not the only !ndian drugmaker to inite the censure of the <)". 0any facilities of other !ndian
drug firms such as Wockhardt, -trides "rcolab and +PB 2ife -ciences hae been red#flagged by the 3-
regulator for iolations last year and !ndian drugmakers accounted for oer half of the warning letters
issued by it in 201=.
• !n response to the <)":s monitoring of !ndian firms, the &entral )rugs -tandards &ontrol 6rganisation
.&)-&6/ fought for the right to check manufacturing facilities abroad, apparently to make sure that drugs
coming into !ndia meet (uality standards.
IN$IAN STAN$
• 3- is settling scores for reasons both within and outside pharma sectorA
o 6utside pharma sector # 3- wants to retaliate for the )eyani 4hobragade issue.
o Within Pharma sector # 3- Pharma sector is lobbying against the Pharma sector#
!ndia is the largest producer generic drugs.
We:re second largest drug supplier to 3- and &anada
!ndia is a ma,or supplier of low cost medicines for &ancer, "!)- and 0alaria to "frica and
2atin "merica which has resulted into profit losses which was hitherto windfall for 3-
companies.
• )ata suggests that this is not mere routine e'ercise. This is a sharp spike compared to preceding years, and
<)" is increasing its workforce as well as upping its igilance in !ndia, the second#largest e'porter of generic
drugs to the 3-.
USA STAN$
• "s per <)" &ommissioner, F!nspections are routine part of our regulatory process. -o what happens in
!ndia, is consistent with what happens within the 3- and throughout the worldG
ANALYSIS
• While !ndia does hae economic interests in the success of this V1E billion e'port industry, it needs solid
regulation to ensure this success is sustainable.
• &)-&6 had not been much successful in its functioning H a parliamentary standing committee on health in
last year laid out the remarkable chaos in domestic drug regulation, een in terms of granting licences.
• 0anufacturing la'ity aside, it found that many drugs were being marketed before being put through the
re(uired clinical trials and drugs banned in other markets were aailable here. +egulatory dossiers were
missing for seeral drugs, and in many cases, approals were granted by non#technical staff. 1'pert
testimonials were suspiciously similar in many cases. -tate issued licences operated in their own orbit, and
these authorisations were not sent back to the central regulator. S#lease refer to the Current Affairs notes of
September, $%&' for more details about this issue.T
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3$ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The &entre has moed a new drugs and cosmetics amendment bill, which conceies of a professionally
managed &entral )rugs "uthority like the <)", to swallow the e'isting &)-&6. S#lease refer to the Current
Affairs notes of (uly, $%&' and September, $%&' for more details about this bill.T
• But it will take more than surprise inspections to change this regulatory culture H it will inole breaking
the collusion between certifiers and companies, and more than anything, it will re(uire greater inestment.
• The 3- <)" has a strength of some 15,000 people, while the !ndian regulator had =27 in 2012. While the
pharma industry is e'ploding, and the &)-&6:s workload is growing by 20 per cent eery year, it lacks the
staff and infrastructure, adisors and independent testing labs to do its ,ob. That needs to change first, if we
want to see a regulatory oerhaul.
STEPS TO FI)'T AI$S
• !ndia launched third#line drug therapy, sometimes called salage or rescue therapy, for people liing with
*!%@"!)- and e'tended free anti#retroiral therapy ."+T/ to more of them by reising the eligibility norm.
S#lease refer to the current affairs notes of (anuary, $%&' for more details about A)".T
• The third#line therapy is prescribed for people who hae limited drug options left H after the failure of at
least two drug regimens and with eidence of *!% resistance to at least one drug in each line or the latter
cause alone. The highly e'pensie therapy will be proided free.
• <or receiing free "+T, the minimum &)5#count limit had been reduced from E00 to =E0. The count is a
measure of the iral load.
'UAN IUNO$EFICIENCY VIRUS AC4UIRE$ IUNE $EFICIENCY SYN$ROE
+PREVENTION AN$ CONTROL, BILL( 2014
• *uman !mmunodeficiency %irus "c(uired !mmune )eficiency -yndrome .Preention and &ontrol/ Bill, 2015,
introduced in +a,ya -abha, seeks to preent the spread of *!%@"!)- and protect the human rights of people
liing with it.
• The Bill seeks to prohibit any kind of discrimination against the infected person H for instance, denial or
termination of employment or occupation, unfair treatment, denial of access to any sector and forcible *!%
testing.
• "t present, !ndia is estimated to hae 2.=D million people liing with *!%@"!)-.
AIIS UN$ER PSSY
• +ishikesh "!!0- becomes functional and is the first among the si' "!!0- established under the Pradhan
0antri -wasthya -uraksha Lo,ana .P0--L/ to start.
• The P0--L scheme was approed in 0arch 200J.
• P0--L aims at correcting the imbalances in the aailability of affordable healthcare facilities in the different
parts of the country in general, and augmenting facilities for (uality medical education in the under#sered
-tates in particular # Bihar .Patna/, &hhattisgarh .+aipur/, 0adhya Pradesh .Bhopal/, 6rissa .Bhubaneswar/,
+a,asthan .8odhpur/ and 3ttaranchal .+ishikesh/.
• These -tates hae been identified on the basis of arious socio#economic indicators like human
deelopment inde', literacy rate, population below poerty line and per capital income and health
indicators like population to bed ratio etc.
• 1= e'isting medical institutions spread oer 10 -tates will also be upgraded
• !n the second phase of P0--L, the Boernment has approed the setting up of two more "!!0-#like
institutions, one each in the -tates of West Bengal and 3ttar Pradesh and upgradation of si' medical college
institutions.
• Third phase includes only upgradation of arious e'isting medical institutions.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

31 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ENVIRONENT
FIEL$ TRIALS OF ) FOO$ CROPS
%'Y IN NE%S.
• The 1nironment and <orests ministry has approed field trials of B0 food crops on a conditional basis.
These include consent from the statutory appraisal committee i.e. Benetic 1ngineering "ppraisal &ommittee
.B1"&/, and from respectie state goernments.
• The ministry:s decision was based on the approal by B1"& in 0arch 201= to allow about 200 successful
gene modification trials. 6nly those were approed which B1"& had sanctioned and which had been
pending decision for almost a year.
• The decision would allow field trials of many arieties, including in rice, wheat, mai$e, castor and cotton.
• 1arlier the ministry had taken the iew that it was not prudent to go ahead with the trials while the
-upreme &ourt was hearing a case on the sub,ect of field trials and the regulatory regime for B0
technology in !ndia. *oweer, now the ministry says that the ape' court had not e'plicitly ordered any stay
against clearing field trials while the case went on.
OPINION
• !n technologies which share benefits and risks, it is important to hae regulatory mechanisms which can
help to analyse risks and benefits in an impartial and professionally competent manner.
• The goernment had introduced a Biotechnology +egulatory "uthority Bill in Parliament. 3nfortunately, the
alidity of this Bill has now e'pired with the conclusion of the 1Eth 2ok -abha.
• 1arlier, the "gricultural Biotechnology &ommittee .2005/ had recommended a Parliament approed
regulatory agency as well as the necessary infrastructure for conducting all !ndia coordinated trials with
genetically modified organisms .B06/.
• There must be a trial and safety assessment system which answers the concerns of anti#B06 non#
goernmental organisations.
• "s agriculture is a state sub,ect, -tate agricultural uniersities and -tate departments of agriculture should
be inoled in the design and implementation of field trials. !t takes nearly 10 years time for a new ariety
to be ready for recommendation to farmers. Therefore, speed is of the essence in organising field trials and
getting reliable data on risks and benefits.
• The present moratorium on field trials with recombinant )C" material is a handicap as well as a
disincentie in harnessing the benefits of the wide array of transgenic material aailable with arious
research organisations and uniersities. 0any of the B06s in the breeders: assembly line hae e'cellent
(ualities for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as improed nutrition. 0uch of this work has
been done in institutions committed to public good. "lso, much of the work has been done by young
scientists, discouraged now because of the lack of a clear official signal on the future of genetic
modification.
• There is need for a pan#!ndia political support to promote genetic engineering research. 1ery research
institution should hae a pro,ect selection committee to e'amine whether recombinant )C" technology is
necessary to achiee the desired breeding goal. !n many cases, marker assisted selection would be ade(uate
for deeloping a ariety with the necessary characters. +ecombinant )C" technology should be resorted to
only when there is no other way of achieing the desired ob,ectie.
• Translational research needs greater attention for conerting scientific know#how into farmers: do#how.
• 4rishi %igyan 4endras should hae the capability of offering scientifically credible adice to farmers on
B06s. 0edia resource centres should be set up to gie up#to#date scientific information to media
representaties. %illage knowledge centres should be utilised for spreading correct information on B06s.
• There is a need to set up two committees H on the public understanding of science and the political
understanding of science H on the pattern of such committees set up by the +oyal -ociety of 2ondon.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

32 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• &ountries like the 3nited -tates hae effectie regulatory mechanisms supported by scientific
infrastructure. !t is time that we also hae a professionally managed and coordinated efficient regulatory
mechanism.
%ATER CRISIS ACROSS T'E %ORL$
%'Y IN NE%S.
• &alifornia currently is reeling under its worst drought in modern times.
OPINION
• The struggle for water is e'acerbating impacts on the earth:s ecosystems. )egradation of water resources
has resulted in a(uatic ecosystems losing half their biodiersity since ,ust the mid#1D70s.
• Broundwater depletion, for its part, is affecting natural stream#flows, groundwater#fed wetlands and lakes,
and related ecosystems.
• !f resources like water are degraded and depleted, enironmental refugees will follow. -anaUa city in Lemen
risks becoming the first capital city to run out of water. !f Bangladesh bears the main impact of &hina:s
damming of the Brahmaputra, the resulting e'odus of thirsty refugees will compound !ndia:s security
challenges. !nternal resource conflicts are often camouflaged as ciil wars. -udan:s )arfur conflict, for
e'ample, arose from water and grassland scarcity.
• The 3nited Cations in 2010 recognised access to safe, affordable water and sanitation as a human right. Let
the reality remains starkA 0ore than half of the global population currently lies under water stress H a
figure pro,ected to increase to two#thirds during the ne't decade.
• The risks of oert conflicts oer water are increasing. Water wars in a political and economic sense are
already being waged in seeral regions, including by building dams on international riers and by resorting
to coercie diplomacy to preent such construction. 1'amples include &hina:s frenetic upstream dam
building in its borderlands and downrier 1gypt:s threats of military reprisals against the ongoing 1thiopian
construction of a large dam on the Blue Cile.
• " report reflecting the ,oint ,udgment of 3.-. intelligence agencies has warned that the use of water as a
weapon of war or a tool of terrorism would become more likely in the ne't decade.
• )ecisions in many countries on where to set up new manufacturing or energy plants are increasingly being
constrained by inade(uate local water aailability. Where aailability is already low, a decision to establish a
new plant often triggers local protests because it is likely to spur greater competition oer scarce water
resources. 6ne such e'ample is the P6-&6 steel plant in 6disha.
• The seriously water#stressed economies, stretching from -outh 4orea and !ndia to !ran and 1gypt, are
paying a high price for their water problems. The yearly global economic losses from water shortages are
conseratiely estimated at V2J0 billion.
• Water is a renewable but finite resource. But the human population has doubled since 1D70 alone, while
the global economy has grown een faster.
• 0a,or increases in water demand, howeer, are being drien not merely by economic and demographic
growth but also by energy, manufacturing, and food#production needs to meet rising human#consumption
leels. 2ifestyle changes, for e'ample, hae spurred increasing per capita water consumption in the form of
industrial and agricultural products.
• Blobally, consumption growth is the single biggest drier of water stress. +ising incomes, for e'ample, hae
promoted changing diets, especially a greater intake of meat, whose production is notoriously water#
intensie.
• The only siler lining for !ndia:s dismal water situation is the fact that its per capita meat consumption
remains the lowest in the world, with a large segment of its population egetarian.
• &ompounding the diet#change impacts on the global water situation is the increasing body mass inde' .B0!/
of humans in recent decades, with the prealence of obesity doubling since the 1D>0s. *eaier citi$ens
make heaier demands on natural resources, especially water and energy. They also cause much greater
greenhouse#gas emissions through their bigger food and transport needs.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

33 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• This background helps e'plain why water is becoming the world:s ne't ma,or security and economic
challenge. "erting water wars demands rules#based cooperation, water sharing and dispute#settlement
mechanisms. *oweer, most of the world:s transnational basins lack any cooperatie arrangement, and
there is still no international water law in force.
• 2ooking ahead, water shortages are not only going to intensify and spread, but users also will hae to
increasingly pay more for their water supply.
• This double whammy can be mitigated only by smart water management and sustainable use of scarce
water resources. Cew and emerging technologies ought to be leeraged to innoatiely manage resources
and deelop non#traditional supply sources, including through public#priate partnerships. Water, food and
energy must be integrated in a holistic policy framework.
• "ddressing this core problem holds the key to dealing with other challenges because of water:s ne'uses
with global warming, energy shortages, stresses on food supply, population pressures, pollution,
enironmental degradation, global epidemics and natural disasters. 1ffectie water management can help
transform economies and power security.
)REEN ENER)Y CORRI$OR
• 9Breen energy corridor: pro,ect is to facilitate the flow of renewable energy into the national grid. Pro,ect is
aimed at synchronising electricity produced from renewable sources, such as solar and wind, with
conentional power stations in the grid.
• &urrently, the grid faces difficulty in absorbing renewable electricity because of arying oltage and supply.
• The pro,ect would be split into intra# and inter#-tate. "t present .201=/, !ndia has 27,E51.71 0W of installed
renewable capacity e'cluding hydro power stations.
• !ndia is planning to set up green energy corridor with the technical as well as financial cooperation of
Bermany who is leader in renewable energy.
• "fter haing decided to shun nuclear power, Bermany deeloped e'pertise in renewable energy. 0ore
importantly, it was able to transport this energy from southern Bermany to the northern parts with
minimum transmission loss.
• This is something Bermany will seek to bring to !ndia through a financial#technical agreement that is at an
adanced stage of discussion.
$AS ONSIAN) RIVER
• " report commissioned by the &entral Water &ommission has recommended scrapping of 1E of the 55 dams
planned across the -iang rier in "runachal Pradesh.
• +eport argues that the proposed 55 dams, meant to establish a capacity of 1>,2D= 0W, will affect the rier
ecology and biodiersity and the region all the way down to "ssam.
• &umulatiely, the pro,ects will impact more than E00 km of rier stretch. 0ore than 1>,000 hectares of
forests will be impacted.
• The report only asks for the smaller capacity dams, with a total capacity of 57=.E 0W, to be done away
with.
• The report suggests for free stretches@tributaries, no further hydropower pro,ects should be
planned@allotted in the entire -iang basin een if they are small .less than 2E 0W/.
ENVIRONENTAL PERFORANCE IN$E*
• !ndia has been ranked 1EE out of 17> countries on the 2015 1nironmental Performance !nde' .1P!/ released
by the Lale 3niersity.
• )espite an improement in oerall performance, !ndia comes out worst among other emerging economies,
including &hina, in efforts to address enironmental challenges, with dramatic declines on air (uality.
• !ndia ranks worst among other emerging economies including, &hina, which ranks 11>th, Bra$il, at 77th,
+ussia, at 7=rd, and -outh "frica at 72
nd
.
• -wit$erland, 2u'embourg, "ustralia, -ingapore and &$ech +epublic round out the top fie positions of the
!nde'.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The 1P! ranks how well countries perform on high priority enironmental issues in two broad policy areasA
protection of human health from enironmental harm and protection of ecosystems. Within these two policy
ob,ecties, the 1P! scores country performance in nine issue areas comprising 20 indicators. !ndicators in the
1P! measure how close countries are to meeting internationally established targets or, in the absence of
agreed targets, how they compare relatie to the best performing countries.




Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN$IA AN$ %ORL$
IN$IA 5 -APAN
• 8apanese Prime 0inister 0r. -hin$o "be was the &hief Buest at the +epublic )ay celebrations this year. *is
isit, together with the isit of the 1mperor and 1mpress of 8apan to !ndia in )ecember, e'emplifies the
momentum in the !ndo#8apan strategic and global partnership.
• The summit meeting between the Prime 0inisters of !ndia and 8apan reflected the efforts towards forging
closer security, political and defence ties. *oweer, the talks between 0anmohan -ingh and -hin$o "be also
reflected the e'isting gaps on the nuclear issue.
• !n regards to nuclear deal, !ndia and 8apan are in negotiations on whether to keep the 9termination clause: in
the main te't of the proposed ciil nuclear cooperation agreement or in the anne'ure. The clause allows the
proposed deal to be terminated if either side conducts a nuclear test. The deal is important as many critical
e(uipments for the newly built nuclear plants by "rea are to be imported from 8apan and any delay in deal
will delay the setting up of the nuclear plants.
• The two countries signed eight pacts, including power generation, culture, education and tourism, of which
half were connected with 8apanese aid to !ndia which reflects that soft loans and outright grants will continue
to remain an integral component of Tokyo:s strategy of reaching out to Cew )elhi.
• 8apan also promised for more aid out of which 70 per cent,of about 200 billion yen, will go for implementing
phase#!!! of the )elhi 0etro pro,ect.
• 6n the defence side, the two countries decided to make ,oint naal e'ercises a permanent feature. !ndia had
earlier inited 8apan to ,oin the !ndo#3.- 0alabar series in 2007 but the presence of 8apan and "ustralia in
the 0alabar series had fuelled protests at home and from &hina leading to the dropping of the duo from
subse(uent chapters.
• 8apan has also offered to sell hi#tech 3-#2 amphibious aircraft to !ndia. This is the first time 8apan has offered
to sell a plane which has military uses as well.
• The two countries hae decided to hold politico#security consultations on a regular basis besides stepping up
the pace of meetings between the )efence 0inisters.
• 8apan has also lowered non#tariff barriers to import of shrimps that will help !ndian fishermen.
• %isa regime hae been rela'ed by both sides to increase people to people contact and in that effort, the
8apanese 6erseas &ooperation %olunteer scheme would be e'panded to uncoered sectors.
• The countries hae also signed an agreement for promoting tourism between the two countries and
improement in the ciil aiation links. SAlso refer to ecember $%&' Current Affairs notes for a detailed
analysis of India*(apan relationships.T
IN$IA 5SOUT' 0OREA
• -outh 4orean President Park Beun#hye isited !ndia on a four day state isit, accompanied by a high leel
delegation which included the foreign, trade, !&T and science ministers.
• The talks between the leaders concentrated on three elements as a common isionA stronger high leel
political cooperation, open economic and trade enironment and deeper cultural understanding.
• !ndia and -outh 4orea hae signed nine pacts which are aimed at imparting forward momentum to their
bilateral ties that hae seen intensification oer the past four years.
• These pacts included agreements in the field of defence, space co#operation, science and technology, cultural
e'change programs, 0o3 on establishment of Calanda 3niersity, co#operation in field of !nformation and
&ommunication Technology, 0o3 between !ndian &omputer 1mergency +esponse Team .&ert#!n/ and 4orea
&omputer 1mergency +esponse Team &oordination &enter .4rcert@&c/ in the field of cyber security.
• )uring the talks, !ndia assured that work on the !ndia:s single largest <)! pro,ect .appro' 12 billion dollars/
Posco steel plant in 6disha would start in the coming weeks. Cot much progress could be achieed in past
few years due to seeral factors like enironmental clearance, delay in land procurement and popular
protest.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The bilateral trade between !ndia and -outh 4orea has amounted to oer V1> billion in 2012, with a
faourable balance for -outh 4orea. !n order to offset this imbalance, !ndia needs to e'plore ways to increase
e'ports in the field of pharmaceutical and !T industries.
• The two countries hae signed the "greement on the Protection of &lassified 0ilitary !nformation, which
would boost defence engagement and take it beyond the purchase of -outh 4orean defence e(uipments.
• There is proposal for e'ploring the possibility of setting up a 4orean !ndustrial Park in !ndia.
• The two sides hae also announced the conclusion of negotiations for reision of the e'isting )ouble Ta'ation
"oidance &onention which will also proide with new ideas for deepening economic collaborations. They
hae also agreed to establish a 8oint Trade and !nestment Promotion &ommittee at the cabinet leel.
• !n the field of -cience and Technology, both countries hae decided to build on the e'perience of working on
many practical pro,ects financed through a V10 million 8oint <und by inking a 0o3 on 8oint "pplied +esearch.
• !ndian Boernment has also decided to e'tend a 9tourist isa on arrial facility: to -outh 4orean nationals.
• !ndia:s growing emphasis on its 92ook 1ast Policy: and -outh 4orea:s 9Cew "sia )iplomatic !nitiatie: has
helped eleate the relationship between the two countries to that of 9strategic partnership.:
IN$IA 5 SAU$I ARABIA
VISIT OF SAU$I ARABIA1S PRINCE TO IN$IA
• Prince -alman bin "bdula$i$ al -aud, the crown prince to the kingdom of -audi "rabia, isited !ndia with the
deputy# prime minister and the defence minster of -audi "rabia.
• )uring the isit, !ndia and -audi "rabia signed a 0emorandum of 3nderstanding .0o3/ on )efense
&ooperation on Wednesday in Cew )elhi. The 0o3 will allow e'change of defense#related information,
military training and education as well as cooperation in areas arying from hydrography and security to
logistics.
• 0eanwhile, !ndian and -audi companies signed four agreements to ,ointly promote and facilitate inestments
and trade.
• )uring the meeting, the leaders pointed out that the two countries hae taken a number of steps to promote
bilateral inestments, but ta'ation issue remains one of the ma,or hurdles. -teps hae been taken to e'plore
the possibilities of easing the regulations.
• !t has also been decided that the !ndian labour force will be roped in for the *aramain *igh -peed +ailway
pro,ect H -audi "rabia:s plan to connect the two cities by high speed trains. The rails for the tracks will also
be supplied by !ndian companies.
• The cornerstone of the strategic partnership between !ndia and -audi "rabia has been the 2010 +iyadh
)eclaration. -igned between 4ing "bdullah and !ndian Prime 0inister 0anmohan -ingh, the declaration set
forth a roadmap for a closer -audi#!ndian bilateral relationship. The +iyadh )eclaration built on the 200J
)elhi )eclaration which was signed during 4ing "bdullah:s trip to Cew )elhi. The )elhi )eclaration was the
first ma,or bilateral interaction between !ndia and -audi "rabia? both sides acknowledged it to herald a Fnew
eraG in !ndo#-audi ties.
• -audi "rabia is the 5
th
largest trading partner for !ndiaA The alue of the two#way trade between the two
countries in 2012#1= e'ceeded 3-) 5=.7> billion and 3-) =2.7 billion during "pril ; Coember 201=. The
import of crude oil by !ndia forms a ma,or component of bilateral trade with -audi "rabia being !ndia:s largest
supplier of crude oil, accounting for almost one#fifth of its needs.
• <or -audi "rabia, !ndia is the E
th
largest market for its e'ports, accounting for >.=M of its global e'ports. !n
terms of imports by -audi "rabia, !ndia ranks 7th and is source of around =.5M of -audi "rabia:s total imports.
LABOUR COOPERATION A)REEENT
• !ndia has signed a labour cooperation agreement with -audi "rabia that would coer about a (uarter of the
2> lakh !ndian e'patriates working there. !t is also seen as a stepping stone for a more comprehensie pact
coering all !ndian workers in the Bulf 4ingdom.
• The "greement on 2abour &ooperation for )omestic -erice Workers +ecruitment was inked by 6erseas
!ndian "ffairs 0inister %ayalar +ai and -audi "rabian 2abour 0inister "del bin 0ohammed <akeih. The
agreement will be monitored by a committee of senior officials.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

31 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• -alient <eatures of the "greement areA
o !t aims to protect the right of both the employers and domestic serice workers and regulate the
contractual relation between them.
o !t endeaors to control recruitment costs in both countries.
o !t ensures authenticity and implementation of employment contract between the employer and the
domestic workers and proides for legal measures against recruitment agencies in iolation of the
laws of either country.
o !t ensures that recruitment agencies and the employer shall not charge or deduct from the salary of
the domestic worker any cost attendant to his@her recruitment and deployment and makes sure that
recruitment agencies and the employer do not impose any kind of unauthori$ed salary deduction.
o !t works towards fostering a harmonious relationship between the employer and the domestic
workers.
o !t endeaors to establish a mechanism to proide 25 hours assistance to the domestic sector workers.
o !t facilitates the issuance of e'it isas for the repatriation of domestic sector workers upon contract
completion or in any emergency situation or as the need arises.
o " standard employment contract would be finali$ed that would proide minimum wage, working
hours, paid holidays and dispute settlement mechanism.
• -audi "rabia had passed the Cita(t law last year which had seerely curtailed the ,ob opportunities for !ndian
working the country. But later after negotiations, out of 2> lakh e'patriates, about 1.51 lakh !ndians had to
return home especially from 4erala.
• +ecently, 3nion <inance 0inister -hri P. &hidambaram isited 4ingdom of -audi "rabia to co#chair the 10th
!ndia#-audi "rabia 8oint &ommission 0eeting. The two countries decided to work towards strengthening of
cooperation in accordance with the )elhi )eclaration and +iyadh )eclaration.
• !n the meeting, the two sides reiewed the progress in arious sectors including Trade and !nestment? 6il
and Bas? Pharmaceuticals, *igher 1ducation? &iil "iation? Tourism and 0edia and &ulture? -ecurity "ffairs?
!nformation and &ommunication Technology, %ocational and Technical Training? Te'tiles, 1ngineering "ffairs,
*ealth I <amily Welfare? "griculture +esearch and -01s.
• The bilateral trade between !ndia and -audi "rabia stood at 3- V 5= billion in 201= and the two sides aimed
to double the trade within the ne't fie years.
• )uring the 8oint &ommission 0eeting, the !ndian side proposed cooperation in .i/ )eelopment of !T Parks?
.ii/ )eelopment of Telemedicine network, similar to the Pan#"frican pro,ect, in knowledge sharing,
consulting in super specialty 0edicare from premium !ndian hospitals? and .iii/ Promotion of !ndian !&T
products and serices. Both sides also decided to e'plore the possibility of setting up of a Business -01 Task
<orce to come up with concrete suggestions to promote -01 cooperation. Both sides also discussed the
proposal of -audi &ouncil of 1ngineers e'change information and e'perience with the !ndian side on .i/
"ccreditation -ystem for engineers? .ii/ Training and deelopment of engineers? .iii/ 2icensing of engineering
and consultation offices? and .i/ 1ngineering "rbitration and disputes soling.
IN$IA 5PA0ISTAN
COERCE INISTERS EET
• There is a growing consensus in !ndia and Pakistan that a healthy relation is must for peace and progress of
both the countries.
• "midst the fragility of relationships, both countries are still committed to moe on a fast track at least on
matters of commerce.
• The commerce ministers of !ndia and Pakistan met in Cew )elhi and took important decisions to establish
normal trading relations and undertake liberalisation and facilitation measures. !mportant decisions among
these were ;
o To keep the Wagah#"ttari border functional round the clock,
o To introduce containerisation of cargo and
o To proide Con#)iscriminatory 0arket "ccess on a reciprocal basis to each other.
• The proisions of Con#)iscriminatory 0arket "ccess .C)0"/ are seen as a measure to oercome the
psychological barrier associated with the 0ost <aoured Cation .0<C/ status.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

38 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The trade olume between the two countries has reached the figure of V2.E billion. Pakistan:s ma,or e'ports
to !ndia include fresh fruit, cotton, cement, copper waste, gypsum, ferrous waste of iron and steel, woen
cotton fabric, electro medical apparatus, raw hides and skins, leather and inorganic chemicals etc. *oweer,
the total share of Pakistan:s e'ports to !ndia is ,ust 1.5 percent.
• The two countries hae decided to e'pedite the process of giing bank licenses so that !ndian and Pakistani
banks to operate in the other country to facilitate trade.
• They hae also decided to organi$e the meetings of the technical working groups of customs, railways,
banking, standards organi$ations and energy.
TRA$E ACROSS LOC
• !ndia and Pakistan hae agreed to resume trade across the 2ine of &ontrol .2o&/ after the issue was resoled
by the officials from foreign ministries of the two countries. Trade across the 2o& was disrupted last month
after officials recoered 110packets of brown sugar from a truck coming from Pakistan occupied 4ashmir at
-alamabad Trade &entre.
• "fter the arrest, trade across the 2o& was suspended from 3ri and Poonch. "bout 5> trucks were stranded
on the !ndian side while 27 !ndian trucks were held back, as Pakistan demanded that the drier be handed
oer so that the case could be inestigated. !t was argued that the drier could not be arrested gien the
terms of the trade and the fact that he en,oyed diplomatic immunity.
• "t the session of the 8oint Working Broup on &ross#2o& &onfidence Building 0easures .&B0s/, the two sides
discussed the streamlining of standard operating procedures and introduction of scanners, and a suggestion
that all stakeholders should be present at the loading and unloading points. The introduction of banking
facilities was also suggested as it would help in easing the trade, which is now conducted on barter basis.
The bus serice between the two sides of 4ashmir had been resumed earlier on humanitarian grounds to
aoid inconenience to the people, een as the standoff continued.
• &ross#2o& trade had began in 200> through -alamabad in 3ri and &hakan#da#Bagh in Poonch district with
two trade facilitation centers and is an important part of &B0s for the two country. <or the &B0 to work
there is a need to ensure the smooth flow of goods and also create an atmosphere conducie to the building
of trust. !f trucks and people from either side are treated with suspicion, it defeats the ery purpose of a
confidence building measure. -canning the goods and initiating a ,oint mechanism to check them at crossing
points, as has been proposed during the meeting of the 8WB, would help.
• !ndia is likely to press for permits for people from either side for religious tourism besides opening up of
Bilgit #-kardu and 8ammu#-ialkote roads for greater people#to#people contacts and giing a boost to trade.
• !t is also proposed that !ndia and Pakistan will sign an agreement in 0arch 2015 to open bank branches in
0umbai and 4arachi. The much#awaited banking links will gie a boost to trade and commerce.
• 6fficial trade between !ndia and Pakistan has crossed V2.J billion. !ndia:s e'ports to Pakistan are V2.1 billion
while Pakistan:s e'ports to !ndia are ,ust VE00 million. The bilateral trade has recorded a net increase of
V510 million from "pril 2012 to 0arch 201=, up 20M. Pakistan:s e'ports to !ndia grew 2>M while !ndian
e'ports to Pakistan increased 1DM during this period. Both countries hae repeatedly pledged to remoe
non#tarrif barriers which are hampering trade. Pakistan has so far gien !ndian the 0ost <aoured Cation
status and pledged to work towards freer trade.
IN$IA 5 C'INA
YEAR OF FRIEN$LY E*C'AN)E
• The Lear 2015 has been designated by the Boernments of !ndia and &hina as the Lear of <riendly
1'changes. The %ice President of !ndia -hri 0. *amid "nsari launched the F!ndia#&hina Lear of <riendly
1'changesG at a function in Cew )elhi.
• The programme aims to forge a closer and stronger relationship between !ndia and &hina.
• There are plans to highlight !ndian culture in &hina through a programme entitled 9Blimpses of !ndia:.
• The programme also aims to encourage the &hinese companies to establish production and supply chains in
!ndia which will link the two economies. This will also ensure a more balanced trade between our two sides.
"nother idea, being looked at carefully is of a dedicated &hinese !ndustrial Park in !ndia.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The prior task for both &hina and !ndia is to deelop the economy and improe people:s liing standard. Both sides
should e'plore complementary cooperation in the ma,or fields of infrastructure, construction, manufacturing, serice,
!T, telecommunication, inestment, pharmaceutical and industrial parks.
• !n the year 201=, !ndia:s trade deficit with its largest trading partner &hina has reached a humongous V =1.52 billion as
the bilateral trade fell by 1.EM in 201=, recording a declining trend for the second consecutie year.
• &hinese e'ports to !ndia rose slightly to stand at V 5>.55 billion for the 201=, whereas !ndian e'ports to &hina decreased
by around 10M to V 17 billion, causing a trade deficit of V =1.52 billion to !ndia.
• Both the countries hae set a trade target of V100 billion to be achieed by 201E.
• Besides, there was an agreement on the fact that !ndia and &hina must throw their doors wide open for people#to#
people contacts as a Fmeeting of mindsG would help build solid and friendly bilateral ties.
• To introduce &hinese language in the middle schools in !ndia. +ecently, 22 &hinese teachers hae come to teach at
selected &.B.-.1. schools across the length and breadth of our country.
EETIN)S ON BOR$ER ISSUES
• The <ifth 0eeting of the Working 0echanism for &onsultation and &oordination on !ndia#&hina Border
"ffairs reiewed recent deelopments in the !ndia#&hina border areas especially in the Western -ector. The
meeting held in Cew )elhi aimed at resoling operational issues on the border, especially when troops come
face to face with each other in areas claimed by both countries.
• &onsultation and &oordination 0echanism Working Broup was established two years ago with the aim of
improing communication and addressing on#the#ground issues along the border.
• !mplementation of the Border )efence &ooperation "greement .B)&"/, additional confidence building
measures and further steps for maintaining peace and tran(uility were also discussed. The B)&" was signed
late last year and attempts were made to enhance coordination and iron out possibilities of
misunderstanding between the armies along the disputed 2ine of "ctual &ontrol.
• !n an another !ndia#&hina meeting # the 17th +ound of !ndia ; &hina -pecial +epresentaties .-+/ Talks
between the !ndian delegation led by Cational -ecurity "disor -hishankar 0enon and the &hinese
delegation by -tate &ouncilor .and former <oreign 0inister/ Lang 8iechi, there were discussions to settle the
entire boundary issue through consultations. There were also discussions on bilateral, regional and
international issues of mutual interests.
• The boundary (uestion was among the three sensitie issues as far as !ndia#&hina relations are concerned.
The other two are the issue of trans#border riers and &hina#Pakistan relations.
• Besides, !ndia and &hina are poised to begin a bilateral dialogue on maritime security, one of the most high#
profile sub,ect areas in the growing "sian rialry. Both goernments beliee the common maritime interests,
such as the uninterrupted supply of hydrocarbons for both countriesU energy security, outweigh any naal
rialry.
IN$IA 5 SRI LAN0A
• -ri 2anka has decided to open a new consulate in Thiruananthapuram, 4erala. !t is e'pected to play a UcrucialU
role in repairing bilateral ties due to the growing bonhomie between -ri 2anka and &hina. The consulate is
slated to start functioning from the middle of ne't month.
• "s of now, only +ussia and the 0aldies hae consulates in Thiruananthapuram.
• The !nternational 0aritime Boundary 2ine .!0B2/ in the Palk Bay has been turned into a sensitie and olatile
space in recent times. There hae been cases of pelting of stones at a boat carrying !ndian fishermen in,uring
20 of them on )ecember 22, 201= by -ri 2ankan Cay and detention of 2E fishermen on 8anuary =, 2015.
• &olombo iews the act as not only being illegal but depriing them of their marine wealth and also causing
damage to the coral reefs in the region. The fre(uent arrests of Tamil fishermen by the -ri 2ankan Cay for
maritime iolations hae been a bone of contention between the centre and the state and hae also
threatened to strain !ndia#-ri 2anka relations.
• 2ater, !ndia and -ri 2anka hae decided to immediately free all fishermen in their respectie custodies and to
release their essels. The agreement was worked out after a meeting between agriculture minister -harad
Pawar and -ri 2ankan minister of fisheries and a(uatic resources +a,itha -enaratne.
• !ndia has launched the third phase of the housing pro,ect in -ri 2anka by e'panding the category of
beneficiaries to include !ndian origin Tamils who are settled in the central part of the country as plantation
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<$ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
laborers. The second phase was completed with successful construction of 10 thousand houses in the Corth
and 1astern parts of the country for the internally displaced people who were affected by the ciil war.
• The !ndian *ousing pro,ect for constructing E0 thousand houses is the single largest full grant assistance
programme of !ndian goernment anywhere in the world. 3nder the beneficiary drien model, 2 lakh EE
thousand rupees are transferred to the selected beneficiaries and the construction is done by internationally
chosen agencies who work under the superision of the beneficiary themseles. The beneficiaries are
selected on basis of clearly laid down criteria in consultation with the goernment of -ri 2anka.
IN$IA 5 AL$IVES
• 0aldiian President 0r. "bdulla Lameen isited Cew )elhi and held talks with the !ndian Prime 0inister 0r.
0anmohan -ingh. This was the first isit to !ndia of the newly elected president after the Coember election.
• Three 0o3s hae been signed between the two countries of which two are related to health and human
resource deelopment and one on the diplomatic front.
• The two countries hae also agreed to Wamicably resoleW all differences, including oer cancellation of !ndian
company B0+Us contract to run 0ale !nternational "irport. The preious goernment of President
0ohammed Waheed had cancelled the VE00 million contract with B0+ for the airport in )ecember 2012,
leading to strain in ties.
• !ndia also e'tended a standby credit facility of V2E million to the 0aldies for imports from !ndia and agreed
to meet the re(uirement of petroleum products in the island nation. "greements hae been made to boost
security and maritime cooperation, people#to#people contacts and air connectiity.
• Both sides also agreed to address isa and consular concerns. !ndia has agreed to allow isa#free entry for
people from the 0aldies for medical purposes and remoal of the restriction on re#entry within two months,
which the 0aldies president e'pressed appreciation of.
• !ndia has been concerned oer the growing pro'imity between 0aldies and &hina in a number of strategic
areas including on security issues. But 0aldiian President "bdulla Lameen tried to pacify !ndia by describing
the island nationUs relationship with &hina as Wery closeW but that with !ndia are Wfar more preciousW.
• The two leaders hae agreed on initiaties to strengthen bilateral defence and security cooperation through
training, supply of e(uipment, capacity building, ,oint patrolling and aerial and maritime sureillance. They
decided to deepen trilateral maritime security ties with -ri 2anka.
IN$IA 5 )ERANY
• Berman President 8oachim Bauck paid si'#day state isit to !ndia in <ebruary 2015. *e was accompanied by a
high#leel delegation, including ministers, members of Parliament and business leaders.
• The president of !ndia, 0r. Pranab 0ukher,ee, said that !ndia#Bermany strategic partnership is based on
shared alues and !ndia considers Bermany as a long standing and good friend.
• Bermany is the most important economic partner of !ndia in 1urope. !n 2012 bilateral trade between !ndia
and Bermany was 1uro 17.E billion. But there is much more potential to enhance commerce between the
two countries.
• The Berman president led threads of discussions on the setting up a green energy corridor in !ndia. 1arlier,
)r. 0anmohan -ingh and )r. 0erkel had described cooperation in renewable energy as a ma,or focus of
bilateral cooperation.
• !n a ,oint statement, the two leaders had said thatA FThe integration and eacuation of renewable energy
into their respectie national grids plays a piotal role with ma,or technological and physical challenges. To
support !ndia in addressing these challenges, the Berman goernment e'presses its intention to assist the
establishment of +,reen -nergy Corridors. in !ndia through technical as well as financial deelopment
cooperationG. Bermany will seek to bring this technology to !ndia through a financial#technical agreement of
1uros 1 billion. The discussions related to the matter are in adanced stage.
• !ndia and Bermany also signed two umbrella agreements for financial and technical co#operation, under
!ndo Berman bilateral )eelopment &ooperation framework. The 3mbrella "greements were signed by
<inance 0inister P &hidambaram and Berman <ederal 0inister for 1conomic &ooperation and )eelopment
Berd 0ueller.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The 3mbrella "greement on <inancial &ooperation pertains to concessional loans from Boernment of
Bermany for nine pro,ects namely *imalaya *ydropower Programme .*PP&2/, Breen 1nergy &orridors,
Promotional Programme for 1nergy 1fficient Cew +esidential *ousing#!! .C*B/, 1nergy 1fficiency in Thermal
Power Plants .WBP)&2/, "ffordable *ousing Programme .C*B/, Cew "pproaches in 0icrofinance and
0icroenterprise <inance .-!)B!/, 0issing 0iddle Programme .-!)B!/, 0adhya Pradesh 3rban -anitation and
1nironment Programme and *imachal Pradesh <orest 1cosystems &limate Proofing Pro,ect. The 3mbrella
"greement for technical cooperation pertains to thirteen pro,ects in 1nergy, 1nironment and -ustainable
economic deelopment sectors.
• 1nergy, 1nironment and -ustainable 1conomic )eelopment are priority sectors under bilateral
deelopment cooperation between !ndia and Bermany, which now spans oer a period of more than fifty
years.
IN$IA 5 ITALY
• !taly has recalled its "mbassador to !ndia, 0r. )aniele 0ancini, for consultation, in an escalation of the
diplomatic row oer the prosecution of two marines, -alatore Birone and 0assimiliano 2atorre, charged
with shooting dead fishermen off the 4erala coast in 2012.
• )aniele 0ancini was ordered to return home immediately for consultations after the -upreme &ourt of !ndia
ad,ourned hearings on the case by a week on 1>
th
<ebruary H a delay +ome said displays F!ndia:s obious
incapacity to manage the situation.G
• Basant Bupta, !ndia:s ambassador to +ome, was also summoned to the <oreign 6ffice, and formally
coneyed <oreign 0inister 1mma Bonino concerns.
• 1arlier, !taly had warned !ndia oer a moe to inoke anti#piracy law against its marines.
• The goernment of !taly said that a moe to prosecute -alatore Birone and 0assimiliano 2atorre under the
-uppression of 3nlawful "cts .-3"/ maritime security law was Wabsolutely disproportionate and
incomprehensibleW.
• !taly had also approached the 1uropean 3nion to pressuri$e !ndia to deal with the matter (uickly. 8ose
0anuel Barroso, the president of the 1uropean &ommission, saidA FThis issue has also a bearing on the
global fight against piracy, to which the 1uropean 3nion is strongly committed. But the 1uropean 3nion is
opposed to the use of the death penalty in all cases and under any circumstances. !t would bring about
negatie conse(uences in relations with !taly and the 1uropean 3nion.G
• The two !talian marines H -alatore Birone and 0assimiliano 2atorre H are facing trial for murder in !ndia.
The two were detained in <ebruary 2012 when they shot dead two !ndian fishermen while guarding an
!talian oil tanker off 4erala, mistaking the fishermen for pirates.
• The legal process has been delayed, initially on the (uestion of ,urisdiction and later on whether the &entre
should allow the Cational !nestigation "gency to proceed against the marines under the -uppression of
3nlawful "cts against -afety of 0aritime Caigation and <i'ed Platforms on &ontinental -helf "ct, 2002 H
which prescribes the death penalty for those causing death during an act of iolence against any ship or
essel.
IN$IA 5 USA
• !ndia ; 3- relations hae witnessed a spike in tensions oer a World Trade 6rgani$ation .WT6/ dispute
pertaining to !ndia:s Cational -olar 0ission .C-0/.
• 3- complained that the domestic content re(uirements Sin C-0 Phase !!T discriminate against 3.-. e'ports
by re(uiring solar power deelopers to use !ndian#manufactured e(uipment instead of 3.-. e(uipment. They
refer to these re(uirements as FunfairG and militated against WT6 rules.
• !f the matter is not resoled through such consultations within J0 days of the re(uest, the 3.-. might ask the
WT6 to establish a dispute settlement panel.
• !t is the second time in a year that Washington has sought a consultation at the WT6 # the first stage in a
dispute process that can lead to sanctions # oer !ndiaUs 8awaharlal Cehru Cational -olar 0ission.
• 0eanwhile, Cew )elhi has said that there is clear eidence of 1= 3.-. states which follow e(ually restrictie
policies against !ndia.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The ongoing trade spat between the two allies follows the recent arrest and strip search of a female !ndian
diplomat in Cew Lork in connection with isa fraud charges. The arrest sparked fury in !ndia, prompted
retaliatory measures against 3.-. diplomats there and plunged 3.-.#!ndia relations to their lowest point since
!ndia tested a nuclear deice in 1DD>.
• There are 15 past or current WT6 cases between !ndia and the 3nited -tates, whose bilateral trade in goods
measured VJ=.7 billion last year
• To worsen the situation, The 6ffice of the 3- Trade +epresentatie # the body which regulates 3- trade in
the world # held a hearing on 25 <ebruary to consider calls to put !ndia on a watch list of worst offenders for
alleged iolations of "merican patents. !t has accused the country of Wrampant piracy and counterfeitingW to
benefit its own industries. There is a deepening economic spat oer cheap drugs and pirated software made
in !ndia.
• !ndia is also concerned about the proposed isa immigration oerhaul which could tighten isa rules on high#
tech firms. The -enate bill, while increasing the oerall number of *#1B isas aailable, would hike fees and
restrict additional *#1B isas for companies considered dependent on such foreign workers. The moe came
after complaints by 3- companies and labor groups that !ndian tech firms bring in their own, lower#paid
employees rather than hiring "mericans.
IN$IA 5 BA'RAIN
• !ndia and Bahrain hae signed three agreements to e'pand cooperation in key areas, including trade and
business. The agreements were signed in the presence of Prime 0inister 0anmohan -ingh and 4ing *amad
bin !sa "l 4halifa.
• The leaders reiewed bilateral trade, and agreed to boost economic cooperation in dierse sectors. Bahrain
has been seeking inestments from !ndian firms in arious sectors.
• 0emorandum of 3nderstanding .0o3/ signed between !ndia and Bahrain coered the following areasA
o To strengthen bilateral cooperation through institutional e'changes particularly through e'change of
youth and sports teams in arious disciplines.
o 6n the establishment of a F*igh#leel ,oint commissionG for bilateral cooperation to replace the
8oint &ommittee for Technical and 1conomic &ooperation established in 1D>1. The 9*igh 8oint
&ommission:, to be chaired by the <oreign 0inisters, will sere as an umbrella framework for all
cooperation between the two countries.
o "nother 0o3 signed between the <oreign -erice !nstitute and the )iplomatic !nstitute of Bahrain:s
0inistry of <oreign "ffairs to promote cooperation between the two organi$ations.
• 4ingUs isit to !ndia was meant to re#affirm BahrainUs interest to boost its deep#rooted ties with !ndia which
boasts of a strong economy and a great number of inestors who can take adantage of BahrainUs strategic
location and inestment incenties to enter the 3-) 1.E trillion Bulf &ooperation &ouncil .B&&/ market.
• Bahrain is an important trading partner for !ndia with non#oil bilateral trade in 2012#1= e'ceeding 3-) 1.=
billion.
IN$IA 5 CANA$A
• &anadian Boernor Beneral 0r. )aid 8ohnston came to !ndia on a week#long state isit from <ebruary 22 to
0arch 2. *e was ,oined by parliamentarians and an accompanying delegation of &anadians who would
enhance business, academic, cultural and people#to#people ties with their !ndian counterparts.
• Both the countries are committed to strengthening our partnership and co#operation and signed = pacts for
cooperation in health sector, audio#isual co#production and skill deelopment. These pacts included#
o !n the field of health, The Brand &hallenges &anada and )epartment of Biotechnology will work together
to address the global health challenges especially for women and child health care. !t was signed by )r.
T.-. +ao, -enior "disor to )epartment of Biotechnology and Peter -inger, &16 of Brand &hallenges
&anada.
o The secretary of information and broadcasting, 0r. Bimal 8ulka and 0r. -tewart Beck .*igh
&ommissioner of &anada to !ndia/ signed an agreement on the audio isual cooperation. This 0o3 will
enable !ndian and &anadian film producers to utili$e a platform for collaboration on arious facets of film
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
making. The agreement is e'pected to deepen the engagement between the critical sectors of the film
industries of both countries there by, proiding a new chapter of collaboration.
o !n field of skill deelopment, the Cational -kill )eelopment &orporation .C-)&/ from !ndia and
"ssociation of &anadian &ommunity &ollege ."&&&/ from &anada will work in skill deelopment segment
and to hae best practices in training, transnational standards, and certification, which will go a long way
in creating a workforce that, can sere global needs.
• 0r. )aid 8ohnston also inaugurated an office of the &onsulate Beneral of &anada in Bangalore. The office
will house a %isa and !mmigration -erice point sering the entire south !ndia. The &onsulate Beneral:s office
in Bangalore, which will be third one in !ndia apart from the offices functioning in 0umbai and &handigarh.
• 1arlier in -eptember 201=, the Cuclear &ooperation "greement between !ndia and &anada came into force.
3nder this agreement, companies in both countries can e'port controlled nuclear materials, e(uipment and
technology for peaceful purposes.
IN$IA 5 IRAN
• *is 1'cellency )r. 0ohammad 8aad Qarif, 0inister for <oreign "ffairs of the !slamic +epublic of !ran isited
!ndia from <ebruary 27#2>, 2015. There were discussions with the 1'ternal "ffairs 0inister -alman 4hurshid
on a range of bilateral, regional and international issues.
• Talks coered discussions on regional and international issues including deelopments in "fghanistan,
combating iolence and e'tremism, as well as the e'pansions of trade and economic ties with !ndia.
• Besides, there were discussions on !ran:s crude oil e'ports. !ndia has significantly reduced its imports from
!ran since the West imposed harsh economic sanctions on Tehran oer its controersial nuclear drie in
2012.
• !ndia is scheduled to conduct a dry run study in 0arch 2015 on !nternational Corth#-outh Transport &orridor
.!C-T&/, through Chaa -hea .0umbai/# Bandar "bbas .!ran/# Tehran#Bandar "n$ali .!ran/#"strakhan
.+ussia/.
IN$IA 5 VENE3UELA
• !ndia and %ene$uela signed a programme on cultural e'changes in the fields of publication, film and media,
image and space arts, stage and music arts. The programme will last for three years and will be renewed
automatically thereafter.
• The programme was signed by the -ecretary, 0inistry of &ulture, Boernment of !ndia, -hri +aindra -ingh
and 0inister of -tate for the Promotion of &ultural 1conomy, 0inistry of People:s Power for &ulture,
%ene$uela 0r 8aier -arabia after delegation leel talks between the two countries.
• "ccording to the Programme of &ultural 1'change both the countries hae decided to promote the e'change
of bilingual publications .traditional and contemporary stories/. There will be participation of the +epublic of
!ndia in the %ene$uela:s !nternational Book <air on a reciprocal basis. !t was decided to encourage the
participation of %ene$uelan and !ndian poets and writers in the literature festials organi$ed by both
countries. !t has been decided to publish an issue of the maga$ine 9:"ctualidadesG .a &12"+B publication/ on
the +epublic of !ndia or on !ndian writers.
• There will also be e'changes between theatre groups, film makers and representaties from both countries,
among other things.
IN$IA 5 UAE
• !ndia and the 3nited "rab 1mirates .3"1/ hae signed an agreement to enhance cooperation in renewable
energy, especially in the areas of solar and wind power.
• Both the countries hae also agreed to form a 8oint Working Broup for better coordination through ,oint
research on sub,ects of mutual interest, e'change and training of scientific and technical personnel, e'change
of aailable scientific and technologies information and data.
• !ndia and the 3"1 had recently signed the Bilateral !nestment Promotion and Protection "greement .B!PP"/.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN$IA 5 A3ERBAI-AN
• 0eeting of !ndia#"$erbai,an !ntergoernmental &ommission on Trade and 1conomic, -cience and Technology
&ooperation took place in Cew )elhi on <ebruary 25#2E, 2015.
• !ndia and "$erbai,an propose to constitute a ,oint working group in the field of hydrocarbon. Both the sides
agreed to e'plore opportunities for participation in renewable energy sector, energy efficiency and arious
upcoming pro,ects in oil and gas, petro#chemicals, pipelines, etc. in "$erbai,an or !ndia or third countries in
collaboration or ,oint enture. !ndia showed keen interest in ac(uiring stakes into producing assets in
"$erbai,an.
• The Cational *ydroelectric Power &orporation 2td has e'pressed interest in the deelopment of hydro
power plant in "$erbai,an. Besides, !ndia has also assured "$erbai,an of easier access of Pharma products in
"$erbai,an. !t was also assured that the issues relating to registration and re#registration of !ndian Pharma
products by the 0inistry of *ealth, "$erbai,an, will also be looked into.
• Both sides reiterated there is potential to cooperate with each other in arious sectors of trade like
inestment, transport, energy, fertili$ers, financial serices, aiation, tourism, culture, pharmaceuticals,
health, agriculture I animal products, information and communication technology, chemicals, science,
education, isa I consular matters etc.
• !ndia will also undertake a pilot pro,ect in 0arch 2015 on !nternational Corth#-outh Transport &orridor,
through Chaa -hea .0umbai/#Bandar "bbas .!ran/# Tehran#Bandar "n$ali .!ran/#"strakhan.+ussia/.)uring
the meeting, both side reiewed the status of the construction of Ba$in#+asht#"stara .!ran/#"stara
."$erbai,an/ railway route for connecting the railway lines of !nternational Corth#-outh Transport &orridor.
• !ndia also called for inestment in the field of hotel industry tourism and infrastructural deelopment as
!ndia allows 100 per cent foreign direct inestment .<)!/ in hospitality sector on automated basis.
• The total trade between !ndia and "$erbai,an rose from V EJE.D> million in 2011#12 to V J0>.EE million in
2012#1=.
IN$IA / 0YR)Y3 REPUBLIC
• The <oreign 0inister of the 4yrgy$ +epublic, 0r. 1rlan "bdyldae paid the state isit to !ndia on 1=#1E
<ebruary, 2015 at the initation of -hri -alman 4hurshid, 1'ternal "ffairs 0inister of !ndia. The ministers
reiewed the significant progress made in the bilateral relations and noted common positions on current
international and regional issues.
• "fter the talks, the sides e'changed documents operationali$ing a bilateral treaty on mutual legal assistance
in criminal matters ; an e'change of instrument of ratification and an agreement on isa free trael for
diplomatic, official and serice passport holders.
• The sides agreed to intensify parliamentary e'changes in this conte't and the !ndian side welcomed the
proposed isit of a 4yrgy$ Parliamentary delegation to !ndia later this year.
• Both countries obsered that trade leels were well below potential and agreed to take steps to stimulate
bilateral trade. They also noted the scope of cooperation in mining, pharmaceuticals, te'tiles and garment
industries, transport and communication, education, health and tourism, as priority sectors for promoting
bilateral inestment.
• The !ndian side e'pressed appreciation at the isit of a 4yrgy$ cultural troupe to !ndia and emphasised the
importance of bilateral cultural e'changes. The sides also discussed cooperation in film making and the
4yrgy$ side proposed ,oint theatrical production of the epic U0anasU.
IN$IA 5 OAN
• *is 1'cellency Lousuf bin "lawi bin "bdullah, 0inister +esponsible for <oreign "ffairs, -ultanate of 6man
paid an official isit to !ndia on <ebruary 2>, 2015 to discuss bilateral, regional and other issues of mutual
interest.
• The two countries held dialogues on security matters and aimed at conducting regular Caal and "ir
e'ercises.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• There are more than 1E00 !ndo#6mani ,oint entures with the total inestment of more than 3-) 7 billion.
*oweer, there is scope for enhancement of bilateral trade, which is appro'imately 3-) E billion per
annum.
• !ndia also discussed the possibility of reiing a pro,ect for a deep sea pipeline connecting 6man and !ran to
!ndia. The pipeline would be mutually adantageous for !ran and !ndia, with the former haing a massie
surplus of gas and the latter haing high energy needs. !ran#6man#!ndia pipeline would source its gas from
!ranUs -outh Pars oil and gas fields located in the "rabian Bulf. The pipeline would be 1,500 kilometers long
and could transfer =1 million cubic meters of gas per day to !ndia. !t is proposed that een Turkmenistan and
"$erbai,an energy can feed the pipeline for an eer#growing !ndian market.
• 6man had inested VD0 million on this pro,ect oer a decade ago, but it got no traction then. But now, the
technology has come of age, with pipelines being built under the 0editerranean -ea from "lgeria to !taly,
and under the Black -ea from +ussia to Bermany. "bdullah suggested the pipeline could transport gas from
!ran.
• !ndia:s close and friendly relationship with 6man is based on historical people to people contacts. 6man is
an important trading partner of !ndia in the Bulf with two# way trade e'ceeding 3-V5.J billion in 2012#1=.
!ndia has been the topmost destination for 6mani non#oil e'ports. 6ur two#way bilateral inestments hae
reached oer 3-V7.E billion.
• The contribution of oer 700,000 strong ibrant !ndian community in the progress and deelopment of
6man is well acknowledged and appreciated.
IN$IA 5 FI-I
• 0r. +atu !noke 4ubuabola, 0inister for <oreign "ffairs and !nternational &ooperation of <i,i, came for a state
isit to !ndia from 10 ; 12 <ebruary for the biennial !ndia#<i,i <oreign 6ffice &onsultations.
• )uring the ministerial meeting, there were wide ranging discussions on bilateral, regional and international
issues of common interests to the two countries. 0inister 4ubuabola proided an update on the political
deelopments in <i,i in its preparations for democratic elections that will take place by -eptember and also
discussed the positie reforms that Boernment has put in place since in came into power in its efforts to
build a better <i,i for all. The two sides commented on their common interest and e'pressed that <i,i:s
commitment to its bilateral relations with !ndia as a long#term one, which is underpinned by historical
cultural ties and enriched through good understanding and mutual respect.
• The two countries signed three 063s on renewed deelopment cooperation, water resource management
and trade measurements and standards, which would foster greater cooperation between the two
goernments in these respectie areas.
• Besides, there were discussions related to improing trade and relations in the fields of sugar industry, youth
and sports, reciprocal isa on arrial arrangements, capacity building programs, and modern technological
adances in agricultural productiity, defence, Barefoot &ollege for women and pharmaceuticals.
• !ndia had signed a )ouble Ta'ation "oidance "greement .)T""/ with the Boernment of +epublic of <i,i for
the aoidance of double ta'ation and for the preention of fiscal easion with respect to ta'es on income in
8anuary 2015. The negotiations for the )T"" between both the countries were completed in 2011. The )T""
will proide ta' stability to the residents of !ndia and <i,i and facilitate mutual economic cooperation as well
as stimulate the flow of inestment, technology and serices between !ndia and <i,i. !t also incorporates
proisions for an effectie e'change of information and assistance in collection of ta'es between ta'
authorities of the two countries including e'change of banking information. There are proisions of
incorporating anti#abuse proisions to ensure that the benefits of the "greement are aailed of only by the
residents of the two countries and to preent any abuse of treaty.
BCI TRA$E CORRI$OR
• !ndia, &hina, Bangladesh and 0yanmar held the first eer official#leel discussions on the ambitious B&!0
economic corridor to link !ndia and &hina with Bangladesh and 0yanmar. The meeting was held in &hina.
• The economic adantages of the B&!0 trade corridor are to moe towards an approach to numerous markets
in -outheast "sia with improement of transportation infrastructure and creation of industrial $ones.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• &urrently, the four nations hae raised an ambitious proposal that included deeloping multi#modal
transport, such as road, rail, waterways and airways, ,oint power pro,ects, telecommunication networks, etc.
• 6er the ne't si' months, each country would come up with a ,oint study report proposing concrete pro,ects
and financing modalities before the ne't meeting of the four nations in 8une this year in Bangladesh.
• The corridor, it was agreed, will run from 4unming to 4olkata, linking 0andalay in 0yanmar as well as )haka
and &hittagong in Bangladesh.
VISA ON ARRIVAL IN IN$IA
• The Boernment of !ndia approed the plan to e'tend isa#on#arrial facility to almost all countries .1>0
countries/ barring a handful categori$ed as FsensitieG due to the security risk they pose. Pakistan, -udan,
"fghanistan, !ran, !ra(, Cigeria, -ri 2anka and -omalia are eight countries that hae been kept out of the list.
• "t present, !ndia e'tends isa#on#arrial facility to 11 countries including Cew Qealand, 8apan and %ietnam.
The new facility is e'pected to be function from the ne't tourist session beginning 6ctober.
• The model, likely to be put in place, will do away with the need to isit an !ndian mission but will re(uire
tourists to make an online application before their departure. The Bureau of !mmigration will set up a
website for this and upon submission of an application, it will email an electronic isa@trael authori$ation
within 2#= days, allowing the tourist to enter !ndia and also facilitate easier erification at airports.
• The electronic isa#on#arrial would be aailable at 2J ma,or airports in !ndia and would be alid for =0 days
from the date of the touristUs arrial in !ndia.
• "s per the 3CWT6 World Tourism Barometer, )ecember 201=, !ndia:s rank in the World Tourism +eceipts
during 2012 was 1Jth and rank in international tourist arrials was 51. The rank of !ndia was 7th among "sia
I the Pacific +egion in terms of tourism receipts during 2012.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
%ORL$ AFFAIRS
U0RAINE CRISIS
• The ongoing crisis in 3kraine is one of the most serious crisis the world has faced in recent years. The
confrontation between President %iktor Lanukoych and the growing popular protest moement has lurched
back and forth since late Coember, with iolent episodes punctuated by truces, talks and attempts at
mediation.
• The original cause for the protests, i.e. the suspension of talks on an association with the 13, became less
and less important with time. )emands that the 13 negotiations be reinstated and the closer relationship
with +ussia, which the president had embraced, be repudiated were eclipsed by an insistence that the
president and all his people step down and the corrupt, coercie and (uasi#criminal system through which
they were said to be ruling be dismantled.
• The death of many protestors in 4ie, followed by a crackdown on so#called terrorism across the country and
allegations that a coup was under way, had caused irreparable damage and had taken the 3krainian
goernment, the formal opposition and the protest moement beyond the point of no return.
• " look at the timeline of the eent ;
o ()*)' %ictor Lanukoych is elected as president of 3kraine with 5>.DE per cent of the ote. *e
oerturns a goernment dominated by factions from the pro#Western W6range +eolutionW of 2005,
who had proed (uarrelsome and ineffectie in office.
o +ovember (* ()*,' "t a summit in 2ithuania, 0r Lanukoych une'pectedly abandons plans to sign
a long#awaited trade deal with Brussels, which would hae put 3kraine firmly in 1uropeUs orbit. !t
triggers widespread protests, amid claims that +ussia put pressure on 0r. Lanukoych, prompting
pro#1uropean opposition groups to call for protests.
o -ecember * ()*,' "fter a week of smaller demonstrations, a crowd of up to E00,000 gathers on
!ndependence -(uare in 4ie, setting up camp and building barricades.
o -ecember *. ()*,'President %iktor Lanukoych traels to 0oscow, where he secures a V17 billion
bailout deal and a huge price cut for +ussian gas. %ladimir Putin, the +ussian president, says that
0oscow will buy V1E bn of 3krainian bonds, in what is widely seen as a blandishment for 3kraine to
remain in the 4remlinUs sphere of influence.
o /an&ary *0 ()*1' )o$ens are wounded in bloody clashes between police and protesters in 4ie after
200,000 defy new restrictions on protests.
o /an&ary (2 ()*1' 0r. Lanukoych offers opposition leaders "rseniy Latsenyuk and %itali 4litschko
entry to the goernment, but they decline.
o /an&ary (3 (*)1A Prime 0inister 0ykola "$aro resigns, parliament scraps the anti#protest laws.
o /an&ary (0 ()*1' Parliament passes an amnesty bill, but the opposition re,ects its conditions
o 4ebr&ary ( ()*1' 0r. Latsenyuk and 0r. 4litschko call for international mediation and Western
financial aid in front of more than J0,000 demonstrators in 4ie.
o 4ebr&ary , ()*1' The 13 says that it is mulling, alongside Washington and the !0<, economic
assistance, but only once 4ie embarks on political reforms.
o 4ebr&ary . (*)1' 0r Lanukoych meets his ally, +ussian president %ladimir Putin, on the sidelines
of the opening ceremony of the Winter 6lympic Bames in -ochi.
o 4ebr&ary *1 ()*1' "ll 2=5 protesters who hae been arrested since )ecember are released but
charges against them remain.
o 4ebr&ary *5 ()*1' Protesters eacuate 4ie city hall after occupying the building since )ecember 1,
along with other public buildings in the regions. " day later arrested protesters are granted amnesty.
o 4ebr&ary *3 ()*1' "t least 2J people, including 10 policeman, are killed in the bloodiest day of
clashes in nearly three months of protests. Protesters take back control of 4ieUs city hall. +iot police
encircle !ndependence -(uare, where some 2E,000 protesters remain after the e'piry of a
ultimatum from security forces demanding calm be restored.
o 4ebr&ary *0 ()*1' President %iktor Lanukoych agrees to a WtruceW with opposition leaders and a
start to negotiations to preent further bloodshed. 6pposition leader "rseniy Latsenyuk announces
that a planned raid of !ndependence -(uare will not take place. 13 leaders call an emergency
meeting e'pected to consider laying sanctions.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<8 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
o 4ebr&ary (* ()*1' 0r. Lanukoych and opposition leaders sign a deal aimed at ending the
bloodshed. The deal calls for presidential elections by )ecember, the formation of a national unity
goernment and constitutional changes to reduce the presidentUs powers.
o 4ebr&ary (( ()*1' 3krainian politicians ote to remoe 0r. Lanukoych from power. 6pposition
leader Lulia Timoshenko freed from ,ail.3krainian parliament elects 6leksander Turchino as its
interim speaker.
o 4ebr&ary (1 ()*1' 3kraine issues an arrest warrant for 0r. Lanukoych and launches a probe into
the Wmass murderW of protestors in 4ie.
o 4ebr&ary (5 ()*1' +ussian president %ladimir Putin orders an urgent drill to test the combat
readiness of the nationUs armed forces in the western +ussia. This includes army, nay and air force
troops. 0oscow grants 0r Lanukoych refuge
o %arch * ()*1' 0r. Putin asks the +ussian parliament to approe the use of military force in 3kraine,
which the parliament grants. 3- president Barack 6bama warns +ussia Wthere will be costsW for any
military interention in 3kraine.
OPINION
• The result is a deepening of the crisis that will affect not only the fate of 3kraine, but that of +ussia, the
1uropean 3nion and the 3nited -tates. 1arly elections might represent a way out, but it is hard to imagine
the regime, haing chosen the path of repression, making such a concession.
• "t stake for +ussia is 0r. PutinUs credibility, and that of his own system, not so ery different in some
respects from 0r. Lanukoych. "lthough there is much +ussian popular support for him on the 3kraine
issue, this might well erode if the situation there slipped into wider iolence or een into something akin to
ciil war.
• "t stake for the 13, already weakened by the euro crisis and by its own internal diisions, is its weight in
international affairs and in its own continent.
• "t stake for the 3nited -tates is its already prickly relationship with +ussia. That has implications for arms
control and for "merican diplomacy on -yria and !ran. &o#operation between "merica and +ussia has slipped
badly, but what remains is still a re(uirement for an orderly world.
EVENTS IN BAN)LA$ES'
ELECTIONS IN BAN)LA$ES'
• -heikh *asina was sworn as the Prime 0inister of Bangladesh for the second time in succession on 8anuary,
12, 2015 after the 8anuary E elections.
• This was the 10
th
general election to be held in the 52 years of Bangladesh history.
• 1lections were held for only 157 constituencies out of the =00 seats for the Bangladesh 8atiyo -angsad H The
Bangladesh Parliament H of which 1E= seats hae returned winners without contest.
• "wami 2eague won two#third ma,ority in the elections which were held amid massie iolence and boycott by
the opposition parties.
• The 4haleda Qia#led opposition alliance had called a 5>#hour fresh back#to#back countrywide hartal from
0onday to demand -unday:s general elections be scrapped.
• There were many incidents of opposition actiists setting on fire as many as 100 polling stations. The oter
turnout was considerably lower due to fear factor among oters with estimates of the turnout ,ust 22#=0M of
the oting population.
• 0ost of the attacks took place in the minority dominated illages where *indus, in particular, were targeted
by the ma,ority. Bangladesh Boernment has decided to setup special tribunals under an anti#terror law to
punish the perpetrators of iolence aimed at the minority community.
• While !ndia has backed the poll, there has been ery little support in international arena. The 3nited -tates,
3nited 4ingdom, "ustralia and 1uropean 3nion has called for another poll at the earliest.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
BAN)LA$ES' %AR CRIES TRIBUNAL
• !n what seems to be a desperate moe to conclude business, the !nternational War &rimes Tribunal has
conicted yet another member of opposition party for crimes against humanity, killing and genocide
committed during 1D71 war of independence.
• "bdul "lim, an octogenarian politician and former minister is the eighth such person to be so conicted.
• The !nternational &rimes Tribunal was set up in )ecember 200> after "wami 2eague won the elections. By
2012, nine leaders of 8amaat#e#!slami were indicted as suspects and the first person conicted was "bul
4alam "$ad .Bachchu/, tried in absentia as he had left the country? he was sentenced to death in 8anuary
201=.
$EAT' SENTENCE TO PARES' BARUA
• Paresh Barua, chief of the breakaway 3nited 2iberation <ront of "som faction, was awarded death penalty in
connection with an arms haul in 2005.
• !nestigations reealed that the weapons were manufactured in &hina and were being shipped to the 32<".
• Police had sei$ed 10 trucks carrying weapons and ammunition from the state#owned &hittagong 3rea
<ertili$er 2td.
EVENTS IN PA0ISTAN
TAL0S %IT' TTP
• The Pakistan goernment has decided to hold peace talks with Tehreek#e#Taliban Pakistan .TTP/ with two
teams being nominated to chart a roadmap for talks.
• The moe to hold talks came as a surprise when the Prime 0inister, Cawa$ -harif, named a team to begin
dialogue with the militants, who hae been waging a iolent insurgency since 2007.The TTP has said in the
past that it opposes democracy and wants !slamic sharia law imposed throughout Pakistan, while the
goernment has stressed the countryUs constitution must remain paramount.
• The goernment team consists of senior ,ournalists !rfan -iddi(ui and +ahimullah Lusuf$ai, former diplomat
+ustam -hah 0ohmand and retired ma,or 0ohammad "amir, formerly of the !nter -erices !ntelligence
agency.The Taliban side includes 0aulana -ami#ul#*a(, a hardliner cleric known in the west as the W<ather of
the TalibanW, as well as the chief cleric of !slamabadUs +ed 0os(ue and two other religious party leaders. The
TTP had asked cricketer#turned#politician !mran 4han to be part of their team but he declined.
• The TTP had proposed the following fifteen points for keeping the peace talks going. These are# The points
areAX -top drone attacks X !ntroduce -haria law in courts X !ntroduce !slamic system of education in both
public and priate educational institutions X <ree Pakistani and foreign Taliban captured in ,ails X +estoration
and remuneration for damage to property during drone attacks X *and oer control of tribal areas to local
forces X Withdrawal of army from tribal areas and close down check posts X "ll criminal allegations held
against the Taliban to be dropped X Prisoners from both sides to be released X 1(ual rights for all, poor and
rich X <amilies of drone attack ictims to be offered ,obs X 1nd interest based banking system X -top
supporting the 3- on the war on terror X +eplace the democratic system of goernance with !slamic systemX
Break all relations with the 3-.
• *oweer, Pakistani negotiators had to cancel the meetings in 0id#<ebruary with the Taliban after the
insurgents claimed they had killed 2= soldiers kidnapped by them in 2010, dealing a seere blow to the
fledgling peace process. 6n the other hand, the TTP has lamented that on the one hand the goernment has
initiated the process of talks, while on the other it has continued to target TTP members.


RELATIONS %IT' C'INA
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

($ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Pakistan and &hina hae signed an agreement of Fearly harest pro,ectsG in the economic corridor during the
Pakistani President 0amnoon *ussain isit to Bei,ing. 3nder the agreement, Bei,ing will proide more than
V20 billion for pro,ects to generate oer 20,0000W of electricity and other crucial infrastructure pro,ects.
• The talks focused on a new &hina#Pakistan 1conomic &orridor. The pro,ects will include the 4arakoram
*ighway up to !slamabad, 4arachi#2ahore 0otorway, new Bwadar "irport and economic $ones. Besides,
&hina has also agreed to finance pro,ects in Pakistan in energy, transport, and rail and road links.
• 6il and gas pipelines are also part of the economic corridor oer the long run, which is e'pected to proide a
much#needed boost to economic actiities in insurgency#hit Baluchistan.
• &hina has completed constructing one of its longest tunnels which will help it build a rail link with Pakistan.
The completed tunnel runs 22.25 km in the mountainous Pin,iang 3ygur "utonomous +egion and will reduce
the distance between Turpan with 4orla in southern Pin,iang by 122 km. "t present the distance between
these two points on the Can,iang +ailway is ==5 km. !t has also announced plans for building the worldUs
longest undersea tunnel measuring 12= km to link two ma,or cities.
• *oweer, &hinese firms are still cautious about the inestment deals in Pakistan due to terror actiities in
these regions.
PERVE3 US'ARRAF TO FACE TRIAL ON TREASON C'AR)ES
• Pere$ 0usharraf has been charged with treason. The treason charges relate to his decision in 2007 to
suspend the constitution and impose emergency rule. *e also faces separate charges of murder and
restricting the ,udiciary.
• *e is the first Pakistani former military ruler to face trial for treason. !f found guilty, he could be sentenced to
death or life in prison. 0r. 0usharraf, 70, denies the charges and says all the accusations against him are
politically motiated.
• *oweer, his lawyers hae said that 0usharraf cannot get a fair trial in Pakistan because of his history of
disputes with the ,udiciary and the inolement of Prime 0inister Cawa$ -harif whom he once oerthrew in
a coup.
• The trial opened on )ecember 25 but was immediately suspended after 0usharraf did not appear because a
bag of e'plosies was found on his route to the court.
• *oweer, 0usharraf has not appeared in court on medical grounds till now.
EVENTS IN C'INA
SOUT' C'INA SEA AIR 3ONE
• Cews from the &hinese territory shook the world when news came out of establishing a new air defence
$one in -outh &hina -ea. The disclosure was enough to prooke %ietnam, the Philippines, 0alaysia, Brunei
and Taiwan, all of whom claim soereignty oer parts or all of the disputed territory, which includes
hundreds of islands, cays, shoals and reefs.
• *oweer, &hina later said that there was no need for such a $one in the -outh &hina -ea, where &hina,
%ietnam, 0alaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Taiwan all hae competing claims.
• !n Coember, &hina established its first "ir )efence !dentification Qone .")!Q/ oer parts of the 1ast &hina
-ea, amid an increasingly tense stand#off with 8apan oer the disputed )iaoyu@-enkaku islands.
• "n "ir )efence !dentification Qone is a defined area in international airspace within which countries monitor
and track aircraft heading towards their territory.
• The setting up of the ")!Q heightened tensions with 8apan, as it oerlapped with 8apan:s $one and included
the disputed islands. &hina at the time defended the moe, pointing out that 8apan had established its own
")!Q in 1DJD.
• &hina#8apan relations hae soured oer the past year oer the disputed islands, and issues relating to
wartime history and the 8apanese occupation of &hina during the -econd World War. &hina was especially
angered by a isit by the 8apanese Prime 0inister -hin$o "be to the controersial Lasukuni war shrine H a
memorial for 8apanese who died during the war that also enshrines 15 &lass#" war criminals H which was
the first by a 8apanese leader in seen years. The rising tensions with 8apan hae coincided with an apparent
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
diplomatic outreach by &hina to other "sian countries. SAlso refer to the November $%&' Current Affairs
notes for more details about this issue.T
ARITIE SIL0 ROA$ INITIATIVE
• &hina has taken a new initiatie to build a 0aritime -ilk +oad which it says is aimed at improing
connectiity and trade among "sian nations through the sea on the lines of ancient -ilk +oute.
• &hina has also inited !ndia to be part of this new initiatie.
• The 0aritime -ea +oute .0-+/ was mooted last year with countries of -outheast "sia by President Pi 8inping
during his isit to !ndonesia and 0alaysia where he stated that the 0-+ would help turn the WBolden
)ecadeW between &hina and -outheast "sian &ountries into W)iamond )ecadeW.
• -imultaneously, &hina also worked to reie the ancient -ilk +oute which e'isted 2,000 years to with a host
of &entral "sian states. Besides 0-+, &hina has proposed the Bangladesh, &hina, !ndia and 0yanmar .B&!0/
corridor to improe trade and businesses among all the four countries.
• 3nder the new scenario, Cew )elhi is likely to be torn between two competing ideasHone is working
together with &hina in the maritime domain and the other is the long#standing goal of limiting Bei,ing:s
influence in the !ndian 6cean.
C'INA/SRILAN0A RELATIONS
• &hina plans to take forward plans to boost maritime connectiity with -ri 2anka, where it is already building
a ma,or port pro,ect, with both countries agreeing to deepen their economic links and sign a landmark <ree
Trade "greement .<T"/.
• &hina is now the biggest proider of loans to -ri 2anka, oertaking countries such as !ndia and 8apan that had
earlier been the largest source of financing for infrastructure pro,ects.
• &hina has been among the most ocal backers of the -ri 2ankan goernment amid increasing international
criticism of the post#war reconciliation process and the human rights situation. !t has continuously opposed
any moe against -ri 2anka in the 3C*+&.
• The growing relations between &hina and -ri 2anka are a concern for !ndia as !ndia wants to keep -ri 2anka
under its sphere of influence.
%AR CRIES IN SRI LAN0A
US TO PRESS SRI LAN0A ON %AR CRIES ALLE)ATIONS AT UN'RC
• The 3nited -tates has said that it will sponsor a resolution at the 3.C. *uman +ights &ouncil .3C*+&/which
could call for an international inestigation into allegations of war crimes during the island nationUs ciil
conflict.
• 0eanwhile -ri 2anka has tried to persuade 3- administration that it is on a path toward national
reconciliation, nearly fie years after crushing a (uarter#century rebellion by ethnic Tamil fighters.
• " 3.C. report preiously said that as many as 50,000 Tamil ciilians died, mostly in goernment attacks, but
-ri 2anka denies such a high toll and has repeatedly denied it deliberately targeted ciilians.
• The -ri 2ankan goernment is planning to moe a counter resolution at the 3C*+& in 0arch this year to
probe possible human rights iolations, crimes against humanity and possible war crimes since 1D7E.
• !n order to aoid hurting Tamil sentiment ahead of elections, the !ndian goernment has refused to commit
-ri 2anka any support against a 3-#sponsored 3C resolution accusing its military of committing war crimes. "t
the same time, Cew )elhi also wants to keep &olombo as an ally amid the &hinese making inroads into -ri
2anka.
PROBE INTO %AR CRIES IN SRI LAN0A
• The 3nited Cations *uman +ights &ommissioner Cai Pillay has called for an international probe into war
crimes committed in -ri 2anka during the final stages of its ethnic conflict. !n her report the -ri 2ankan
goernment recently, she had recommended for setting up of an international in(uiry mechanism to further
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
inestigate the alleged iolations of international human rights and humanitarian law and monitor any
domestic accountability process.
• The report also reiterates concerns about the continuing trend of attacks on freedom of e'pression, peaceful
assembly and association? rising leels of religious intolerance? and continued militari$ation.
• -he has set a 0arch 2015#deadline for the goernment to engage in a credible national in(uiry into reported
cases of iolations of international human rights and humanitarian law failing which the international
community would establish its own in(uiry mechanism.
• The report also says that the -ri 2ankan goernment has taken no significant steps to implement the
recommendations on accountability of its own 2essons 2earnt and +econciliation &ommission.
• The -ri 2ankan goernment has not yet officially responded to the report.
• The *uman +ights Watch .*+W/ has also backed the 3C rights chief:s recommendation for an international
in(uiry into alleged war crimes committed in -ri 2anka during the final phase of battle with the 2TT1.
EVENTS IN UNITE$ STATES
-ANET YELLEN TO 'EA$ US FE$ERAL RESERVE
• 8anet Lellen was confirmed as ne't head of the 3- <ederal +esere by the 3- senate to succeed outgoing <ed
chairman Ben Bernanke who has sered for > years.
• -he would be the first woman to lead the central bank in its 100 year history.
• -he was nominated by 3.-. President Barack 6bama for the post in 6ctober and would be the first )emocrat
to sere the ,ob since 1D>7.
US 5 )ERANY NO SPYIN) TAL0S
• !n "ugust, 201=, 3- and Bermany had announced to negotiate a deal not to spy on each other after
reelations about the 3-U Cational -ecurity "gency .C-"/ sureillance.
• This was compounded by allegations the 3- had monitored 0erkelUs mobile phone and 1uropean interest in
the claims of the former C-" intelligence contractor 1dward -nowden, who has temporary asylum in
0oscow.
• "midst the reports that the talks are going no#where, the interior minister of Bermany claimed that the talks
are progressing.
• !t was the attempt by both countries to restore the relations between the nations which were at all time low
due to the spying reelations.
-O'N 0ERRY PUS'ES FOR ISRAEL PALESTINE PEACE TAL0S
• 8ohn 4erry, 3- -ecretary of -tate, has held talks with !srael and Palestine to establish Ffi'ed, defined
parametersG for a permanent peace deal held at the beginning of the new year.
• "midst the attempt to establish peace, !sraeli Prime 0inister Ben,amin Cetanyahu has accused Palestine of
helping to incite iolence by recent spate of terrorist attacks.
• The meeting is aimed at establishing a framework that would act as a guideline for reaching a full peace
treaty between !srael and Palestine in "pril, in which !srael would e'ist peacefully alongside a new Palestinian
state? as aimed by the two#state solution.
• *oweer, no significant outcomes could come out from the talks held in 8anuary.




Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SYRIA ISSUE
)ENEVA II CONFERENCE
• Benea !! international conference was held to find a political solution to the conflict in -yria, which begun in
-wit$erland on 22
nd
8anuary, 2015. !ts main aim was to discuss how to implement the Benea &ommuni(uY
of =0 8une 2012, to end the war, and start a process toward a Cew -yrian republic
• !t was in 0ay 201= when 3- -ecretary of -tate 8ohn 4erry and +ussian <oreign 0inister -ergei 2aro agreed
for the first time to try to Wbring both sides to the tableW to end the bloodshed.
• Talks were held amidst the -yrian goernment announcement that it would not hand oer power to anyone
during the talks.
• !ran, a crucial ally of -yrian President "ssad, was also inited to ,oin the start of the Benea !! conference
which was accepted by !ran with an aim to be part of the solution to the -yrian crisis. *oweer, the initation
was later withdrawn by 3C after the -yrian opposition threatened to boycott the conference if President !ran
took part.
• The first round of talks ended on =1 8anuary without yielding any tangible result. The second round of
negotiations is scheduled to take place on 10#1E <ebruary 2015.
SECON$ ROUN$ OF )ENEVA II
• The second round of Benea !! peace talks continued in <ebruary 2015 with the warring sides blaming each
other for escalating iolence and difficulties. The talks were initiated by the 3.C. and "rab 2eague mediator
2akhdar Brahimi.
• 0eanwhile, +ussia has accused the West of trying to derail the -yria peace talks and reert to the military
scenario of regime change in the iolence#torn country. +ussia has also opposed a Western#backed draft
resolution in the 3.C. -ecurity &ouncil on the humanitarian crisis in -yria as Fabsolutely one#sided and
detached from reality.G 6er the past two years +ussia has blocked three Western#backed resolutions
censuring the -yrian goernment.
• The conflict will soon enter its fourth year on 0arch 1E? it has so far killed 1=J,000 people and displaced oer
two million amid atrocities by all inoled.
• The -yrian situation has been called a pro'y war inoling the West, -audi "rabia, and Zatar on the
opposition side, and +ussia and !ran plus the *e$bollah on the regime:s side, but certain opposition leaders
resent being used thus, and goernment officials speak of being treated like assals by !ran, +ussia, and the
*e$bollah. !n addition, the al Zaeda#linked faction, the !slamic -tate of !ra( and al -hams .!-!-/, holds the
proincial capital of +akka in central -yria, and seres a purpose both for )amascus, which tells the West that
if the goernment fell al Zaeda would win, and for the -C&, which submerges its internal differences to fight
!-!-.
• !n a landmark decision, the 3nited Cations -ecurity &ouncil .3C-&/ has passed a unanimous resolution on the
deliery of humanitarian aid to -yria H the decision flowing from a consensus that the goernment and the
armed opposition would be held responsible for proiding relief to the people entangled in the bloody
conflict. The 3C-& called for an immediate end to all forms of iolence in the country and strongly
condemned the rise of al#Zaeda#affiliated terror. The resolution was backed by +ussia when the resolution
was passed without fi'ing responsibility on either side.
• "lso to make the matters worse, 0oscow has warned +iyadh not to try and change the balance of power in
-yria, by supplying Pakistan#made shoulder#fired anti#aircraft weapons to the armed opposition.
• The only glimmer of hope in all this is that since 6ctober 201=, opposition and goernment members hae
been meeting priately at the &h[teau de Bossey in -wit$erland. "s the 3nited -tates and +ussia will almost
certainly back any agreement they reach, it is imperatie that those inoled continue talking and that all
others stay away.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
FRIEN$S OF SYRIA EET
• <oreign ministers of FThe <riends of -yriaG met in Paris. The Broup of <riends of the -yrian People, or F<riends
of -yriaG, is an international collectie meeting outside the 3C -ecurity &ouncil oer the -yrian crisis. -tarted
by then <rench President Cicolas -arko$y, the group by this time includes eleen core members with the 3-,
Britain, <rance, Bermany, Turkey, Zatar and -audi "rabia among them.
• !t supported the Benea !! &onference and stated that the only way for a political solution to end the -yrian
war is for peace talks in Benea to take place.
• The core group also urged the Cational &oalition to respond positiely to the initation to set up the -yrian
opposition delegation sent by the 3C -ecretary Beneral and come to table for talk on the issue.
• "s per the ,oint statement, the core group concluded that F+emoing "ssad from -yria for the future has now
been clearly established in a unanimous decision adopted by the group without the possibility for ambiguityG.
P5 61 AN$ IRAN
• !ran has halted its most sensitie nuclear program under a preliminary deal with world superpowers .PE\1
country/ by completing the dilution process for 20 percent enriched uranium.
• This action of !ran will bring some relief from economic sanctions imposed on the !slamic republic from the
west. "s per the official reports, !ran would receie the first VEE0 million installment of a total of V5.2 billion
in fro$en oerseas funds on or around <ebruary 1. !t will be followed by two payments in 0arch, two more in
"pril, one in 0ay, one in 8une and the last VEE0 million payment on or around 8uly 20.
• !ran will be able to resume trade in petrochemicals, gold and other prestigious metals.
• 3nited -tates has asked !ran to include its ballistic missile programme within the ambit of the ongoing nuclear
dialogue, signaling a tussle between the two countries to draw ma'imum political adantage out of the talks.
• *oweer, !ran has re,ected any such claim and has said that ballistic missile program shall not be discussed
during Tehran:s nuclear dialogue.
• " nuclear deal, signed in Coember 201=, resulted in the commencement of a dialogue between !ran and its
interlocutors H 3nited -tates, +ussia, &hina, Britain, <rance and Bermany H which enisions lifting of all
sanctions against Tehran within si' months, proided it could be erifiably ascertained that !ran was not in
pursuit of atomic weapons.
• !ran and the !nternational "tomic 1nergy "gency .!"1"/ reached a seen#point agreement entailing practical
steps that Tehran would undertake prior to 0ay 1E deadline, in order to build confidence about its nuclear
intentions.
• The deal includes plan to increase transparency, including a pledge by !ran to proide Finformation and
e'planations for the "gency to assess !ran:s stated need or application for the deelopment of 1'ploding
Bridge Wire detonatorsG.
• Besides, talks in %ienna hae also begun between !ran and the fie permanent members of the 3.C .-ecurity
&ouncil plus Bermany .PE\1 member/. The %ienna talks between !ran and the 1=@13\= group, acting for the
PE\1, hae reached a constructie conclusion. The parties had identified all the issues necessary for a long#
term deal and hae agreed on the framework for a Fcomprehensie and final agreement.G The ne't round of
talks is to start on 0arch 17, in %ienna.
• 3nder the interim agreement, !ran will stop producing uranium enriched to nearly 20 per cent, will dilute half
the stockpile it has already enriched to the same leel, and will continue conerting the rest to a form
unsuitable for further enrichment. !n addition, Tehran will not enrich uranium in about half the centrifuges at
Catan$ and three (uarters of those at <ordo. !t will manufacture e(uipment only to repair e'isting machines,
and will put the "rak heay#water reactor on indefinite hold. !t will not build any more enrichment facilities.
<urthermore, the !nternational "tomic 1nergy "gency will be able to inspect Catan$ and <ordo on a daily
basis, and the "rak reactor at least on a monthly basis.
• 6n the other side, the western countries in particular hae undertaken not to impose further nuclear#related
sanctions if !ran fulfils its %ienna commitments? they will also pay !ran a total of V5.2 billion in oil reenues,
allow !ran to resume e'porting precious metals, suspend sanctions on !ran:s petrochemical e'ports, and
permit the !slamic +epublic to import goods and serices for automobile manufacturing plants. !n addition,
they will maintain their current leels of crude oil imports from !ran, and will allow !ran:s ciil airlines to
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(( www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ac(uire spare parts and serices.S#lease also refer to the November $%&' Current Affairs, for more details
about this issue.T
LATVIA -OINS EURO3ONE
• 2atia becomes the 1>
th
country to adopt 1uro as its currency.
• The people bade farewell to their old currency 2ats, which was first introduced in 1D22.
• The 2ats was the fourth#highest#alued currency unit after the 4uwaiti dinar, Bahraini dinar, and the 6mani
rial at end of circulation.
• " two week transition period during which the 2ats was in circulation along with the euro ended on 15
8anuary 2015.
• The transition leaes 2ithuania as the lone Baltic nation still outside the currency bloc.
• "part from 2ithuania, which is e'pected to ,oin 1uro in 201E, the prospect of 1uro $one into the rest of the
bloc of 2> countries is e'tremely remote.
• The transition was not smooth as half the population opposes the third currency switch in ,ust oer two
decades, fearing price hikes and infuriated by the draconian austerity cuts made to get the country into the
club.
AF)'ANISTAN LI0ELY TO -OIN T'E %TO
• 6fficials at the 0inistry of &ommerce and !ndustries of the "fghan Boernment hae announced that
preparations for "fghanistan to ,oin the World Trade 6rgani$ation .WT6/ are in final stage and in ne't three
months, "fghanistan will be a member of WT6.
• !n order to be member of WT6, "fghanistan must need to sign bilateral trade agreements with the 13,
Turkey and Taiwan, out of the eight negotiating members of World Trade 6rgani$ation.
• !f "fghanistan becomes a member of the World Trade 6rgani$ation, the trade, commerce and inestment in
the country is likely to go up in coming years.
• &urrently 1J0 nations of the world are members of the WT6.
• But economic analysts hae maintained that the yield of membership in the WT6 will ultimately come down
to the economic management of the goernment and the (uality improement of "fghan products
E)YPT ISSUE
E)YPT1S NE% CONSTITUTION
• The 1gyptian &onstitution of 2015 was passed in a referendum in 8anuary 2015.The constitution took effect
after the results were announced on 1> 8anuary 2015.
• The proposed new 1gyptian constitution has been backed by D>.1M of people who oted in a referendum.
• The draft constitution replaces one introduced by !slamist President 0ohammed 0orsi before he was ousted.
• 3nder the newly proposed draftA
o The president may sere two four#year terms and can be impeached by parliament.
o !slam remains the state religion # but freedom of belief is absolute, giing some protection to minorities.
o The state guarantees We(uality between men and womenW.
o Parties may not be formed based on Wreligion, race, gender or geographyW.
o 0ilitary to appoint defence minister for ne't eight years.
• The document also guarantees an absolute freedom of e'pression that is sub,ect to broad e'ceptions.
O'$. ORSI TRIALS
• 0ohd. 0orsi, 1gypt:s first freely elected president faces charges of inciting his supporters to kill 10
protesters demonstrating near the presidential palace on )ecember 10, 2012. The trial was scheduled to be
held in <ebruary.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(. www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• But the trial got delayed because despite a heay security presence outside court, a lawyer representing
0orsi was mobbed by anti#0orsi protesters as he arried. The defence lawyers hae staged a walk out since
then.
• "lso, 0orsiUs legal team was angered by the use of a soundproof glass cage installed in the dock to contain
the former leader and his co#defendants. 0r. 0orsi was not able to listen to the court proceedings as a
conse(uence of being kept inside the soundproof chamber.
• Besides, other charges areA
o &onspiring with foreign organisations to commit terrorist acts, with prosecutors accusing 0r. 0orsi
of forming an alliance with the Palestinian militant group *amas and 2ebanonUs *e$bollah
o 0urdering prison officers in a ,ailbreak in 2011 during the uprising against the then#President *osni
0ubarak
o !nsulting the ,udiciary
• Besides, Prosecutors hae also accused deposed president 0ohamed 0orsi of leaking state secrets to !ran:s
+eolutionary Buards as part of a plot to destabilise 1gypt.
POLITICAL $EVELOPENTS
• !nterim President "dly 0ansour has issued a decree on 8anuary 2J stating that presidential elections could
get started as early as mid#<ebruary and no later than "pril 1>, following the approal of the countryUs
newly#amended constitution.
• 0eanwhile 1gyptUs )efence 0inister, <ield 0arshal "bdel <attah el#-isi has said he will run in the
presidential elections. With no obious candidates so far competing in the race, -isi:s chances of becoming
the country:s ne't president are high.!f he wins, he will be the si'th general to rule 1gypt, with 0orsi being
the only ciilian to hae filled the post.
• !n a strange turn of eents, +ussia:s President %ladimir Putin has made a startling interention in 1gypt:s
political turmoil by backing "bdel el#-isi for the presidency, een before an election has een been declared.
The declaration came during the 2\ 2 meeting between +ussia and 1gypt held in 0oscow.
• Ties between +ussia and 1gypt appeared isibly on the upswing, after the 3nited -tates announced that it
was holding back on the deliery of the V1.= billion annual military aid to &airo following 0r. 0orsi e'it. The
talks are also significant as they are being pursued in the backdrop of 0oscow:s deep engagement with the
goernment in -yria, which is in the cross#hairs of the 3.-. and its Bulf allies.
• !n order to run for president, 1l#-isi would need to resign from his position as head of the armed forces, and
the associated role of minister of defence, as police and military personnel are forbidden from running for
office in the 1gyptian law.
ELECTIONS ROUN$ T'E %ORL$
NEPAL
• The Cepali &ongress .C&/ and the &ommunist Party of Cepal .&PC#302/ signed a seen#point agreement
which has paed the way for 0r. Sushil /oirala as the new Prime 0inister. The Cepali &ongress president,
who was the only candidate, secured 50E of EE= 0PsU otes, after the &ommunist Party of Cepal .302/
agreed to back him.
• The new prime minister takes oer from &hief 8ustice 4hilra, +egmi, who has led a caretaker goernment
since 0arch last year.
• "s per the agreement between the two parties, there would be no election for the post of President and
%ice#President for now.
• The goernment is scheduled to prepare the draft of the &onstitution in si' months and promulgate in a
year.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SOUT' AFRICA
• Beneral elections in -outh "frica are set to take place on 7
th
0ay, 2015.The electoral term of the present
goernment will come to an end on 22
nd
"pril, 2015.
• The elections mark the ()
th
anniversary of the end of the white minority r&le in -outh "frica.
• !t is e'pected that the "frican Cational &ongress ."C&/ is likely to easily e'tend its two#decade rule, despite
rising discontent among its poerty#stricken grassroots supporters.
• *oweer, there is growing dissent considering the fact that unemployment in -outh "frica is running at
around 2E percent and growth in "fricaUs biggest economy has slowed sharply to about 2 percent in 201=,
disrupted by the global slowdown and labor unrest.
AF)'ANISTAN
• Presidential elections in "fghanistan are scheduled to be held on E
th
"pril 2015. &urrent president 0r. *amid
4ar$ai will not be able to run for the post due to term limits.
• The elections are also significant as they take in the year when the international security forces are planning
to leae the country by the year end.
• "fter the scrutiny of the nominations, 11 candidates are in contention for the post.
• Presidential candidates in "fghanistan began two months of campaigning starting in <ebruary.
• The Taliban hae re,ected the "pril E election and hae already stepped up attacks to sabotage it. The
militants will also be looking to capitali$e if the ote is marred by rigging and feuding between rials seeking
to replace President *amid 4ar$ai.
• !t is obsered that while "fghanistan has no ma,ority community, ethnic Pashtuns are considered the largest
community and ethnicity will play a big role in deciding the ne't president.
• There are two types of candidatesA technocrats and former warlords. 1ach has weaknesses as well as
strengths. 0n the one hand, technocrats may be far more motiated to improe "fghanistanUs corrupt and
ineffectie goernment, but they may hae a harder time implementing policies because of their weak
power base. 0n the other hand, former warlords hae widespread and comple' networks, giing them far
more capacity to implement policy than technocrats hae.
ITALY
• !talian Prime 0inister 1nrico 2etta has submitted his resignation after his )emocratic Party backed a call for
a new administration. 0r. 0atteo +en$i, who was elected party leader in )ecember, has been nominated as
the new prime minister of the country.
• "t =D, 0r. +en$i will be !taly:s youngest#eer prime minister, a refreshing change from the country:s usual
tired gerontocrats. *e is an energetic and forceful outsider who is not tainted by long association with the
discredited !talian political class.
• +en$i espouses market#friendly policies like reducing public spending and ta'es, cutting red tape and easing
firing restrictions. *e has also said that while pursuing structural reforms !taly should allow its budget deficit
to e'ceed 1uropean 3nion limits. *e is backed by a large part of !talyUs industrial and financial elite, though
he has no e'perience of national goernment.
• *e has moed fast to try to broker a cross#party deal on a reform of electoral rules blamed for !talyUs chronic
political instability.
A$A)ASCAR
• *ery +a,aonarimampianina was declared President of 0adagascar following elections to restore democracy
on the island nation.
• The elections were held on )ecember 20, 201= after four years when 0r. +a,oelina sei$ed power in the 200D
coup. The results were declared on 8anuary 1>, 2015.
• Pro'y candidates ran in the ote, after the two rials were preented from running under international
pressure. *ery +a,aonarimampianina was the former <inance 0inister backed by "ndry +a,oelina.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(8 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The coup brought political instability to the tropical island off 1ast "frica and saw foreign aid slashed and the
economy nosedie.
TUNISIA
• 1lections are scheduled in Tunisia in 2015 and Tunisia:s &onstitutional "ssembly has appointed a new
commission to oersee elections in 2015, paing the way for the resignation of the current !slamist prime
minister.
• The Tunisian assembly is also in final stage of approing a new constitution.
• Tunisia:s !slamist Prime 0inister "li 2arayedh stepped down D
th
8anuary, upholding a pledge aimed at
breaking a political stalemate and paing the way for new elections in the country where the "rab -pring
began.
• Tunisia is approaching the third anniersary of the oerthrow of longtime despotic leader Qine al "bidine ben
"li, an uprising that triggered a series of regional reolts against longtime authoritarian leaders, including
1gypt:s *osni 0ubarak.
• Power has been handed oer to a technocrat administration under caretaker prime minister, 0ehdi
8omaa, that will assume stewardship until new elections later this year.
• The change of goernment was the last piece of a negotiated transition to resole fie months of political
deadlock after the assassination of the leftist politician 0ohamed Brahmi in 8uly.
T. 0ELU$ VOLCANO ERUPTS
• 0ore than 7J,000 people fled their homes and flights were grounded across most of !ndonesiaUs densely
populated island of 8aa after the eruption of the olcano 0t. 4elud. The olcanic eruption sent a huge
plume of ash and sand upto 17 km .10 miles/ into the air.
• 0ount 4elud is one of 1=0 actie olcanoes in !ndonesia which sits along the W+ing of <ireW olcanic belt
around the shores of the Pacific 6cean.
• The olcano last erupted in 1DD0, killing do$ens of people. " powerful eruption in 1D1D killed around E,000
people.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC $ILEA FOR FRANCE
• "fter the <rench interention in the ciil war in the &entral "frican +epublic .&"+/ in )ecember, 201=, <rance
now faces an increasingly difficult predicament. !t entered the war under the 3nited Cations authority.
• <rance now faces seeral constraints, such as local conditions, <rench public reluctance to commit more
troops, and the unwillingness of the 1uropean 3nion and the 3nited -tates to help.
• These conditions are making it more likely that &"+ will collapse into what a 3.C. official has called ethnic#
religious cleansing, een though the country has no history of religious strife. Half of &"+:s 5.J million
people are &hristians, and 1E per cent, or about 700,000, are 0uslims.
• The fighting has taken at least 2,000 lies and displaced about a million people, many of whom are barely
suriing in terrible conditions? >0,000 0uslims hae reportedly fled the north to &had and the east to
&ameroon.
• The concerns are raised that the failure of political will in <rance, the 13, and the 3nited -tates could make
&"+ yet another target for what could well be e'ternally#funded !slamist e'tremists.
Besides, the aid agencies in the &entral "frican +epublic hae another moral dilemma # should they eacuate
endangered 0uslims to safer areas, or encourage them to stay putK !f they get inoled in eacuations, they
risk being accused of complicity with ethnic or religious Wcleansing.W But the alternatie might be letting
ciilians fall ictim to large#scale massacres.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

(! www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ALSO IN NE%S
SAC'IN) RAES' TEN$UL0AR
• *e receied bharata ratna. *e is the first sportsperson and sitting +a,ya -abha 0P to receie the highest
ciilian award.
PROF. C.N.R. RAO
• *e is the third scientist after &.%. +aman and ".P.8. "bdul 4alam to receie the prestigious bharata ratna
award. *is contribution is recogni$ed by most ma,or scientific academics across the world by way of
memberships and fellowships and numerous national and international awards.
SATYA NA$ELLA
• !ndian#born technocrat was appointed as &16 of 0icrosoft. *e is known to be strong in
technology. Preiously, he was e'ecutie ice president of 0icrosoftUs &loud and 1nterprise group.
Copyright © by Vision IAS
All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision
IAS
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
POLIT .................................................................................................................................................. !
Election related news ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Poll expenditure ceiling raised ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
No restriction on opinion polls ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Model code o conduct and social media ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Multi!Agenc" grid to cur# use o #lac$ mone" in elections .......................................................................................................................................... %
&oan deaulters s'ould #e dis(ualiied rom contesting ................................................................................................................................................ %
&aw )ommission on *lectoral +eorms.................................................................................................................................................................................. %
)andidates can ile e!aidavits ................................................................................................................................................................................................... ,
-oreiture o .eposit not a detterent or contesting elections.................................................................................................................................... ,
Paper audit trail s"stems /VVPA01 ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
&ive we#casting o elections ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2
.eence personnel to vote as general voters3 S) ............................................................................................................................................................... 2
Court judgments and rulings .............................................................................................................................................................. 10
Aad'ar no longer mandator" or availing #eneits .........................................................................................................................................................14
Plea on res' interpretation o term 56uvenile7 dismissed ...........................................................................................................................................14
passport details can7t #e disclosed to t'ird Part" ...........................................................................................................................................................11
Politicians indulging in 'ate speec'es ..................................................................................................................................................................................11
Parole not an a#solute rig't .......................................................................................................................................................................................................12
S'a$ti Mills )ase and Speed" 0rials .......................................................................................................................................................................................12
8ne ran$ one pension or +etired 9) :;dges3 S) ............................................................................................................................................................1<
Lokpal appointment put on hold ...................................................................................................................................................... 13
Is promulgation of ordinances acceptable ................................................................................................................................. 13
Challenges after creation of !elangana ........................................................................................................................................ 1"
#ction against $%&s failing to file returns .................................................................................................................................. 15
'edition charges against (ashmiri students withdrawn ...................................................................................................... 15
)udicial *eforms ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 15
+ecommendation o collegium is not su#6ect to 6udicial review ..............................................................................................................................15
9ig' courts to get 25= more 6udges......................................................................................................................................................................................15
+uman *ights Issues .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1,
>or$ing o 9uman rig'ts commissions ...............................................................................................................................................................................1?
Amnest" India as$s part" 'eads on 9uman +ig'ts issues ..........................................................................................................................................1?
Capital -unishment ................................................................................................................................................................................. 1.
Merc" petition #e"ond 6udicial review@ ...............................................................................................................................................................................1%
Amnest" International3 Annual review o deat' penalt" .............................................................................................................................................1%
Ci/il 'er/ices *eforms ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1.
)ooling o period or retired civil servants@ .....................................................................................................................................................................1%
Panel suggests reduced training period or IAS ...............................................................................................................................................................1,
ECONOM .......................................................................................................................................... 1"
Indian Econom0 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
)urrent Account .eicit S'arpl" )ontracted .....................................................................................................................................................................12
A.P Arowt' .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12
Inlation *ases 0o A Nine Mont' &ow ...................................................................................................................................................................................24
-iscal .eicit *xceeds +evised Budget *stimates ............................................................................................................................................................21
-olic0 Initiati/es 20 *eser/e 2ank &f India ................................................................................................................................. 31
.eadline -or *xc'anging Pre 2445 Notes ...........................................................................................................................................................................21
80) .erivative +eorms ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................22
+BI Still 0o Adopt Inlation 0argeting ...................................................................................................................................................................................22
New )lass 8 +egistered -oreign Portolio Investor ......................................................................................................................................................2<
CE*C *e/ised !ariff %uidelines .......................................................................................................................................................... 3"
Canada 2ased 2itcoin 2ank Closes .................................................................................................................................................. 3"
4nited 2ank 5 Issue &f $-# &r Corporate %o/ernance.......................................................................................................... 3"
6irst Corporate 2ond 7efault In China .......................................................................................................................................... 35
%oldman 'achs Launches C-'E8E!6 !raded 6unds ................................................................................................................ 3,
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
$orms !ightened !o -re/ent 9one0 Laundering 8 'E2I ....................................................................................................... 3.
-resident *epromulgates 'E2I &rdinance ................................................................................................................................... 3.
E4 !o 2an Indian 9angoes: ;egetables ........................................................................................................................................ 3.
'*EI !o *oll &ut <hite Label #!9=' .............................................................................................................................................. 3>
%o/ernment 'ets 4p !a? #dmin *eform Commission............................................................................................................. 3>
E-6& !o -ro/ide -ermanent $umber ............................................................................................................................................ 31
India +uman 7e/elopment 'ur/e0 .................................................................................................................................................. 31
!oll !a? ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
SOCIAL ISSUES ................................................................................................................................. #1
#ssistance to 7isabled -ersons 'cheme @#7I-A ......................................................................................................................... 31
<omen Issues ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 31
Aender Scorecard ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................<1
Successes o government policies ...........................................................................................................................................................................................<1
Ma6or )'allenges .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................<2
'ocial inclusion ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Aap #etween Muslims and rest o population closing .own .....................................................................................................................................<2
An inclusive growt' polic" .........................................................................................................................................................................................................<<
S) directions on Manual scavenging act ..............................................................................................................................................................................<<
9uman .evelopment Indices improving in BIMA+; states .......................................................................................................................................<<
<ork da0s for tribals under 9%$*E%# Increased ................................................................................................................... 3"
9*A&09 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... <5
9aulana #Bad sehat scheme .............................................................................................................................................................. 35
2an on #nalgin re/oked ........................................................................................................................................................................ 35
India officiall0 declared polio free ................................................................................................................................................... 35
)'allenge o In6ecta#le Polio Vaccine /IPV1 ........................................................................................................................................................................<?
India #egins mandator" 8PV or travelers .........................................................................................................................................................................<?
!he growing menace of !2 in India ................................................................................................................................................ 3.
-utting a curb on sale of o/er the counter antibiotics ........................................................................................................... 3>
Cero #I7' discrimination da0 launched ........................................................................................................................................ 3>
4 D 9e against dengue .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31
#ll part0 manifesto on heatlh ............................................................................................................................................................. 31
ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................... 41
India *hino /ision 3030 and trimming of horn ......................................................................................................................... "1
<+& on #ir pollution ............................................................................................................................................................................. "3
9ow do Indian cities air on 8utdoor pollution@ .............................................................................................................................................................C2
.el'i 'as t'e >orst Air Dualit" across India .....................................................................................................................................................................C2
+oad 0o ;r#an -uture ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................C<
%9 food crop field trials reappro/ed .............................................................................................................................................. "3
I-CC report on climate change .......................................................................................................................................................... "5
*833 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ "5
+C on +armful effects of pesticides ................................................................................................................................................. "5
7issection of animals in uni/ersit0 labs banned........................................................................................................................ ",
+imala0an park nominated for heritage status ........................................................................................................................ ",
!iger reser/es on high alert against C7 disease ........................................................................................................................ ",
%ibbons translocated to arunachal=s mehao centur0 ............................................................................................................. ",
-0gm0 +og in 9anas $ational -ark ............................................................................................................................................... ",
IN$IA AN$ %ORL$ ........................................................................................................................ 4&
India 5 'ri Lanka ...................................................................................................................................................................................... ".
Sri &an$a 9uman +ig'ts Violation Issues ............................................................................................................................................................................C%
8pinion on India7s a#stention on 'uman rig'ts vote on Sri &an$a .........................................................................................................................C,
India 5 China .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ">
Increasing Maritime rivalr" in t'e Indian 8cean .............................................................................................................................................................C2
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
India 5 4'# .................................................................................................................................................................................................. "1
India 5 #ustralia ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
India 5 2hutan ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
India 5 Israel .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
India8 2I9'!EC ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
%ORL$ AFFAIRS ............................................................................................................................ !#
4kraine Crisis ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
>'" is )rimea so important or +ussia@ ..............................................................................................................................................................................5<
Impact o t'e ;$raine crisis on IN.IA and t'e world ...................................................................................................................................................5C
301" $uclear 'ecurit0 'ummit .......................................................................................................................................................... 5"
3nd *ound of Iran $uclear !alks ..................................................................................................................................................... 55
9ala0sia=s 9+3.0 went missing ....................................................................................................................................................... 55
M9<%43 India7s >a$e ;p )all ....................................................................................................................................................................................................55
E/ents in 4'# ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5,
;SA to cede some control over internet ..............................................................................................................................................................................5?
8#ama unveils NSA reorm plan ..............................................................................................................................................................................................5?
E/ents in Eg0pt .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5.
'e0chelles: 9auritius to join Indian &cean 9aritime 'ecurit0 %roup ............................................................................. 5.
!urkish ban on social networking sites ......................................................................................................................................... 5.
$igeria=s northern challenge .............................................................................................................................................................. 5>
Elections round the world .................................................................................................................................................................... 5>
Nort' Eorea .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5,
Maldives ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................52
SCIENCE ' TECH ............................................................................................................................. (0
Infrasound ................................................................................................................................................................................................... ,0
#7'L 9odem 5 C0ber 'ecurit0 Issue ............................................................................................................................................... ,1
#erosols ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ ,3
%eo8'0nchronous 'atellite Launce ;ehicle 5 9#*( III .......................................................................................................... ,3
'cientific 6raud ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ,3
<eb 2ased %is !ool !o %auge 'olar -otential ........................................................................................................................... ,3
4.'. !o Cede Internet &/ersight ......................................................................................................................................................... ,"
IC#$$ 'uspends Closed %eneric !op Le/el 7omain 2ids ...................................................................................................... ,5
Led Cing 2ails ............................................................................................................................................................................................. ,,
'pace 7ebris #nd *elated #spects 5 Cooperati/e *esearch Centre .................................................................................. ,,
<hipple 'hield........................................................................................................................................................................................... ,.
7endroid....................................................................................................................................................................................................... ,.
India82ased $eutrino &bser/ator0 @I$&A ..................................................................................................................................... ,.
>as .ar$ Matter 8#served In Eolar Aold -ields @ ..........................................................................................................................................................?2
Intergrowth831st -roject ..................................................................................................................................................................... ,1
9ono *ail E 9umbai ............................................................................................................................................................................ .0
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
POLIT
ELECTION RELATE$ NE%S
POLL E)PEN$ITURE CEILIN* RAISE$
• The Union Cabinet agreed to the Election Commission’s suggestion that the ceiling on poll expenditure be
raised.
• The government amended Rule 90 of the Conduct of Election Rules, 9!, increasing the ceiling for "o# $abha
poll to Rs.%0 la#h per candidate from the existing Rs.&0 la#h, and for the 'ssembl( poll to Rs.)* la#h from
Rs.! la#h.
• This increase is applicable onl( in the bigger $tates.
• +or 'ssembl( elections, the ne, ceiling in 'runachal -radesh, .oa, /anipur, /eghala(a, /i0oram, 1agaland,
$i##im, Tripura and -uducherr( is Rs.)0 la#h.
ANALSIS
This hi#e has come in as a relief to man( candidates contesting the )0& general elections. 2ncrease in the
number of electors and polling stations, and increase in the cost inflation index ,ere some of the reasons cited
for hi#ing the expenditure ceiling. .iven such rampant inflation this reform ,as necessar( but greater reforms
are needed in ensuring the transparenc( in funding of political parties in the countr(.
NO RESTRICTION ON OPINION POLLS
• 3arring the limited period of &* hours before end of polling in each phase, EC announced that there ,ould be
no ban on opinion polls
• EC clarified that it has no po,ers to ban opinion polls, and that it ,as for the government to act on its long4
standing proposal to disallo, dissemination of poll surve(s from the date of notification of the election
BAC+*ROUN$
• 's per existing norms, there are restrictions on broadcasting of opinion poll results during &* hours prior to
the end of polling.
• EC had recentl( made a fresh appeal to the government to ban opinion polls after a ne,s channel claimed
that nearl( opinion poll companies, secretl( approached b( it during a sting operation, ,ere ,illing to
t,ea# their poll pro5ections, purportedl( for a fee. The EC ,rote to the la, ministr( noting ho, its stand
that opinion polls could be misused had been vindicated and sought an immediate ban on opinion polls
during elections.
• Unli#e opinion polls, exit polls ,ill be banned until half an hour after the end of last phase of polling. This
means that results of exit polls cannot be publici0ed in both print and electronic media until 6.70 pm on
/a( ).
• 'n election exit poll is a poll of voters ta#en immediatel( after the( have exited the polling stations. Unli#e
an opinion poll, ,hich as#s ,hom the voter plans to vote for or some similar formulation, an exit poll as#s
,hom the voter actuall( voted for.
MO$EL CO$E OF CON$UCT AN$ SOCIAL ME$IA
• The Election Commission has directed content managers of social net,or#ing sites 8t,itter, faceboo# etc.9 to
ensure that the content displa(ed b( parties:individuals is not unla,ful or malicious or violative of the model
code of conduct
• The EC has issued detailed guidelines for political advertisements that include obtaining certification for
contents before putting them in the public domain. The( 8social net,or#ing sites9 have to ta#e pre4
certification from /edia Certification and /onitoring Committees at the district and $tate level.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2t has also issued guidelines ,ith respect to the phenomena of paid ne,s. The net,or#ing sites have been
as#ed to maintain expenditure incurred b( political parties and individual candidates.
• 'll legal provisions for the electronic media on the paid ne,s and political advertisements ,ill appl( to the
campaigns on the social media as ,ell.

ANALYSIS

• ;ith the ever gro,ing phenomena of $ocial /edia it became ver( important to frame guidelines for social
net,or#ing sites. <itherto, /edia Certification and /onitoring Committee 8/C/C9 trac#ed the print and
the electronic media, but trac#ing the social media ,as ver( complex 5ob, and outside its ambit. The ne,
rules put the onus on the social media net,or#ing sites on posting of uncertified advertisements. This step
,ould ensure effective implementation of the /CC even in the fast moving technolog( era.
• 3ut critics doubt extent of EC’s 5urisdiction over the entire 2nternet, much of ,hich doesn’t even come
under 2ndian 5urisdiction. $ocial net,or#s are platforms, and millions of messages are posted on them ever(
da(. To do active scrutin( of user generated content is not 5ust practicall( impossible, but also has issues
regarding freedom of expression. 's per the critics of these ne, rules, the problem for the EC is that it
vie,s the Internet as a media publication, and not a means of communication but as per them it is both.
BAC+*ROUN$
• The model code of conduct 8/CC9, is a set of legall( binding dos and don’ts to the Union:$tate
governments, political parties and candidates, ,hich is operational ,ith immediate effect ,ith the
announcement of general election schedule b( the Election Commission.
• This is in #eeping ,ith 'rticle 7)& of the Constitution, ,hich gives the Election Commission the po,er to
supervise elections to the -arliament and state legislature.
• 2t ,as in 99 that the Election Commission under T.1. $eshan first codified the /CC on the basis of an
agreement ,ith political parties.
• /CC is NO legall( binding and several =uarters have advocated for ma#ing it legall( enforceable.
• Election Commission on the other hand has argued against ma#ing the /CC legall( binding> stating that
elections must be completed ,ithin a relativel( short time 8close to &6 da(s9, and 5udicial proceedings
t(picall( ta#e longer, therefore it is not feasible to ma#e it enforceable b( la,.
RESTRICTIONS POSE$ B THE MCC
The /CC ensures that the /inisters shall not combine their official visit ,ith electioneering ,or# and shall not
ma#e use of the official machiner( during the electioneering ,or#> issue advertisements at the cost of the public
exche=uer for partisan coverage of political ne,s to further the prospects of the part( in po,er> announce an(
financial grants in an( form> ma#e an( promise of construction of roads, provision of drin#ing ,ater facilities>
there shall be a total ban on the transfer of all officers:officials connected ,ith the conduct of the election.
<o,ever, the Election Commission’s decision to implement it from the date of announcement of the poll
schedule has been a matter of contention.
VIE%S A*AINST MO$EL CO$E OF CON$UCT
• -olitical parties have been arguing that the /CC should come into force onl( from the date of notification,
particularl( if a multiphase election tends to be long. +or instance, in the general elections )0&, the gap
bet,een the date of announcement and notification for the first phase is nine da(s. The gap stretches to &7
da(s in the case of the last phase.
• ?ue to enforcement of model code of conduct during elections, besides contestants, common man have to
face a lot of problems. 'fter the Election Commission imposes the /odel Code of Conduct, no ne, pro5ects
can be announced as it might be done to ,oo voters, a lot of development ,or# remain pending besides
other restrictions.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
VIE%S IN FAVOR OF MO$EL CO$E OF CON$UCT
• Election Commission has time and again re4iterated that the model code is an instrument to ensure that the
level4pla(ing field is not disturbed during the course of elections.
• EC claims that its main aim is to ensure that the ruling part(, either at the Centre or in the states, does not
misuse its official position to gain an unfair advantage in an election.
MULTI,A*ENC *RI$ TO CURB USE OF BLAC+ MONE IN ELECTIONS
• 2n order to curb the use of blac# mone( in elections, the Election Commission of 2ndia has created a multi4
agenc( grid of revenue and securit( intelligence agencies to regularl( update it about suspected financial
movements
• ' board of senior officials dra,n from ten financial and securit( intelligence departments such as 2ncome Tax
intelligence and investigations, +inancial 2ntelligence Unit 8+2U9, ?irectorate of Revenue 2ntelligence, Central
Economic 2ntelligence 3ureau, 1arcotics Control 3ureau, 3$+, C2$+ etc ,ould meet t,ice a ,ee# at the EC
head=uarters to share information.
• EC has also as#ed these agencies to compile their respective information in a standard format so that the poll
panel is updated about the use of illegal mone( and other inducements in the polls.
• ' comprehensive report prepared after these meetings ,ould be shared ,ith the respective Chief Electoral
@ffices of various states and Union Territories.
• 'part from above , the intelligence ,ings of the 3order $ecurit( +orce ,ill #eep an e(e on movement of cash,
fa#e currenc( and drugs from across the -a#istan and 3angladesh borders ,hile the same ,ould be done b(
the $ashastra $eema 3al 8$$39 along the 1epal and 3hutan borders
LOAN $EFAULTERS SHOUL$ BE $IS-UALIFIE$ FROM CONTESTIN*
• The 'll 2ndia 3an# Emplo(ees’ 'ssociation has sought the immediate intervention of Chief Election
Commissioner to dis=ualif( top loan defaulters from entering the elections
• The top 60 defaulters o,ed the ban#s more than Rs. &0,000 crore. 'mong them ,ere a sitting /-, a Union
/inister and t,o -adma $hri a,ardees, ,ho together needed to repa( over Rs.%,*00 crore.
• The ban#s have been demanding that ,illful default be declared a criminal offence for a long time.
LA% COMMISSION ON ELECTORAL REFORMS
• "a, Commission 8headed b( Austice '.- $hah9 has recommended dis=ualification of politicians from
contesting elections once charges are framed against them in the court.
• 2t has also suggested an enhanced sentence of t,o (ears under the Representation of the -eople 'ct, 96,
for filing of false affidavits b( politicians and dis=ualification on such conviction.
• 2t has also recommended for an expedited trial through da(4to4da( hearing and conclusion ,ithin a (ear for
charges framed against sitting /-s and /"'s. The Supreme Court has acted on this matter and directed the
lower courts to complete the trial within a year of framing charges. Also the Trial courts would be liable to
give explanation to the High Courts if the trial was not completed within a year. But this period can be
extended if the reason given by trial court is accepted by the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court.
• 2t has suggested that a gap of one ,ee# be introduced bet,een the last date for filing of nomination papers
and the date of scrutin(, to give ade=uate time for filing of ob5ections.

ANALYSIS

• ?is=ualification on conviction has proved to be incapable of curbing the gro,ing criminalisation of politics
because of long dela(s in trials and rare convictions
• 'gainst the existing legal provision of dis=ualification upon conviction in a criminal case, the dis=ualification
at the stage of charging, if accompanied b( substantial attendant legal safeguards to prevent misuse, has a
significant potential for curbing the spread of criminalisation of politics.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ?is=ualification should ta#e place at framing of charges, as at such time the case has undergone ade=uate
levels of 5udicial scrutin(
• Even though merel( filing of the police report ,ould not be appropriate stage to introduce dis=ualification
because of lac# of sufficient application of 5udicial mind at this point.
• !undamental "ightB Right to speed( trial is fundamental right under article ) of constitution ,hen seen
from the perspective of the under trials languishing in 5ails.
• Not time boundB Criminal -rocedure Code does not prescribe a time limit for ,inding up the trial but $ection
709 ma#es it clear that once examination of ,itness begins it shall proceed on a da(4to4da( basis until all
,itnesses are examined. This has not been follo,ed ho,ever
CAN$I$ATES CAN FILE E,AFFI$AVITS
• +or the first time in the electoral histor( of the nation, candidates ,ould have an option of e4filing of
affidavits in the polls
• 'ccording to procedures notified b( the EC, after filing the affidavit online, a candidate has to provide the
Returning @fficer an attested hard cop(.

#hat are Affida$its%
The mandator( affidavits 8+orm )!9 to be submitted at time of filing of nomination papers includes information
on the candidateCs details of assets 8including movable and immovable properties9, properties and accounts
name in a foreign land, liabilities of the candidate, name of the spouse and dependents, educational
=ualifications criminal antecedents, if an(.
FORFEITURE OF $EPOSIT NOT A $ETTERENT FOR CONTESTIN* ELECTIONS
• 's per the Election Commission of 2ndia Rules, if the candidate fails to get a minimum of one4sixth of the total
valid votes polled, the deposit goes to the treasur(.
• 2n +irst "o# $abha Elections in 9646), almost &0D candidates forfeited their deposits. $ince then, almost all
"o# $abha Elections ,itnessed north,ard trend of lost deposits.
• Even in )009 around *6D of candidates lost their deposits, this clearl( sho,s that forfeiture of deposits does
not act as a deterrent for contesting elections.
• 2n contrast candidates from national parties seem to have done ,ell on this front. 2n first .eneral Elections in
9646), )*D candidates lost their deposits. 2n 9%% onl( 9D candidates lost their deposits.
• Eet, this trend too has sho,n a decline ,ith around &*D candidates losing their deposits in )009 general
elections.

ANALYSIS

• Critics argue that the deposit amount itself is not large enough to dissuade the Fnon4serious’ candidates from
contesting the elections.
• 's per the EC2 rules, all candidates except those from $cheduled Castes 8$Cs9 and $cheduled Tribes 8$Ts9 ,ill
have to deposit Rs )6,000 ,hile filing nominations. The deposit for $C:$T is Rs ),600.
• -erhaps, a reason ,h( 99! sa, the largest number of candidates can be attributed to the securit( deposit of
a meagre 600 rupees.
• $everal reasons can be cited for such huge number of non4serious candidatesB
o a9 2n earlier da(s getting an out of turn telephone connection ,as ,hat prompted man( to file
nomination to contest elections. Even toda( a good proportion of candidates ma( be loo#ing for
,hatever pri$ileges the( ma( get as contestants.
o b9 /an( a times these people are also set up b( a part( candidate 5ust to cut into his opponent&s
$ote ban'.
o c9 2n some cases people ,ith names similar to the main candidates are also fielded convenientl(
as dummy candidates to confuse the voters
• 's has been noticed the ma5or problem of losing election deposit is ,ith the independent candidates, there
have been se$eral suggestions regarding the same.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2n )00, a Union la, ministr( panel on electoral reforms recommended that the security deposit be doubled
progressivel( at ever( attempt for those 2ndependent candidates ,ho fail to ,in and still #eep contesting
ever( election.
• The panel also recommended if an( 2ndependent candidate fails to get at least 6 percent of the total number
of votes cast in his:her constituenc(, he:she should not be allo,ed to contest as an independent candidate
for the same office again at least for six (ears.
• 2t also recommended that an( 2ndependent candidate ,ho loses an election to the same office thrice
successivel( should be permanently debarred from that office.
• /oreover, the panel suggested that an 2ndependent candidate should be nominated by at least () elected
members of panchayats, municipalities or other local bodies spread out in a ma5orit( of the electoral districts
in his constituenc(.
PAPER AU$IT TRAIL SSTEMS .VVPAT/
• -aper trail s(stem ,as experimented ,ith in t,o assembl( constituencies in 1agaland and /i0oram. 2nduced
b( experimentation, EC2 has ordered for the suppl( of )0,000 such machines.

#*A IS VV+A%
GG-'T stands for Fvoter verifiable paper audit trail’ 8GG-'T9 s(stems. Under this s(stem, ,hen a voter presses a
button on the electronic voting machine to select the candidate he ,ants to vote for, a slip of paper bearing the
name and s(mbol of the part( ,ill briefl( appear for about 0 seconds, after ,hich it ,ill fall into a secure box,
thus maintaining a paper trail of all the votes cast. ' GG-'T allo,s voters the possibilit( to verif( that their votes
are cast as intended and can serve as an additional barrier to changing or destro(ing votes.
LIVE %EBCASTIN* OF ELECTIONS
• EC has as#ed all Chief Electoral @fficers 8CE@s9 to ma#e arrangements for live ,ebcasting of polling in as
man( polling stations as possible.
• The purpose behind ,ebcasting is to allo, the citi0ens to detect violations of rules and alert the authorities
• It should also be publici0ed that if an( person notices an( violation of rules and procedures on the ,ebcast,
he:she can ma#e a complaint to the Returning @fficer:@bserver
• EC has instructed its officers across 2ndia to use facilities including EouTube and Eou $tream for free real4time
telecast of all the nine phases of elections
• ' lin# ,ill also be available on respective CE@s’ ,ebsites to vie, voting live.
• The commission has ,arned that cameras for ,ebcasting, video recording and still photograph( must be so
placed that secrec( of voting is not violated in an( manner.
$EFENCE PERSONNEL TO VOTE AS *ENERAL VOTERS0 SC
• $upreme Court directed the Election Commission to allo, those serving in peace areas to exercise their
franchise in the "o# $abha elections. Election Commission had made a statement that those service personnel
,ho have not made declaration till no, to cast vote through postal ballot Hma( register themselves as
C.eneral GotersC in respect of constituencies ,here election process has not (et commencedH.
• The court =uestioned the move of EC to allo, these personnel to onl( vote through postal ballot ,hich in
essence ta#es a,a( their right to vote.
BAC+*ROUN$
?efence personnel can vote in their native home Constituenc( as per t,o methods. +irst, the( can use postal
ballot to exercise their vote. 3ut there is a need to streamline the s(stem of postal ballot as servicemen have
often complained that the( fail to get the ballot on time, den(ing them the opportunit( to exercise their right.
$econdl(, the( can invo#e the provision of -rox( voting 8nominating another person to vote on their behalf, after
filling a form9. 'dditionall(, the( can vote in constituenc( of their posting onl( if the( have been posted there for
more than 7 (ears.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

14 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ANALYSIS

The government contends that there are areas in Aammu and Iashmir and in the 1orth4East ,here defence
personnel outnumber the local population. 'llo,ing them to cast votes in the constituenc( of their posting
,ould change the entire demograph( of the constituenc( and give the soldiers a deciding vote over the locals. 2t
could also result in giving out details of their deplo(ment. 3ut given the fact that if the EC desires 00 D polling,
it should not support an( activit( that deprives a person his right to vote. 'lso, as per experts it is not onl( the
armed forces personnel but also their families ,ho are posted outside their hometo,ns and are currentl(
unable to cast their votes, thereb( being deprived of their right to participate in the election process of the
countr(.
COURT 1U$*MENTS AN$ RULIN*S
AA$HAR NO LON*ER MAN$ATOR FOR AVAILIN* BENEFITS
• The $upreme Court directed the Centre to immediatel( ,ithdra, all notifications ma#ing 'adhaar cards
mandator( for availing benefits under social securit( schemes
• The court also restrained the U2?'2 from sharing biometric or an( other data of the 'adhaar card holder ,ith
an( agenc( ,ithout the express consent of the card holder.
• 2t directed that no citi0en should be denied an( benefits simpl( because he:she doesn’t possess an 'adhaar
Card.
ANALSIS
?espite the earlier orders directing the Centre not to insist on 'adhaar cards, several complaints ,ere received
that the authorities ,ere insisting on 'adhaar cards for providing benefits. The right to privac( is one of the basic
human right of an individual and the U2?'2 should not violate this right of the citi0ens, sharing the biometric
information ,ith an( investigating agencies ,ould endanger the fundamental rights of the citi0ens.
FLIPSI$E OF AA$HAR
@ne of the features of the U2?, ,as that benefits of government schemes ,ould be lin#ed to its )4digit number,
ma#ing it easier for people to open and access ban# accounts, secure loans and get pa(ments of the ,or#
through /.1RE.'. 3ut ac=uiring loans has been easier said than done for the people living on margins of
societ(. @nl( those ,ith land are given loans and /1RE.' pa(ments through the 'adhar card are barel(
important for villagers, as the( ,or# as labourers in farms all (ear around.
PLEA ON FRESH INTERPRETATION OF TERM 21UVENILE3 $ISMISSE$
• $upreme Court dismissed pleas see#ing fresh interpretation of the term F5uvenile’ mentioned in the la, and
leaving it to the criminal court, instead of Auvenile Austice 3oard, to determine the 5uvenilit( of an offender in
heinous crimes
• 's per the court the age limit of * (ears fixed for not tr(ing a person in criminal court is a valid parameter
based on research ,orld,ide.
BAC+*ROUN$
• -arents of the ?ecember ! gangrape victim, challenged the constitutional validit( of the Auvenile Austice
8Care and -rotection of Children9 'ct )000and see# to void the AA' to the extent it puts a blan#et ban on the
po,er of the criminal courts to tr( a 5uvenile offender for offences committed under 2-C
• Gictim’s parents had pleaded for sending the 5uvenile convict in the brutal gangrape and murder case to face
trial in regular court.
• The 'ct provided for a Jstrait5ac#etK interpretation of the term F5uvenile’ that a person belo, the age of *
(ears ,as a minor and it ,as in violation of the United 1ations Convention for the Rights of the Child
8U1CRC9 and 3ei5ing Rules on the issue.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The U1CRC and 3ei5ing Rules sa( the presumption of Jthe age of criminal responsibilit(K be fixed ,hile
Jbearing in mind the mental and intellectual maturit(K of the offender.
PASSPORT $ETAILS CAN3T BE $ISCLOSE$ TO THIR$ PART
• The ?elhi <igh Court has held that -assport information, 5ust li#e the -ermanent 'ccount 1umber of an
individual, is personal information and cannot be disclosed to a third part( under the Right to 2nformation
8RT29 'ct.
• 2t held that if the passport number of a third part( is furnished to an applicant, it can be misused. +or
instance, if the applicant ,ere to lodge a report ,ith the police that a passport bearing a particular number is
lost, the -assport 'uthorit( ,ould automaticall( revo#e the same ,ithout #no,ledge of the person involved.
BAC+*ROUN$
• <igh Court has overturned the order of the Central 2nformation Commission 8C2C9 directing the /E' to
provide copies of passports of third parties along ,ith their birth certificates, educational =ualifications and
identit( proofs to certain applicants under the RT2 'ct.
• The C2C had held that the information is not personal and that citi0en’s right to information is to be given
primac( over their right to privac(.
• The C2C noted that Jgiven our dismal record of mis4governance and rampant corruption ,hich colludes to
den( citi0ens their essential rights and dignit(, it is in the fitness of things that the citi0en’s right to
information is given greater primac( ,ith regard to privac(K.
• The Court, ho,ever, held that the C2C neither examined the issue of larger public interest nor considered
$ection of the RT2 'ct, ,hich mandates that vie,s of third part( ,hose information has been sought
needs to be invited and considered in such cases before deciding ,hether to disclose the information or
not.
POLITICIANS IN$UL*IN* IN HATE SPEECHES
• The apex court has directed the la, enforcement agencies to boo# the leaders those ,ho give inciteful
speeches based on religion, caste or ethnicit(.
• $upreme Court has also directed the "a, commission to loo# into legal possibilit( of derecogni0ing a political
part( if its members indulge in hate speeches. The la, commission has been as#ed to ma#e
recommendations in this regards to the parliament for suitable amendments to la,.
• The court as#ed the "a, commission to define as to ,hat should constitute a Jhate speechK
• The court refused to 5ump the gun and frame the guidelines in the matter citing the legislature as the
competent authorit( on the matter.
ANALSIS
• The Constitution places reasonable restrictions on free speech, and sections of the penal code and the Cr-C
forbid ,ords, ,ritten or spo#en, that promote ill4,ill bet,een religious, racial, linguistic, regional, caste
groups or communities, there is no specific detail in an( statute on ,hat #ind of speech crosses the line. This
attempt to bound the limits of hate speech is significant.
• $peech can have violent, tragic effects, and hate speech legislation exists in most free societies, including the
UI, Canada, .erman(, ?enmar# and 'ustralia
• .iven ho, diverse and une=ual 2ndia is, la,s that prohibit abuse of vulnerable groups are necessar( L but
the problem is that these la,s are used to suppress an( un,elcome opinion, criticism, even scholarship and
humour at times
• 2t is not that there is lac# of la,s regarding the matter but the root of the problem is that there exists a lac# of
effective implementation. 2n such a case both the civil societ( and the executive have to ensure the
implementation of the existing legislative regime.
• The $upreme Court has ta#en the right step b( refusing to frame the guidelines and b( sho,ing re=uired
amount of 5udicial restraint and respecting the separation of po,ers.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

12 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
PAROLE NOT AN ABSOLUTE RI*HT
• ' bench of 3omba( <igh Court has re5ected the petition that see#ed to challenge that rule that restricts a
person for appl(ing for parole ,ithin a (ear of having previousl( availed a parole period.
• 's per the court, these restrictions ,ere neither unreasonable nor un5ustified. The right to be released on
parole is not an absolute right and these restrictions do not entirel( ta#e a,a( the entitlement of a prisoner
to be released on parole.
• 'ccording to the previous rules, a prisoner ,ould have been allo,ed to appl( for parole t,ice a (ear. Ever(
time, he could be granted 90 da(s 870 da(s at a time, and t,o extensions thereafter, based on merit9. This
means that ever( (ear, he could remain out of prison for a staggering *0 da(s. 3ut no,, according to the
amendment ,hich has been upheld b( the court, he ,ill be able to appl( for parole onl( once a (ear
• The 3omba( <igh Court, observed that the rampant misuse of the previous provisions led the government to
amend the rules.
BAC+*ROUN$
The issue around misuse of -arole came into focus after $an5a( ?utt ,as granted parole leave thrice in the same
(ear. 'ccording to prison rules of different states parole conditions have been clearl( defined but the( are often
manipulated b( politicians and other po,erful personalities to get leave from prison. /aharashtra .overnment
introduced amendments against these provisions in )0).
SHA+TI MILLS CASE AN$ SPEE$ TRIALS
• The verdict in $ha#ti /ills case, sentencing four convicts to life terms for the gang rape of a telephone
operator in the abandoned mill compound eight months ago, should be praised for meting out speed( 5ustice
as ,ell as for imposing the maximum punishment available in la, under the recentl( amended and
strengthened penal provisions.
• $ha#ti /ills case presented an opportunit( to to the 5udiciar( to ma#e use of the provision for enhanced
punishment provided through amendments in the penal provisions relating to sexual violence after the
1irbha(a case.
• The 5udge has sentenced the four convicts under $ection 7%!?, ,hich deals ,ith gang rape, to the maximum
punishment of imprisonment for the remainder of their natural life.
• The prosecutor has demanded capital punishment in the second incident involving the photo45ournalist. <e
invo#ed $ection 7%!E, ,hich provides for the death penalt( for repeat offenders for the crime of rape.
$ection 7%!E ,as added to the statute boo#s through Criminal "a, 'mendment 'ct )07.
BAC+*ROUN$
There ,as much shoc# and anger ,hen a photo45ournalist ,as sexuall( assaulted b( a group of (oungsters,
including a 5uvenile, on 'ugust )) last (ear. The fact that she ,ent to the police immediatel( encouraged
another ,oman, a telephone operator, to come for,ard and disclose that she too had been gang4raped some
,ee#s earlier at the same spot.
ANALSIS
• There is a fair degree of certaint( no, that timel( complaints and disclosures ,ould help the police to
underta#e a proper investigation, ,hile public opinion and activism #eep the issue alive so that the case is not
derailed at the trial stage.
• 's the $ha#ti /ills trials demonstrate, the ,a( for,ard is in fostering trust in the s(stem of criminal
administration b( efficient investigation and speed( trials.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ONE RAN+ ONE PENSION FOR RETIRE$ HC 1U$*ES0 SC
• The court ordered that irrespective of the source from ,here the Audges are dra,n 8from among district
5udges or from among la,(ers9, the( must be paid the same pension 5ust as the( have been paid same
salaries and allo,ances and per#s as serving Audges.
• 's per the court differential salaries:pensions for Audges dra,n from different sources is highl(
discriminator( and breach of 'rticle & of the Constitution
ANALSIS
• Currentl( 5udges from subordinate 5udiciar( ,ith lesser (ears of ,or# get more salar( ,hen compared to
5udges dra,n from the bar ,ith more (ears behind them.
• ;hen persons ,ho occupied the Constitutional @ffice of <igh Court Audge retire, there should not be an(
discrimination ,ith regard to the fixation of their pension.
• $uch an exercise dissuades capable and proficient la,(ers from 5oining the 5udiciar(. When pensions are
meager because of the shorter service, la,(ers ,ho attain distinction in the profession ma( not, because of
this anomal(, accept the office of Audgeship. ;hen capable la,(ers do not sho, inclination to,ards
Audgeship, the =ualit( of 5ustice declines.
LO+PAL APPOINTMENT PUT ON HOL$
• The Union government has put on hold its move to appoint the first "o#pal, follo,ing allegations of a fla,ed
selection procedure.
• 2t has also been reported that the rules framed under the "o#pal 'ct ,ould be amended appropriatel( to
ensure that the selection ,as fair and there ,as no criticism from an( =uarter.
BAC+*ROUN$
• 2n a ,rit petition, an 1.@, had challenged in the $upreme Court the "o#pal selection procedure.
• The rules framed b( the government ,ith regard to the "o#pal selection process re=uires a search panel of
eight ,hich ,ill shortlist candidates ,ho ,ill be considered b( the selection panel headed b( the -rime
/inister.
• The search committee shall prepare a panel of persons to be considered b( the selection committee for
appointment of the Chairperson and /embers of the "o#pal, from amongst the list of persons provided b(
the Central .overnment, as per experts this directl( runs counter to the ver( ob5ect of having an independent
"o#pal and the provisions of the said 'ct.
• The ob5ective of the ?epartment of -ersonnel and Training 8?o-T9 ,as perhaps to lighten the load of the
selection committee. This ,as unexceptionable, but onl( to an extent.
• Austice I.T. Thomas and senior advocate +ali 1ariman opted out of the search committee, finding fault ,ith
the selection process. @ne of the reasons could have been clerical nature of ,or# involved.
IS PROMUL*ATION OF OR$INANCES ACCEPTABLE4
BAC+*ROUN$
@ver its five (ear term, the 6th "o# $abha ,as disrupted fre=uentl( and ,itnessed a decline in time spent on
legislation and oversight of the government. The 6th "o# $abha passed %9 3ills of the 7)* to be considered
and passed during its five (ear tenure. This is the least number of 3ills passed b( a full five (ear term "o# $abha.
2n such a case there have been rising demands from all =uarters for promulgation of ordinances on legislations
that have generated desired consensus outside the parliament.
VIE%S IN FAVOUR OF PROMUL*ATION OF OR$INANCES
• @ne of the ma5or reasons for using the ordinance provision ,ith caution is to ma#e sure the government does
not use it to impose a la, that -arliament ma( have disapproved of. The ordinance as a short route has
therefore often been criticised, for b(passing -arliament. 2n this case it does not. @n the contrar(, it ta#es
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
alread( deliberated and examined 3ills on ,hich a consensus has been reached, but is marred b( -arliament’s
failure to legislate.
• The amount of loss in terms of effort, mone( and time is huge in case of legislations ,ith consensus getting
scrapped. 2f such legislations ,ould have been passed the( ,ould have benefitted the entire societ( and
saved on some precious resources too.
• The provision of Article ,(- of the Constitution states that ordinances can be passed ,hen -arliament is not
in session and Jcircumstances exist ,hich render it necessar( for him 8the -resident9 to ta#e immediate
actionK. .iven the fact that parliament has been almost non4functional in last fe, (ears, it ,ould not be
,rong for the -resident to use these provisions to bring in la,s on ,hich there ,as a clear consensus. ;ith
the last session of the 6th "o# $abha having ended, a total of !* 3ills ,ill lapse. These include some of most
important legislations li#e ;omen’s Reservation 3ill, ?irect Taxes Code, /icro +inance 3ill, Audicial $tandards
and 'ccountabilit( 3ill and the 3ill enabling the introduction of .oods and $ervices Tax.
• he case of .rie$ance "edressal /ill0 ;ithin the -arliament and outside, the .rievance Redressal la, had the
greatest support. 2t ,ent through ever( process of consultation including full discussion in the $tanding
Committee. 'll of -arliament included this as a part of the sense of the house resolution L a solemn
assurance from -arliament that along ,ith the "o#pal, a .rievance Redressal 3ill ,ould be passed ,ith
urgenc(. /embers across parties called upon the government to pass the .rievance Redressal la, ,ithout
,hich the( pointed out that the passage of the "o#pal ,ould be incomplete. 1ot passing these consensus
3ills amounts to a betra(al of the people.
• 'rticle )7 must be seen as a recourse open to people 5ust as much as it is open to the government of the
da(. Therefore, to pro5ect this onl( in political terms as ,e approach an election is unfair to the 5ustified
demands of people ,aiting for legal recourse. 1ot passing a la, in a matter li#e .rievance Redress is a huge
loss to uncountable citi0ens, man( lives and an entire generation.
• -romulgation is not a permanent measure rather it is a temporar( one as an ordinance is necessaril( sub5ect
to parliamentar( approval. 2f an ordinance is promulgated right no, it ,ould give a chance to the citi0ens to
use the provisions and point out an( possible shortcomings in the legislation.
• -assing an ordinance in this case does not subvert the parliamentar( process. 2n an incremental process of
building la, and subordinate legislation, this ,ould onl( be one tentative step for,ard.
CHALLEN*ES AFTER CREATION OF TELAN*ANA
Even though the )9
th
$tate of 2ndian Union, Telangana ,ould come into existence on )
nd
Aune, there are several
challenges that face the state.
• 1mployment Opportunities0 The active participation of the student’s communit( in the agitation and the
series of suicides for the cause of a separate $tate ,ere out of a belief that once Telangana is formed, there
,ill be 5obs for ever(one. 3ut the emplo(ment opportunities loo# ver( faint in the government sector and
lac# of emplo(able s#ills means lo, emplo(abilit( in the private sector too. The ne, government must start
s#ill development centres so that the (oungsters can hone their s#ills and get 5obs. Else, this same segment
,ill get disillusioned and ,ill begin agitating again.
• 2i$ision of resources0 The $tate has been divided but there is no clarit( on the division of its apparatus. ;ith
man( important sectors being #ept in the Jcommon list,K there is ambiguit( over ho, ,ater bodies,
educational institutions and corporations ,ill be divided. The biggest challenge for political parties thus
,ould be to arrive at a formula ,hich is agreeable to all the parties involved.
• Irrigation facilities0 @ne of the biggest concerns of the people is the creation of irrigation facilities. ;ith river
,ater boards being made common for the t,o $tates, there are bound to be disputes. Even as the t,o $tates
ma#e claims for their share of ,ater, ,hat Telangana can do is revive tan# irrigation.
• 3eeting high e4pectations0 The biggest problem that Telangana ,ill face ,ill be meeting expectations in the
areas of housing, uninterrupted po,er suppl(, and irrigation facilities for all. These aspirations reached their
pinnacle as the movement reached its conclusion ,ith politicians from across the board pro5ecting creation of
a ne, state as a means to end all the problems.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

15 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ACTION A*AINST N*OS FAILIN* TO FILE RETURNS
• Union <ome /inistr( has ta#en action against about 9,000 non4government organisations ,hich did not file
returns ,ithin the stipulated time period.
• @nl( )D of more than ) million 1.@s operating in the countr( ,ere registered under the +oreign
Contribution 8Regulation9 'ct up to /arch 7, )0).
• These registered 1.@s reported a foreign contribution of close to Rs. ,000 crore
• ;hile Rs.9&6.%% crore of foreign grants ,ere meant for rural development, Rs.9)9.)) crore ,as received for
the ,elfare of children and Rs.*)& crore for construction and maintenance of educational institutions.
SE$ITION CHAR*ES A*AINST +ASHMIRI STU$ENTS %ITH$RA%N
• ' group of Iashmiri students at a private college in /eerut, Uttar -radesh, ,ere boo#ed for sedition after
the( cheered -a#istan during a cric#et match that 2ndia lost
• !% students of the $,ami Give#anand $ubharti Universit( ,ere suspended for celebrating -a#istanCs victor( in
the 'sia Cup match.
ANALSIS
• $edition la, has been misused several times before in the past but the action of the /eerut police in boo#ing
a group of students from Aammu and Iashmir on a charge of sedition beats all previous instances of the
misuse of the penal provision
• The apparent crime committed b( the students ,as that the( cheered for the -a#istani Cric#et team. The
charge of sedition under $ection )&' of the 2ndian -enal Code ,as dropped, but onl( after the strong
outrage evo#ed b( this irrational act.
• Rec#less use of the provisions of sedition for expression of vie,s that ma( be considered anti4patriotic to
some is something ,hich is completel( against the ethos of 2ndian democrac(.
• The $upreme Court has made it clear that it cannot be invo#ed unless there is actual incitement to violence
and intention to cause disorder, and that merel( using ,ords that indicate disaffection against the
government cannot be termed sedition.
• The police officers need to develop a better understanding of this provision and interpret it more liberall(
before ta#ing an( such actions in future.
1U$ICIAL REFORMS
RECOMMEN$ATION OF COLLE*IUM IS NOT SUB1ECT TO 1U$ICIAL REVIE%
• 's per a latest $C ruling suitabilit( of a candidate for appointment as 5udge of a <igh Court cannot be
=uestioned because the recommendation of its collegium is not sub5ect to an( 5udicial revie,.
• 'ccording to the court Audicial revie, is permissible onl( of assessment of eligibilit(, and not of suitabilit(.
HI*H COURTS TO *ET 2!5 MORE 1U$*ES
• The Central .overnment has increased the strength of 5udges in all the <igh Courts b( )6D in an attempt to
clear the bac#log of cases in courts.
• 't present there are )60 vacancies in <igh Courts and )0! ne, vacancies have to be filled in the vie, of
proposed increase.
ANALSIS
Even though this is a ,ell4intended step and see#s to increase the strength of 5udges, lac# of suitable candidates
is the bigger problem. There is no doubt that ,e need to increase the strength of 5udges but commensurate
steps have to be ta#en to attract (oung and proficient la,(ers to,ards 5udiciar(. Current ,or#ing conditions and
pa( structure are not conducive enough to attract the best talent in the countr( to,ards 5udiciar(.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
HUMAN RI*HTS ISSUES
%OR+IN* OF HUMAN RI*HTS COMMISSIONS
• Under pressure from countries and businesses ,anting to engage ,ith 2ndia as it opened its doors to the
mar#et econom(, the idea of setting up commissions ,as first mooted in 99).
• $ubse=uentl(, the 1ational <uman Rights Commission 8and $tate <uman Rights Commissions9 ,as
established as per the provisions of -rotection of <uman Rights 'ct, 997 8-<R'9, broadl( appl(ing the -aris
-rinciples laid do,n b( the U1 Commission on <uman Rights and the U1 .eneral 'ssembl(
• Though these institutions ,ere government4sponsored and government4funded, there ,as a feeling that
their citi0en4centric functions ,ould steer them to,ards their goals that is to provide redress to marginali0ed
citi0ens of the countr(.
• 3ut in realit(, these national and state level institutions have failed to deliver. ' recentl( released
report documents the ,or# of five commissions and reveals serious shortcomings. ' social audit on state
human rights commissions b( <uman Rights "a, 1et,or# 8<R"19 last (ear also thro,s light on their
institutional and infrastructural problems.
• Accessibility0 Report notes that the offices of these commissions are mostl( located amidst government
offices in state capitals or bigger cities far removed from the districts ,here their presence is more re=uired.
/an( of the commissions ,ere also found to be faulting on their public disclosures. ' large number of them
did not bother to update their ,ebsites or uplin# annual reports
• *ea$y .o$ernment +atronage0 2ndependence of these institutions is under severe compromise as the(
heavil( depend for their funds on government bodies. 2nstead of being ans,erable to an independent
authorit( as laid out in the -aris -rinciples, the( report to the /inistr( of <ome 'ffairs. 't the national level,
the /inistr( is also in4charge of the police, immigration, la,s for terrorism and insurgenc(, securit( and
communal harmon(. The complaints made to the commission b( sta#eholders most often deal ,ith these
ver( authorities. There has been no recorded evidence of the 1ational <uman Rights Commission 81<RC9 or
the $tate <uman Rights Commissions 8$<RCs9 ta#ing suitable action against the government of the da( or of
moving a court to action.
• Appointments0 Their independent functioning is further affected b( the ,a( appointments of chairpersons
and members of the commissions are made, ,hich is often according to the ,hims and fancies of the
government of the da(. These institutions are often a par#ing ground for retired 5udges or civil servants ,ho
are appointed instead of persons ,ith professional experience and trac# records in particular fields
• !unding0 3udgetar( allocations var( drasticall( from state to state. 1ational Commission for ;omen ,ith a
nation4,ide mandate received a budget of over one crore in )004, ,hile the /adh(a -radesh $tate
;omen’s Commission received the same amount in )00940. ' detailed anal(sis of budgetar( provisions
revealed that most of the funds ,ere spent in running offices, pa(ing salaries and meeting administrative
expenses. The actual mandate of the commission utilised a ver( limited proportion of the funds.
• Lac' of trained staff0 2t ,as found that in most cases, the staff of the commissions comprised largel( of
peons, drivers and assistants. $pecialists ,ho can deliver on the mandate of the particular commission ,ere
conspicuous b( their absence.
AMNEST IN$IA AS+S PART HEA$S ON HUMAN RI*HTS ISSUES
• 'mnest( 2nternational 2ndia has as#ed the declared and probable prime ministerial candidates of various
political parties to clarif( their positions on #e( human rights issues ahead of the .eneral Elections )0&.
• 1amed as J,5 for (),5K, 'mnest(’s Campaign as#s candidates to state their positions on issues including
police reforms, marital rape, under trial detention, impunit( for armed forces, land ac=uisition,
decriminali0ation of homosexualit(, and freedom of expression
• The J& for )0&K human rights charter calls on political parties to incorporate & #e( human rights issues in
their election manifestos.
• The organi0ation has also launched a ,ebsite, ,,,.&for)0&.com. Those ,ho ,ant to support the
campaign, b( pledging to vote for candidates ,ho commit to upholding human rights, can give a missed call
to a designated number.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
MERC PETITION BEON$ 1U$ICIAL REVIE%4
• The $upreme court dismissed the Central .overnment’s plea for the revie, of the order ,hich the court had
passed in Aanuar( )0&.
• The Aanuar( order had cited the unexplained and inordinate dela( in deciding the merc( petition as a ground
for commutation of death sentence to life imprisonment. The <ome ministr( had opposed this order.
• 's per the court, there can be no distinction of an accused ,ho is convicted under the terror "a, such -@T'
or a normal criminal la, for see#ing commutation of death sentence to life imprisonment on the grounds of
inordinate or unreasonable dela(.
• The Central .overnment came do,n heavil( on the court 5udgment sa(ing that the -resident’s decision in
disposing of a merc( petition ,as be(ond 5udicial revie,.
• JExercising po,er under 'rticle %):! to consider and dispose of merc( petitions of convicts is a
constitutional obligation on the part of the -resident and the .overnor and not a mere prerogative and such
a decision ,ould be sub5ect to 5udicial revie,. 2f the convict files a merc( petition to the .overnor:-resident,
it is incumbent on the authorities to dispose of the same expeditiousl(K $upreme Court had observed bac# in
Aanuar(. MPlease refer to the Current Affairs Notes of anuary !"#$ and %ebruary !"#$, for details and analysis
of this &udgment.N
AMNEST INTERNATIONAL0 ANNUAL REVIE% OF $EATH PENALT
• 2ndian -resident re5ected the merc( petitions of * prisoners on death ro, in )07, the highest number of
re5ections b( an( -resident in the last )6 (ears, ,orld,ide.
• 2t has raised concerns about the fairness of 'f0al .uru’s trial, noting that he did not receive legal
representation of his choice or a la,(er ,ith ade=uate experience at the trial stage
• 2n 2ndia %) ne, death sentences ,ere imposed throughout the (ear and at least &00 people ,ere believed to
be on death ro, at the end of the (ear
• 2n )07 there ,as an increase of 6D in death penalties inspite of a global trend to,ards the abolition of the
death sentence. This pattern ,as disrupted b( a sharp increase in the number of executions in 2ran 87!99 and
2ra= 8!99.
• China executed more people than an( other countr( last (ear. 'lthough Chinese authorities treat official
execution statistics as a state secret, 'mnest( 2nternational estimates thousands are #illed under the death
penalt( ever( (ear, more than the rest of the ,orld combined.
• The use of the death penalt( has declined in the last )0 (ears, and the number of countries enforcing the
death penalt( has fallen from 7% in 997 to )) last (ear
• 1o executions ,ere carried out in Europe and Central 'sia 6 mar#ing the first time since )009.
• U$' is the onl( countr( to have carried out executions in the 'mericas, although the numbers fell b( four
bet,een )0) and )07 that sa, 79 executions.
CIVIL SERVICES REFORMS
COOLIN* OFF PERIO$ FOR RETIRE$ CIVIL SERVANTS4
• @f late, man( retired civil servants 5oined political parties as a first step to,ards participating in active politics.
• 2t is a positive development, as infusion of administrative expertise in political parties can theoreticall( lead to
more balanced policies and better governance
REASONS BEHIN$ SUCH TREN$S
• ;ith better healthcare, retiring government servants do not consider themselves to be old or tired. Used to
,or#ing bet,een 0 to ) hours a da(, the( ,ant to be activel( engaged
• $ome civil servants are actuall( interested in politics, and 5oin a part( as soon as the( have an offer
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• @thers ,ant to 5oin a political part( hoping to get important government posts
THE $EBATE ON COOLIN*,OFF PERIO$
• ' retired civil servant is unli#el( to be ,elcomed b( middle4 and lo,er4level part( functionaries ,ho feel that
,hile the( have spent (ears serving the part(, retired civil servants are inducted laterall( at senior positions.
This and man( other reasons such as lac# of astute political s#ills lead to civil servants being sidelined b( their
respective political parties.
• $ome former civil servants tr( to achieve prominence b( revealing secret and confidential facts, ,hich the(
got to #no, ,hile in active service. This is most reprehensible and must be discouraged b( all political parties.
2t not onl( demeans the civil servant but also the part( he has 5oined.
• This has led to debates on ,hether there should be a cooling4off period for civil servants before the( 5oin a
political part( after retirement.
• Experts feel that such restrictions ,ould be infructuous, as ex4civil servants ,ould not formall( 5oin the part(
and could (et activel( ,or# for the same. /oreover, once a civil servant retires, he has ever( right to express
his political vie,s and 5oin an( political part( he ,ants.
• Critics of cooling4off period argue that an( such restriction ,hether b( ,a( of services rules or b( ,a( of an
amendment of the Election la,s ma( not stand the test of valid classification under 'rticle & of the
Constitution of 2ndia
• @n the other side proponents argue that the right to contest an election is a statutor( right and not a
+undamental right. <ence an( such restriction in service rules ,ould be =uite reasonable and 5ustifiable and
certainl( ,ill not be in contravention of the provisions laid do,n under 'rticle & of the Constitution of 2ndia
• -roponents further contend that several reports have been received in the past that some government
servants acted for the furtherance of prospects or interests of a political part( ,hile in government service
and 5ust before or after the election, 5oined the part( on retirement or leaving the service. 1eutralit( of such
officers during election process is suspected and conduct of free and fair election b( them or b( their
immediate sub4ordinates is affected adversel(.
PANEL SU**ESTS RE$UCE$ TRAININ* PERIO$ FOR IAS
• ' Committee constituted b( the ?epartment of -ersonnel and Training 8?o-T9 has recommended that the
total training period for 2'$ officers be brought do,n from t,o (ears 807 ,ee#s9 to one4and4a4half (ears 8%6
,ee#s9
• Iiran 'ggar,al Committee, has recommended reducing the district training from the current 6& ,ee#s to 77
,ee#s
ANALSIS
Recent batches of 2'$ officers have complained about the relativel( sub4optimal effectiveness of attachments in
the district and the relativel( higher utilit( of independent charges for on4the45ob learning. .iven the rising
median age of 2'$ officer trainees 8around )* (ears9, the training duration must be reduced as man( enter
service ,ith significant ,or# experience and less potential (ears of service. @ne can also argue that an(
reduction in training or probation period ,ould be ,elcomed b( state governments given the general shortage
of 5unior4level 2'$ officers. 'dditionall( it ,ould also allo, longer tenure of 2'$ officers as $?/s.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

12 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ECONOM
IN$IAN ECONOM
CURRENT ACCOUNT $EFICIT SHARPL CONTRACTE$

• 2ndia’s current account deficit narro,ed to a four4(ear lo, in the fiscal
third =uarter, aided b( a decline in gold imports and revival of exports.
• The deficit ,as at 0.9D of gross domestic product 8.?-9 in the three
months ended 7 ?ecember
• The current account, an important measure of economic health, is the
sum of the balance of trade 8goods and services exports less imports9,
net income from abroad and net current transfers.
REASONS FOR NARRO%IN* OF THE $EFICIT

• 1arro,ing of the deficit ,as helped b( curbs placed on gold imports b( the government, ,hich raised
taxes on purchases of the metal overseas,
• ' revival of exports after a prolonged slo,do,n has also contributed in reducing pressure on the rupee,
,hich has recovered to around !4!) per dollar level after falling to an all4time lo, of !*.*6 in 'ugust.
• 2ndia’s trade deficit in the @ctober4?ecember =uarter fell to O77.) billion in the third =uarter of )074&
from O6*.& billion a (ear ago.
• ;hile exports rose %.6D to O%9.* billion riding on good gro,th in exports of engineering goods,
read(made garments, iron ore, marine products and chemicals, imports declined b( &.*D to O).9
billion due to the decline in gold imports
• 2mports of the precious metal fell sharpl( to O7. billion from O%.* billion, as high customs dut(
lessened demand.
• The government had in the past one (ear progressivel( raised the import dut( on gold to 0D to control
the spiralling current account deficit and ease the pressure on rupee. The central ban# also put curbs on
ban#s on loans against gold coins.
• This =uarter, capital inflo,s ,ere able to finance the deficit. ;hile net foreign direct investment inflo,
,as at O!. billion, portfolio investment ,as at O ).& billion in the =uarter.
• The full4(ear current account deficit should be around )D of .?-, or at O7647% billion said one of the
economist, ,hile Current account deficit for )0)47 ,as at a record &.*D of .?-.
• T,o other areas of concern are that iron ore exports are still restricted ,hile coal imports have
increased dramaticall(, aggravating the trade deficit.
• These are structural problems, and as long as the( exist the external econom( ,ill remain vulnerable.
'n( pic#4up in gro,th ,ould see a rise in imports, and export performance needs to remain robust.
*$P *RO%TH

• The econom( gre, b( &.% per cent in the =uarter ending ?ecember, ,hich ,as slightl( better than the
average of &.! per cent cloc#ed during the first half of the (ear 8'pril4$eptember )079.
• +or the seventh successive =uarter, .?- gro,th has been belo, 6 per cent.
• +inance /inister in his recent budget speech expected economic gro,th during the second half of the
(ear to be at least 6.) per cent. That no, seems a stupendous tas# given the slac#ness in the third
=uarter.
• The C$@’s advance estimates for )074& released earlier of &.9 per cent gro,th certainl( does not loo#
to be an underestimate as some government officials have been claiming.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

24 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ANALSIS

• ' closer loo# at the third =uarter data reveals some ,ell4entrenched ,ea#nesses in specific sectors.
• The investment scenario remains ,ea# not,ithstanding recent efforts b( the government to fast4trac#
certain large pro5ects.
• There is an expected measure of uncertaint( in decision4ma#ing ahead of the elections.
• 3oth mining and manufacturing declined in the three4month period. The( have been ,ea# throughout
this (ear.
• -olic( log5am and environmental and 5udicial activism have impacted adversel( on mining output and
this has had ma5or negative conse=uences for the current account of the balance of pa(ments.
• The outloo# for the near future is not bright. Eight core industries ,hich have more than one4third
,eight in the 2ndex of 2ndustrial -roduction, an important lead indicator, gre, b( 5ust .! per cent in
Aanuar( compared ,ith ). per cent in ?ecember.
• Exports are gro,ing but at a slo,er pace during the three months up to Aanuar(.
• 'griculture has done reasonabl( ,ell ,hile services, driven mainl( b( one sub4sector, personal
communit( and social services L ,hich is a prox( for government spending L pic#ed up in the @ctober4
?ecember =uarter.
INFLATION EASES TO A NINE MONTH LO%

• 2nflation measured b( the ;holesale -rice 2ndex 8;-29 eased to a nine4month lo, in +ebruar(.
• ;-2 inflation slo,ed to &.!*D last month from 6.06D in Aanuar(, data sho,ed, reinforcing evidence of a
do,ntrend in prices.
• 2nflation based on the Consumer -rice 2ndex 8C-29, a measure no, targeted b( R32, too, decelerated for
the third month in a ro, to *.D in +ebruar(, a t,o4(ear lo,.
ANALSIS

• The data suggested that the tight monetar( stance maintained b( the Reserve 3an# of 2ndia 8R329 is
helping =uell price pressures and reinforcing calls for the central ban# to shift its sights to spurring
gro,th.
• The fall in ;-2 inflation for the third consecutive month ,as mainl( on account of easing food prices.
• The ne, data closel( follo, the faster4than4expected moderation in retail inflation based on the
consumer price index 8C-2 inflation9, ,hich fell for a third consecutive month to a )64month lo, of *.0
per cent in +ebruar(
• +ood price inflation dropped to *.)D from *.*D in Aanuar(, mainl( on account of easing vegetable
prices. Gegetable price inflation slo,ed to &D from a pea# of 9*D in 1ovember.
• $ince Raghuram Ra5an too# charge as governor of R32 in $eptember, the central ban# has raised its polic(
rate thrice, each time b( a =uarter of a percentage point, to dampen inflationar( pressures.
• 'nal(sts, ho,ever, said that R32 is li#el( to maintain the status =uo on rates till it ma#es an assessment
of the impact of the monsoon on farm output.
• The 2ndia /eteorological ?epartment is (et to ma#e its monsoon forecast amid concerns that El 1iPoLa
,eather phenomenon that affects rainfall patternsLcould disrupt the annual monsoon.
• <igh retail inflation perversel( affects the poor and is bound to have an impact on the ruling coalition’s
electoral prospects.
• ?espite the decline in +ebruar(, inflation remains a big ,orr( for the government ,hich has had ver(
little to cheer from recent economic data.
• -ersistentl( high inflation limits polic( options to encourage gro,th, such as through a cut in interest
rates.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

21 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
FISCAL $EFICIT E)CEE$S REVISE$ BU$*ET ESTIMATES

• The fiscal deficit in the 0 months through Aanuar(, )0&, has overshot revised estimates of Rs.6.)& la#h
crore for this fiscal provided in the interim 3udget.
• 'ccording to the data released b( the Controller .eneral of 'ccounts 8C.'9, the fiscal deficit during
'pril4Aanuar( )074& ,or#ed out to be Rs.6.7) la#h crore or ,),78 per cent of the re$ised estimates7
• 's per the C.' data, the revenue deficit during the 04month period through Aanuar( ,as Rs.7.%9 la#h
crore or 0).7 per cent of the revised estimate.
• The government had in the 3udget for )074& proposed to bring do,n the fiscal deficit to &.* per cent
of .?- or Rs.6.&) la#h crore. This figure, ho,ever, ,as revised do,n,ards in the interim 3udget to
Rs.6.)& la#h crore or &.! per cent of the .?-.
ANALSIS

• ;ith actual figures for +ebruar( and /arch (et to come, it ,ould be difficult for the government to
restrict the fiscal deficit, ,hich is a reflection of government’s mar#et borro,ings to revised level.
• 2f revenue collections don’t gro, at a much faster pace in the last t,o months of the financial (ear
8+ebruar( and /arch9, fiscal deficit as a percentage of the gross domestic product might overshoot
• To meet Revised Estimate 8RE9 pro5ections, the government is pinning its hopes on the fourth and last
installment of advance tax collections, to be paid in /arch.
• To rein in the deficit at the pro5ected level, the government might have to compress -lan expenditure
further after it ,as slashed b( about Rs *0,000 crore in the RE. his could affect gro9th ahead of the
general elections in 3ay6April.
• 'ccording to economists, it is difficult to meet the RE but the fiscal deficit is unli#el( to exceed the
pro5ections made in the 3udget Estimate Q &.* per cent. "ast (ear, the fiscal deficit ,as controlled at &.9
per cent.
• +or the next financial (ear, the fiscal deficit is pegged at &. per cent of the .?-, one percentage point
lo,er than targeted in a fiscal consolidation map, even as the government cut excise duties to spur
manufacturing, particularl( the production of consumer durable goods, ,hich fell for 7th month in a
ro, in ?ecember.
POLIC INITIATIVES B RESERVE BAN+ OF IN$IA
$EA$LINE FOR E)CHAN*IN* PRE 200! NOTES

• The Reserve 3an# granted an additional nine months for the public to exchange currenc( notes printed
before )006, including Rs. 600 and Rs. ,000 denominations, and set a deadline of Aanuar( , )06.
• JR32 has also advised ban#s to facilitate the exchange of these notes for full value and ,ithout causing
an( inconvenience ,hatsoever to the public,K the central ban# said in a release.
• 2t clarified that the public Jcan continue to freel( use these notesK for transactions and can
unhesitatingl( receive these notes in pa(ment as all such notes remain legal tender.
• J' ma5orit( of such notes have alread( been ,ithdra,n through the ban#s and onl( a limited number of
notes remain ,ith the publicK the R32 said.
• The apex ban# said it ,ill monitor and revie, the ,ithdra,al and exchange process so that the public is
not inconvenienced in an( manner.
• Reserve 3an# .overnor Raghuram Ra5an had earlier said the ,ithdra,al ,as not an attempt at
demonetisation, nor had it an(thing to do ,ith the forthcoming general elections.
• The R32 on had earlier said it ,ould ,ithdra, from circulation all pre4)006 currenc( notes from 'pril
and the public ,as advised to approach ban#s to exchange such notes
• M%or more details on this issue, please refer to the Current Affairs notes of anuary !"#$ N


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

22 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
OTC $ERIVATIVE REFORMS

• 2n response to the financial crisis that began in )00%, the .4)0 initiated a series of reforms designed to
strengthen the regulation and oversight of the financial s(stem and tas#ed the +inancial $tabilit( 3oard
8+$39 ,ith coordinating the reforms and assessing their implementation.
• 'n important aspect of these reforms is a commitment to enhance the regulation of @ver the Counter
8@TC9 derivatives mar#et so as to improve transparenc(, mitigate s(stemic ris# and protect against
mar#et abuse.
• 2n 2ndia, the @TC derivative products ,ere introduced in a phased manner, particularl( #eeping in vie,
the hedging needs of the real sector.
• The Reserve 3an# of 2ndia 8R329 has initiated steps for adoption of the .4)0 : +$3 reforms, and
reasonable progress has been made in implementing the @TC derivative reform measures in 2ndia.
• 2n order to guide the process of implementation of the #e( reform measures being underta#en b( +$3,
an 2mplementation .roup on @TC ?erivatives /ar#et Reforms ,as constituted on the directions of the
$ub Committee of the +inancial $tabilit( and ?evelopment Council 8+$?C9.
ANALSIS

• The Reserve 3an# said 2ndia is full( committed to bring in reforms in the overLtheLcounter 8@TC9
derivatives mar#ets, but its pace and nature ,ill depend on the domestic mar#et conditions.
• The reform agenda consists of standardisation, central clearing, exchange or electronic platform trading,
margining and reporting of @TC derivatives transactions to trade repositories.
• The group recommended the proportion of the mar#et that is standardised should be substantiall(
increased in order to further .L)0’s goals of increased central clearing and trading on organised
platforms.
• To implement the .L)0 commitment effectivel(, it is necessar( to specif( the factors that should be
ta#en into account ,hen determining ,hether a derivative contract is standardised and therefore
suitable for clearing, it said.
• The report said the roadmap for implementation of reform measures ,ith regard to @TC derivatives has
been ,or#ed out ,ith timelines extending up to /arch )06.
• J's some of the milestones are dependent on exogenous variables li#e improvement in li=uidit(, there is
a possibilit( the timelines ma( be revised,K the report said.
TERMS USE$

• O$er the counter 4 ' securit( traded in some context other than on a formal exchange such as the 1E$E,
3$E etc. The phrase Hover4the4counterH can be used to refer to stoc#s that trade via a dealer net,or# as
opposed to on a centrali0ed exchange. 2t also refers to debt securities and other financial instruments
such as derivatives, ,hich are traded through a dealer net,or#.
• O$er the Counter 2eri$ati$e 4 ' t(pe of financial derivative that has its transaction directl( negotiated
bet,een t,o parties rather than through an exchange.
RBI STILL TO A$OPT INFLATION TAR*ETIN*

• The Reserve 3an# of 2ndia 8R329 .overnor Raghuram Ra5an said that the central ban# ,as (et to ta#e a
decision on Ur5it -atel committee report ,hich had suggested an inflation target and ,as still in
discussion ,ith the government on the sub5ect.
• ;hile reiterating his preference for C-2, ?r. Ra5an said that Jprobabl( ,e should focus more on C-2 than
,holesale price index 8;-29 because C-2 is ,hat actuall( the common man sees and based on man(
decisions including ,age decisionsK.
• +urther, he said that there ,as a need to bring do,n C-2 and a reasonable path to bring it do,n
overtime L ,hatever level it ultimatel( comes do,n to.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• JA path to bring it do9n is : per cent by the end of this year and 8 per cent at the end of t9o years,K
he added.
• ?r. Ra5an also felt that, across the ,orld, it had been experienced that allo,ing inflation to rise does
have costs and does not have benefits.
• <e ,arned J<igher and higher level of inflation feed on each other and the ultimate is h(per inflation.
<(per inflation has social conflict because middle4class savings get ,iped out. 2t is not ,here ,e ,ant to
go. /oderate rate of inflation do not necessaril( translate into h(per4inflation, but ,e need to be
carefulK.
• Ra5an also debun#ed the gro,th4inflation trade4off sa(ing the long run trade4off bet,een gro,th and
inflation doesnCt exist.
• <o,ever, he said that continued inflation fighting could inflict a cost on gro,th in the short4run. J2n the
short run, there ma( be a cost to bringing do,n inflation in terms of gro,th. 3ut in the long4run,
bringing do,n inflation is a good thing and helps sustainable gro,th.K
• The ?eput( .overnor of the R32 Ur5it -atel had submitted, in Aanuar( last, a report of the expert
committee to revise and strengthen the monetar( polic( frame,or#, suggesting the central ban# to
move to an inflation target, ,ith an aim to eventuall( bring do,n consumer price index 8C-29 inflation to
& per cent ,ith a ) per cent band on either side.
• M%or more details on this issue, please refer to the Current Affairs notes of anuary !"#$ N
NE% CLASS OF RE*ISTERE$ FOREI*N PORTFOLIO INVESTOR

• R32 has eased the registration guidelines R operating frame,or# for foreign portfolio investments to
attract inflo,s.
• The investors registered ,ith $ecurities and Exchange 3oard of 2ndia 8$E329, +oreign 2nstitutional 2nvestor
8+229 and Sualified +oreign 2nvestor 8S+29 ,ill be subsumed under Registered +oreign -ortfolio 2nvestor
8R+-29.
• R+-2 ma( trade shares and convertible debentures of 2ndian companies and the one offered to public in
relevant $E32 guidelines.
• $uch investors can ac=uire shares or convertible debentures in an( bid for, or ac=uisition of, securities to
offer for disinvestment of shares made b( the Central .overnment or an( $tate government.
• The( can invest in government securities and corporate debt sub5ect to limits set b( R32 R $E32.
• 2nvestments made b( +22:S+2 ,ith regulations prior to registration as R+-2 ,ill continue to be valid and
ta#en into account for computing aggregate limit specified.
• 2nvestors are permitted to trade in all exchange4traded derivative contracts, sub5ect to $E32 specified
position limits.
• Cash offered b( R+-2 or foreign sovereign securities ,ith ''' rating or corporate bonds or domestic
government securitiesma( be offered as collateral to recognised stoc# exchanges for their transactions
in cash as ,ell as derivative segment of the mar#et.
TERMS USE$

• ;!I <SU'"2+2E? +@RE2.1 21GE$T@R shall mean a person ,ho fulfils the follo,ing criteriaB
o Resident in a countr( that is a member of +inancial 'ction Tas# +orce 8+'T+9 or a member of a
group ,hich is a member of +'T+ 8here member of +'T+ does not mean an 'ssociate member of
+'T+9
o Resident in a countr( that is a signator( to 2@$C@’s //@U 8'ppendix ' $ignatories9 or a
signator( of a bilateral /@U ,ith $E32B




Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
CERC REVISE$ TARIFF *UI$ELINES
%H IN NE%S4

's per the ne, norms, notified b( the Central Electricit( Regulator( Commission 8CERC9 on +ebruar( ), there
are #e( changes ,ith regard to ta4 and calculation of incenti$es for thermal po,er plants.
ANALSIS

• The revised tariff norms ,ill have a negative impact on the margins of state4o,ned utilities such as
1T-C, -o,er .rid and 1<-C according to $R-
• CERC, in its final guidelines for tariff fixation, has shifted the incentive structure to plant load factor =+L!>
from plant a$ailability factor =+A!> for the period +E&4+E9.
• The regulator has also maintained the base return on e=uit( on transmission s(stems at 6.6 per cent,
,hich is much lo,er than *4)0 per cent sought b( companies.
• 'ccording to $R-, 1T-C’s E32T?' 8earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation9 is li#el(
to decline 04) per cent and net income to fall under the ne, tariff structure4all else being e=ual.
• J1evertheless, the regulator has introduced stricter operational parameters for incentives through
higher benchmar# -"+ for 1<-C and higher benchmar# -'+ for -o,er .rid. These revisions could reduce
the companies’ E32T?' b( less than 6 per cent.K
CANA$A BASE$ BITCOIN BAN+ CLOSES

• ' Canada4based ban# speciali0ing in bitcoins sa(s it has closed after computer hac#ers stole its digital
currenc(.
• The closure of the +lexcoin ban# comes 5ust a ,ee# after the collapse of /t. .ox, a ma5or bitcoin
exchange. The Aapan4based /t. .ox also lin#ed its demise to an electronic heist.
• The t,in failures of /t. .ox and +lexcoin ,ill li#el( raise more doubts about bitcoin’s abilit( to establish
itself as an alternative currenc(.
• +lexcoin sa(s *9! bitcoins ,ere stolen from its online vault. That translates into a loss of about O!00,000,
based on bitcoin’s current trading value.
• Unli#e ban#s dealing in government4bac#ed currencies, +lexcoin’s losses aren’t covered b( deposit
insurance. The 'lberta, Canada, ban# sa(s it can’t recover from the setbac#.
• 3itcoins that +lexcoin #ept offline, or in Jcold storage,K remain secure, according to the ban#.
• The /t. .ox collapse represents a far bigger blo, to bitcoin’s credibilit(. That do,nfall ,iped out about
%60,000 bitcoins, or about ! percent of the currenc(’s total circulation.
• /t. .ox has filed for ban#ruptc( protections ,hile it sifts through its financial mess.
• $upporters are touting the five4(ear4old currenc( as a ,a( to lo,er transaction fees b( cutting out ban#s
and pa(ment processors that collect billions of dollars annuall( b( serving as financial middlemen.
UNITE$ BAN+ 6 ISSUE OF NPA OR CORPORATE *OVERNANCE
%H IN NE%S4

• $harp rise in 1-' of the United 3an# from Rs ),90 crore in ?ecember )0) to Rs *,6&! crore in
?ecember )07.8three times9
• Resignation of its chairman 'rchana 3hargava in +ebruar(.
CORE ISSUE

• 2n the U32’s case, ,hile the full picture ,ill be #no,n after some time, it appears that the core of its
problems relates to not classif(ing a large number of small loans as 1-'s.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

25 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• /ore intriguing is the explanation some other loans ,ere reported as non4performing assets ,hen, in
fact, the( should not be classified as such.
• Certain top officials of U32 have faulted the soft,are, ,hich, according to them, ,as responsible for the
misreporting of loans.
• 2nfos(s, ,hich has developed this soft,are, has strongl( countered the argument, sa(ing that a number
of ban#s have been using it for a long time ,ithout a glitch.
FINANCIAL CAUSES
• The basic cause might be some rec#less lending culture, ,hich led to bad loans and unacceptabl( high
levels of 1-'s.
• .overnment influence cannot obviousl( be ruled out.
• +urther, it is reported that U32 has been the designated nodal agenc( for man( socio4economic
programmes in eastern 2ndia L nothing ,rong in that except that it calls for special s#ills in supervision
and follo, up, ,hich it seemingl( did not have. 'lso, in those schemes, there is a much bigger scope of
government:politicians influencing the credit decisions.
• 1o single ma5or defaulter L Iingfisher or ?eccan Chronicle <oldings L has emerged although it is not
clear ,hether U32 has a small exposure on these high profile entities.
• "arge corporate defaults L so common even ,ith much better4run -$3s L ,ould distract attention
from ,hat appears to be a collective failure of the U32’s top management.
CONCLUSION

• The on4going economic slo,do,n has been blamed for the proliferation of 1-'’s not onl( in U32, but
also in much bigger and better4run ban#s such as $32.
• 2f the slo,do,n persists, the stress on their balance sheets ,ill naturall( increase.
• The government, as the ma5orit( sta#eholder, has =uite a tas# on hand not onl( in getting U32 bac# on its
feet but also in sprucing up all public sector ban#s’ image, ,hich has received =uite a hit recentl( .
FIRST CORPORATE BON$ $EFAULT IN CHINA
%H IN NE%S4
• Chinese authorities allo,ed the countr(’s first corporate bond default 8Chaori $olar Energ(9, inflicting
losses on small investors in a painful step to,ard ma#ing its financial s(stem more mar#et4oriented.
• 2n China’s ,hole O.64trillion publicl( traded corporate4debt mar#et, no compan( has ever defaulted.
ANALSIS

• The default of $hanghai Chaori $olar Energ( on its 4billion4(uan 8O!74million9 bond might help speed
the pace of mar#et reform.
• "etting this default happen could be a massive deal for a couple of reasons.
• +or one, a default ,ill force the mar#et to start pricing in ris#
• Until no,, high4profile investment products on the brin# of default have all been bailed out at the th
hour. 2t’s not surprising that people assume that someoneLban#s or the governmentL,ill recoup their
losses.
• The government’s move to finall( allo, corporate default is a crucial move to,ard letting the mar#et
dictate interest rates, ,hich is one of its #e( reform goals.
• +inancial anal(sts have expressed concern about rising Chinese corporate debt.
• $ome companies also face pressure due to government efforts to reduce production capacit( in
industries in ,hich suppl( exceeds demand, such as steel, cement and aluminium. That glut of suppl(
has depressed prices, sometimes belo, production cost, causing heav( losses and in some cases forcing
companies into ban#ruptc(.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• $mall investors ,ho ,ant a better return than the lo, interest rates paid b( China’s state4o,ned ban#s
have floc#ed to corporate bonds and higher4ris# investments such as securities bac#ed b( pac#ages of
credit card and other debt.
• Though some see such a move is to develop a health( credit mar#et, man( other anal(sts ,orr( it could
be a sign of a ,ave of defaults to come.
• 3an# of 'merica anal(sts ,rote in a recent note that the default could be HChina&s /ear Stearns
momentH.
*OL$MAN SACHS LAUNCHES CPSE,ETF TRA$E$ FUN$S

• The C-$E ET+ 8Central -ublic $ector Enterprises,
Exchange traded fund9, an open4ended 2ndex Exchange
Traded $cheme, ,ould be listed on the exchanges in the
form of an Exchange Traded +und 8ET+9, ,hich trac#s the
central public sector enterprises 8C-$E9 index.
• Through this fund, investors can invest in 0
/aharatnas, 1avratnas and /iniratnas at a discount of 6
per cent on the JReference /ar#et -riceK of the
underl(ing shares of C-$E 2ndex, ,hich ,ill be offered to
the C-$E ET+ b( the .overnment.
• The C-$E index toda( has ten stoc#s, chosen on three
criteria L a 66 per cent .overnment holding, a & per
cent dividend (ield, seven4(ear dividend pa(ing record
and a free float mar#et cap of T,000 crore or more.
• Retail individual investors can invest a minimum of
Rs.6,000 and in multiples of Re. thereafter up to
Rs.)00,000. The entr( and exit load is nil.
• The C-$E index is hugel( tilted to,ards the energ(
sector, ,ith @1.C constituting )!D of the index.
%H IT HAS BEEN A HIT4

• -redictabl(, C-$E ET+’s substantial collection came purel( because of near4term incentives that the
government made possible.
• The fund offered investors an instant discount as the government agreed to sell its shares to the fund at
a 6D discount to mar#et price.
• +or investors in the initial offering, there is also the promise of a lo(alt( bonus of one share for ever( 6
shares held.
• This is in addition to the tax savings under R.E$$.
• JThe fund has been a hit ,ith strong collections both from institutional and retail investors, ,ith nearl(
&0D coming from the formerK.
NE*ATIVE ASPECTS

• ;hile the government benefits from the scheme as it has an additional channel to offload its shares at a
time ,hen investors are becoming increasingl( demanding and having ta#en the bait, creating these
artificial incentives is fraught ,ith complications.
• 2nstitutional investors are savv( and ma( understand ho, to time entr( and exit, but retail investors run
the ris# of losing the plot completel(.
• The top stoc# @1.C has a heav( )! per cent ,eight in the portfolio. ;ith no representation from
defensives and a portfolio heavil( tilted to,ards polic(4heav(, c(clical stoc#s, stoc#s in the ET+ are
inexpensive, but can prove =uite volatile and vulnerable to economic c(cles.
• 1o active managementB 'n ET+ passivel( trac#s an index and its performance depends entirel( on the
index. Therefore, if the companies ma#ing up this ET+ flag on financial or stoc# price performance, the
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
fund cannot get rid of them. 2n contrast, there are activel( managed -$U funds such as the Religare
2nvesco -$U +und, $undaram -$U @pportunities, $32 -$U and 3aroda -ioneer @pportunities. Their fund
managers ,ill select the best -$U stoc#s and #eep changing the portfolio ,ith shifting prospects.
• The product ma( not see sustained interest once the incentives ,ith the initial offer are no longer
available. That had better be the case because if the scheme becomes a norm, it ,ill onl( distort
mar#ets.
NORMS TI*HTENE$ TO PREVENT MONE LAUN$ERIN* , SEBI
• To combat possible tax evasion b( 'mericans through 2ndian entities, the $ecurities and Exchange 3oard
of 2ndia 8$E329 planned to issue the !oreign Account a4 Compliance Act =!ACA> compliance norms in
the fiscal (ear )0&46.
• +or the implementation of the +'TC', the U$ government is re=uired to sign Inter6.o$ernment
Agreement =I.A> ,ith various countries, including 2ndia, ,here 'merican individuals and companies
ma( hold accounts and other assets. Till no,, the U$' has signed 2.'s ,ith )) countries vi0. the
UI, $,it0erland, etc.
• Currentl(, the negotiations are going on bet9een the India and ?S for an I.A to be signed bet,een the
t,o countries under the +'TC'.
• +urpose of !ACA0 To chec# and impose ,ithholding tax on illicit activities of some ,ealth( individuals
,ho use offshore accounts to evade millions of dollars in taxes.
• @nce this ne, 'ct and the 2ndo4U$ 2.' come into effect, all financial institutions in 2ndia ,ould need to
carr( out a detailed due diligence on all their clients and report details of their U$ clients to the U$ tax
department 82nternal Revenue $ervice9.
• 'n( non4compliance of the +'TC' provisions ,ould result in penal ,ithholding of 70D of the total U$4
source income of such financial institutions.
• $E32 ,ould examine the applicabilit( of the +'TC' provisions to all mar#et intermediaries regulated b(
the capital mar#ets regulator. 2t ,as examined b( $E32 in coordination ,ith the /inistr( of +inance.
• Note0 +'TC' became a la, in )00, the final regulations ,ere issued for it in Aanuar( )07 and it is set to
come into effect from Aul( )0&, after signing of 2.'s ,ith different countries.
PRESI$ENT REPROMUL*ATES SEBI OR$INANCE

• -resident -ranab /u#her5ee cleared the re6promulgation of the S1/I Ordinance that provides po,ers
for $E32 Chairman to authori0e 2nvestigating 'uthorit( or an( other officer of the regulator to conduct
search and sei0ure under the $E32 'ct and crac# do,n on -on0i schemes.
• S1/I ordinance < Securities La9s =Amendment> /ill (),-
• +urpose0 To arm the regulator ,ith more stringent po,ers comes in ,a#e of thousands of duped
investors reportedl( ta#ing to the streets in $iliguri 8;est 3engal9 protesting the proliferation of chit
fund companies there and the Rs ),0004crore $ardhaachit fund scam.
• $E32 can regulate an( mone( pooling scheme ,orth Rs 00 crore or more and attach assets in cases of
non4compliance and its Chairman can order Jsearch and sei0ure operationsK.
• Empo,ers the mar#et ,atchdog to see# information, such as telephone call data records, from an(
persons or entities in respect to an( securities transaction being investigated b( it.
• Note0 The $E32 ordinance lapsed on Aanuar( 6, has been re4promulgated for the third time as the
-arliament could not pass the $ecurities "a,s 8'mendment9 3ill, )07, in the ,inter session.
EU TO BAN IN$IAN MAN*OES7 VE*ETABLES

• @n /arch )! the European Union $tanding Committee on -lant <ealth slapped a ban on 2ndian mangoes
after it had allegedl( found pests in )0% consignments of fresh produce imported from 2ndia last (ear.
• The ban covers mangoes, aubergines, the taro plant and t,o t(pes of gourd. These represent less than 6
per cent of the bloc’s fresh fruit and vegetable imports from 2ndia, according to the European
Commission.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• The ban, agreed b( a committee of experts representing member states, is to be revie,ed b( the end of
)06.
• 2n exporting mangoes, 'ndhra -radesh stands second after /aharashtra among the mango4producing
states in the countr(. @f all the varieties, the 3anginapalli variet( has a good acceptance in the
international mar#et.
IMPACT

• The onl( alternative option to farmers and traders ali#e is to sell them off in the domestic mar#et at a
lo,er price.
• Though one cannot tell certainl( ,hether the prices in the domestic mar#et ,ill shoot up or not, but
there is no possibilit( of prices rising
• The produce re=uired for exports should be of high =ualit( that re=uires great efforts b( the farmers, but
there is also a ris# factor involved here. JTo get the #ind of =ualit( accepted in the Europe, a farmer has
to pluc# about half of the fruits at the flo,ering stage. This naturall( reduces the produce and he can get
good profit onl( if it is accepted overseas. 3ut, ,ith this #ind of international issues, a farmer is al,a(s at
a ris#,K
*OVERNMENT3S REACTION

• 2ndia ,ill be challenging the European Union’s move to ban exports of fresh mangoes and four other
vegetables.
• The .overnment ,ill ta#e up the issue of the ban strongl( at the 2ndia4EU $-$4T3T 8$anitar( and
-h(tosanitar( and Technical 3arriers to Trade9 ,or#ing group meeting scheduled in 3russels.
• +urther, a government official reiterated that J;e see the ban purel( as a trade restricting measure.
$ince 2ndia has alread( assured the EU that its improved $-$ certification s(stem ,ill be in place from
'pril , there is no 5ustification behind the banK.
SREI TO ROLL OUT %HITE LABEL ATM3S

• $rei 2nfrastructure +inance, engaged in infrastructure financing, is planning to start roll4out of its ,hile
label 'T/s 8;"'s9 bet,een Aul( and $eptember starting ,ith a pilot of )00 Tier4222 to,ns in Uttar
-radesh and 3ihar.
• $rei plans to launch the service in Tier422 to Tier4G to,ns in Uttar -radesh, 3ihar, @disha, ;est 3engal,
'ssam and Tamil 1adu.
• The R32 authorisation allo,s $rei to set up a minimum of 9,000 ;"'s in the next three (ears in rural
2ndia.
• $aha5 e4Gillage "imited is a $rei initiative ,ith a focus on rural 2ndia. 2t has offices in 'ssam, 3ihar, @disha,
Tamil 1adu, Uttar -radesh and ;est 3engal and is seen as one of the largest implementers of 2CT4based
pro5ects in 2ndia, providing a distribution net,or# for government, private and social sectors to deliver
their services.
• The compan( said that ;"'s ,ould operate on a revenue4sharing model ,ith the sta#eholders,
including the clearing service providers and $aha5.
• #hite Label A3 6 1on4ban# entities that intend setting up, o,ning and operating 'T/s
*OVERNMENT SETS UP TA) A$MIN REFORM COMMISSION

• +urpose 4 3ringing in more credibilit( among tax pa(ers and to streamline income tax procedures
• Chairman Q -arthasarathi $home
• 3embers 4 Ex4Chairman of t,o tax boards, former Chief +inancial @fficer from 2T service provider Tata
Consultanc( $ervices and an Ex4Gice -resident for Taxation from the /urugappa .roup. Comprising both
officials from public and private sector.
• +urther, /r. $home clarified that in the commission, ,e are not focusing on tax polic(, legislation but
focus is on the rules and features and structural reforms in tax administration.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

22 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• <e also said that one of the reasons for setting up the Commission ,as to bring in more transparenc( in
the tax department and in the collection of taxes as a certain amount of HdistrustH emerged bet,een the
tax department and the tax pa(ers.
EPFO TO PROVI$E PERMANENT NUMBER

• The Emplo(ees’ -rovident +und @rgani0ation 8E-+@9 ,ill provide permanent account numbers to it’s’
over five crore subscribers from @ctober, )0&.
• E-+@ is a statutor( bod( of the .overnment of 2ndia under the /inistr( of "abour and Emplo(ment.
• 2t administers a compulsor( contributor( -rovident +und $cheme, -ension $cheme and an
2nsurance $cheme.
• +ermanent or ?ni$ersal Account Number =?AN>
• +urpose0 To provide great relief to those ,or#ers in organi0ed sector ,ho fre=uentl( change 5obs,
particularl(, in the construction sector.
• 2t ,ill facilitate subscribers to avoid filing -rovident +und 8-+9 account transfer claims on changing 5obs.
• $ubscriber ,ould not be issued ne, -+ account number on 5oining ne, emplo(er.
• The U'1 ,ould be one account number ,hich ,ould be allotted to a subscriber for various schemes run
b( the E-+@ for his or her entire service period ,ith different emplo(ers.
• The roadmap for implementing the U'1 programme ,ill be prepared b( Centre for 2e$elopment of
Ad$anced Computing =C62AC>7
• /enefit0 U'1 ,ill help to reduce the ,or#load of the E-+@ to a great extent as it receives over ) la#h
claims for transfer of -+ account on changing of 5obs b( its subscribers.
IN$IA HUMAN $EVELOPMENT SURVE
• Emplo(ment in agriculture has fallen sharpl( over the last seven (ears and a combination of farm4oriented
and non4farm ,or# is no, the most common form of rural emplo(ment
• +indings on emplo(ment sho, that the fall in agricultural emplo(ment L documented in the )0 Census as
,ell L is much larger than ,hat ,as previousl( believed. 2n )00&406, half of all rural men and *7 per cent of
rural ,omen ,or#ed onl( on farms, ma#ing it the most common t(pe of rural emplo(ment. <o,ever,
exclusive farm4oriented ,or# is still the most prevalent form of emplo(ment among rural ,omen, engaging
!! per cent
• Non6!arm 9or'B 1on4farm ,or# is no, a bigger emplo(er for rural men in -un5ab, <ar(ana, 'ssam, north4
eastern $tates, Ierala and Tamil 1adu. The same is true for rural ,omen as ,ell in the t,o southern $tates.
• #omen 9or'force participation d9indlingB +all in the participation of ,omen in the ,or#force L from &%
per cent ,omen aged 6469 in )00&406 to &7.% per cent in )04). The participation rate, ,hich considers
all those emplo(ed or loo#ing for ,or#, for men is %*.9 per cent and %%.) per cent in )00&406 and )04)
respectivel(
• .ro9ing #agesB ;ages have gro,n exponentiall( over the last decade. The dail( agricultural labour ,age
has nearl( tripled for men in the last seven (ears, ,hile the non4agricultural ,age has more than doubled.
The ,ages of ,omen ,or#ers, though still much less that male ,or#ers, have gro,n similarl(.
BAC+*ROUN$ TO IH$S
The 1ational Council for 'pplied Economic Research 81C'ER9 conducts the 2ndia <uman ?evelopment $urve(
82<?$9, the largest household surve( in 2ndia after the governmentCs 1ation $ample $urve( @rganisation 81$$@9
surve(s, and the 1C'ER is the onl( independent bod( that conducts such large4sample panel surve(s. The surve(
covers economic data on income and expenditure, development data on education and health, and sociological
data on caste, gender and religion The 1C'ER team covered &),000 households across the countr(, *7 per cent
of ,hich ,ere surve(ed for the last round of the 2<?$ in )00&406.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
TOLL TA)
%H IN NE%S4
• Toll pla0as ,ere attac#ed across /aharashtra after di#tat from /aharashtra 1avnirman $ena 8/1$9 chief to
his part( men to vandalise toll booths and thrash an(one as#ing them to pa( toll tax
• 9 billion dollar ,orth of pro5ects has alread( been underta#en under 3@T 8toll t(pe9 ---. This amounts to
more than 60D of all the pro5ects under,a( for 1ational <igh,a(s 8important from -aper 7 perspective9
ANALSIS
Arguments against banning oll pla@asAa4
• Utilitarian 'rgumentB 2mportant for development of Road,a(s sector.
• 2ndia desperatel( needs ne,er roads and improvements to existing roads because ,orld4class roads can
bring in development b( enabling trade to move faster, helping in safer and =uic#er movement of people.
• ' stud( b( the 2nternational +ood -olic( Research 2nstitute found that for ever( Rs 0 la#h spent on roads,
)& people escaped povert( and that ever( rupee spent on rural roads (ielded more than Rs 6 in additional
agricultural output. ' perfect example is the /umbai4-une Express,a(, a toll road that has brought much
faster development to -une and the /umbai4-une corridor
• ;ith coming of The Right to +air Compensation and Transparenc( in "and 'c=uisition, Rehabilitation and
Resettlement 'ct )07 into force, the ne, la, ,ould re=uire road developers to pa( higher levels of
compensation. This might ta#e the road development business further do,nhill ,hich thus has to be
compensated externall( through toll tax li#e measures.
• Current state of 2ndian roads demand further incentivi0ing of --- rather than scuttling the gro,th of --- in
Road,a(s sector.
• 'n 2CR' Research report in 1ovember )07 paints a gloom( pictureB H8The9 road sector continued to face
head,inds in the form of execution impediments, financing constraints, slo,do,n in traffic and stressed
financial position of the developers. $everal pro5ects have faced dela(s in execution mainl( on account of
dela(ed land ac=uisition, removal of encroachments, shifting of utilities, receipt of approvals and
environment clearances, etc. 's a result, the execution in 1ational <igh,a(s 'uthorit( of 2ndia 81<'29
pro5ects ,itnessed a decline in the first & months of the current financial (ear. /an( pro5ects ,hich ,ere
a,arded over the last t,o (ears had been facing difficult( in achieving financial closure due to aggressive
bidding, uncertaint( on land ac=uisition, pending approvals and increased ris# aversion of ban#s, etc. 's of
'ugust )07, financial closure ,as not achieved for 7) road pro5ects.H 's it is, toll collections have been
do,n ,ith the economic do,nturn. @ut of % stretches put on auction b( the 1<'2 recentl(, response ,as
received for & as of 7 ?ecember, )07 and 1<'2 stood to receive & percent less overall because onl( ! of
the & stretches received higher offers as compared to the preceding (ear.
Argument in fa$our of banning oll ta4
• Toll roads are not maintained ,ell despite toll collections, besides being right in demanding greater
transparenc( in toll receipts and pro5ect costs so that private companies ,ho are hand in glove ,ith
politicians donCt collect more than ,hat is mandated and ma#e huge profits.
• The( have been deliberatel( sho,ing lesser profits so as to retain the roads for more time, thus maximising
their overall gains.
• Economic loss due to malfunctioning toll pla0as
• 2t is ironic and shoc#ing that due to dela(s at chec#points, high,a( toll pla0as cost the econom( around )0
times their annual tax collections.
• ' stud( b( 22/4Iol#ata and the Transport Corporation of 2ndia estimates the costs at a scandalous Rs *%,000
crore a (ear, far higher than the CentreCs toll collections of Rs &,7!& crore in )00940.
• The finding, based on surve(s of operation efficienc( at % transportation trun# routes, calls for speed(
introduction of foolproof electronic tolling to avoid length( =ueues and dela(s at manual chec#posts.
• 'lso re=uired is governance reform to put paid to such practices as overloading, the rates for ,hich can
apparentl( be negotiated at ,ill. The stud( finds that the length of time at toll points adds up to Rs )%,000
crore nationall(. 'nd the extra fuel spent on slo,ing do,n and stopping at chec#points amount to an
additional Rs !0,000 crore.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SOCIAL ISSUES
ASSISTANCE TO $ISABLE$ PERSONS SCHEME .A$IP/
• The Cabinet Committee on Economic 'ffairs approved revised benefits under the $cheme of 'ssistance to
?isabled -ersons for -urchase:+itting of 'ids:'ppliances 8'?2-9
• The income eligibilit( ceiling for 00 per cent concession, from the existing Rs. !,600 per month, has been
enhanced to Rs. 6,000 per month and for a 60 per cent concession from Rs. 6,00 to Rs. )0,000 per month.
• User4friendl( mobile phones ,ill be provided once in five (ears to visuall(4challenged students of age *
(ears and above.
• "aptop and 3raille 1ote Ta#er ,ill be given to school4going disabled students 8Class 0 and above9, once in 0
(ears.
%OMEN ISSUES
*EN$ER SCORECAR$
• India *uman 2e$elopment Sur$ey has released a .ender $corecard ,hich covers the nature of gender
relations in 2ndia. 3arring a fe, bright spots such as declining gap in school enrolment bet,een girls and bo(s
the rest of the stor( paints a gloom( picture.
• 2n )006, among children aged bet,een !4& (ears, ** per cent of girls and 9) per cent of bo(s entered
school. 3( )0), the percentage for both sexes rose to 9! per cent.
• 2ndia has made progress in child marriage, ,ith &*D of ,omen over )6 reporting in )04) that the( ,ere
married before the age of * as opposed to !0D in )00&46.
• 3ut, the list of negatives is long. $trict patriarchal norms govern the movement of ,omen 8* per cent don’t
even go to a Iirana shop9, ho, much input the( are allo,ed in household decisions vital to themselves and
their children 8onl( )6 per cent have the final authorit( on ,hat to do ,hen the( are sic#9.
• &D of ,omen had no sa( in their marriage and 5ust *D #ne, their husbands before marriage, a statistic
that has not improved.
• !0D of ,omen Q including 69D of for,ard caste <indus and *7D of /uslim ,omen Q practised some form of
UpurdahC or UghunghatC.
• The average 2ndian famil( gives over Rs. 70,000 in cash as do,r( and &0D admitted to giving large items li#e
TGs and cars as do,r(. The practice of giving large items as do,r( ,as most common among for,ard caste
<indus and lo,est among /uslims
• $ex ratio too has been declining at an alarming rate, Census )00 recorded onl( 9)% girls bet,een the ages 04
! compared to ,000 bo(s. This ratio dropped to 99 in )0.
• ?uring (ears of rapid economic gro,th, ,omen’s emplo(ment has steadil( declined. ;omen’s ,or#
participation rates for those bet,een the ages 6469 dropped from 6* to 6& per cent for rural ,omen and
from )7 to )0 per cent for urban ,omen bet,een )006 and )0).
• ;omen remain concentrated in the agricultural sector. 2n )006, %7 per cent of the rural men did an(
agricultural ,or#> b( )0) this number fell to !6 per cent. 2n contrast, the decline for ,omen has been
smaller, from 9 per cent to *! percent.
SUCCESSES OF *OVERNMENT POLICIES
• A$$E ,hich provides for institutional deliveries helped raise the rate of institutional deliveries from 60D in
)006 to %0D in )0).
• The proportion of ,omen ,ith their name on a ban# account has risen from * per cent to a ,hopping 7*
per cent in these seven (ears.
• && per cent of the beneficiaries under /.1RE.' are ,omen ,hereas originall( envisaged ,ere 77D

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
MA1OR CHALLEN*ES
;orld 3an# estimated that over the last t,o decades, around ).6 la#h girls ,ere #illed in 2ndia each (ear
because of their sex .;hen infant and child mortalit( are driven b( biolog(, fe,er girls die than bo(s, but the
third 1ational +amil( <ealth $urve( 81+<$479 found that the post neonatal mortalit( rate for 2ndian girls is
):000, compared ,ith 6 for bo(s. +or the age group 4& (ears, Jthe child mortalit( rate for girls, at )7:000,
is ! per cent higher than for bo(s, at &. This reflects a deep entrenched bias against the girls in our countr(.
;omen have been indoctrinated to believe that their securit( depends on good behaviour, as mandated b(
men. There is plent( the( ails the ,omen in 2ndia toda(. $ome issues have been highlighted belo,B
• +oor Con$iction rateB $ection 7) to 7% of 2-C list punishments for causing miscarriage, in5uring unborn
child, preventing child from being born, causing it to die after birth or abandoning it before ) (ears. 3ut
conviction rate is ver( poor in such cases.
• 2isempo9ered0 /ore than &0D children suffer from malnutrition and chances for malnutrition are higher if
the mothers are uneducated, undernourished.
• Socialisation of $iolence against 9omen0 2nferior treatment meted out to girls:mothers moulds ps(che of
brothers:sons ,ho learn to internali0e the lo,er position:preference of ,omen 1CR3 reports that in )0)
there ,ere )&,9)7 cases of rape registered. 2n 9* per cent of the cases, the victims #ne, the offenders. This is
a logical outcome of a nurturing process in ,hich bo(s gro, up believing, from ,hat the( see in their
families, that ,omen exist onl( to satisf( the needs of men.
• 3arriage at lo9er age is a source of increased ris# of adverse reproduction and health conse=uences
• Open defecationB -oses securit( ris# to ,omen i.e. chances of abduction and rape. "ac# of toilets either
through 2'E or in schools has hampered sanitation and education targets. Complaints to the 1<RC sho, ho,
man( ,omen are abducted or raped ,hen the( go out into the fields at night.
• Acts of Criminal ViolenceB Through traffic#ing, ,omen stuc# in conflict 0ones, being ostracised and
persecuted for inter4caste:class marriages, do,r(, ,ife beating and needless h(sterectomies through R$3E.
• Infecti$ity of go$ernment schemes and policiesB @nl( about one per cent of households have registered their
daughters for the girl4child schemes that provide cash incentives for the survival and education of girls. @n
the other hand large schemes suffer from operational difficulties> the demand for hospital4based deliveries
has fast outpaced the abilit( of government hospitals to deliver reasonable =ualit( care.
• "eporting of crimes against 9omen 4$exual violence affects as man( as )%.6 million ,omen in 2ndia, though
onl( one per cent of the victims report the crime to police. "o, reporting of sexual violence might in part be
because marital rape is not a crime in 2ndia. 2n past (ear, increases in reported rape cases have been
attributed to better support for victim disclosure, but actual rape incidence might be increasing.
SOCIAL INCLUSION
*AP BET%EEN MUSLIMS AN$ REST OF POPULATION CLOSIN* $O%N
• The $achar committee ,hich anal(sed socio4economic status of /uslims in the countr( in 990s had given a
verdict that /uslims ,ere doing much ,orse than the average population of the countr(.
• Recent findings of 2<?$ have sho,n that this gap bet,een the /uslims and the rest of the population has
closed do,n in last t,o decades reflecting their improving condition. /uslims fare better than $cheduled
Castes and $cheduled Tribes on most social indicators. The $Cs and $Ts remain, in this sense, the most
marginalised of social groups in 2ndian societ(.
• The average for /uslim under9eight children 8&*.7 per cent9 899*4999, the $achar report noted, ,as ,orse
than the all42ndia average 8&% per cent9. <o,ever, from 9994)006 muslims ,itnessed a drop of !.6 D ,hen
compared to a drop of &.6D for the national average.
• he literacy rate for /uslims had climbed to %) per cent, onl( 7 points belo, that for 2ndia . The difference
bet,een the national average and the /uslim average in literac( rates in rural areas ,as ! percentage points
and in urban areas 0 percentage points in )00. 3oth fell to 7.6 percentage points and *.6 percentage points
respectivel(.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• <o,ever, an issue of concern should be that per capita consumption expenditure for /uslims in urban areas
has been diverging from the rest of urban 2ndia, even though in rural 2ndia, it has #ept pace ,ith the rest of
2ndia.
AN INCLUSIVE *RO%TH POLIC
• Than#s to the inclusive gro,th polic(, and social sector programs such as /.1RE.', A$E and 1R</ etc. real
per capita income has seen gro,th.
• 2nclusiveness of the economic gro,th can be assessed b( loo#ing at gro,th differential across Urban and
Rural <ouseholds> $ocio4religious <ouseholds.
• $ome of the points ,orth noting in this regard are B
• Cause ?n'no9n0 Rise in expenditure and conse=uent decline in povert( Q though the exact cause i.e.
govt. ,elfare programs or general improved participation in economic gro,th is not #no,n
• Income .ro9th0 'verage real household income gro,th has been higher across Rural than Urban areas,
even as non4primar( activities have been the focal point of government schemes.
• 2isad$antaged /etter Off0 <ighest gro,th in median per capita income has been for ?alits and @3Cs
• Income IneBuality up0 2ncome ine=ualit(, represented b( .ini coefficient has gone up slightl( to 66 from
67
SC $IRECTIONS ON MANUAL SCAVEN*IN* ACT
• The apex court has directed all the $tates and UTs to implement the prohibition of Emplo(ment as /anual
$cavengers and their Rehabilitation 'ct, )07.
• The court deprecated the practice of manuall( removing night soil ,ith bare hands, brooms or metal
scrappers.
• The court directed that for se,er deaths, entering se,er lines ,ithout safet( gears should be made a crime
even in emergenc( situations. 'lso, for such a death, compensation of Rs. 0 lac should be given to the famil(
of the dead.
• Rail,a(s should ta#e time4bound strateg( to end manual scavenging on the trac#s
• $afai #aramchari ,omen should be provided support for dignified livelihood in accordance ,ith their choice
of livelihood schemes M%or details and provisions of the 'anual Scavenging Act, students should refer the
September !"#( issue of Vision IASN
BAC+*ROUN$
This ruling of the apex court comes in the light of /anual $cavenging 'ct )07 ,hich ,as passed b( the
parliament in $eptember )07. Eet, most of the states have not implemented the provisions of act ,hich ma#es
the act of manual scavenging a crime. ?r( latrines have not onl( continued to exist till date in several $tates, but
have increased to 9! la#h and are still being cleaned manuall( b( scavengers belonging to the $cheduled Castes.
To add to it the 2ndian Rail,a(s are the biggest emplo(ers of manual scavengers in the countr( ,hich causes
social discrimination and several health ha0ards.
HUMAN $EVELOPMENT IN$ICES IMPROVIN* IN BIMARU STATES
• 's per the latest data from human development indicators across the poorer $tates ,ith a high concentration
of marginali0ed groups are catching up ,ith the national average
• The eight poorer $tates L 3ihar, Chhattisgarh, Ahar#hand, /adh(a -radesh, @disha, Ra5asthan, Uttar -radesh
and Uttara#hand L are home to nearl( &* per cent of all the $Cs, 6) per cent of all the $Ts and && per cent of
all /uslims in the countr(
• ?elhi, Ierala, <imachal -radesh, <ar(ana and -un5ab among the best performing $tates in human
development indicators
• Chhattisgarh, 3ihar, /adh(a -radesh, Ahar#hand and @disha are the ,orst performers.
• /uslims have done ,ell ,hen compared to other sociall( disadvantaged groups such as the $Cs and $Ts
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2mpact of .ood governance on <? indicators is clearl( reflected in the data. +or instance, the $Cs and the
@3Cs in ?elhi, <imachal -radesh, Tamil 1adu and Ierala are better off than the upper castes in 3ihar,
Chhattisgarh and Uttar -radesh in terms of various health indicators.
• $imilarl(, the $Cs in ?elhi and Ierala have higher literac( rates than the upper castes in 3ihar and Ra5asthan.
/uslims in Aammu R Iashmir and '.-. are better than <indus not onl( in their o,n $tates but also in Uttar
-radesh, /adh(a -radesh, 3ihar and .u5arat in terms of some health outcomes
%OR+ $AS FOR TRIBALS UN$ER M*NRE*A INCREASE$
• Cabinet increased the number of ,or#da(s under the /ahatma .andhi 1ational Rural Emplo(ment
.uarantee 'ct 8/.1RE.'9 from 00 to 60 for those ,ho have received land rights under the +orest Rights
'ct, )00!
• ' caveat associated is that the( should have no other private land and should have alread( completed 00
da(s of ,or# under the scheme in that financial (ear.
• To distinguish this categor( from regular /.1RE.' ,or#ers, the( ,ill be given a 5ob card of a different color.
• This move ,ould benefit around & la#h individual out ,hom eight la#h individuals are from the $tates of
'ndhra -radesh, Chhattisgarh, Ahar#hand and @rissa.
ANALSIS
The ne, initiative ,ould have several advantagesB 2t ,ould not onl( help counter left ,ing extremism but it ,ill
also help in increasing the green cover in forests. 'dditionall(, the government hopes this measure ,ill stop
migration, revive degraded forest lands and prevent these families from being exploited b( 1axalites.






Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<5 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
HEALTH
MAULANA A8A$ SEHAT SCHEME
• J$ehat CardK ,ould be issued to ever( student of the 2nstitution financiall( aided b( /aulana '0ad Education
+oundation
• -reventive <ealth Chec#4up Camps ,ould be organi0ed b( the 2nstitute t,ice in a (ear, through
.overnment:-rivate <ospitals:1ursing <ome
• 'll findings of the -reventive <ealth Chec#ups ,ill be entered in the $ehat Card of the student b( the ?octors
• 2n exceptional and deserving cases for serious ailments, the poor students belonging to notified minorities
,ould be provided financial assistance for treatment in .overnment:Recogni0ed <ospitals
• $erious ailments of Iidne(, <eart, "iver, Cancer and 3rain or an( other life threatening diseases including
Inee surger( and $pinal surger( ,ould be covered
BAN ON ANAL*IN REVO+E$
• /inistr( of <ealth and +amil( ;elfare has lifted the ban on pain4#iller and anti4p(retic drug 'nalgin and all
formulations containing analgin.
• The drug can no, be sold ,ith a ,arning in 2ndia, but it is banned in most parts of the ,orld.
• 2t ,as banned in Aune last (ear b( the ?rugs Technical 'dvisor( 3oard due to fears of ris# to human lives, and
since there ,ere alternative drugs available
IN$IA OFFICIALL $ECLARE$ POLIO FREE
• $outh4East 'sia Region, home to a =uarter of the ,orld’s population ,as recentl( certified polio4free.
• 1ot onl( is this the fourth of the sixth regions globall( to be declared polio free but no, more than *0D of
global population is free from the scourge of this deadl( disease
• 2ndia ,as presented ,ith the official certification for its polio free status as there have been no reported
cases of polio in last three (ears in the countr(.
IN$IA3S ACHIEVEMENT APPLAU$ABLE
2ndia started on its 5ourne( to eradicate polio 9 (ears ago in 996, ,hen the disease used to cripple more than
60,000 children in the countr( ever( (ear. This achievement had been possible ,ith resolute ,ill at the highest
levels, technological innovations li#e the indigenous bivalent polio vaccine, ade=uate domestic financial
resources and close monitoring of polio programme, ,ith ,hich immuni0ation levels soared to 99 per cent
coverage and 2ndia achieved polio eradication. ' ).74million strong team of polio volunteers and 60,000
supervisors ,or#ed da( and night to reach ever( child.
MORE CHALLEN*ES LIE AHEA$
/ore than )0 countries currentl( use onl( @-G or @ral -olio Gaccines ,hich ,ould be phased out eventuall(.
These countries ,ill introduce a dose of 2-G 8inactivated polio vaccine9b( the end of )06 as part of their
commitment to the global polio endgame plan ,hich aims to ensure a polio4free ,orld b( )0*. The oral
vaccine, ,hich is cheap and easil( administered, uses live but ,ea#ened forms of the poliovirus 8vaccine
derived9. 3ut the live vaccine viruses can at times become harmful again. Gaccine4derived viruses can gain the
abilit( to transmit ,ithin communities and even pass from one countr( to another. $uch Fcirculating vaccine4
derived polioviruses’ 8cG?-G9 have created havoc across the ,orld since )000. -olio cases ,orld,ide during
)07 recorded an *) per cent increase over the previous (ear. 'lthough the polio4endemic countries of
'fghanistan and 1igeria more than halved the number of polio cases last (ear, -a#istan registered a !0 per cent
increase. The virus has reappeared in countries that had been free of it. Giruses from -a#istan have surfaced in
the /iddle East, and those from 1igeria produced a resurgence of polio in the <orn of 'frica. This ma( not stop
here and virus ma( find its ,a( bac# into man( more countries across the globe.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
' meeting has been called of the Emergenc( Committee under the 2nternational <ealth Regulations to advice on
measures to reduce the ris# of further international spread. @ne such step could be the compulsor( vaccination
of travellers from polio4infected areas. 2ndia recentl( made it mandator( that those coming from countries ,ith
polio produce a certificate of vaccination ,ith an oral polio vaccine. 's long as the virus circulates in an( part of
the ,orld, all countries free of it need to be alert and stop it from getting bac# in their territor(.
CHALLEN*E OF IN1ECTABLE POLIO VACCINE .IPV/
• +or 2ndia, ,hich has successfull( #ept naturall(4occurring F,ild’ polioviruses at ba( for three ,hole (ears, a
ne, challenge looms.
• 2ndia is among &0 countries that rel( on the oral polio vaccine 8@-G9. These countries have no, been as#ed
to introduce an inCectable inacti$ated polio $accine =I+V> into their routine childhood immunisation
programme b( the end of next (ear.
• The oral vaccine, ,hich is cheap and easil( administered, uses li$e but 9ea'ened forms of the polio$irus7
3ut the live vaccine viruses can occasionall( revert to virulence.
• Vaccine6deri$ed $iruses can gain the abilit( to transmit ,ithin communities and even pass from one countr(
to another. $uch Dcirculating $accine6deri$ed polio$irusesE =cV2+V> have struc# over %00 children since the
(ear )000, producing outbrea#s in several countries, including -a#istan, 'fghanistan, 1igeria and $omalia.
• /ore than 96 per cent of the cG-?G cases in recent (ears have been of the t(pe ) strain =the polio$irus has
three strains, types ,, ( and -9. -olio caused b( a ,ild t(pe ) virus ,as, on the other hand, last seen 6 (ears
bac#.
• The .lobal -olio Eradication 2nitiative 8.-E29, ,hich coordinates the global fight again polio, therefore ,ants
to stop all use of @-G that contains the t(pe ) vaccine strain.
• ri$alent O+V, ,ith all three t(pes of vaccine strains, is to be replaced b( bi$alent O+V 9ith only type , and
type - $accine strains7
• 3ut before ma#ing that s,itch, the .-E2 has as#ed all countries using trivalent @-G to introduce at least one
dose of the in5ectable 2-G vaccine into their routine immunisation programme. 2-G, ,hich is more expensive,
uses 'illed forms of the three types of 9ild $iruses and carries no ris' of re$ersion to $irulence.
• This vaccine ,ould provide protection against an( t(pe ) vaccine4derived viruses lingering in the
environment.
• 3ut for 2-G to be effectivel( deplo(ed, routine immunisation co$erage has to be impro$ed.
• "essons from 2ndiaCs success in polio eradication are being used to enhance routine immunisation and reach
under4served communities. This includes dra,ing up comprehensive micro4plans for routine
immunisation, intensivel( training frontline health ,or#ers ,ho ,ill carr( out vaccinations and putting in
place monitoring s(stems so that corrective measures can be ta#en ,hen needed.
IN$IA BE*INS MAN$ATOR OPV FOR TRAVELERS
• $ince /arch , administration of oral polio vaccine 8@-G9 six ,ee#s before departure has become mandator(
for all 2ndia4bound travelers from seven countries ,here polio cases are still being reportedB 'fghanistan,
Ethiopia, $(ria, Ien(a, $omalia, 1igeria and -a#istan.
• 2ndians headed for these countries ,ill also be administered the vaccine.
• The health ministr( stated that the ne, preventive measure has been initiated as per the recommendations
of the national and international expert bodies and the guidelines of the ;orld <ealth @rganisation.
• 2ndia has not reported an( case of polio for over three (ears. <o,ever, the ris# of importation persists as
'fghanistan, -a#istan and 1igeria continue to be polio4endemic. $ix countries ,ere re4infected in )07 and
there ,ere ma5or polio outbrea#s in the <orn of 'frica and the /iddle East.
• 2n /a( )07, the 2ndia Expert 'dvisor( .roup on -olio Eradication recommended that the countr( promote
the current ;<@ immuni0ation recommendations for travelers to and from polio4endemic or infected areas.
• 2ndia has set up continuous immunisation posts along the borders ,ith -a#istan, 1epal, 3angladesh,
/(anmar and 3hutan. This (ear their number ,ent up to 0), ,ith nearl( &.) million children immunised in
the past t,o (ears.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2ndia has declared that an( case of poliovirus ,ill be treated as an emergenc(. Emergenc( preparedness and
response capacit( are being revie,ed on an4ongoing basis.
THE *RO%IN* MENACE OF TB IN IN$IA
@f the estimated 9 million T3 cases across the ,orld, 7 million do not get the care the( need and are missing or
unaccounted for in the public health s(stem. @f these million are in 2ndia. ' number of T3 cases and deaths go
unnoticed because of misdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment and lac# of access to care. $ome of the fla,s in the
current deliver( s(stem areB
• Lac' of !le4ibility0 Under Revised 1ational T3 Control -rogram 8R1TC-9, the caregiver becomes entirel(
responsible for ensuring the patient ta#es drugs and completes treatment Current program does not give the
patient a right to choose a provider 4 important given cases of stigmatisation of T3 patients b( communit(
and health care providers.
• InadeBuate Social and Nutritional Support especiall( during the tenure of the treatment to avoid drop4out
rate.
• Structural Issues0 T3 deliver( though a vertical mechanism 4 not integrated into primar( health care services
rendered b( public health s(stem. /ost patients thus prefer private providers as first -@Cs even as R1TC-
provides free diagnostic and treatment
• +oor Buality in the pri$ate sector0 /ore than !0 per cent of patients choose a provider from the private
sector. 3ut since the private sector is unregulated patients get no protection against inaccurate testing or
irrational prescriptions. -oor administration of drugs along ,ith irrational prescriptions and unregulated sale
of anti4T3 drugs over the counter lead to the transmission of drug4resistant T3.
SOLUTIONS *OIN* AHEA$
• 1ngaging the pri$ate sectorB -rivate sector manages !0D of 2ndia’s T3 patients, its effective engagement and
participation is therefore crucial to the success of T3 control in 2ndia. ?eficit of mutual trust, shortage of
human resources and pre4occupance of ?@T$ program manager are some of the reasons for poor
engagement and regulation of private sector in T3 control. The private sector often uses inaccurate and
expensive T3 diagnostic tests. ;hile inaccurate diagnosis can lead to increased infection and patient
suffering, escalating costs have a debilitating effect on families, pushing them into a vicious c(cle of povert(.
There also exist ,ell4documented cases ,here private practitioners prescribe inappropriate drug regimens.
'dditionall(, treatment adherence is a ma5or issue L patients often stop their treatment or ta#e medication
in an irregular manner due to high costs or lac# of monitoring.
2ndia’s anti4T3 programme has in the past floated public private partnership 8---9 schemes, but these have
not had the necessar( impact, perhaps because of insufficient benefits and incentives for the private sector.
;e need to create an effective and ,or#able relationship bet,een the public and private sectors. ' platform
that combines man( of these are the government of 2ndia’s recentl( issued $tandards of T3 Care in 2ndia
8$TC29. The $TC2 has been developed b( the Central T3 ?ivision and dovetails ,ith ;orld <ealth @rganisation
and 2nternational $tandards for T3 Care endorsed recommendations
The --- strateg( should include a s(stem for accreditation of private facilities that offer the best standards of
care. There ,ill have to be stricter regulation of the sale of anti4T3 drugs.
• /anning Serology esting0 'lthough the public sector offers free T3 care services, its primar( tool of diagnosis
all these (ears, sputum microscop(, missed half of all T3 cases. ?ela(ed detection impacts treatment
outcomes, and contributes to continuing disease transmission. $erolog(4based testing for T3 should be
banned and mandator( notification of T3 cases made compulsor(. There are several ;<@ recommended
diagnostic techni=ues, such as .ene Vpert and other indigenousl( manufactured #its that provide =uic# and
accurate T3 diagnosis.
• Infection Control and Nutrition0 T3 is an air borne disease and it spreads =uic#l( in close, densel( #nit spaces.
2n the absence of ventilated housing, providing patients and families ,ith sufficient information on
preventive strategies can help contain the infection. 'lso, there is a need to introduce a provision for
nutritional supplements to all T3 patients. Sualit( of nutrition has a significant impact on improved treatment
outcomes. $ince the ma5orit( of T3 patients belong to vulnerable sections of societ(, a nutritional supplement
or financial incentive ,ould go a long ,a( in the battle against T3.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• "egulating sale of Anti6/ drugs0 2f left untreated a tuberculosis patient can infect 046 more people ever(
(ear ,hich ma#es it a public health imperative to find, diagnose, treat and cure ever( patient. Ieeping the
above in mind, it is critical to arrest the irrational sale and use of anti4tuberculosis drugs7 A latest government
notification in this regards has been discussed below.
• Societal action necessary0 T3 could affect an(one, irrespective of social or economic status as it spreads
through the air ,e breathe. ;e need opinion leaders, concerned citi0ens and public figures to become
champions in the fight against T3. Unless a concerted societal action is intimated against T3 the fight ,ould
remain incomplete.
TUBERCULOSIS AN$ CHIL$REN
• 's per a stud( @ne million children aged belo, 6 (ears are annuall( diseased ,ith tuberculosis across the
,orld. The ne, estimates are t,ice the number of children thought to have tuberculosis in )00 and thrice
the number of children ,ho ,ere actuall( diagnosed that (ear.
• The number of children ,ho ,ere diseased ,ith multidrug4resistant T3 8/?R4T39 L in )00, ,as about
7),000.
• 3ut even this huge number ma( be an underestimate because of fault( diagnostic techni=ues used across the
,orld.
• /ore reliable estimates of drug4sensitive and drug4resistant T3 are essential for several reasons, prioriti0ing
government’s efforts to diagnose and treat more children ,ith T3 being the most important one.
PUTTIN* A CURB ON SALE OF OVER THE COUNTER ANTIBIOTICS
• The Union <ealth /inistr( has notified amendments to the ?rugs and Cosmetic 'ct, 9&0, in ,hich a
$chedule4< has been included. /arch on,ards these &! antibiotics, that include anti4T3 medicines too, are
sold onl( upon presenting a valid prescription from a medical professional. .overnment needs to be
congratulated for this long overdue measure ,hich ,ill curb irrational sale and use of drugs.
• 'll tertiar( health care facilities are expected to have in4hospital antibiotic monitoring facilities b( the (ear4
end, and all secondar( and primar( health centres ,ill have an antibiotic polic( in place at the end of t,o
(ears
• 'ccording to the notification, the pharmac( has to #eep a cop( of the medical prescription and record details
such as name of patient, doctor, among others. ' mandator( ,arning in a red box ,ill also have to be printed
on the label of these listed &! drugs, violation of ,hich can result in prosecution as per the ?rugs and
Cosmetics 'ct, 9&0
%HAT IS SCHE$ULE H14
$chedule < is a class of prescription drugs in 2ndia appearing as an appendix to the ?rugs and Cosmetics rules
introduced in 9&6.These are drugs ,hich cannot be purchased over the counter ,ithout the prescription of a
=ualified doctor.
IMPACT OF SUCH A MOVE4
The measure rolled out b( the .overnment ,ill certainl( curb irrational use of anti4T3 medicines, and ,ill have a
pronounced and positive impact on public health.

8ERO AI$S $ISCRIMINATION $A LAUNCHE$
• Aoint United 1ations -rogram on <2G:'2?$ 8U1'2?$9 launched its Wero ?iscrimination ?a( in 3ei5ing, China, to
support the people infected b( <2G:'2?$.
• The motto of launch is to call the people ever(,here to promote e=ual rights for '2?$ victims and celebrate
ever(one’s right to live a full life ,ith dignit( no matter ,hat the( loo# li#e, ,here the( come from or ,hom
the( love.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

<2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
U ' ME A*AINST $EN*UE
• To eradicate dengue, a multi4pronged campaign ,as launched across six 2ndian cities ,ith public4private
partnership.
• 's part of the t,o4month long campaign fumigation drive, neem plantation and cleanliness drive ,ould be
launched in phases to combat the spread of ?engue.
• /ore than !6,000 school children and *6,000 households ,ould be involved in the campaign.
ALL PART MANIFESTO ON HEATLH
$everal civil societ( groups have sought a la, to facilitate universal access to =ualit( and comprehensive health care. These
groups ,ant the ma5or political parties to include such issues as a part of their manifesto.
NEE$ FOR A HEALTH MANIFESTO
• <ealth has been given a ver( lo, priorit( on manifestos of political parties for the .eneral Elections )0&.
• -roblems such as the threat of communicable diseases, chronic diseases such as the diabetes, h(pertension
and heart ailments continue to plague our countr( but ironicall(, health does not feature high on priorit( list
for political parties, even though it is the central pillar of a nation’s development and productivit(.
• Citi0ens have high expectations from the government on health issues ,hich ,ould go be(ond the limited
scope of existing national programmes.
• "ong4term goals in healthcare transformation re=uire a timeline that surel( goes be(ond the life of one "o#
$abha. The Centre and $tates also have to ,or# in unison, regardless of ,hich parties are in po,er. 'n all4
part( commitment to broad tenets is therefore absolutel( essential to ensure focus, consistenc(, speed and
accountabilit(
CURRENT SITUATION
• 1ational Rural <ealth /ission has laid do,n strong fundamentals. /ore than *,00,000 '$<'s, 77,000 nurses,
&,000 paramedics, *,000 doctors and 7,000 specialists have been inducted> over )0,000 facilities have been
constructed> and over )0,000 ambulances have been deplo(ed.
• /edical graduate seats have increased b( 66 per cent and postgraduate seats b( %6 per cent.
• Than#s to Aanani $ura#sha Eo5ana ) to 7 crore ,omen are no, delivering in government facilities and more
than ! la#h ne,born babies are receiving care in neonatal care nurseries in district hospitals each (ear.
• -olio has been eliminated from the face of the countr(.
• The 2nfant mortalit( rate 82/R9 has declined from !* to &) per 000 live births bet,een )000 and )0).
UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERA*E
T,elfth -lan strateg( envisages Universal <ealth Coverage 8U<C9 as the long4term goal ,hich guarantees
cashless access to a defined pac#age of =ualit( health services to all citi0ens. $uch a s(stem that has been in
existence for long in developed countries such as .erman(, the U.I., Canada, Aapan, 'ustralia, 1e, Wealand, has
no, been embraced b( middle4income countries such as Thailand, /exico and 3ra0il. To ensure the success and
implementation of U<C both public and private sector ,ould have to ma#e The <igh4"evel Expert .roup 8<"E.9
on U<C, envisioned a 1ational <ealth $(stem ,herein a strong public sector leads the design and deliver( of
U<C, dra,ing on support from the private sector in a ,ell4regulated frame,or#. 2t is estimated that U<C ,ould
re=uire public spending on healthcare to the tune of 7.0 per cent of the .?- or more. 2t is high time no, that the
entire political leadership of the countr( expresses its support both in letter and realit( to the program.
$EMAN$S RAISE$ B SOCIAL ACTIVISTS7 E)PERTS
• +irst, political parties should commit to the goal of achieving U<C in the countr( b( the (ear )0)6, and
develop a clear roadmap thereof b( mid4)06.
• $econd, public spending on health should be raised from a meagre .0& per cent of the .?- in the Eleventh
-lan -lan to 7 per cent b( )0)0, and & per cent b( )0)6.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Third, all essential drugs, including anti4cancer agents, should be made available free to all citi0ens in 74&
(ears.
• +ourth, standards of care including clinical guidelines, applicable to both the public and the private sectors,
should be developed and enforced in the next five (ears.
• +ifth, e=uit( must be ensured in the provision of health services across districts, communities and gender.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ENVIRONMENT
IN$IA RHINO VISION 2020 AN$ TRIMMIN* OF HORN
• The one horned Rhino is among the ,orldsC most endangered species.
• +or (ears, rhinos have been ,idel( slaughtered for their horn, a pri0ed ingredient in traditional 'sian
medicines. ?estruction of their habitat over the (ears, has brought the rhinos to the brin# of extinction.
• The species once existed across the entire northern part of the 2ndian subcontinent, along the 2ndus,
.anges and 3rahmaputra River basins, from -a#istan to the 2ndian43urmese border, including parts of
1epal, 3angladesh and 3hutan, and also ma( have existed in /(anmar, southern China, and 2ndochina
PRO*RAM $ETAILS
• 2ndian Rhino Gision 82RG9 )0)0 is a partnership the 'ssam +orest ?epartment, the 3odoland Territorial
Council, the ;orld ;ide +und for 1ature 8;;+9, the 2nternational Rhino +oundation 82R+9, and the U$ +ish
and ;ildlife $ervice.
• The goal is to attain a ,ild population of at least 7,000 greater one4horned rhinos in the 2ndian state of
'ssam 4 spread over seven protected areas 4 b( the (ear )0)0. +or this population ,ould have to increase at
a rate of 7D annuall(
• The horns of rhinos that Fstra(’ outside protected areas, or rhinos that need to be trans located, should be
Ftrimmed’
• 's per the Chief Conservator of +orests the trimmed horns ,ill gro, bac# to their original si0e in four to five
months again. There ,ill be no damage to internal organs of the animals nor ,ill it lo,er their attraction.
• This action of trimming ,ill also protect them from the poachers, ,ho hunt them 5ust to ta#e a,a( their
horns.
• The forest department has solicited the vie,s of public before proceeding an( further on this issue.
ANALSIS
'n expert committee has been constituted b( the $tate to consider the Ffeasibilit( and necessit(’ of de4horning
rhinos, in a move to Fsave’ them. Unli#e the 'frican rhino, the 2ndian rhino has a single horn. This horn is made of
#eratin and if cut in a ,a( that includes the s#ull, it ,ill not gro, bac#. 2f cut in a manner ,hich excludes the s#ull
it is li#el( to regro,.
An e4ercise in futility B3ut critics argue that poachers ,ould #ill the rhino an(,a(, if not out of lure of mone(,
then out of vengeance, as ,as observed in countries of 'frica ,here de4horning ,as carried out as an exercise to
prevent poaching. Even in 2ndia poachers have #illed female rhinos for their horns, even though the( have horns
significantl( smaller than those of males. 2n essence, poachers #ill the rhino irrespective of the si0e of the horn
or its presence. The( also argue that this exercise ,ould further endanger the lives of rhinos in protected areas
as the( ,ould be more sought after this exercise.
Impact on "hinoEs life0 'nother important =uestion surrounding the de4horning of the Rhino is its impact on the
normal life of a rhino. +ield observations confirm that successful males are also those ,ho have large horns, and
the horn has been seen as used in foraging for food. ?ehorning rhinos ma( or ma( not stem poaching of rhinos.
3ut it ma( set a precedent for similar such exercises, ,hich are seen as a management tool, but have un#no,n
impacts on the actual life and ecolog( of the animal.
The proposal to de4horn is considered b( man( as complete admission of defeat, and that too, to unregulated
forces. These are forces ,hich ,e should not buc#le to, for reasons both logical and ethical. The ans,ers as per
them lie in demonstrating seriousness in solving the actual problemB through higher conviction rates for
poaching cases, enforcement, vigilance and carr(ing for,ard the commitment the 'ssam government has
alread( sho,n.
Civil societ( organi0ations have urged the government to ta#e proactive measures including intelligence
gathering and combat training to forest guards and range officers manning Ia0iranga and other rhino4bearing
national par#s and sanctuaries.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
%HO ON AIR POLLUTION
• 's per latest estimates released b( ;<@, air pollution has emerged as the ,orldCs single largest
environmental health ris#, having caused seven million deaths in )0) L *0D of ,hich ,ere from heart
attac#s and stro#e.
• ;<@ recentl( categori0ed outdoor air pollution L caused b( car exhausts, po,er stations, emissions from
agriculture and industr( as ,ell as heating in peopleCs homes L as a .roup carcinogenic, a cancer causing
agent in the same categor( as tobacco smo#e, UG radiation and plutonium
• 'fter anal(sing the ris# factors, ;<@ estimated that indoor air pollution ,as lin#ed to &.7 million deaths in
)0) in households coo#ing over coal, ,ood and biomass stoves
• Regionall(, lo,4 and middle4income countries in the ;<@ $outh4East 'sia and ;estern -acific Regions had
the largest air pollution4related burden in )0), ,ith a total of 7.7 million deaths lin#ed to indoor air
pollution and ).! million deaths related to outdoor air pollution
• -oor ,omen and children pa( a heav( price from indoor air pollution since the( spend more time at home
breathing in smo#e and soot from lea#( coal and ,ood coo# stoves
HO% $O IN$IAN CITIES FAIR ON OUT$OOR POLLUTION4
The Central -ollution Control 3oard has listed more than %0 cities that have violated ambient air =ualit(
standards. -laces such as ?elhi and "udhiana have unacceptable levels of -/ 8particulate matter9 L 9* and )69
micrograms per cubic metre respectivel(. /itigation efforts till no, have been limited to improving the fuel
efficienc( of vehicles. There is no doubt that enhancing emission norms is necessar(, but it is e=uall( important
to increase the use of public transport. ?elhi is a ver( important example of the same. The Environment
-ollution 8-revention and Control9 'uthorit( for the ?elhi region, in a recent report, stated that all gains made b(
converting buses and three4,heelers to Compressed 1atural .as have been lost to a rapid increase in the
number of private vehicles. The level of particulate matter has increased substantiall( over the (ears.
Though various urban policies have stated that public transport is a priorit(, in realit(, investments have not
matched the ,ords. $hare of public transport has steadil( declined in the large cities. 2t is onl( in recent (ears
that $tate governments are tr(ing to increase transport options b( building metro rail net,or#s. This alone ma(
not deliver. 2ntegrating cit( functions ,ith transport plans and encouraging non4motorised transport such as
c(cling are also critical. The future of 2ndian cities is inevitabl( tied to the improvement of public transport
s(stem.
$ELHI HAS THE %ORST AIR -UALIT ACROSS IN$IA

• The Capital has been listed as the ,orst performer across the countr( ,ith respect to the presence of
alarmingl( high le$el of +articulate 3atter up to ,) micrometer in si@e =+3,)> concentration.
• This exposes residents here to a host of diseases including respirator( disease, chronic obstructive
pulmonar( disorder and lung cancer
• J2ntroduction of the Compressed 1atural .as 8C1.9 in )00& ,as the last ma5or intervention to deal ,ith
poor air =ualit( in the Capital. $ince then the regulator( and polic( mechanisms in ?elhi have been
unable to #eep up ,ith the gro,th in vehicular population and construction activit( in the cit(. These are
the primar( causes of poor air =ualit(, in addition to industrial emissions.K
• 'lso, according to a recentl( released 1n$ironmental +erformance Inde4 stud(, 2ndia officiall( has the
9orst air pollution beating China, +a'istan, Nepal and /angladesh7 It ran's last on ambient air Buality
of all ,F) plus countries sur$eyed7



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ROA$ TO URBAN FUTURE

PARIS E)AMPLE

• $mog ,rapped the cit( and air pollution increased be(ond safe limits. -ollutants, particularl( particulate
matter measuring less than 0 micrometre in diameter reached unsafe levels of *0 micrograms per
cubic metre, against the ;<@’s permissible limit of G) micrograms per cubic metre =(56hour mean>7
• Though bad ,eather contributed to this high concentration, the principal cause, as is often the case, ,as
increased fuel emission.
STEPS TA+EN B AUTHORITIES

• The cit( authorities had to ta#e drastic steps to reduce pollution since prolonged inhaling of particulate
matter ,ould cause respirator( diseases, lung cancer and cardiovascular ailments.
• The( imposed restrictions on the use of cars, permitting vehicles ,ith odd and even number plates to pl(
onl( on alternate dates and encouraging shared use of cars.
• -eople ,ere allo,ed to use buses, /etro rail and other public transport, besides shared bic(cles, free of
charge during ,ee#ends.
• The reasoning ,as that restrictions and incentives ,ould encourage commuters to shift to public
transport, thus reducing pollution.
• 2nitial reports indicated that these measures ,or#ed, and congestion had come do,n b( !0 per cent.
• +ree use of public transport cost the cit( about O6.6 million a da(, but considering the public4health
interest it ,as a necessar( investment.
LESSON FOR IN$IAN CITIES

• The Central -ollution Control 3oard has listed more than %0 cities that have violated ambient air =ualit(
standards. -laces such as ?elhi and "udhiana have unacceptable levels of -/X4YX40Y L 9* and )69
micrograms per cubic metre respectivel(.
• /itigation efforts thus far have been limited to improving the fuel efficienc( of vehicles. Enhancing
emission norms is necessar(, but e=uall( critical is the need to increase the use of public transport7
• The Environment -ollution 8-revention and Control9 'uthorit( for the ?elhi region, in a recent report,
stated that all gains made by con$erting buses and three69heelers to Compressed Natural .as ha$e
been lost to a rapid increase in the number of pri$ate $ehicles7 The level of particulate matter has
increased substantiall( over the (ears.
• Though various urban policies have stated that public transport is a priorit(, on the ground, investments
have not matched intentions.
• The modal share of public transport has steadil( declined in the large cities. 2t is onl( in recent (ears that
$tate governments are tr(ing to increase transport options b( building metro rail net9or's7
• Integrating city functions 9ith transport plans and encouraging non6motorised transport such as
cycling are also critical7 The future of 2ndian cities is inextricabl( tied to the improvement of public
transport.

*M FOO$ CROP FIEL$ TRIALS REAPPROVE$
• .enetic Engineering 'ppraisal Committee 8.E'C9, reapproved +ield trials for ten varieties of ./ food and
other crops. These included field trials for rice, ,heat, mai0e, cotton and sorghum.
• Companies applied for revalidation after their earlier permits lapsed follo,ing opposition from state
governments. The Jconfined field trialsK 8called -hase422 trial9 ,ould ta#e place in bigger areas as compared
to previous tests in a ver( small tract of land during -hase42.
• The re4approval ,ould have to be first approved b( the Union Environment and +orests /inister 8,hich is
almost a certaint( as explained belo,9 and then the promoter companies ,ould have to go bac# to the
$tates for a final nod as agriculture is a $tate sub5ect under constitutional provisions.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

CC www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
BAC+*ROUN$
The move to go ahead ,ith ./ technolog( L especiall( food crops L has been a sub5ect of hot debate among
the scientific communit( and evo#ed concerns among civil societ( groups. 2t had also created divisions in the
government L the 'griculture /inistr(, the department of 3iotechnolog( on one side 8supporting it9 and the
Environment /inistr( 8opposing it9 on the other. This decision to allo, field trials of geneticall( modified food
crops mar#s a ma5or shift in official polic( on a highl( contentious issue.
The trials ,ere held up last (ear after former Environment /inister had refused to approve the .E'C decision
and ,rote to the -rime /inister sa(ing field trials ,ere not feasible as the issue ,as pending in the $upreme
Court. 3ut current environment minister has ta#en a stand, that the apex court had not explicitl( ordered an(
sta( against clearing field trials and has held a decision ta#en b( a statutor( bod( pending cannot be #ept
pending and has therefore sho,n support on the matter.
ANALSIS
Criticism from +arliamentary Committee0 This decision of environment ministr( has come under severe criticism
from the parliamentar( committee on agriculture. The committee suggested that an( test should not be
underta#en till the Centre puts in place all regulator(, monitoring, oversight and surveillance structure.
Environment minister on the other hand has held that field trials are necessar( to generate biosafet( data.
NOC from States0 Even as the .E'C prepares to ta#e environment minister’s mandate, it is also clear that the
last ,ord has not (et been said on the contentious issue. Experts visualise a long and rough road ahead before
./ food on 2ndian tables becomes a realit(. ' #e( point here is clearance b( the state government. ' no4
ob5ection certificate 81oC9 ,ill have to be procured from states ,here the trials are to be conducted. $tates li#e
3ihar, /adh(a -radesh, Chhattisgarh, ;est 3engal, Ra5asthan, @disha, Iarnata#a and Ierala, ,hich have
opposed field trials in the past, are unli#el( to change their stance.
In fa$our of .3 crops0 ./ food is a complex issue, ,ith valid arguments on both the sides. 'long ,ith
environment concerns is also the fact that agriculture in 2ndia, ,here population is gro,ing b( leaps and bounds,
is heavil( dependent on the vagaries of monsoon. Therefore, ne, innovations and safe technologies in
agriculture are re=uired. To achieve a 0ero hunger challenge of the United 1ations b( )0)6, ,e must double the
small farm productivit(. $uch an increase ,ill be possible onl( through the intelligent and intensive application of
ne, technologies such as biotechnolog(
Vie9s against .3 Crops0 +rom the farmers’ perspective, there is fear of commercial monopolies in agriculture
L ,herever ./ crops are lin#ed to intellectual propert( rights or commercial contracts, restrictions on use and
the prospect of litigation come into pla(. This is an important dimension in 2ndia, ,hich has a large number of
small farms. /oreover, the ./ foods industr( claims transgenic plant varieties are safe on the one hand, but
fiercel( opposes labelling of products as such leaving several =uestions unans,ered. There is a gro,ing bod( of
scientific evidence on adverse impacts of ./ crops on human health, environment and farm livelihoods. Recent
experiences of /onsanto’s ./ rice and ./ ,heat from field trials contaminating the grain suppl( chain in the
U$' is a case in point.
#ay ahead0 The #e( =uestions that must be ans,ered ,hile considering grant of permission for ./ crop
production is their impact on health and the environment> the farming communit( must also be given a hearing.
$cientific assessments must be independent of the supporters of ./ agriculture, especiall( commercial entities.
;hat this implies is the great importance attached ,ith regulator( mechanisms before permission is granted for
,or# outside laboratories. 2t is e=uall( vital that in a countr( ,ith a diverse agricultural heritage, traditional seed
varieties are not ,iped out b( monoculture.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C5 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IPCC REPORT ON CLIMATE CHAN*E
CONCERNS RAISE$ B THE REPORT
• The report has ,arned that the increasing magnitude of global ,arning ,ill have severe, pervasive and
irreversible impact on the climate
• The report sa(s that heaviest rainfall in )00 (ears, and floods and gales experienced in 3ritain this (ear are
a sign of things to come
• T,o t(pes of extreme events are going to occur more fre=uentl( L extreme precipitation and heat ,aves.
• 2t has outlined the impact of ,arming on the seas as ,ell as on the fresh,ater s(stems. 's per the report
oceans ,ill become more acidic, ,hich threatens the coral and other species that rel( on them.
• +isheries ,ill also be affected, ,ith ocean chemistr( thro,n off balance b( climate change. $ome fish in the
tropics could become extinct.
• Crop (ields ,ould fall b( ) per cent a decade and affect all the parts of ,orld. The /editerranean ,ill have
severe problems ,ith ,ater scarcit( ,hich ,ill impact on food. $ome parts of 'frica could have declines of
60 per cent Min crop (ieldsN as soon as )0)0.
• ?ue to sea level rise throughout the centur( and be(ond, coastal and lo,4l(ing areas ,ill increasingl(
experience adverse impacts such as coastal erosion and flooding.
• The biggest potential ris#, ho,ever, is of a number of those scenarios unfolding at the same time, leading to
conflicts and ,ars, or turning regional problem into a global crisis
IS THE %ORL$ PREPARE$4
2ntergovernmental -anel on Climate Change 82-CC9 ;or#ing .roup 22 believes that the ,orld is unprepared for
ris#s from a changing climate. 's per experts if ,e act boldl( and cut climate pollution faster ma5or threats to
human securit( can still be avoided and vital ocean s(stems, forests and species protected. @ne thing that 2-CC
has come up ,ith is the importance of adaptation and mitigation choices because this is the onl( ,a( the globe
might be able to reduce ris#s of climate change. Report also finds that governments Q if the( act no, Q can help
protect populations from those ris#s, the earlier the global po,ers act, the better.
R,22
• ?irectorate of revenue 2ntelligence has sei0ed a record over ).& la#h #g of o0one4depleting restricted
refrigeration gas FR4))’, ,hich ,as being smuggled into the countr(.
• R4)) is used for air4conditioning applications, residential as ,ell as process chillers and industrial refrigerant
plants.
• $muggling of such o0one depleting substances 8@?$9, reduces the incentives for users to shift to alternative
technologies using o0one4and climate4friendl( refrigerants and hence is a matter of concern.
• ?R2 has been a,arded the prestigious FEC' @0one -rotection ',ard for Customs R Enforcement @fficers
87rd Edition9’ b( U1 Environment -rogramme 8U1E-9
• @0one ?epleting $ubstances 8Regulation9 Rules, )000 regulates and restricts the import and export of @?$.
HC ON HARMFUL EFFECTS OF PESTICI$ES
• ?elhi <igh Court directed the ?elhi .overnment and the Union 'griculture /inistr( to launch an a,areness
campaign about the harmful effects of pesticide residue in fruits and vegetable in the Capital and across the
countr( respectivel(.
• The focus of the campaign should be ,holesale mandis, malls, cinema halls, retails fruit and vegetable
ba0aars in colonies and other public places.
ANALSIS
$uch a step ,as re=uired given the exorbitant use of pesticides in the countr(. The amount of pesticides used in
2ndia ,as up to %60 times the European standards. These pesticides cause headache, affect fertilit( and damage
#idne(s and liver. @f five internationall( banned pesticides, traces of four ,ere found in fruits and vegetables in
2ndia.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
$ISSECTION OF ANIMALS IN UNIVERSIT LABS BANNE$
• ?issecting an( living thing in a 0oolog( or life science class to stud( muscular movement or a beating heart
,ill soon be a thing of the past.
• 2n 0oological parlance a live animal ,ill include even coc#roaches and earth,orms
HIMALAAN PAR+ NOMINATE$ FOR HERITA*E STATUS
• The .reat <imala(an 1ational -ar# in <imachal has been nominated for U1E$C@’s ,orld heritage site
• 2t is located on the ;estern -art of the <imala(an /ountains in the Iullu ?istrict and is #no,n for its
biodiversit(.
• 2t has more than )6 forest t(pes, *00 #inds of plants and is home to more than *0 bird species
• This site, included in the tentative list in )009, ,as submitted for U1E$C@’s consideration last (ear. 3ut the
2nternational Union for Conservation of 1ature 82UC19, ,hich evaluated it for U1E$C@, did not recommend
the par# for ;orld <eritage status.
%ORL$ HERITA*E STATUS
Conferring the ;orld <eritage status is a three4step process. Countries first create an inventor( of potential
monuments and natural sites and include them in the Tentative "ist. +rom this, the( select a fe, sites and
nominate them for final inscription, ever( (ear. U1E$C@ appoints advisor( committees to evaluate the
nominations.
TI*ER RESERVES ON HI*H ALERT A*AINST C$ $ISEASE
• The 1ational Tiger Conservation 'uthorit( 81TC'9 has issued a Jmost urgentK advisor( to all tiger reserves
on the need to ta#e effective steps, to prevent the li#el( outbrea# of Canine ?istemper 8C?9 disease among
tigers and other feline animals
• The disease is primaril( carried from dogs to tigers, and unvaccinated dogs are said to be the Jdomain
reservoirK for virus infection in tigers.
• Threats to tiger population from Canine ?istemper virus 8C?G9 infection ,as no, ,idel( recognised and
addressed in countries such as 2ndonesia and 3angladesh
*IBBONS TRANSLOCATE$ TO ARUNACHAL3S MEHAO CENTUR
• ?ue to lac# of contiguous forests, the gibbons ,ere forced to stra( on the ground and their survival ,as in
danger.
• Capture and translocation are the onl( hope for the long term ,elfare of these gibbons. The( no, have the
chance to live in a suitable habitat that is important for the conservation of the species.
.ibbons are seen in tropical and sub4tropical rain forests from northeast 2ndia to 2ndonesia, including the
islands of $umatra, 3orneo and Aava.
P*M HO* IN MANAS NATIONAL PAR+
• 'ssam +orest ?epartment has detected an estimated ) nests of the criticall(4endangered p(gm( hog in the
/anas 1ational -ar#
• -(gm( hog is the smallest and rarest ,ild pig. -(gm( hog are $chedule 2 species. $chedule 2 and $chedule 22
species are given absolute protection under the ;ildlife -rotection 'ct, 9%) and offences against them
attract heav( penalties
• /anas is #no,n to be the last remaining ,ild habitat of the p(gm( hog in the ,orld.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN$IA AN$ %ORL$
IN$IA 6 SRI LAN+A
• -rime /inister /anmohan $ingh met $ri "an#a’s -resident /ahinda Ra5apa#sa on the sidelines of 32/$TEC.
2t ,as the first meeting bet,een the t,o leaders since )0), ,hen 2ndia voted against $ri "an#a at the
United 1ations <uman Rights Council.
• The meeting too# place hours after five nations moved a resolution in .eneva re=uesting @ffice of <igh
Commissioner for human rights to investigate violations b( both the parties during $ri "an#a’s ,ar against
the "TTE. The resolution ,as sponsored b( United Iingdom, United $tates, /auritius, /acedonia and
/ontenegro.
• The draft ,elcomes <igh Commissioner 1avi -illa(’s call for credible international probe in the absence of
tangible results from national process. 2ndia in )0) and )07, voted in favour of resolution holding $ri "an#a
accountable for ,ar crimes.
• 2ndia also highlightened the need for demilitari0ation in the Aaffna peninsula. 2n response, $ri "an#a said that
it has alread( scaled bac# troops from a ,ar4time pea# of ,%6,000, and has promised a further dra,do,n
after de4mining and reconstruction operations are completed. 2t also re=uests the Tamil parties in $ri "an#a
to engage ,ith -arliament on the devolution of po,ers to the 1orthern and Eastern -rovinces as the Tamil
engagement is critical to building consensus among $ri "an#an parties on devolution.
• /ean,hile, 2ndia has also as#ed $ri "an#a to release the 2ndian fishermen detained for poaching and
violating the international territorial ,aters. Earlier, the second round of tal#s bet,een fisherman of Tamil
1adu and $ri "an#a ,ere stalled on the issue of releasing the captured fishermen and their confiscated
boats.
SRI LAN+A HUMAN RI*HTS VIOLATION ISSUES
• The )6th session of the U1 <uman Rights Council too# up FThe Report of the @<C<R on promoting
reconciliation and accountabilit( in $ri "an#a’ on /arch )!, )0&.
• The draft resolution submitted b( the United $tates ,as forceful as it incorporated several ne, aspectsB it
included F<uman Rights’ in its title, elaborating upon the attac#s on minorities and d,elling on the
importance of transitional 5ustice and reparation polic(. 2t as#ed the $ri "an#an government to broaden the
scope of its national action plan based on its reconciliation commission, the ""RC.
• The resolution as#ed the <igh Commissioner to Jassess the progress to,ard accountabilit( and
reconciliation, to monitor relevant national processes, and to investigate alleged violations and abuses of
human rights and related crimes b( both parties in $ri "an#a.K The resolution called for implementation of
the recommendations contained in the report of the "essons "earnt and Reconciliation Commission 8""RC9,
including those pertaining to missing people, detainees, reduction of high securit( 0ones, return of private
land b( the militar( and ,ithdra,al of securit( forces from the civilian domain in the 1orthern -rovince.
• These are ne, mandates, and move up from the oral update that ,as given in the last session. 'nd, from
JencouragingK $ri "an#a to cooperate ,ith the <igh Commissioner, the resolution steps up the tone and
Jcalls uponK $ri "an#a to do so.
• /ean,hile, a ne, video clip ,as released b( 3ritish public4service television broadcaster Channel & ,hich
accused the $ri "an#an armed forces of having an Junderl(ing culture of s(stematic brutalit( and sexual
violence.K The disturbing visuals sho, $inhala4spea#ing, uniformed men apparentl( celebrating over bodies
that the report identifies as those of female Tiger fighters.
• The resolution ,as adopted b( the council ,hen )7 countries voted in favour of the resolution, ) voted
against and ) abstained from voting. The vote re=uired a simple ma5orit( from the councilCs members.
• $ri "an#a, ho,ever, has re5ected the U$4led call for accountabilit( and sternl( re5ected -illa(Cs report, calling
it biased, inaccurate and amounting to Hneedless interferenceH in the countr(Cs affairs.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2n a move that ,ill please Colombo, 2ndia 5oined the ) countries that abstained from voting on a U1 <uman
Rights Council resolution in .eneva. 2ndia said that the resolution ignored the recent efforts at reconciliation
done b( $ri "an#a in the predominantl( Tamil north, including holding of elections. This ,as for the first time
since )009 that 2ndia abstained from voting on the resolution 4 H-romoting reconciliation, accountabilit( and
human rights in $ri "an#aH.
OPINION ON IN$IA3S ABSTENTION ON HUMAN RI*HTS VOTE ON SRI LAN+A
• 2ndia’s decision to abstain from voting on the U.$.4bac#ed resolution in .eneva has evo#ed mixed response
in $ri "an#a.
• 2ndia ,hile defending its decision to abstain argued against the JintrusiveK nature of the resolution, said it
,as concerned that the resolution had the potential to hinder the efforts of the countr( rather than
contribute constructivel( to its efforts, and Jinadvertentl( complicate the situation.K
• 2ndia ,as in the limelight at the )6th session of the <RC. 2t had unconditionall( bac#ed $ri "an#a in the )009
session, soon after the end of the ,ar. 2t ,ent to the other extreme and voted against $ri "an#a in )0) and
)07. 2n fact, in )07 it even ,or#ed to ma#e the language of the resolution harsher. The same conditions as
in )07 exist no,B elections to the 1orthern provincial council ,ere held in $eptember )0). The Tamil 1adu
factor that had influenced 2ndia’s vote the last time round seems to have lost steam ,ith the Congress and
the ?/I parting ,a(s.
• 3( voting t,ice against $ri "an#a in the past (ears, 2ndia had alread( antagonised the ma5orit( $inhala
communit(. ;ith 2ndia abstaining this time, the northern Tamils seem to have lost faith in 2ndia. 1ot man(
believe an(thing ,ill change for Tamils in $ri "an#a if the @<C<R carries out the investigation. 'n intrusive
investigation has so far not (ielded genuine reconciliation and a life of dignit( and self4respect for people
an(,here. $ri "an#a can’t be an( different.
• There is another opinion that 2ndia’s abstention on the U.$.4sponsored resolution against $ri "an#a in the
United 1ations <uman Rights Council 8U1<RC9 ,as also aimed at neutrali0ing the influence of China, ,hich,
is loo#ing for a toehold in the 2ndian @cean.
• 'lthough the $ri "an#an government claims that attempts to set up an international in=uir( in $ri "an#a
come exclusivel( from the ,est, and represent a form of imperialism> the biggest issue $ri "an#a faces is a
s(stemic lac# of respect for the rights of its citi0ens, particularl( L but not exclusivel( L its minorit( citi0ens.
• The approach should be that although post4conflict processes do ta#e time, but ,hat matters most is getting
on the right path. 1earl( five (ears after the ,ar ended, the situation appears to be getting ,orse, not
better.
IN$IA 6 CHINA
• China’s -resident Vi Ainping has expressed his desire to visit 2ndia later this (ear on ,hat ,ould be his first
trip to the countr( after ta#ing over last (ear. The proposed visit is being framed b( officials as signalling
3ei5ing’s intent to ta#e ties for,ard ,ith the ne, dispensation in 1e, ?elhi that ,ill be in place after the "o#
$abha elections.
• 2ndia and China signed a memorandum of understanding on 2T cooperation at the 7
rd
$trategic Economic
?ialogue. The officials said that it ,as a Fformal recognition’ from the Chinese government to promote 2ndian
soft,are companies, ,hich have largel( struggled to obtain contracts from Chinese state4run companies.
• 2ndia has as#ed China to expand mar#et access for soft,are and pharmaceutical companies, and to ta#e
steps to narro, the record O76 billion trade deficit ,hich the experts recommend is Fnot sustainable’. 2ndia
also sought Chinese support in substantiall( raising the speed on three rail corridors and in developing
modern stations.
• @n the lines of improving 2ndo4China relations, 2ndia also plans to hold a J.limpses of 2ndiaK celebration in
) Chinese cities in the months ahead to mar# the (ear of exchanges and to ,iden people4to4people
engagement. 2ndia has also begun the process of liberali0ing the visa regime for the Chinese nationals.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

C2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• China has also supported the ne,l( elected government headed b( -rime /inister $hei#h <asina ,hen
man( ;estern countries called for fresh elections. China ,ants to initiate opportunities for cooperation,
especiall( in building the $onadia deep sea port, po,er plant construction and river tunnel. This raised man(
e(ebro,s in 2ndia> ho,ever China made it clear that the China43angladesh relationship ,ould not be Jat the
cost of 3angladesh42ndia relations.K
• /ean,hile, Geteran 'ustralian 5ournalist 1eville /ax,ell too# 2ndian media b( storm ,hen he chose to
ma#e public parts of the classified 9!) $ino42ndian ,ar report. <e said that his aim ,as to Jrid 2ndian
opinion of the delusionK that the ,ar had been the result of Jan unprovo#ed Chinese aggressionK and to
expose mista#es made b( Aa,aharlal 1ehru that Jforced the ,ar on China.K <o,ever, /r. /ax,ell’s
conclusions that China ,as all the ,hile focused on peaceful settlement and that 2ndia ,as to blame entirel(
for the ,ar have been =uestioned b( other scholars.
INCREASIN* MARITIME RIVALR IN THE IN$IAN OCEAN
• 2ndia and China are both getting enhancing their naval potentials ,ith an aim to control the international
,aters in the 2ndia @cean. The search for the debris of the missing /ala(sia 'irlines 3oeing %%% 8/<7%0
aircraft9 served to demonstrate the ne, capabilities of the navies of 'sia 4 navies that have been fast
moderni0ing at a time of record increases in militar( spending across the region.
• The search for /<7%0 is undoubtedl( an entirel( humanitarian exercise, and one that has become
unprecedented both in scale and in terms of international cooperation 4 a do0en countries, including several
embroiled in maritime disputes over the $outh China $ea, have put aside their spats as the( have ,illingl(
follo,ed /ala(siaCs lead in the search for the 3oeing. 2ndia turned do,n the Chinese offer to search its o,n
bac#(ard, and replied to the formal re=uest b( detailing its extensive search efforts under ,a( in the 2ndian
@cean, including the deplo(ment of four naval ,arships and the ne, -4*2 aircraft, all demonstrating the
capabilities of the 2ndian 1av(.
• ChinaCs -eopleCs "iberation 'rm( 1av( 8-"'19 had initiall( deplo(ed eight vessels to scour the $outh China
$ea> but later the focus turned over to the ,aters of 2ndian @cean.
• Experts believe that ,hile the long4running boundar( dispute across the <imala(as has remained at the
focus of attention for most observers, the fast4expanding engagement 4 and encounters 4 bet,een their
navies as the( spread their presence across the 2ndian and -acific @ceans has sometimes been ignored. 's
China under Vi Ainping is pa(ing more attention to Jgoing ,estK and as 2ndia Jloo#s eastK, there ,ill be more
interactions in the 2ndian and -acific @ceans.
• ChinaCs dependence on the 2ndian @cean region is continuing to gro,, for energ( imports from the .ulf,
resources from 'frica, and trade ,ith Europe. $ince ?ecember )00*, China has been involved in .ulf of 'den
anti4pirac( operations. Earlier this (ear, the -"'1 held its first4ever ma5or exercise in the "ombo# $trait in the
southern 2ndian @cean. This (ear, -resident Vi Ainping also launched a ne, Hmaritime sil# roadH initiative
aimed at boosting trade lin#s and maritime engagement ,ith littoral countries in the 2ndian and -acific
@ceans. ;ith ChinaCs maritime presence in the 2ndian @cean set to expand along ,ith its economic interests,
the =uestion for 2ndia 4 and its strategic communit( Q is ho, to direct their engagement ,ith this ne, realit(.
IN$IA 6 USA
• The 2ndo4U$ energ( dialogue too# place in /arch )0& as the t,o sides discussed ,a(s to strengthen
cooperation in the field of energ( and promote trade and sound regulator( frame,or#s to deliver energ(
solutions for sustainable gro,th.
• 1e, ?elhi expected to see# a ,aiver from ;ashington to enable investments in its upstream oil and gas
sector, during 2ndia4U.$. energ( dialogue. 3esides, there ,ere discussions on the little4#no,n aspect of U.$.
policies that still stand in the ,a( of finalising 2ndia’s investment decisions in the U.$. upstream oil and gas
sector, including in shale gas. This pertains to 2ndian oil investments and operations in countries such as
$udan that ,ere sanctioned b( the U.$. 2ndian companies had recentl( signed an off4ta#e agreement ,ith a
U.$. compan( for the suppl( of 7.6 million metric tonnes of "1. per annum.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

54 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• @n the political front, this is the first ministerial visit from the U.$. after the log5am in bilateral ties caused b(
the arrest and handcuffing of 2ndian diplomat ?ev(ani Ihobragade last ?ecember in 1e, Eor#. /ean,hile,
?ev(ani ,as re4indicted b( the court> after another U$ court had =uashed the first indictment of Ihobragade
on the ground that she had diplomatic immunit(. 's far as 2ndia is concerned, the case has no merit and no,
that Ihobragade has returned bac#, the court in the U$ has no 5urisdiction in 2ndia over her and the
government ,ill therefore no longer engage on this case in the U$ legal s(stem.
• 'nother bone of contention in 2ndo4 U$ ties is the proposed U.$. immigration reforms that are aimed at
reducing dependenc( on s#illed non4immigrant ,or#ers to safeguard 'merican 5obs. 2t is estimated that if
these reforms are ta#en for,ard and passed it ,ould ,ea#en the mutuall( understanding bet,een the
countries and cost 2ndian information technolog( and the services industr( a ,hopping O* billion loss.
• 2n another turn of events, the U$ ambassador to 2ndia, 1anc( -o,ell, submitted her resignation to -resident
@bama. The resignation came under the speculations that -o,ell ,ould be replaced ,ith a political
appointee as an attempt b( the @bama administration to Jclean the stateK ,ith 2ndia.
• The United $tates sees 2ndia as a natural all( on a range of issues and a potential counterbalance to China in
'sia. 2n )00, -resident 3arac# @bama declared that the U.$.42ndian relationship ,ould be Hone of the
defining partnerships of the )st centur(. 3ut trade relations ,ere deteriorating even before the diplomatic
ro, and in 2ndiaCs e(es, -o,ellCs tenure never recovered from IhobragadeCs treatment. 2ndia too# retaliator(
measures against the U.$. embass(, including removing the ambassadorCs exemption from airport securit(
searches
IN$IA 6 AUSTRALIA
• The 'ustralian <igh Commissioner in 2ndia, /r. -atric# $uc#ling, has said that trade relations bet,een 2ndia
and 'ustralia have been gro,ing steadil( and ,ith the Hright mindsetsH the( can be enhanced further.
3esides, the negotiations bet,een 2ndia and 'ustralia on civil nuclear cooperation have made Jgood
progressK.
• The t,o countries have also set target of doubling the volume of trade bet,een both the countries to &0
billion 'U? b( )06. 2ndia is 'ustralia’s ninth4largest trading partner, ,ith t,o4,a( trade valued at O!.!
billion during )07. 2ndia is 'ustralia’s fourth largest export mar#et 8O.& billion in )079. The total 2ndian
investment in 'ustralia had risen to O9.9% billion at the end of )07.
• 1egotiations on the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation 'greement are going on but the final decision
,ill be ta#en b( the ne, government in 1e, ?elhi.
• 'ustralia has also sho,n interest in a t,o4,a( student exchange programme and hopes its F1e, Colombo
-lan’ that enables 'ustralian students stud( in 'sian universities ,ould lead to 'ustralian students stud(ing
and ,or#ing in 2ndia.
IN$IA 6 BHUTAN
• 2ndia has pledged to provide Rs *.6 billion to 3hutan for its th +ive Eear -lan, helping the landloc#ed
countr( to implement ma5or pro5ects that ,ill improve the livelihood of its people.
• The decision in this regard ,as ta#en at the first meeting of the $mall ?evelopment -ro5ect Committee 8$?-9
for the th +ive Eear -lan, comprising representatives from the Ro(al .overnment of 3hutan and t,o from
the Embass( of 2ndia in 3hutan.
• ?uring the meeting, the Committee approved 69 pro5ects amounting to over Rs .* billion. 79 pro5ects are to
be implemented b( local governments and )0 b( central agencies. 2t also decided on the formats to be
adopted for pro5ect formulation, implementation, reporting and assessment.
• The meeting ,as co4chaired b( the ?irector of the ?epartment of 3ilateral 'ffairs, /inistr( of +oreign 'ffairs
and the ?eput( Chief of /ission of the Embass( of 2ndia, Thimphu. The next meeting of the Committee ,ill
be held in $eptember this (ear.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

51 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN$IA 6 ISRAEL
• 2ndia and 2srael have signed a number of agreements on cooperation in legal assistance and public and
homeland securit(. The pacts are part of the ongoing efforts b( both countries in the ,ar against terror and
are based on the shared determination to protect citi0ens, assets and interests.
• 3oth the countries signed three pacts to strengthen the efforts in the ,ar against terror and beef up bilateral
securit( relations. The pacts include /utual "egal 'ssistance Treat( in Criminal /atters, 'greement on
-rotection of Classified /aterial and 'greement on Cooperation in <omeland and -ublic $ecurit(.
• 3esides, 'rm( Chief .en 3i#ram $ingh participated in discussions on ongoing defence pro5ects bet,een 2ndia
and 2srael and ,a(s of further strengthening militar( ties during his four4da( visit.
• 2srael is one of the ma5or suppliers of ,eapon s(stems to the 2ndian armed forces including critical
e=uipment such as assault rifles for the $pecial +orces. 2srael has been building strong militar(4to4militar(
relations ,ith 2ndia in recent (ears and has emerged as the second largest defence supplier to 2ndia behind
onl( Russia in the last decade4and4a4half.
IN$IA, BIMSTEC
• ?uring the third 32/$TEC summit, leaders from the seven4nation 32/$TEC 83a( of 3engal 2nitiative for /ulti4
$ectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation9 vo,ed to 5ointl( combat the gro,ing threat of terrorism,
transnational crimes and drug traffic#ing and agreed to intensif( efforts to enhance connectivit( and
cooperation in areas li#e trade, energ( and environment. The summit ,as held in the capital cit( of 1a( -(i
Ta,, /(anmar.
• 2n the summit declaration issued, the member nations recogni0ed the threat that terrorism poses to peace,
stabilit( and economic progress and agreed for closer cooperation in combating all forms of terrorism and
transnational crimes and called for expediting the ratification for entr( into force of the 32/$TEC Convention
on Cooperation in Combating 2nternational Terrorism, Transnational @rgani0ed Crime and 2llicit ?rug
Traffic#ing and also for the earl( signing of the 32/$TEC Convention on /utual 'ssistance in Criminal
/atters.
• 2n the meet, -rime /inister /anmohan $ingh said that the permanent secretariat, being developed in
?ha#a, ,ill be an important milestone in the evolution of the group. <e iterated the fact that connectivit( Q
ph(sical and digital Q is the #e( to that vision and can be a driver of cooperation and integration in the
region. 2ndia has ,or#ing ,ith 32/$TEC members to improve ph(sical connectivit( through various pro5ects
such as the 2ndia4/(anmar4Thailand Trilateral <igh,a(, the Ialadan /ultimodal Transit Transport -ro5ect,
the 'sian <igh,a( 1et,or#, the '$E'1 /aster -lan for Connectivit( and others. 3esides, 2ndia ,ill soon
launch a direct shipping line to /(anmar that ,ill enhance our region’s gro,ing maritime lin#s.
• /r. $ingh also highlighted that trade and economic co4operation should be high on the priorit( list and ,e
should aim for an earl( conclusion of the 32/$TEC +ree Trade 'greement for trade in goods and extend it to
investment and services.
• ' +rame,or# 'greement for 32/$TEC +ree Trade 'rea ,as signed in -hu#et, Thailand in +ebruar(, )00&,
,hich commits the parties to negotiate +T's in goods, services and investments.
• 2ndia also aimed at promoting tourism ,hich can serve as a po,erful source of economic developments and
a bridge bet,een people and cultures. 2ndia has also proposed to declare )06 as a Eear of 32/$TEC
Tourism.
• /r. $ingh also called for deepening our cooperation in areas that are critical for development in each of our
countries, such as agriculture, rural development, public health, technolog(, human resource development
and others.
• The members also signed /emorandum of 'ssociation 8/o'9 on the establishment of a 32/$TEC centre for
,eather and climate. The document aims to establish the ,eather and climate centre in 2ndia ,hich ,ill
promote cooperation in identified areas of fundamental and applied scientific research in ,eather prediction
and climate modeling and capacit( building in ,eather and climate research.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

52 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 'nother /emorandum of Understanding 8/oU9 on the establishment of the 32/$TEC Cultural 2ndustries
Commission 83C2C9 and 32/$TEC Cultural 2ndustries @bservator( 83C2@9. The ob5ective of this /oU is to set
up @bservator( in 3hutan, ,hich ,ill serve as a repositor( for information on cultural industries, disseminate
such information and facilitate its access b( the member countries.
• Resolutions ,ere ta#en b( 32/$TEC members to
o Enhance cooperation in environmental protection and sustainable development.
o Enhance cooperation in the field of agriculture, including crops, livestoc# and horticulture besides
fisheries.
o +inali0e an agreement on trade in goods b( )0& ,ith intent to promote regional commerce
o Conclude the 'greement on $ervices and 2nvestments
o ;or# on agreements on dispute settlement and cooperation in customs matters under the +ree
Trade 'rea frame,or#.
o ?evise a frame,or# for establishment of the 32/$TEC Technolog( Transfer +acilit(.
o 2ncrease cooperation in expanding the s#ill and technolog( base of member countries.
• 32/$TEC is an expression of 2ndia’s "oo# East polic( of 990s, coinciding ,ith Thailand’s "oo# ;est polic(.
The seven members Q 2ndia, 3angladesh, $ri "an#a, Thailand, /(anmar, 1epal and 3hutan 4 bring together
over )0 per cent of the ,orld population, ,hich is about .6 billion, and a .?- of over U$? ).6 trillion.
• 32/$TEC provides the lin# bet,een $''RC 8$outh 'sian 'ssociation for Regional Cooperation9 and '$E'1
8'ssociation for $outheast 'sian 1ations9, bet,een $outh and $outheast 'sia. 2t see#s to promote
cooperation in the 3a( of 3engal region bringing the northeastern region of 2ndia onto the centre stage.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
%ORL$ AFFAIRS

U+RAINE CRISIS
• The political crisis in U#raine continued over the past month ,ith tension heightened over the sovereignt( of
Crimean peninsula.
• 2n a referendum ,hich too# place in Crimea, 9!.*D people voted for 5oining Russian +ederation as Crimean
parliament formall( declared independence> the referendum ,as declared illegal b( most of the ,orld.
• /ean,hile, Russian -resident Gladimir -utin has signed a decree recognising Crimea as a sovereign state,
paving the ,a( for it to be absorbed into Russia. Crimea ,as ta#en over b( pro4Russian gunmen in late
+ebruar(. The incursion came after -resident Gi#tor Eanu#ov(ch fled to Russia follo,ing months of street
protests.
• Russia has compared the move b( Crimean parliament to the independence declaration of Iosovo in )00*
and the reunification of .erman( in 990 L but, in realit(, this is the first time that one European nation has
sei0ed territor( from another since the end of ;orld ;ar 22.
• Critici0ing the Russian step, the EU and U$ have published separate lists of sanctions involving travel bans
and asset free0es against both Russian and U#rainian government officials and /-s.
%H IS CRIMEA SO IMPORTANT FOR RUSSIA4
• The region, a peninsula on the 3lac# $ea coast of U#raine, is of political and strategic significance to both
Russia and U#raine. The ma5orit( of CrimeaCs ).7 million populations identif( themselves as ethnic Russians
and spea# Russian 4 a legac( of RussiaCs )004(ear involvement in the region.

• RussiaCs 3lac# $ea +leet has its historic base in the Crimean coastal cit( of $evastopol 4 a continuing source of
tension. 'fter U#raine gained independence, a leasing agreement ,as dra,n up to allo, the fleet to
continue operating from there.
• 2n )00, this lease ,as extended to )0&) in exchange for Russia suppl(ing discounted natural gas.
• +rictions bet,een U#raine and Russia escalated dramaticall( in 1ovember last (ear after the then pro4
/osco, -resident Gi#tor Eanu#ov(ch abandoned an EU deal in favour of stronger ties ,ith Russia.
• Russian gas pipelines to Europe pass through U#raine and Europe depends largel( upon these supplies 4 a
fact made abundantl( clear in )00! ,hen Russia briefl( cut supplies, spar#ing alarm in ;estern Europe.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IMPACT OF THE U+RAINE CRISIS ON IN$IA AN$ THE %ORL$
• 2ndia has signed ) defense deals ,ith U#rainian companies in ?ecember )0) ,hen ousted U#rainian
-resident Gi#tor Eanu#ov(ch visited 2ndia. The current status of those contracts is a ,orr( for 2ndia.
• The Russian -resident Gladimir -utin, in the meantime, has praised 2ndia and China for their response on the
Crimean issue. 2t is a strange time ,hen Russia is loo#ing for partners. 2n realit(, China onl( abstained during
the U.1. $ecurit( Council vote on Crimea, and 2ndia ,as merel( muted in its criticism. 2n principle, neither
China nor 2ndia can provide Russia ,ith the #ind of technolog( and investment from ,hich the countr( has
benefited through its economic relationships ,ith the ;est.
• ;orld leaders meet at a hastil( arranged .% meeting, in The <ague> have moved to isolate Russia further
over its sei0ure of Crimea. Russia been suspended from the .*, and a summit scheduled to be held in $ochi
has been moved to 3russels.
• The economic pain from this tit for tat of sanctions ,ill be, in particular, inflicted to the EU. 3ecause of the
interconnections bet,een all economies and financial mar#ets, mutual economic sanctions could drive a still
fragile ,orld econom( to a financial crash.
• China has rightl( ,arned that drastic economic sanctions against Russia, and Russia’s subse=uent retaliation
could ma#e the global econom( Jspiral into chaos.K
• The U#raine affair has cemented 3erlinCs leadership role in Europe. .erman( is alread( the dominant
economic po,er, calling the shots in the euro 0one crisis, and Chancellor 'ngela /er#el has become
EuropeCs main interlocutor ,ith -utin. 3esides, the European Union has been reunited, at least for no,, b(
the return of a common external threat. This ma( have helped EU leaders overcome some long4running
disputes.
2014 NUCLEAR SECURIT SUMMIT
• The )0& 1uclear $ecurit( $ummit ,as a summit held in The <ague, the 1etherlands. 2t ,as the third edition
of the conference, succeeding the )0) 1uclear $ecurit( $ummit. The )0& summit ,as attended b( 6*
,orld leaders 86 of ,hich from observing international organi0ations9.
• The main goal of the conference ,as generall( to improve international cooperation and more specificall( to
assess ,hich of the ob5ectives that ,ere set at the previous summits in ;ashington, ?.C. and $eoul had not
been accomplished in the previous four (ears and proposing ,a(s of achieving them.
• The 1uclear $ecurit( $ummit aimed to prevent nuclear terrorism b(B
o Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear material in the ,orld 4 especiall( <ighl( Enriched
Uranium 8<EU9>
o 2mproving the securit( of all nuclear material and radioactive source and>
o 2mproving international cooperation.
• 'lthough nuclear terrorism and its prevention b( reducing and securing nuclear supplies are officiall( the
main topic, the U#raine crisis overshado,ed the tal#s. The event formed the bac#drop for an emergenc(
meeting of .% leaders on Russia’s annexation of Crimea earlier in /arch )0&.
• 1e, guidelines issued b( the 1uclear $ecurit( $ummit )0& included4
o Reduce the amount of dangerous nuclear material 8highl( enriched uranium and plutonium9 in the
,orld that terrorists could use to ma#e a nuclear ,eapon.
o 2mprove the securit( of radioactive material 8including lo,4enriched uranium9 that can be used to
ma#e a dirt( bomb.
o 2mprove the international exchange of information and international cooperation.
o Ieep the =uantities of nuclear material as lo, as possible and to reduce them ,here possible.
Countries that use highl( enriched uranium or plutonium as fuel for po,er generation ,ill limit the
=uantit( involved as much as the( can.
o 'lso covers other radioactive materials vi0. lo,4enriched uranium, cobalt4!0, strontium490 and
caesium47%. These materials have useful applications in hospitals industr(, research and can also be
used ,ith ordinar( explosives to ma#e a dirt( bomb.
• The next 1uclear $ecurit( $ummit ,ill be in )0!, hosted b( the United $tates. ?uring the summit in The
<ague, both ;ashington and Chicago ,ere mentioned as locations.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

55 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
2N$ ROUN$ OF IRAN NUCLEAR TAL+S
• 2ran and the six global po,ers embar#ed on a ne, round of nuclear tal#s in Gienna in /arch )0&, ,hich is
expected to (ield progress, ,ithout achieving a brea#through for a comprehensive nuclear deal> although
both parties described the tal#s as Juseful and substantive.K
• 2t included discussions of 2ran’s uranium enrichment program, the construction of a heav( ,ater reactor at
'ra# that could be used to ma#e plutonium into a fissile material, civilian cooperation on nuclear po,er and
sanctions.
• The tal#s, ,hich started on Aan. )0 and are expected to last until Aul( )0, are aimed at reaching a permanent
agreement intended to ensure that 2ran cannot develop a nuclear ,eapon and that if it continued to have a
nuclear program, it ,ould be for exclusivel( peaceful purposes.
• 2ran and the ;estern po,ers agreed in 1ovember in .eneva on a six4month schedule for concluding a
permanent agreement. +or the time being the ;est has offered 2ran limited relief from sanctions in
exchange for diluting the uranium it has enriched do,n to 7.6 percent from nearl( )0 percent. 2ran has been
diluting its stoc#, according to the United 1ations nuclear ,atchdog, the 2nternational 'tomic Energ(
'genc(. That move is vie,ed b( nuclear experts as a demonstration of 2ran’s seriousness about tr(ing to
reach a long4term agreement.
• Enrichment is at the heart of the disagreement bet,een the t,o sides about 2ran’s program. 2ran insists that
its enrichment is for peaceful purposes, but intelligence from ;estern countries and unans,ered =uestions
about 2ran’s program from the atomic agenc( have raised =uestions about ,hether 2ran has been honest
about its intentions.
MALASIA3S MH#&0 %ENT MISSIN*
• /ala(sia 'irlines flight /<7%0, ,ith )79 passengers on board, ,as scheduled to fl( from the /ala(sian
capital, Iuala "umpur, to 3ei5ing in China on $aturda( /arch *.
• 2t disappeared from civilian radar screens about an hour into the scheduled six4hour flight. 't the time it ,as
)0 nautical miles off the to,n of Iota 3haru, on /ala(siaCs east coast.
• @n /arch 6, /ala(sian -rime /inister 1a5ib Ra0a# said investigators believed someone on board had
deliberatel( turned off its communications s(stems and diverted it ,ell ,est of its planned flight path. The
plane’s s(stems ,ere graduall( s,itched off and it then fle, ,est,ards over /ala(sia before turning to the
north,est.
• @n /arch )&, /r. 1a5ib announced that /ala(sia 'irlines flight /<7%0 is assumed to have crashed into the
southern 2ndian @cean, ,ith no survivors. 1e, satellite data from UI Compan( Inmarsat sho,ed the plane
fle, along the southern search corridor and the flight Hended in the southern 2ndian @ceanH.
• $ince /r. 1a5ibCs announcement that the plane had crashed in the southern 2ndian @cean there have been
numerous sightings of ob5ects floating in the ocean. 3ut none of the ob5ects have proved to have an(
connection to the missing flight, and no ,rec#age has been found.
MH#&00 IN$IA3S %A+E UP CALL
• The surreal disappearance of /ala(sia 'irlines /<7%0 is a good occasion for 2ndians to start thin#ing about
,hat might happen if ,e are ever compelled to live those nightmares.
• Though the prospect of a terrorist group ac=uiring nuclear ,eapons or radiological assets remains small,
2ndian nuclear installations remain at ris# from aircraft used as ,eapons. Though ne,er nuclear reactors
have double4domed concrete structures, in theor( capable of ,ithstanding a direct hit, there are obvious
reasons to avoid testing the engineering in the real ,orld. 2n the ,a#e of 9:, 1e, ?elhi promulgated no4
fl( regulations around several nuclear facilities. <o,ever, the scholars find that the rules have not been
implemented strictl(.
• 2t isn’t onl( nuclear installations that are at ris#. There have, government sources sa(, been repeated
restricted air space violations over 1e, ?elhi, each a potential threat to critical targets li#e -arliament,
defence and intelligence complexes.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Currentl( 2ndia does not have a central command centre, ,here militar(, intelligence and civilian officials can
observe and liaise on real time threats L and ta#e a decision ,hen needed. 2n emergencies, po,er rests
,ith the Crisis /anagement .roup, chaired b( the Cabinet $ecretar(. This mechanism allo,s for effective
decision4ma#ing after a crisis L but is useless ,hen there are minutes, not hours, to ta#e a call. Thus, an
emergenc( crisis management s(stem should be studied.
• 3esides, on the naval front, %) per cent of the fast patrol vessels 8+-Gs9:inshore patrol vessels 82-Gs9, &% per
cent of the advanced offshore patrol vessels 8'@-Gs9 and 7% per cent of interceptor boats 823s9 are either on
extended life or their extended life have expired. 2t recorded that 7! of 60 coastal police outposts remained
non4functional, since no police ,ere posted there.
• 2n order to ma#e the ever(da( lives of 2ndians safer, 2ndia’s securit( s(stem must do better. The resources
needed to combat future terrorism need to be improved. 'lthough efforts have been made in form of
training of police R local administration> these efforts are too little.
EVENTS IN USA
USA TO CE$E SOME CONTROL OVER INTERNET
• The United $tates ,ill give up its role overseeing the s(stem of ;eb addresses and domain names that form
the basic plumbing of the 2nternet, turning it over in )06 to an international group ,hose structure and
administration ,ill be determined during the next (ear.
• $ince the da,n of the 2nternet, the United $tates has been responsible for assigning the numbers that form
2nternet addresses, the .com, .gov and .org labels that correspond to those numbers, and for the vast
database that lin#s the t,o and ma#es sure 2nternet traffic goes to the right place.
• The function has been subcontracted since 99* to the 2nternet Corporation for 'ssigned 1ames and
1umbers 82C'119, an international non4profit organisation, ,ith the expectation that the United $tates
,ould eventuall( step bac# from its role.
• 3ut that transition has ta#en on a ne, urgenc( in the past (ear because of revelations that the U.$.
intelligence communit(, particularl( the 1ational $ecurit( 'genc( 81$'9, has been intercepting 2nternet
traffic as part of its global sp(ing efforts.
• ;hile other countries have called for the United $tates to turn over the #e(s to the s(stem, man(
businesses, dependent on the smooth functioning of the 2nternet for their livelihood, have expressed
concern about ,hat form the ne, organisation ,ill ta#e.
• ;ith its statement that no government4led organisation ,ould ta#e over 2C'11, the United $tates also
made clear that the 2nternational Telecommunication Union, a United 1ations affiliate that oversees global
telephone traffic, ,ould not be allo,ed to ta#e over 2nternet governance.
OBAMA UNVEILS NSA REFORM PLAN
• -resident 3arac# @bama put for,ard a plan to end bul# collection of telephone records, aiming to defuse a
controvers( over the government’s s,eeping surveillance activities on millions of 'mericans.
• 2n measures ta#en in response to a global outcr( over the 1ational $ecurit( 'genc(’s eavesdropping
programs, /r. @bama said telephone companies ,ould be re=uired to hold data for the same length of time
the( currentl( do, ,hile allo,ing government agencies to access it ,ith court approval, though exceptions
could be made in cases of national securit( emergencies.
• /r. @bama said his plan, ,hich needs congressional approval, ,ould still allo, the government to conduct
surveillance to th,art terrorist attac#s but it ,ould ma#e changes to address the public’s privac( concerns.
• There is a plan in the <ouse of Commons ,hich ,ould allo, government agencies to obtain records from
phone companies ,ithout prior approval from the special court that oversees the +oreign 2ntelligence
$urveillance 'ct. The court ,ould revie, the records ac=uisition later.
• The general idea of ending government storage of metadata appears to have bipartisan support. Under both
plans, phone companies ,ould in some ,a( be compelled to provide metadata, including incoming and
outgoing phone numbers and call times, in a readil( usable form. The phone companies sa( the( ,ill ,ant to
stud( the details of ,hat the( ,ill be compelled to do.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
EVENTS IN E*PT
• Eg(pt’s 5udges have ris#ed ne, international outrage after handing do,n the death penalt( to 6)9 people
accused of rioting in a mass t,o4da( trial condemned as violating legal norms. The 5udge, in the central
Eg(ptian cit( of /in(a, brought the case to a close after 5ust t,o sessions to sentence to death 6)9
supporters of /ohamed /orsi for the murder of a single police officer. The defendants ,ere arrested last
'ugust during a ,ave of unrest in ,hich supporters of the former president react violentl( to the clearance
of a pro4/orsi sit4in in Cairo during ,hich more than 900 people ,ere #illed.
• "egal experts sa( it is li#el( to be overturned on appeal, re5ected b( the .rand /ufti, to ,hom all death
penalties are referred, or commuted b( the president 4 not least because of the international conse=uences
of such an event.
• Eg(pt currentl( has =ualified bac#ing for its so4called Jroad4map to democrac(K from the United $tates and
3ritain, despite last (ear’s overthro, of the countr(’s elected president, /ohammed /orsi, of the /uslim
3rotherhood.
• /ean,hile, 'bdel +attah al4$isi, the general ,ho ousted Eg(ptCs first freel( elected leader, declared his
candidac( for a presidential election after resigning from the Eg(ptian militar(. <e is expected to easil( ,in
the elections. $isi toppled /ohamed /orsi of the /uslim 3rotherhood last Aul( after mass protests against
his rule and has emerged as the most influential figure in an interim administration that has governed since
then.
• ' $isi presidenc( ,ould mar# a return to the da(s ,hen Eg(pt ,as led b( men from the militar(, a pattern
briefl( interrupted b( /orsiCs one (ear in office after his )0) victor( in Eg(ptCs first democratic presidential
election. 'mong his supporters, $isi is ,ildl( popular. /an( see him as the #ind of strong man needed to
stabili0e a countr( in crisis. 3ut he is reviled b( the 2slamist opposition as the mastermind of a coup against a
freel( elected leader.
SECHELLES7 MAURITIUS TO 1OIN IN$IAN OCEAN MARITIME SECURIT *ROUP
• ;ith an e(e on China, 2ndia moved to expand the 2ndian @cean /aritime 2nfluence b( announcing that
/auritius and $e(chelles have expressed an interest in 5oining the trilateral maritime securit( cooperation
arrangement among 2ndia, $ri "an#a and the /aldives #no,n as 2@47.
• $hould the( 5oin, it ,ould mean the consolidation of an 2ndian maritime domain a,areness net,or# in the
island states of the 2ndian @cean region 82@R9 ,here 2ndia has historicall( had influence.
• Established in @ctober )0, the Trilateral /eeting on /aritime $ecurit( Co4operation features regular
meetings at the 1ational $ecurit( 'dvisor level. 2t see#s to improve 5oint responses to criminal activit(,
instances of pollution and environmental disasters, and search4and4rescue operations, through coordinated
training, exercises and information4sharing.
• 2t has no, reached a state of preparedness from ,here it is capable of responding to illegal activit( such as
pirac(. 3( training people to ,or# together, the trilateral has also built up capacit( in responding to search
and rescue and oil spills. $ri "an#a and 2ndia have also expanded their 5oint naval exercises to include
/aldives.
• 2ndia ,ould li#e to have a similar s(stem to share information about activit( in the 3a( of 3engal as ,ell.
TUR+ISH BAN ON SOCIAL NET%OR+IN* SITES
• Tur#e( restricted access to T,itter hours after -rime /inister, Recep Ta((ip ErdoZan, threatened to Hroot
outH the social media net,or#s ,here ,iretapped recordings have been lea#ed, damaging the governmentCs
reputation ahead of local elections.
• The government statement cited four court orders as the basis for bloc#ing the site, ,here some users in
recent ,ee#s have posted voice recordings and documents purportedl( sho,ing evidence of corruption
among ErdoZanCs inner circle. 2t said that action had been ta#en against T,itter as a Hprotection measureH.
3ut Tur#ish telecoms ,atchdog 3TI said on +rida( that the ban came after complaints ,ere made b( citi0ens
that the social media platform ,as breaching privac(. 'ccording to reports, the ,atchdog had previousl(
as#ed T,itter to remove some content but T,itter had failed to do so, hence the ,atchdog declared to ban
the social net,or#ing site in the countr(.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

5, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• /ean,hile, Tur#e(Cs ban on T,itter ahead of the elections brought a furious reaction at home and abroad
on +rida(, ,ith users of the social net,or#ing service denouncing the move as a Hdigital coupH.
• 's the potentiall( damaging lea#s continued to flood the internet, the government further decided to bloc#
access to Eou Tube. The -/’s office claimed that the voice recordings posted to EouTube created Cnational
securit( issueC and the bloc# is a precautionar( administrative measure.
NI*ERIA3S NORTHERN CHALLEN*E
• The atrocities committed b( 3o#o <aram, ,hen the faction attac#ed sleeping school children at 3uni Eadi in
1igeria, had completel( shoc#ed the countr( as ,ell as
the international communit(.
• The ,ord )o*o +aram means J,estern education is
sinfulK in <ausa, and since the school murders, the
federal government has closed five federal secondar(
schools in three northern states> the pupils have been
offered alternatives. The violence continues, ,ith at
least !60 alread( #illed this (ear> northeastern 1igeria
is in a state of civil ,ar.
• 2t is, ho,ever, far from clear ,hether the federal
government has done all it can. The 1igerian militar(, consistentl( a large presence in 'frican Union 8'U9
operations, has had little impact> locals accuse the arm( of serious abuses of po,er, including summar(
executions, and of dela(ing interventions ,hen terrorists attac# villages.
• $econdl(, rampant corruption has severel( ,ea#ened most public institutions> the Central 3an# head,
"amido $anusi, ,as suspended after accusing the state4o,ned 1igerian 1ational -etroleum Compan(
811-C9 of failing to account for O)0 billion in oil revenues. +urthermore, the countr(’s northeastern regions
have been badl( neglected, and 3o#o <aram sees the /uslim ma5orit( there as being ripe for indoctrination.
Eet 'bu5a seems not to be using all available resources, such as 'U leverage.
• -eople are forced to flee their homes are dispersed throughout 1igeria and in neighboring countries, ,here
the( face serious problems in accessing food, ,ater, shelter, and other basic rights. The need of the hour is
that 1igeria and its neighbors Q particularl( Cameroon, Chad, and 1iger Q should ,or# together to assess the
needs of the displaced and ensure the provision of ade=uate humanitarian assistance.
ELECTIONS ROUN$ THE %ORL$
NORTH +OREA
• 1orth Iorea’s supreme leader Iim Aong Un ,as elected to the highest legislative bod( ,ithout a single
dissenting vote against in his district on a 00D turnout. There ,as no one else on the ballot.
• 1orth Ioreans ,ent to the polls on 9
th
/arch, )0& to approve the ne, roster of deputies for the supreme
people’s assembl(, the countr(’s legislature. The vote, more of a political ritual than an election b( ;estern
standards, is generall( held once ever( five (ears.
• Each of the !*% districts had onl( one candidate running for office, ,ith electors re=uired to ,rite onl( HEesH
or H1oH on the ballot paper. @bservers sa( the candidate list is an opportunit( to see ,ho is in or out of
favour ,ith the leadership.
• This is first time the election had been held since Iim inherited po,er after the death of his father, Iim Aong
2l, in )0.
• The supreme people’s assembl( usuall( meets onl( rarel(, often onl( once a (ear. 2n practice it has little
po,er and ,hen it is not in session, its ,or# is done b( a smaller and more po,erful bod( called the
presidium.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

52 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
MAL$IVES
• The /aldives held parliamentar( elections on ))
nd
/arch, )0& on schedule, despite ,orries about the
abilit( of the resort islandCs turmoil4hit elections commission to stage the ballot successfull(.
• -rivate ,atchdog Transparenc( /aldives said the opening of the poll ,as Hsmooth, transparent and ,ell4
administeredH and the government declared the vote had gone off peacefull(> ,hile the U$ has led
international concern voiced over 5udicial interference in independent institutions in the /aldives.
• There ,ere doubts over the abilit( of the election commission to hold the election ,hen the head of the
Elections Commission, /r. +u,ad Thoufee=, and his deput( ,ere dismissed on 9
th
/arch for Hdisobe(ingH a
court order to ad5ourn part of last (earCs presidential election eventuall( ,on in 1ovember b( Eameen.
• ' total of 70) candidates contested the *6 seats in parliament, but the executive president, ,ho is directl(
elected b( the people, has ,ide po,ers in the countr( of 770,000 $unni /uslims.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SCIENCE ' TECH
INFRASOUN$

%H IN NE%S4

• 2nfrasound ,ould be used to chec# for an explosion on the missing /ala(sian plane if there ,as a
monitoring station nearb(, Jor the explosion is at a level or at high altitude that it could be detected.
BAC+*ROUN$

• 'coustic ,aves ,ith ver( lo, fre=uencies that are inaudible to the human ear are called infrasound.
• J2nfrasound is produced b( a variet( of natural and man4made sources L exploding volcanoes,
earth=ua#es, meteors, storms and auroras in the natural ,orld> nuclear, mining and large chemical
explosions, as ,ell as aircraft and roc#et launches in the man4made arena.K
• The Comprehensive 1uclear Test 3an Treat( @rganisation 8CT3T@9 uses JinfrasoundK or infrasonic
sensors to monitor the earth mainl( for atmospheric nuclear explosions.
ONE OF FOUR TECHNOLO*IES USE$

• 2nfrasound monitoring is one of the four technologies used b( the 2nternational /onitoring $(stem 82/$9
to verif( compliance ,ith the nuclear test ban treat(.
• The CT3T@ said the construction of infrasound monitoring stations Jhas contributed to a revival of
scientific interest in this technolog(.K
• There are seismic sensors for ,hat’s occurring underground ,hile h(drophones listen for under,ater
events.
• +or the atmosphere, there are ultra4sensitive nuclide detectors ,hich are designed to pic# up the tiniest
amount of nuclear radiation.
• 'nd then there are infrasound detectors. 2n a dramatic demonstration of their global monitoring
net,or#’s abilit( to hear ,hat humans can’t, the CT3T@ has posted infrasound of the asteroid ,hich
exploded over Russia last (ear on the 2nternet.
• 1ot the sound of the meteor’s explosion, but of it tearing through the atmosphere before it became a
fireball raining molten roc# on the Ural /ountains.
• The 2/$ infrasound net,or# is the onl( global monitoring net,or# of its #ind and ,hen it is full(
operational it ,ill consist of !0 stations Jsituated strategicall( in 76 countries around the ,orld,K the
CT3T@ said.
• 2t did not list the countries and completed stations.
PIN*

• ;h( in ne,s[ 4 /<7%0 incident (ou #eep hearing about last HpingH
• ' utilit( to determine ,hether a specific 2- address is accessible.
• 2t ,or#s b( sending a pac#et to the specified address and ,aiting for a repl(. -21. is used primaril( to
troubleshoot 2nternet connections.
• There are man( free,are and share,are -ing utilities available for personal computers.
• 2t is often believed that H-ingH is an abbreviation for -ac#et 2nternet .roper, but -ingCs author has stated
that the name comes from the sound that a sonar ma#es.




Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
A$SL MO$EM 6 CBER SECURIT ISSUE

A new set of guidelines for ISPs by Department of Telecommunications (DoT)
%H NE% *UI$ELINES4

• 'mid gro,ing threats of c(ber attac#s and hac#ing of ,ebsites, all 2nternet $ervice -roviders 82$-s9 to
adopt ne, securit( measures for those using fixed4line broadband.
• The hac#ers have been exploiting vulnerabilities in the '?$" 8as(mmetric digital subscriber line9 modems
L those normall( installed b( broadband service providers at homes and offices L to implant mal,are
and manipulate data.
*UI$ELINES

• ' ne, set of guidelines for 2$-s that must be implemented b( /a( this (ear to ensure securit( of almost
.6 crore fixed4line broadband users are as follo,ingB
• 'll 2$-s to Jassist customers to change the pass,ord, including b( ph(sical visits.K The '?$" modems are
presentl( supplied b( vendors ,ith default set up of user 2? and pass,ord as Fadmin.’ The default
pass,ord needs to be changed to a strong pass,ord b( customer at the time of installation of modem to
avoid unauthorised access to modem. The 2$- executive visiting customer for installation of modem
should ensure this.
• The protocol ports in '?$" modem on ;'1 side Mfor example, +T-, TE"1ET, $$<, <TT-, $1/-, C;/-,
U-n-N be disabled. These ports ma( be used b( the hac#ers to enter into the '?$" modem to
misuse:compromise the '?$" modems b( ,a( of implanting the mal,are, changing the ?1$ entries in
the modem.
• The 2$-s have been as#ed to devise a Jmechanism to upgrade the firm,are of the '?$" modems
remotel( b( 2$-s.K +or this, the 2$-s need to have separate login pass,ord, ,hich is not possible in the
present s(stem of '?$" modem design.
• The ?oT has as#ed the 2$-s to tell their customers to chec# their online dail( usage, and if an(
unexpected high usage of data is noticed, the( ma( bring it to the notice of the 2$- concerned.
• Customers should also be advised to s,itch off their modem ,hen not in use.
IMPACT

• 2mplementation of these ne, securit( measures b( all 2$-s ,ould go a long ,a( in ma#ing 2ndian
2nternet users secure from hac#ing, besides creating a,areness about ho, to tac#le such vulnerabilities
of the ,orld ,ide ,eb.
• 3eside this ,e need to as# the 2$-s to adopt all best practices available globall( to ma#e our 2nternet
users more secure and all sta#eholders i.e. government, the industr( as ,ell as users ,ill have to ,or#
5ointl( to ma#e our c(ber ,orld secure.
A$SL MO$EM

• $hort for asymmetric digital subscriber line, '?$" is a t(pe of ?$" broadband communication technolog(
used for connecting to the 2nternet.
• '?$" supports data rates of from .6 to 9 /bps ,hen receiving data 8#no,n as the do,nstream rate9
from ! to !&0 Ibps ,hen sending data 8#no,n as the upstream rate9.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
AEROSOLS

Study finds correlation between rainfall in India and aerosol levels over ,. Asia

• /onsoon rains over 2ndia could increase if
desertification leads to more dust from
;est 'sia and 1orth 'frica s,irling into the
air, suggests a research report being
published in Nature -eoscience.
• There has been gro,ing interest in
examining ho, fine particles in the
atmosphere, #no,n as aerosols, affect the
climate.
• 'nal(sing observational data, report found
that monsoon rainfall during Aune, Aul( and
'ugust over central 2ndia ,as strongl(
correlated ,ith aerosol levels over ;est
'sia, 1orth 'frica and the 'rabian $ea.
• The scientists turned to a global climate
model, the Community Atmosphere 3odel
=CA3G>, to simulate ,hat effect different
t(pes of aerosols ,ould have on the
monsoon.
• ;hen dust ,as removed altogether, the
correlations bet,een the central 2ndian rains and ;est 'sian aerosol levels disappeared.
• The simulations also sho,ed that ,hen ;est 'sian dust levels dropped, rains over central 2ndia
decreased ,ithin a ,ee#.
LO% PRESSURE BAN$ AN$ MONSOON0

• The dust acted b( absorbing radiation from the sun and heating the atmosphere. <igh levels of dust over
;est 'sia and 1orth 'frica lo,ered atmospheric pressure in land regions to the north and ,est of the
'rabian $ea, the scientists said.
• That lo,4pressure band strengthened moisture4laden ,inds that fed the 2ndian monsoon.
• Thus, the expected expansion of desert and arid regions under global ,arming could enhance dust
transport from the deserts of the /iddle East and 1orth 'frica to the 'sian monsoon regions, further
enhancing monsoon rainfall.
*EO,SNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCE VEHICLE 6 MAR+ III

• 2ndia too# the first step to,ards the lift off of the experimental mission of its gigantic .eo4s(nchronous
$atellite "aunch Gehicle4/ar# 222
• The significance of the mission is that it ,ill be a forerunner to 2ndia sending its astronauts to space.
• +or, the .$"G4/# 222 in this flight ,ill carr( a cre, capsule ,ithout astronauts. The capsule ,ill return to
earth ,ith the help of parachutes. The mission ,ill ta#e place in Aune or first ,ee# of Aul(.The
• 2ndian $pace Research @rganisation calls its mission to send 2ndian astronauts to space the *uman
Space !light =*S!> programme7
• The cre, capsule ,ill ,eigh 7.6 tonnes. 2t ,ill carr( no astronauts. 2t ,as a replica of the cre, module
that ,ould be put into orbit in a real mission. 2t ,ill be an experimental mission.
• The roc#et ,ill do a sub4orbital flight, that is, reach an altitude of less than 00 #m.
• .$"G4/# 222 is the Jmuscular siblingK of .$"G4/# 22 ,hich has an indigenous cr(ogenic engine. .$"G4/#
222 can put a communication satellite ,eighing four tonnes into geo4s(nchronous transfer orbit or a 04
tonne satellite into lo,4earth orbit.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?< www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SCIENTIFIC FRAU$
%H IN NE%S4

• $upreme Court of $outh Iorea upheld its )00 ruling, *9ang #oo Su', the notorious stem cell
researcher from the $eoul 1ational Universit( in $outh Iorea, ,ill serve a suspended 5ail term of one4
and4a4half (ears for embe00lement and violation of the countr(’s bioethics la, that came into effect in
Aanuar( )006.
BAC+*ROUN$

• <,ang shot into international fame for t,o Jlandmar#K papers published in +ebruar( )00& and /a(
)006 in the 5ournal Science.
• The first one ,as for JcloningK 70 human embr(os and for JderivingK a human embr(onic stem4cell line
from one of them,
• The second ,as for JcreatingK human embr(onic stem4cell lines from the s#in cells of individual
patients.
FRAU$

• 2t soon became evident that <,ang had committed one of the biggest scientific frauds in recent times b(
indulging in all #inds of unethical measures li#e
o image manipulation,
o rampant data falsification and fabrication,
o gross misrepresentation of facts,
o purchasing eggs for research, and
o forcing 5unior members in the same lab to donate eggs.
• There ,ere acts of outright fraud as ,ell L embe00lement of nearl( O7 million and ma#ing applications
for research funds based on fabricated data.

%EB BASE$ *IS TOOL TO *AU*E SOLAR POTENTIAL

• The Energ( and Resources 2nstitute 8TER29 has unveiled the first4ever cloud based open4source ;eb4.2$
tool for estimating rooftop solar po,er potential for 2ndian solar cities.
• The main ob5ective of this initiative is to develop a high performing and flexible ;eb4.2$ tool to estimate
the rooftop solar po,er potential for 2ndian cities. The ,eb4.2$ tool ,ill be launched in Chandigarh
follo,ed b( other cities.
OPEN SOURCE

• 2n production and development, open source as a development model promotes
o Universal access via free license to a productCs design or blueprint, and
o universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subse=uent improvements to it b(
an(one.

• 2n simpler terms suppose a given soft,are is open source then (ou donCt need to bu( its license 8"i#e
;indo,s @$ if (ou use genuine soft,are9. 'lso (ou can find bugs in the soft,are and share it ,ith the
development communit(. 3ug fixes ,ill be incorporated in future releases of the soft,are.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?C www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
%HAT IS *IS

• ' geographic information s(stem 8.2$9 integrates hard,are, soft,are, and data for capturing, managing,
anal(0ing, and displa(ing all forms of geographicall( referenced information.
• .2$ allo,s us to vie,, understand, =uestion, interpret, and visuali0e data in man( ,a(s that reveal
relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.
• ' .2$ helps (ou ans,er =uestions and solve problems b( loo#ing at (our data in a ,a( that is =uic#l(
understood and easil( shared.
U.S. TO CE$E INTERNET OVERSI*HT

• The United $tates ,ill give up its role overseeing the s(stem of ;eb addresses and domain names that form
the basic plumbing of the 2nternet, turning it over in )06 to an international group ,hose structure and
administration ,ill be determined during the next (ear, government officials said on +rida(
• $ince the da,n of the 2nternet, the United $tates has been responsible for assigning the numbers that form
2nternet addresses, the .com, .gov and .org labels that correspond to those numbers, and for the vast
database that lin#s the t,o and ma#es sure 2nternet traffic goes to the right place.
• The function has been subcontracted since 99* to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers =>, an international non4profit organisation, ,ith the expectation that the United $tates ,ould
eventuall( step bac# from its role.
• 3ut that transition has ta#en on a ne, urgenc( in the past (ear because of revelations that the U.$.
intelligence communit(, particularl( the 1ational $ecurit( 'genc( 81$'9, has been intercepting 2nternet
traffic as part of its global sp(ing efforts.
• /an( businesses, dependent on the smooth functioning of the 2nternet for their livelihood, have expressed
concern about ,hat form the ne, organisation ,ill ta#e.
• United $tates ,ill not accept a proposal that replaces it ,ith a government4led or intergovernmental
organisation.
• The Commerce ?epartment also laid out principles that must govern an( ne, bod(, including
o maintaining the openness of the 2nternet and
o /aintaining its securit( and stabilit(.
• United $tates also made clear that the 2nternational Telecommunication Union, a United 1ations affiliate
that oversees global telephone traffic, ,ould not be allo,ed to ta#e over 2nternet governance. That ,as an
issue last (ear at an 2TU conference in ?ubai.
ICANN

$hort for 2nternet Corporation for 'ssigned 1ames and 1umbers, a nonprofit organi0ation that has assumed the
responsibilit( for 2- address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name s(stem
management and root server s(stem management functions previousl( performed under U.$. .overnment
contract.
IP A$RESS

• 2- address is short for 2nternet -rotocol 82-9 address.
• 'n 2- address is an identifier for a computer or device on a TC-:2- net,or#. 1et,or#s using the TC-:2-
protocol route messages based on the 2- address of the destination.
• 'n 2- address consists of 7) bits
• The T,o -arts of an 2- 'ddressB
o @ne identif(ing the net,or# and
o @ne identif(ing the node, or host.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?5 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
PROTOCOL

• 'n agreed4upon format for transmitting data bet,een t,o devices. The protocol determines the
follo,ingB
o The t(pe of error chec#ing to be used
o ?ata compression method, if an(
o <o, the sending device ,ill indicate that it has finished sending a message
o <o, the receiving device ,ill indicate that it has received a message
$OMAIN NAME

• ?omain names are used to identif( one or more 2- addresses. +or example, the domain name
microsoft.com represents about a do0en 2- addresses.
• ?omain names are used in UR"s to identif( particular ;eb pages. +or example, in the UR"
httpB::,,,.pc,ebopedia.com:index.html, the domain name is pc,ebopedia.com.
• Ever( domain name has a suffix that indicates ,hich top level domain 8T"?9 it belongs to. There are onl(
a limited number of such domains. +or exampleB

o gov 4 .overnment agencies
o edu 4 Educational institutions
o org 4 @rgani0ations 8nonprofit9
o mil 4 /ilitar(
o com 4 commercial business
o net 4 1et,or# organi0ations
o ca 4 Canada
o th Q Thailand

• 3ecause the 2nternet is based on 2- addresses, not domain names, ever( ;eb server re=uires a ?omain
1ame $(stem 8?1$9 server to translate domain names into 2- addresses.
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

• The 2nternational Telecommunication Union 82TU9, originall( the 2nternational Telegraph Union, is a
speciali0ed agenc( of the United 1ations that is responsible for issues that concern information and
communication technologies
• 2TU, based in .eneva, $,it0erland, is a member of the United 1ations ?evelopment .roup.
ICANN SUSPEN$S CLOSE$ *ENERIC TOP LEVEL $OMAIN BI$S

• The 2nternet Corporation for 'ssigned 1umbers and 1ames 82C'119 has put on hold a controversial
decision to allot closed generic Top "evel ?omains 8gT"?9 to applicants.
• .overnments and activists had feared that allotting such generic domains ,ould lead to a global
corporate monopol( over the ;orld ;ide ;eb, b( claiming exclusive rights for domains such as .boo* or
.beauty.
• "ast ,ee#, a ne,l( reconstituted gT"? committee paid heed to the ob5ections raised b( 2C'11’s
.overnmental 'dvisor( Committee, ,hich had in 'pril pointed out several problems in the process of
handing out gT"?s under a Jsingle registrantK business model.
• This differs from the regular business model for T"? names li#e .com or .org ,here the domains names
are then resold to other users in an open mar#et on first come, first served basis.
• Under the single registrant model, companies li#e 'ma0on and .oogle could o,n exclusivel( .boo* or
.cloud, both generic name strings, thus paving the ,a( for monopolistic branding.
• 2n 'pril, the .overnment 'dvisor( Committee of 2C'11 met in 3ei5ing and prepared ,hat ,as called as
J3ei5ing Communi=u\K in ,hich it had raised, among other things, ob5ections over applications for the
generic T"?s .islam or .halal.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?? www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 2t raised fears that the applicants did not have communit( bac#ing.
• 2t also re=uested 2C'11 to not proceed be(ond initial assessment or t'e #ids or domains suc' as
.s'enFenG .dateG .spa and a ew ot'ers.
TL$

• The right4most label in a domain name 8e.g. ,,,.icann.org9 is referred to as its Htop4level
domainH8T"?9.
• T"?s ,ith t,o letters have been established for over )&0 countries and external territories and are
referred to as Hcountr(4codeH T"?s or HccT"?s.H
• T"?s ,ith three or more characters are referred to as HgenericH T"?s, or HgT"?s.H
• The responsibilit( for operating each gT"? 8including maintaining a registr( of the domain names ,ithin
the gT"?9 is delegated to a particular organi0ation. These organi0ations are referred to as Hregistr(
operatorsH or Hsponsors.H
TPES OF *ENERIC TL$3S

• .enerall( spea#ing, an unsponsored gT"? Registr( operates under policies established b( the global
2nternet communit( directl( through the 2C'11 process. .bi0, .com, .info, .name, .net, .org, and .pro are
unsponsored gT"?s.
• ' sponsored gT"? 8sometimes called an sT"?9 is a speciali0ed gT"? that has a sponsor representing a
specific communit( that is served b( the gT"?.
• The sponsor thus carries out delegated polic(4formulation responsibilities over man( matters concerning
the gT"?. .aero, .cat, .coop, .5obs, .mobi, .museum, and .travel are sponsored gT"?s.
• Entities ,ishing to register domain names in a sponsored gT"? ,ill be re=uired to meet certain eligibilit(
re=uirements.

LE$ 8IN* BAILS

• The 2nternational Cric#et Council 82CC9 approved the use of "E? 8"ight Emitting ?iode9 0ing bails in @ne4
?a( 2nternationals 8@?2$9 and T,ent)0 2nternationals from @ctober , )07.
• The technolog( can no, be seen used in the ongoing 2CC ;orld T)0 )0& tournament as ,ell.
• +or fans around the ,orld, it is fascinating to see the bails 8po,ered b( lo, voltage batteries9 light up
the moment the( are off the stumps, mean,hile sending a radio signal to the stumps that also emit
bright light.
ANALSIS

• The approval came as a step to,ards further technological advancement in the sport, and also the fact
that it brought more attraction ,ith people in the stadium and those ,atching matches on television.
• +ans #eep anxiousl( ,aiting for the bails to get dislodged to see ,hat the ne,est development is.
<o,ever, the "E? 0ing bails have their o,n share of controversies.

SPACE $EBRIS AN$ RELATE$ ASPECTS 6 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE
%H IN NE%S4

• The 'ustralian 1ational Universit( had gathered O!0 million in state grants and private investment for
a Cooperative Research Centre 8CRC9, an observator( ,hich ,ill target space 5un#. 'nd then it ,ill build
lasers to 0ap them li#e the ?eath $tar.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• the CRC has the relativel( modest ambition of dislodging 5un# from orbit and into atmospheric re4entr(.
2f the( time re4entr( over the night side of the planet, the( can guarantee free stratospheric fire,or#s
displa(s to light up the lives of generations to come.
BAC+*ROUN$

• Ever since the space race began, misfiring roc#etr( and misconceived missions have stre,n Lo9 1arth
Orbit ,ith about three la#h pieces of 5un#, aggregating to thousands of tonnes of metal and ceramic.
• The( range in si0e from burnt4out roc#et engines to tin( nuts and bolts. 3ut since the( are ,hi00ing
about at the speed of rifle bullets, si0e doesn’t matter. ' half4inch scre, could puncture the hull of a
spacecraft, or even the space faring dreams of humanit(.
• $pace 5un# has been recognised as a ha0ard.
• Space debris, also #no,n as orbital debris, space 5un#, and space ,aste, is the collection of defunct
ob5ects in orbit around Earth. This includes ever(thing from spent roc#et stages, old satellites, fragments
from disintegration, erosion, and collisions. $ince orbits overlap ,ith ne, spacecraft, debris ma( collide
,ith operational spacecraft.
• 2mpacts of these particles cause erosive damage
• ?amage can be reduced ,ith H;hipple shieldH, ,hich, for example, protects some parts of the
2nternational $pace $tation. <o,ever, not all parts of a spacecraft ma( be protected in this manner, e.g.
solar panels and optical devices 8such as telescopes, or star trac#ers9, and these components are sub5ect
to constant ,ear b( debris and micrometeoroids.
%HIPPLE SHIEL$

• The ;hipple $hield is the first spacecraft shield ever implemented. 2t ,as introduced b( +red ;hipple
bac# in the 9&0s, and is still in use toda(.
• $impl(, it consists of placing a sacrificial bumper, usuall( aluminum, in front of the spacecraft, thus
allo,ing it to absorb the initial impact.
• The ;hipple bumper shoc#s the pro5ectile and creates a debris cloud containing smaller, less lethal,
bumper and pro5ectile fragments. The full force of the debris cloud is diluted over a larger area on the
spacecraft rear,all.
$EN$ROI$

• 2ndian Computer Emergenc( Response Team 8C1"6In9 has issued an alert as#ing all 'ndroid smartphone
users to be,are of a deadl( virus F?endroid,’
• ?endroid is a Jmalicious applicationK through ,hich an attac#er can Jcompletel( compromise the
affected smartphone and control it remotel(.K
• ' malicious tool#it called ?endroid is being used to create Tro5anised applications that infects 'ndroid4
based smartphones.
• The mal,are is created b( modif(ing the re=uired permissions b( an( clean '-I 8'ndroid 'pplication
-ac#age9 ,ith ?endroid R'T functionalit( that allo,s detailed management of the infected devices.
• The Jattac# tool#itK can delete all call logs, open ,eb pages, dial an( number, record calls and audio,
intercept $/$, upload images and video to remote location and open applications.
IN$IA,BASE$ NEUTRINO OBSERVATOR .INO/

• 2ndia4based 1eutrino @bservator( 821@9 slated to come up near Theni district in Tamil 1adu, b( )0)0.
• 'ccording to the )th +ive Eear -lan report released in @ctober )0, it ,ill be built at a cost of
Rs.,7)7.%% crore, borne b( the ?epartments of 'tomic Energ( 8?'E9 and $cience R Technolog( 8?$T9.
• 3( )0), these government agencies, ,ith the help of )! participating institutions, ,ere able to obtain
environmental clearance, and approvals from the -lanning Commission and the 'tomic Energ(
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?, www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
Commission. 'n( substantial flo, of capital ,ill happen onl( ,ith Cabinet approval, ,hich has still not
been given after more than a (ear.
IF $ELA PERSISTS

• The 2ndian scientific communit( ,ill face greater difficult( in securing future pro5ects involving foreign
collaborators because ,e can’t deliver on time.
• ;orse still, bright
2ndian minds that
have ideas to test
,ill prioritise foreign
research labs over
local facilities.
• China B second ma5or
neutrino research
laborator( L the
Aiangmen
Underground
1eutrino
@bservator( 8AU1@9,
to be completed at a
cost of O760 million
8Rs. ),00 crore9 b(
)0)0.
• Tension for 2ndiaCs
-h(sicist 4 3oth
pro5ectCs date of
completion is same
and once read(, both
21@ and AU1@ ,ill
pursue a common
goal in fundamental ph(sics. $hould China face fe,er roadbloc#s than 2ndia does, our neighbour could
even beat us to some seminal discover(.
LESSONS FROM THE PAST

• 2n the 9!0s, a neutrino observator( located at the Iolar .old +ields in Iarnata#a became one of the
,orld’s first experiments to observe neutrinos in the Earth’s atmosphere, produced as a b(4product of
cosmic ra(s colliding ,ith its upper strata.
• <o,ever, the laborator( ,as shut in the 990s because the mines ,ere being closed.
• <o,ever, Aapanese ph(sicist /asatoshi Ioshiba and collaborators built on this observation ,ith a larger
neutrino detector in Aapan, and ,ent on to ma#e a discover( that 85ointl(9 ,on him the 1obel -ri0e for
-h(sics in )00).
• 2f 2ndian ph(sicists had been able to #eep the Iolar mines open, b( no, ,e could have been on par ,ith
Aapan, ,hich hosts the ,orld4reno,ned $uper4Iamio#ande neutrino observator( involving more than
900 engineers.
BAC+*ROUN$

• 1eutrinos are collo=uiall( called Jghost particlesK because
o The( travel at almost the speed of light,
o The( hardl( interact ,ith matter, and
o The( are ver( light.
• Therefore, trapping and measuring a neutrino re=uires extremel( sensitive e=uipment shielded from
interfering radiation.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

?2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• There are three #inds, or flavours, of neutrinos, designated ,, ( and -. Each flavour is #no,n to
spontaneousl( transform into the other, a process called oscillation that is characteristic of particles that
have mass.
• <o,ever, ph(sicists have been unable to measure their masses7 ;hat the( have been able to
accomplish is find their difference.
@f late, interest has gro,n in the mass of neutrino47 ,ith respect to the other t,o, ,hich is ,hat 21@ and AU1@
,ill stud(. Together, these detectors ,ill 5oin the alread( operating <(per4Iamio#ande in Aapan and the 1@v' in
the U.$.
%AS $AR+ MATTER OBSERVE$ IN +OLAR *OL$ FIEL$S 4

• The handful of unusual events observed in the underground experiments at the Iolar .old +ield 8I.+9
mines during the 9!04%0s and the 9*0s, ,hich have remained unexplained to this da(, ma( have been
due to the deca(s of hitherto unseen 2ar' 3atter =23> particles7
• The postulate of ?/ ,as put for,ard to account for the extreme velocities ,ith ,hich galaxies and
clusters of galaxies are observed to be rotating, that the gravit( generated b( their observable matter
alone cannot explain.
• 't such speeds the( should have been torn apart long ago. 2t is believed that something that cannot be
seen directl( ,ith light 8electromagnetic radiation, in general9 L and hence the name L is providing
that extra mass, generating the e4tra gra$ity, needed to hold them together.
• ?/ dominates the matter in the universe, out,eighing all the visible matter by nearly si4 times, but its
existence can be inferred only from the gra$itational effect it seems to have on visible matter.
• Though existence of ?/ is no, accepted, and it is all around us ,ith var(ing densities, its nature has
remained a m(ster( and various candidate ?/ particles have been proposed.
INTER*RO%TH,21ST PRO1ECT
• 'n international research effort called the H2ntergro,th4)st -ro5ectH, or the H2nternational +etal and
1e,born .ro,th Consortium for the )st Centur(H
• $upported b( the 3ill R /elinda .ates +oundation.
PURPOSE

• The primar( purpose of the pro5ect is to Hdevelop ne, CprescriptiveC standards describing normal foetal
gro,th, preterm gro,th and ne,born nutritional status in eight geographicall( diverse populations, and
to relate these standards to neonatal health ris#H.
METHO$OLO*

• To implement this apparentl( straightfor,ard goal turns out to be a monumental tas#, since it involves
e=ualising the nutritional and health status of all mothers participating.
• This is needed to capture an( residual differences in foetal development that might be associated ,ith
genetic or racial t(pe.
• 'ccordingl(, prenatal progress from conception to birth ,as monitored at eight clinical centres around
the ,orld.
• 't each of these centres, exactl( the same monitoring and measurement tools ,ere used.
• The findings of this multi4(ear effort are no, emerging and ,ere presented at the conference in
advance of their official release.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

%4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
RESULTS

• Cruciall(, the findings indicate that there is no s(stematic difference in foetal development b( ethnic or
racial t(pe. To put it more formall(, variations ,ithin populations exceeded variations across
populations.
IMPLICATIONS

• This brings us bac# to the tall ?utch, and thereb( to 2ndia. 2t is indeed the case that the ?utch are the
nation ,ith the greatest average height in Europe.
• 's ,ould be consistent ,ith the 2ntergro,th findings 8but confirmed b( other, prior research9, this is not
primaril( because of differences in genetic stoc# 4 but is rather attributable to s(stematic, multi4
generational investment in female empo,erment and maternal health.
• <ealth( mothers produce health( babies, and health( babies are less susceptible to chronic diseases
8such as obesit( and diabetes9 as ,ell as being more capable of realising their full cognitive capabilities.
• +urther, for in addition to their record height, the ?utch also lead UnicefCs ran#ings across the rich
countries as being the most child4friendl(.
• 'ccounting for this outcome is more difficult, but according to sociologists and social ps(chologists, it
seems embedded in the value s(stem of ?utch societ(.
• ' small nation on a river delta 8the Rhine9 sub5ect to man( of the same natural perils as, sa(, 3angladesh,
has propelled itself to being one of the ,ealthiest members of the European Union ,ith enviable social
indicators, largel( through success in social organisation.
IMPLICATIONS FOR IN$IA

• +irst, if 2ntergro,th becomes ,idel( accepted, ,e ,ill no longer be able to use the excuse that lo,
average birth ,eight, or subse=uent stunting, is the result of genetic predisposition.
• $econd, ,hile concentration on prenatal and neo4natal health can (ield extremel( high social return, it
cannot substitute for babies ,ho have alread( come into the ,orld ,ith lo, birth ,eight.
• Third, it is not valid to argue that these problems can onl( be resolved as ,e get richer. The opposite is
more li#el( to be the case.
CONCLUSION

• 1one of this is to den( the long4standing efforts of the 2ndian government through schemes such as
the 2ntegrated Child ?evelopment $ervices 82C?$9 to address issues of prenatal care, food
supplementation and earl( childhood monitoring.
• 3ut the deeper issue raised b( ?utch success is ho, far such official efforts can succeed in the absence
of supportive social attitudes and the political ,ill the( engender.
• The fundamental challenge is to change social perceptions and norms. That is an effort that has to
involve societ( as a ,hole, as the example of the ?utch confirms.
MONO RAIL 9 MUMBAI

The *.*4#m4long line bet,een ;adala and Chembur ,as inaugurated recentl(. $alient +eatures of the pro5ectB
• ;ould cover )6 stations
o These are some of the thic#l(4populated areas ,hich are not ade=uatel( serviced b( the regular
;estern Rail,a(, Central Rail,a( and its <arbour "ine.
• 2t ,ould be the second longest corridor on the ,orld monorail map.
• The monorail is /umbai’s first public transport s(stem post4independence
o cit(’s first mode of mass transport, the suburban rail,a( net,or# that is used b( %6 la#h people
ever( da(, began operations !0 (ears ago. The first train ran bet,een 3ori 3under and Thane on
'pril !, *67.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

%1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
o The erst,hile 3omba( Electric $uppl( and Transport 83E$T9 introduced trams and buses as
alternative modes of mass transport in *%& and 9)!, respectivel(
%HAT3S MONORAIL4

/onorail is a transport s(stem that runs on single rail as against metro rail that runs on ) rails li#e all other trains
all over the ,orld. The single rail is its onl( support s(stem and it runs on a beam high up in the air as against
metro rail that runs li#e a conventional train but on an independent trac#.
HO% IS IT $IFFERENT FROM METRO4

• The trac# on ,hich the rail runs is narro,er than the train itself and this is the ma5or point of
differentiation ,ith the metro rail.
• 'lso, it runs on a single rain unli#e metro rail ,hich runs on t,o rails much li#e conventional rail,a(
s(stem
ANALSIS

Posi:iv;s

• 2t is estimated that over million people travel b( public transport dail(, of ,hich more than !0 per
cent commute b( the suburban rail,a( net,or#s. The( re=uire a better mode of transportation to reach
their destination.
• /onorail ,ill be the feeder service to connect the mass transport s(stems, li#e the existing suburban
rail,a( net,or#.
• 'lso, 2t ,ill easil( move through the cit(’s narro, corridors ta#ing tight turns, saving much of the travel
time and decongesting road traffic to a great extent.
• The routes being lin#ed through ma5or areas in the cit( are set to benefit commuters ,ho travel long
distances.
• 2t ,ill help control pollution
o /onorail follo,s the lines of green transportation, as its Coaches move on rubber t(res on
concrete beams, creating less noise and vibration during operation, and is po,ered b( electric
motors ,hich are silent, efficient and clean. 2t is estimated to save approximatel( )00 tonnes of
C@) a da( in /umbai.

Li<i:a:ions

• The monorail ma( not be further extended b( the //R?', as it ma( prove inade=uate for /umbaiCs
population densit(.
• 'lso, foreign consultants have suggested a /etro or "RT s(stem over a monorail for man( 2ndian cities,
including /umbai and 3angalore.
Copyright © by Vision IAS
All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision
IAS
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
POLITY .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Election related news ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Detailed guidelines to monitor poll expenses ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Helpline for voters in Harana ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Hig!er voter turnout anticipated in 2"14 elections ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
Accurac of #lectoral $olls ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... %
#& warns 'edia over opinion (olls .......................................................................................................................................................................................... %
)irst (ast t!e (ost Sstem of #lections *)(+(,- )allacies ............................................................................................................................................. %
Supreme Court judgments ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
$eprieve for .!ullar ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ /
&A0 to audit private sector........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
S& on dissolution of assem2l in Del!i ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
S& panel on road safet .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
S& panel on political Advts 2 governments ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Adopt scientific met!ods in crime detection5 S& ............................................................................................................................................................... 4
6ot!ing despica2le in students cleaning toilets5 Hig! &ourt ....................................................................................................................................... 4
Judicial Reforms ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Appointments of 7udges ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................1"
A case for 7udicial activism .........................................................................................................................................................................................................11
Lack of wistle!lowers protection regime in "ndia ................................................................................................................. 11
Saranda #ction $lan ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1%
ECONOMY .......................................................................................................................................... 1
"ndian Econom& ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1'
AD. pegs 0D( growt! rate for 2"14-1% at %.% 8 ............................................................................................................................................................19
India:s growt! li;el to recover to %.4 8 in 2"145 I') ................................................................................................................................................19
0rowt! in Industrial (roduction contracts 1.4 8 in )e2ruar .................................................................................................................................14
$olic& directi(es !& R)" ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14
.i-mont!l monetar polic review 2 $.I - !ig!lig!ts ..............................................................................................................................................14
Implementing <r7it (atel &ommittee:s $ecommendations ........................................................................................................................................1%
+wo new 2an;s - ID)& A6D .A6DHA6 gets in principle nod ..................................................................................................................................1%
Rating for ousing projects * +ational ,ousing )oard ......................................................................................................... 16
SE)" pitces for teacing capital markets to scool students ............................................................................................ 1-
E$./ to allot uni(ersal num!ers !& /ct 10 ................................................................................................................................. 1-
12/ on 3lo!al trade .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1-
.iscal deficit control makes iger growt callenging ....................................................................................................... 14
SOCIAL ISSUES ................................................................................................................................. 1!
5oting rigts for te disa!led ............................................................................................................................................................. 16
Curati(e petition against section '-- judgement ..................................................................................................................... 16
Legal recognition for transgenders ................................................................................................................................................. %0
#nal&sis of 3o(t. Ser(ices ...................................................................................................................................................................... %0
Reporting of cild a!use cases ........................................................................................................................................................... %1
H#A=+H ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Rota(irus * 5accine 116e ..................................................................................................................................................................... %'
,a(oc of 7ERS .......................................................................................................................................................................................... %'
Realit& of cancer in india ...................................................................................................................................................................... %4
2reats from 7alaria............................................................................................................................................................................. %4
#larming rise in cases of li(er diseases .......................................................................................................................................... %0
Campaign to promote rational use of anti!iotics ..................................................................................................................... %0
$artnersip to counter $ediatric 2) ............................................................................................................................................... %0
ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................... 2"
)an on mining iron ore in 3oa lifted ............................................................................................................................................... %-
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

9 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
Longed !ill (ultures sigted in nilgiris........................................................................................................................................... %-
Stop waling in antarctic8 "CJ to japan .......................................................................................................................................... %4
>apan?s 2iggest online retailer ends w!ale meat sales ..................................................................................................................................................23
10 "ndian )irds among 3lo!all& endangered ............................................................................................................................. %4
3lo!al warming worsening unger glo!all&............................................................................................................................... %6
"ndian deltas are sinking ...................................................................................................................................................................... %6
Solar capacit& in india crosses %09000 71 ................................................................................................................................. %6
Eart da& cele!rated .............................................................................................................................................................................. %6
IN#IA AN# $ORL# ........................................................................................................................ 0
"ndia proposes glo!al :no;first;use: con(ention on +;weapons ......................................................................................... '0
"ndia * cina ............................................................................................................................................................................................... '0
/
t!
$ound of Indo- &!ina Strategic Dialogue ......................................................................................................................................................................9"
India c!ina naval exercise ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................91
&!ina:s Visa polic casts a s!adow on out! exc!ange ................................................................................................................................................91
$atan +ata appointed 2oard mem2er of &!ina 2ac;ed 2oao forum ......................................................................................................................92
"ndia * <S# .................................................................................................................................................................................................. ''
India concludes pact wit! <S on tax evasion under )A+&A .......................................................................................................................................99
$#AD *$ead-#ngage-Ac!ieve-Dream,5 Indio-<S alliance to improve reading s;ills at Indian Sc!ools ................................................94
"ndia * Russia * #fganistan S&nerg& ............................................................................................................................................ '4
$akistan for resumption of dialogue wit india ........................................................................................................................ '0
<S ; Japan * "ndia 2rilateral Co;operation .................................................................................................................................. '0
"ndia leads 3lo!al Remittances ......................................................................................................................................................... '6
"ndian peacekeepers injured in attack on <S !ase in Sout Sudan .................................................................................. '6
/n social de(elopment inde=9 "ndia ranks 10% ........................................................................................................................... '-
#sia $acific na(ies sign maritime communication agreement .......................................................................................... '-
European <nion !ans "ndian #lpanso mangoes9 (eggies ................................................................................................... '4
"ndia>s first am!assador to "ndian mission to #sean and east asia summit ................................................................. '4
$ORL# AFFAIRS ............................................................................................................................ %
Re(i(ing te 7aritime Silk Route ..................................................................................................................................................... '4
@pinion - &!ina:s 'aritime Sil; $oute vs America:s (ivot ..........................................................................................................................................94
"srael $alestine issue .............................................................................................................................................................................. 40
<kraine crisis ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 40
<S created :Cu!an 2witter: to stir unrest ..................................................................................................................................... 41
.ligt 7,'-0 #ccident $ro!e ............................................................................................................................................................ 4%
.luefin-21 Su2marine ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................42
Sout ?orea .err& @isaster ................................................................................................................................................................. 4'
)oko aram kidnaps scool girls in +igeria ............................................................................................................................... 4'
#lleged 7orsi supporters sentenced to deat in Eg&pt .......................................................................................................... 44
<S and pillipines sign ten &ear defence pact ............................................................................................................................ 44
SCIENCE & TEC' ............................................................................................................................. 4(
"R+SS;1) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46
2e ,eart!leed !ug * "nternet Securit& 5ulnera!ilit& ........................................................................................................... 46
<r!an eat islands dot @eli .............................................................................................................................................................. 44
Stem Cells Cloned .rom ,uman Skin .............................................................................................................................................. 44

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
POLITY
ELECTION RELATE# NE$S
#ETAILE# )UI#ELINES TO MONITOR POLL E*PENSES
• ECI has issued the Election Expenditure Monitoring (ECM) Compendium with detailed instructions
• Such a compendium is issued before every elections.
• ECM compendium deals with matters ranging from maintenance of accounts by each candidate training of
election agents on expenditure monitoring maintenance of registers appointment of election expenditure
observers for each constituency and preparation of daily activity reports by flying s!uads on sei"ure of cash
and so on.
TRAVEL E*PENSES OF STAR CAMPAI)NERS
• #he travel expenses of star campaigners of political parties are exempt under Explanation ($) to Section %% of
the &epresentation of the 'eople (ct $)*$
• +nder no circumstances will expenses incurred by a star campaigner towards the use of helicopters be added
to the candidate,s account whether the candidate shares the dais with the star campaigner or not.
• (s per a SC -udgment the ECI had issued instructions that any expenditure incurred by a political party which
promotes the prospects of a particular candidate shall be accounted for by such candidate.
• .hile candidates have a ceiling on campaign expenditure political parties as a whole do not have any such
ceiling.
• #he responsibility lies with the candidate to prove that the expenditure incurred is not to be accounted for by
him/her and be treated as that for general party propaganda
'ELPLINE FOR VOTERS IN 'ARYANA
• 0aryana election department has set up telephone based web1based and SMS based helplines at 02 and
district level to help the voters to see3 poll related information such as address of polling station their name
in voting list etc.
• 'revious experience have shown that many people do not exercise their franchise only because they are not
sure about their names in the electoral rolls or not aware of the booth number and location.
• #he helplines would ma3e such people come out and cast their votes.
'I)'ER VOTER TURNOUT ANTICIPATE# IN 2014 ELECTIONS
• Experts believe that 45$6 elections could witness significantly increased voter turnout when compared to
earlier years
• #hey cite the higher voter turnout in recent assembly elections as an indication for the same
• 7oa &a-asthan 7u-arat +' registered more than $58 increase in voter turnout in assembly elections
• In 9ihar :arnata3a #amil ;adu voter turnout increased by %1<8
ANALYSIS
• Several factors can be cited for higher voter turnout in elections. 'ost Mandal commission participation of
voters from lower social and economic order has increased drastically. 'reviously electoral participation was
dominated by the people from upper castes and the upper and middle class. &ise of regional parties and
their strong use of mobili"ing practices for particular castes has also played a huge role.
• =ne of the reasons for increased voter turnout in assembly elections is the increased participation of
women in elections. In some of the states women have outnumbered the men for example in 45$5 9ihar
election >.6 8 more women voted than men. In 45$4 7oa elections ?8 more women turned out for
elections than men.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Increased voter turnout is also determined by the urban voters. #raditionally urban voters have always
voted in lesser number when compared to rural voters. 9ut in recent times a trend has been noticed for
increased participation of the urban voters in elections. In addition to the above youth also hold an
important 3ey as far as increased voter turnouts are concerned.
ACCURACY OF ELECTORAL ROLLS
• In recently conducted 45$6 elections several la3h names of voters were missing from the electoral rolls
mainly from Mumbai.
• #his has raised !uestions about the efficiency of the process of periodic electoral rolls revision inclusion of
new voters and voter enrollment drives conducted regularly
• ECI has actively ta3en support of technology to improve the enrollment process in electoral rolls since the
$))5,s
• In $))> not only initiated the issue of Electors 'hoto Identity Cards (E'IC) but also followed it up with
computeri"ation of the entire electoral rolls in a phased manner.
• In (pril this year the ECI launched a national1level online @electoral roll search, that could be used by voters
even from their smartphones to search their names on the rolls.
• Inspite of all these measures electoral rolls continue to be inaccurate serving as a reminder that technology
cannot substitute for care verification and proper supervision of the process.
• Increasing urbani"ation has resulted in huge number of people shifting base fre!uently which demands a lot
of precautions
$AY A'EA#
• #he process of inclusion and deletion has to be decentralised at the ward level
• Changes made by authorised officials should be lin3ed to a real1time database that can !uic3ly reflect these
change
• (ddress1change verification processes could also be made citi"en1friendly
EC $ARNS ME#IA OVER OPINION POLLS
• ECI has as3ed all media organisations not to publish opinion polls which are exit polls for all practical
purposes
• Some of the media houses broadcasted opinion polls that published results of some of the Ao3 Sabha
constituencies where voting had already ta3en place in effect ma3ing them exit polls.
• (s per the ECI telecast by certain television channels and publishing of the same by some newspapers
amounts to violation of Section $4?( of &' (ct $)*$.
$'AT IS SECTION 12( A OF RP ACT+ 1!(1,
• It prohibits publication and dissemination of results of exit poll.
• It says that no person shall conduct any exit poll and publish or publicise by means of the print or electronic
media or disseminate in any other manner whatsoever the result of any exit poll during such period.
• #he prohibited period refers to as the period commencing from the beginning of the hours fixed for poll on
the first day of poll and continuing till half an hour after closing of the polling in all the states and union
territories.
FIRST PAST T'E POST SYSTEM OF ELECTIONS -FPTP./ FALLACIES

$'AT IS FPTP,
• B'#' voting ta3es place in single1member constituencies
• #o vote under B'#' the voter simply puts a cross in a box next to one candidate. #he candidate with the most
votes in the constituency wins. (ll other votes count for nothing.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

/ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• #his is the system which is followed in India for 7eneral Elections of Ao3 Sabha and state elections.

#EMERITS OF FPTP
• In B'#' at times elected representatives hardly en-oy consent of even half the voters.
• It does not ensure proportional representation of all the groups in parliament. Bor example Calits in India are
$% per cent but being in the minority in every constituency one of them would never get elected
independently in the B'#' systemD not even from the so1called reserved constituencies.
• In the B'#' system once the elections are over there is no motivation for debate in 'arliament on policy
content.
• 0igh 9arrier 'oints in Elections
o In India 'eoples, choices are restricted to the candidates put up by political parties and to some
independent. #his results in the same set of people getting elected election after election without any
evidence of performance.
o Entry barriers in Indian politics are very high for example the official expenditure allowed for a
candidate for the Ao3 Sabha election is &s.%5 la3h that only mainstream political parties can afford. #he
actual numbers are way beyond this figure.
• &esults in Corruption
o ;ow given the 3ind of investment which is re!uired in elections and given there is no legitimate return
on investment it inevitably results in corruption.
o In the $*th Ao3 Sabha election there were $46) crore pati candidates of whom over >55 reached
'arliament.
o #he crime record closely correlates with their riches and both exist across parties.
ALTERNATIVES TO FPTP,
• (n alternative to B'#' is the 'roportional &epresentation ('&) system which is followed in most European
democracies.
• Even though there are many practical variants of the '& system essentially it entails voting for parties or
social groups (rather than for individuals) that get representation in proportion to their share of votes.
A#VANTA)ES OF PR SYSTEM
• In the case of Calits (as mentioned above) #he '& system would assure them their share in 'arliament and
legislatures and may even create a centripetal force to expand their constituency.
• #here would be no cut1throat competition as every interest group would be reasonably assured of its share of
representation. #he competition would then shift to the ring of 'arliament to shape the policies in the
interests of the ma-ority of the people.
• #he intense competition of the B'#' elections leading to huge resource expenditure and conse!uent rise of
corruption would also be eliminated in the '& system.
• Most importantly in the context of India it would curb the vile motives in the ruling classes to divide people
on the lines of caste and community.
• #heoretical fallacy in the B'#' elections that the elected representatives hardly en-oy consent of even half
the voters is overcome in the '& system
• #here would not be any need for the reserved constituencies for Calits and hence even the Calit tag thereby
eliminating the salience of castes from politics
SUPREME COURT 0U#)MENTS
REPRIEVE FOR B'ULLAR
• Condemned to death thrice in the past 9hullar has now obtained a final reprieve from the Supreme Court. SC
has commuted 9hullar,s death sentence to life.
• 9hullar was convicted of 3illing nine persons and wounding $% others in a car bomb attac3 in Celhi in $))>.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS


REASONS CITE# FOR COMMUTATION
• #here was an unexplained delay of eight years in disposing of his mercy petition.
• 0e suffers from mental illness.
• 9oth these grounds figure among the supervening circumstances for commutation listed by the Supreme
Court in Eanuary in Shatrughan Chauhan vs +nion of India.

#I# T'E COURT OVERSTEP ITS CONSTITUTIONAL PO$ER,
• Critics argue that Supreme Court overstepped its constitutional power and duty and exercised the sovereign
power of clemency which it never possessed and thus infringed on the separation of powers as stated in the
constitution.
• In Eanuary this year in the matter of Eudicial review of 'ardon power the Supreme court in Shatrughan
Chauhan F (nr. vs +nion =f India F =rs. overstepped its constitutional power and duty and exercised the
sovereign power of clemency which it never possessed. #he three1-udge 9ench in its unprecedented
authority commuted a sentence of death to life for $* persons on the singular ground of delay.
• #he decision in the Shatrughan Chauhan case has been widely and wrongly heralded as a decision in support
of human rights while s!uarely forgetting the Eudiciary,s infringement of the cardinal principles of separation
of powers. #he Eudiciary cannot revolt against the Constitution but only on its behalf.
• =ur Constitution is our act of revolution and the Eudiciary its protector. #oday when the same Eudiciary
oversteps its limits it is indispensable that the decision is corrected reviewed and reversed by a larger 9ench.
CA) TO AU#IT PRIVATE SECTOR
• #he Supreme Court has ruled that the Comptroller and (uditor 7eneral of India can audit private telecom
firms that share their revenues with the government.
• (s per court such a scrutiny is crucial for ensuring the government got its Glegitimate shareH for allowing
private telecom operators to use the valuable natural resource
• (s per experts it would have an implication for other industries li3e power mining roadway etc in which
private companies either share revenues with the government or partner it under the ''' model
• Court observed that while dealing with a natural resource belonging to the people of country it has to give a
purposive interpretation to (rticle $6) of the Constitution and the #rai rules.
• (rticle $6) of the Constitution deals with the duties and powers of C(7.
ANALYSIS
• #he ruling in one go has extended the reach of the C(7 from government and public sector companies to any
entity that may be using a public resource in its business and sharing revenue with the government.
• #he principle behind the ruling is that when the Executive deals with natural resources such as spectrum
which belong to the people 'arliament should 3now how the nation,s wealth has been dealt with.
• 7iven the number of scams that have been unearthed with respect to natural resources in last few years this
ruling is a welcome change.
• (lso companies that use public resources have a responsibility to bear and if they play true and fair they
have nothing to fear from an audit.
• C(7 audit may create unnecessary wor3 for the private companies but if the government and the C(7 can
assure no harassment there would be no cause to protest against the audit itself as industry associations are
now doing.
• (t the same time it would be a really challenging tas3 for C(7 to deploy resources to carry out such audits in
a time bound manner.
• #he governments and regulators should use the C(7 only when serious wrongdoings are suspected by a
player otherwise long drawn process of C(7 may drive away investments from the sector.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

3 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS


SC ON #ISSOLUTION OF ASSEMBLY IN #EL'I
• ( 9ench of SC said that it could not impose any opinion on when the At. 7overnor or the 'resident should
ta3e a call on the dissolution of Celhi assembly.
• #he Court has also clarified that there is Gno fetter or impedimentH to the 'resident exercising his power to
revo3e or vary his earlier order with respect to proclamation imposing 'resident,s &ule in Celhi.
BAC1)ROUN#
• (am (admi 'arty government resigned in Bebruary but the At. 7overnor did not accept the outgoing
regime,s recommendation to dissolve the 0ouse.
• #he (ssembly was 3ept under suspended animation.
• Supreme Court in S.&. 9ommai vs. +nion of India had ruled that the legislature could be dissolved only after
the 'roclamation imposing 'resident,s &ule receives the approval of both 0ouses of 'arliament.
• Even though both the houses approved the 'roclamation the (ssembly continued to remain suspended.
• (am (admi 'arty had filed a plea challenging the 3eeping of the (ssembly in suspended animation
ANALYSIS
• Supreme Court has wisely refrained from giving any direction to the constitutional authority to follow a
particular course of action.
• 9ecause none can guarantee a decisive verdict after elections with any one party winning a ma-ority.
• #he absence of a representative government is a real concern. (nd therefore it is an issue that re!uires a
political solution.
SC PANEL ON ROA# SAFETY
• SC has appointed a three member panel to monitor implementation of road safety measures including
emergency medical help to accident victims and to ma3e the States accountable for any inaction or lapse.
• #he court noted that it is the duty of the Central and State governments to ensure the availability of safe
roads worthy of traffic.
• #he court directed all state governments and various central ministries involved in various road safety issues
to submit their first report to the committee in three months indicating the state of implementation of all
laws pertaining to licensing certification of fitness of vehicles passenger/weight carrying capacity use of
road safety devices adherence to road user norms add deployment of ade!uate manpower for enforcement
of existing provisions of law.
ROA# ACCI#ENTS A CONCERN IN IN#IA
• &apid motorisation and fast1paced economic activity over several years has resulted in increasing road
accidents.
• (s per a report one accident ta3es place in the country every minute and one person dies in an accident every
four minutes.
• It has economic implications also as by some estimates > per cent of 7C' is lost in a year due to the carnage.
• +nsafe transport including services operated by government agencies are a ma-or part of the problem but
State governments involved have shown little sense of accountability.
$AY A'EA#
• Sundar Committee constituted by the Centre in 455% recommended for the creation of an apex agency.
• #his agency was supposed assess all aspects of road safety and to address the lacuna in scientific accident
investigation.
• 9ut nothing was implemented on ground.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

4 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ;ational #ransport Cevelopment 'olicy Committee headed by &a3esh Mohan suggested that national state
and local1level institutions be set up with responsibility to address the issue of safety.
• #here is an urgent need to form these committees and appoint professionals to them.
• #hey must be empowered to upgrade driver1licensing practices road systems public lighting and signage.
• #here is a need to overhaul the process of accident investigation. CC#Is can come in handy in this process.
• 0igh cost of treatment at private hospitals affect access to good trauma care for accident victims. Central and
State governments must thus provide treatment at proximate institutions for free of cost.
SC PANEL ON POLITICAL A#VTS BY )OVERNMENTS
• Supreme Court has set up a panel to frame comprehensive guidelines to help end the abuse of public ads for
political mileage.
• #his panel would study best practices around the world and submit recommendations to the court in three
months.
• 9ased on the recommendations SC will issue Gsubstantive guidelinesH to be followed by the central and state
governments and their agencies such as the Cirectorate of (dvertising.
• 'etitioners had highlighted numerous full1page advertisements in newspapers and repeated ads on #I by
governments and their agencies which pro-ected political personalities and proclaimed the achievements of
the ruling party at the expense of the public exche!uer.
ANALYSIS
• #here is a need to distinguish between the advertisements that are part of government messaging and daily
business and advertisements that are politically motivated.
• Several countries such as (ustralia and Canada have developed guidelines to prevent abuse of public money
by way of such advertisements the same can be done in India too.
A#OPT SCIENTIFIC MET'O#S IN CRIME #ETECTION2 SC
• Supreme Court has as3ed investigating agencies to adopt scientific methods in crime detection to save the
-udicial system from low conviction rates
ANALYSIS
• Emergence of new types of crimes and their level of sophistication have made traditional methods and tools
outdated and therefore there is a need to adopt innovative and creative methods.
• &eliable trustworthy credible witnesses to the crime seldom come forward to depose before the court and
even hardened criminals get away from the clutches of the law.
• Even reliable witnesses for the prosecution turn hostile due to intimidation fear and a host of other reasons.
• Investigating agency has therefore to loo3 for other ways and means to improve the !uality of investigation
which can only be through the collection of scientific evidence
NOT'IN) #ESPICABLE IN STU#ENTS CLEANIN) TOILETS2 'I)' COURT
• Madras 0igh Court has directed in its -udgment that there is nothing despicable in ma3ing students clean
toilets used by them in schools as it would only inculcate value system and fulfil the dream of Mahatma
7andhi
• 'IA was filed by a group of citi"ens accusing government schools of ma3ing students to clean toilets.
• #he -udges pointed out that society,s outloo3 towards cleaning of toilets was one of the reasons for the birth
of caste system in the country.
• #hey also pointed out that Mahatma 7andhi had advocated cleaning of toilets as one of the means to get rid
of the caste system besides stripping every individual of his/her ego.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS

0U#ICIAL REFORMS
APPOINTMENTS OF 0U#)ES
• 9oth the ma-or national parties have given ample importance to the fair appointment of -udges in their
respective manifestos.
• #he Constitution (=ne 0undred (nd #wentieth (mendment) 9ill 45$> was passed by the &a-ya Sabha on
September * 45$>. It see3s to replace the current collegium system of appointment of -udges with a Eudicial
(ppointment Commission(E(C).
• #he 9ill gives E(C the powers to appoint -udges to the Supreme Court and the 0igh Court
• 9ill does not define who the members of the E(C are but leaves this for 'arliament to determine in an
ordinary Statute.
• #his accompanying 9ill 3nown as the E(C 9ill 45$> provides that E(C will comprise six members i.e. the Chief
Eustice of India two most senior -udges of the Supreme Court the Aaw Minister and two eminent persons.
• #he two eminent persons are supposed to be appointed by a collegium comprising the 'rime Minister the
leader of the =pposition in the Ao3 Sabha and the Chief Eustice of India
• (s per the bill the composition of E(C is in the hands of 'arliament. #o change the composition an ordinary
bill is enough which is more flexible than an amendment of the Constitution. Several experts have critici"ed
the bill over this particular lacuna.
E*AMPLE OF U1
• In the +.:. the candidates for Eudicial =ffice in courts up to and including 0igh Court level #ribunals in
England and .ales are selected by E(C.
• #he E(C is an executive non1departmental public body sponsored by the Ministry of Eustice.
• Membership is drawn from the -udiciary the legal profession non1legally !ualified -udicial office1holders and
the public
• #he Selection by E(C for 0igh Courts #ribunals is based on merit through fair and open competition.
• #he selection process starts when E(C receives a vacancy re!uest from 0er Ma-esty,s Courts and #ribunals
Service or the Ministry of Eustice. #hereafter it advertises all selection exercises on its website and in the
email newsletter. #he applications are submitted to E(C electronically.
• #hereafter the process of shortlisting commences. Candidates are re!uired to identify referees they 3now
personally and professionally. Shortlisted candidates are invited for a selection day for a panel interview role
play interview and presentation etc.
• #he techni!ue of situational questioning is also adopted which involves !uestions concerning a hypothetical
situation based on challenging real1life -ob1related occurrences and as3s the candidate how they would
handle the problem.
• E(C also carries out consultation as part of each selection exercise as re!uired by the Constitutional &eform
(ct 455*. Bor 0igh Court selection the Aord Chief Eustice and one other person are consulted.
• Binancial criminal and professional bac3ground chec3s are carried out.
• #hereafter commissioners ma3e the final decision on which candidates to recommend to the appropriate
authority for appointment.
ANALYSIS
• In the present system of appointments to 0igh Court Eudges in India unless the Chief Eustice of the 0igh
Court concerned or any other senior -udge of the 0igh Court recommends the name of a particular practising
lawyer there is no way to get included in the list of prospective candidates.
• #his system is perceived to be discriminatory because it is inherently impossible for the collegium -udges to
personally 3now everything about all the eligible practising members of the 9ar.
• #he procedure of selection of 0igh Court -udges by inviting applications through notifications which is
followed in the +nited :ingdom may well be adopted in India so that transparency in the appointment is
achieved eliminating the charge of discrimination
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• #he appointment process in +: is not only clearer but more accountable and worth emulating in India.
A CASE FOR 0U#ICIAL ACTIVISM
$'Y T'E #EBATE,
• Indian -udiciary has come under severe criticism for toing the line in last few months J
interventions/decision in the imprisoning Sahara chief in SE9I1Sahara disputeD the I'A betting caseD Section
>%% caseD and the status of transgenders have evo3ed a mixed response
'ISTORY OF 0U#ICIAL ACTIVISM IN IN#IA
• (fter playing a largely GinterpretativeH role in the $)*5s and $)?5s the Supreme Court starting from the
$)%5s played the role of a crusader against the excesses of legislative and executive action
• Some of the examples being inventing the @basic structure, doctrine bringing constitutional amendments
under the -udicial scanner and widening the scope of the right to life and liberty.
• #he Bandhua Muhti Morcha v. !nion of India was the case where the concept of 'ublic Interest Aitigation
('IA) was introduced and the locus standi re!uirement was diluted.
AR)UMENTS A)AINST 0U#ICIAL ACTIVISM
• #he most common argument against excessive -udicial intervention is that -udicial activism results in
upsetting the balance of power between the executive legislature and the -udiciary.
• Critics also argue that empowering -udges to decide on policy issues amounts to disrespecting the
democratically elected representatives
AR)UMENTS FOR 0U#ICIAL ACTIVISM
• 9ut interventions by -udiciary would have been unnecessary had the legislature and executive been
dispensing off their duty properly
• (lso arguments by critics assumes that -udicial intervention means that -udges have the final say on the policy
issue. #he -udges can however promote decision ma3ing relating to policy issues without being the ultimate
decision ma3er.
0U#ICIAL ACTIVISM $IT' 0U#ICIAL RESTRAINT
• It is possible for courts to monitor actions of the other limbs of democracy without actually stepping into
their shoes.
• 'roponents argue that the -udiciary should not create policies to enforce rights but must re!uire the
government to draft its own policy and submit it along with a timetable for execution.
• #he finalisation of this plan must be only after the -udiciary has heard ob-ections from other interested
parties.
• =nce such a policy is framed by a legislature/ executive it is to be interfered with by the -udiciary in a very
restrictive manner using the principle of deference.
• Principle of Deference: (ccording to this principle the -udiciary while evaluating executive/ legislative action
(or inaction) should modify the policy framed only when the reasons provided are not reasonable. ( court
should merely see whether the reasons provided by the executive -ustify its decision not whether the court
would have reached the same decision. #his standard should be applied not only when a policy is tested
before the courts but also by courts to see if inaction is -ustified.
• Eudicial activism 3eeping in view the ideals of democracy is necessary to ensure that unheard voices are not
buried by more influential and vocal voices.
LAC1 OF $'ISTLEBLO$ERS PROTECTION RE)IME IN IN#IA
• It is not acceptable that India lac3s a strong whistle1blower protection law which is not consistent with good
business and governance.
• Several whistle1blowers have been murdered in recent years.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

12 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• In 455> Satyendra Cubey was 3illed for exposing Gfinancial irregularities in the 7olden 2uadrilateral highway
construction pro-ect in 9ihar
• In 45$5 Satish Shetty was murdered for ma3ing a police complaint alleging Gmassive irregularitiesH when Gan
infrastructure company had connived with government officials to purchase land in villages along the 'une1
Mumbai Expressway.
E*PERIENCE OF SUC' LA$S IN OT'ER COUNTRIES
• .histle1blower protection laws incentivise integrity to help detect and deter unethical business practices and
fraud.
• Such laws are really successful in other countries In the +.S alone the Balse Claims (ct (BC() has returned to
the government more than K65 billion in penalties.
• +nder the BC( (+S() a private person can sue a company on behalf of the federal government in what is
called a !ui tam suit.
• If the federal government collects a settlement or court -udgment because of the information provided by the
!ui tam plaintiff the government is re!uired to pay a portion of the recovery to the plaintiff.
• #hese laws place pressure on companies that are engaged in unethical practices to respect the law commit
to compliance and not retaliate against whistle1blowers and prevent the crime rather than penali"e them.
RANBA*Y CASE
• In 45$> pharmaceutical company &anbaxy pleaded guilty to seven crimes committed for drug manufacturing
fraud and agreed to pay up an unprecedented K*55 million in fines.
• Cinesh #ha3ur a former Cirector at &anbaxy emerged victorious in the case as he used the provisions of BC(
• 0e was forced to resign in 455* after he brought to company,s notice fraudulent practices but thereafter
wor3ed with +.S. Bood and Crug (dministration (BC() in exposing widespread Gfalse fictitious and
fraudulent statementsH made to regulators resulting in substandard and unapproved drugs
• #his has resulted the increased number of inspectors allocated to India and China from four in 455) to nearly
$* at present.
• It has also aided in the identification of other problems at other Indian companies.
• It has also lead to opening of a direct line of communication with the Indian regulator the Crug Controller
7eneral =f India and the Central Crugs Standard Control =rgani"ation in ;ew Celhi
• #hese changes would also benefit Indian consumers who are entitled to the same safe and high1!uality drugs
as those sold in any other nation.
$'ISTLEBLO$ERS3 PROTECTION BILL 2011
• In 45$5 the Ao3 Sabha passed the .histleblowers, 'rotection 9ill currently languishing in the +pper 0ouse of
'arliament.
• #he 9ill has been widely criticised as providing insufficient protection to whistle1blowers.
• It does not regulate private sector and State governments.
• Burther it has critical flaws such as not admitting anonymous complaints and insufficiently penalising
officials who retaliate against whistle1blowers.
SARAN#A ACTION PLAN
• #he Saranda forest area which holds a !uarter of India,s iron ore and is home to 0o and 9irhor (divasi
Communist rebels established several training camps in these dense sal forest bordering =disha.
• In 45$$ the paramilitary forces launched a massive operation called @=peration (naconda, to flush out
Maoists.
• Ministry of &ural Cevelopment launched a &s. 4*51crore Saranda Cevelopment 'lan to bring in development
and to consolidate the government,s hold on the area
• Some of the schemes and strategies adopted included Indira (was Lo-ana M;&E7( Borest &ights (ct 455?
'M7SL etc
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

19 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ECONOMY
IN#IAN ECONOMY
A#B PE)S )#P )RO$T' RATE FOR 2014/14 AT 4.4 5
• Constraints M #he Indian economy (sian Cevelopment 9an3 ((C9) said has remained constrained by slow
industrial growth contracting manufacturing output wea3 investment and a reduction in private
consumption.
• Growth forecast 1 India,s 7C' is poised to accelerate to *.* per cent in 45$61$* on the bac3 of improved
performance in industry and services but it may ta3e some time for the country to reach its potential
growth rate says an (sian Cevelopment 9an3 ((C9) report.
• Current Outloo 1 Indian economy according to Central Statistical =ffice (CS=) is estimated to record a
growth rate of 6.) per cent in 45$>1$6 up from decade,s low of 6.* per cent posted in the previous financial
year
• #he report further said that the current account deficit (C(C) is estimated to have narrowed sharply to 4.4
per cent of 7C' in 45$>1$6 from 6.% per cent a year earlier.
• G#he recent deceleration of economic growth in India appears to have bottomed out but the economy will
not reach its potential until remaining structural bottlenec3s are overcomeH said the (C9 =utloo3 45$6
report
• !uture esti"ates 1 #he growth is expected to rise further to ?.5 per cent in 45$*1$? as the recovery in
advanced economies will bolster external demand and government actions are li3ely to remove some
structural bottlenec3s impeding industry and investment says the (C9 report.
• Steps for reco#ery $ Sustained economic recovery will have to be led by improved investment and
consumption (C9 report said.
• It said the Gprogress by the Cabinet Committee on Investment in resolving delays in several large
infrastructure pro-ects is li3ely to provide traction in raising investment.H
• Moreover it added companies will be loo3ing to see if actions are ta3en to improve the investment climate
and improved global growth prospects bolster external demand.
IN#IA3S )RO$T' LI1ELY TO RECOVER TO 4.4 5 IN 20142 IMF
• Current e%pectations 1 GIndia,s growth is expected to recover from 6.6 per cent in 45$> to *.6 per cent in
45$6 supported by slightly stronger global growth improving export competitiveness and implementation
of recently approved investment pro-ectsH according to the latest edition of the .orld Economic =utloo3
by IMB.
• &easons attribute' for change 1 G( pic31up in exports in recent months and measures to curb gold imports
have contributed to lowering the current account deficit. Burther 'olicy measures to bolster capital flows
have further helped reduce external vulnerabilitiesH the IMB said.
• Challenges 1 GConsumer price inflation is expected to remain an important challenge but should continue
to move onto a downward tra-ectoryH the IMB report said.
• !uturistic pro(ections 1 #he outloo3 pro-ected India,s growth rate to increase to ?.6 per cent in 45$*.
• Policy initiati#es require' 1 G'riorities should include mar3et1based pricing of natural resources to boost
investment addressing delays in the implementation of infrastructure pro-ects improving policy
framewor3s in the power and mining sectors reforming the extensive networ3 of subsidies and securing
passage of the new goods and services tax to underpin medium term fiscal consolidation.
• Pan$Asian Outloo $ Bor (sia as a whole growth is expected to accelerate modestly from *.4 per cent in
45$> to about *.* per cent in 45$6 and 45$*. #he improved outloo3 in advanced economies alongside
more competitive exchange rates in some cases will help boost exports it said adding that domestic
demand will continue to be supported by strong labour mar3ets and still1buoyant credit growth.
• Global Outloo $ 9uoyed by recovery in advanced economies including the +.S. the International
Monetary Bund (IMB) said global activity strengthened during the second1half of 45$> and is expected to
improve further in 45$61$*.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

14 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ( ma-or impulse to global growth has come from the +.S. whose economy grew at >.4* per cent in the
second1half of 45$> stronger than expected.
• In the stressed euro area economies however growth is pro-ected to remain wea3 and fragile as high debt
and financial fragmentation hold bac3 domestic demand.
• In Eapan fiscal consolidation in 45$61$* is pro-ected to result in some growth moderation.
• Conclusion $ 7rowth in emerging mar3et economies is pro-ected to pic31up only modestly. #hese economies
are ad-usting to a more difficult external financial environment in which international investors are more
sensitive to policy wea3ness and vulnerabilities given prospects for better growth and monetary policy
normalisation in some advanced economies.
)RO$T' IN IN#USTRIAL PRO#UCTION CONTRACTS 1.! 5 IN FEBRUARY
• )hy i"portant 1 Manufacturing sector pulls down growth bellying hopes of a recovery
• Statistics 1 Bactory output as measured by the II' had started to decline in =ctober 45$> when it had
contracted $.4 percent. #he trend continued till Cecember.
• Cumulative growth in the $$1month period (pril 45$> 1 Bebruary 45$6 stood at (1) 5.$ percent against
positive growth of 5.) percent in the corresponding period of the previous year
• Manufacturing which is <5 percent of total II' has contracted 1>.% percent while sectors outside
manufacturing i.e. mining and electricity have seen $.6 percent and $$.* percent growth respectively.
• &easons $ #he wea3 industrial output performance continues mainly on account of poor consumer demand.
• 0igh inflation and unaffordable interest rates on EMIs have dented the consumer sentiment.
• Continuing lac3lustre manufacturing performance especially in capital goods dragged industrial production
to negative growth of $.) percent
• I"pact $.ea3 consumer demand and lac3 of investment shows the recovery may be more difficult than
generally believed.
POLICY #IRECTIVES BY RBI
BI/MONT'LY MONETARY POLICY REVIE$ BY RBI / 'I)'LI)'TS
• 'olicy rate unchanged at <8 in the central ban3,s first bi1monthly credit policy.
• &everse &epo &ate (&&&) under the A(B unchanged at %.58
• Marginal Standing Bacility (MSB) rate unchanged at ).58
• 9an3 &ate unchaged at ).58
• Cash &eserve &atio (C&&) of scheduled ban3s unchanged at 6.58 of the ;et Cemand and #ime Aiability
(;C#A)D
• Increase in li!uidity provided under %1day and $61day term repos from 5.*8 of ;C#A to 5.%*8
• &eduction in li!uidity provided under overnight &epos under the A(B from 5.*8 of ban31wise ;C#A to 5.4*8
with immediate effect.
ANALYSIS
• #he policy clearly highlighted the view that the worst may not be over on the inflation front.
• &9I said Git is appropriate to hold the policy rateH for now to allow recent policy rate hi3es to 3ic3 into the
economy besides suggesting that rates may not be hi3ed further in the near term if the economy continued
along the disinflationary Gglide pathH.
• Economists said &9I will hold rates only if retail inflation stic3s to a roadmap recently suggested by an expert
panel headed by &9I deputy governor +r-it 'atelJ<8 by Eanuary 45$* and ?8 by Eanuary 45$?Jenduring a
host of potential ris3s.
• #hese include the performance of the monsoon the impact of the El ;ino weather phenomenon and
uncertainty over the setting of minimum support prices for agricultural commodities and administered
prices of fuel fertili"er and electricity.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• #he central ban3 also said that it would Gloo3 throughH the base effect on inflation suggesting that &9I
would not be satisfied with a statistical fall in the headline inflation rate.
• 0igh inflation during the Eune1;ovember 45$> period will lead to a high base effect and hence a lower year1
on1year inflation rate during the corresponding months of 45$6.
IMPLEMENTIN) UR0IT PATEL COMMITTEE3S RECOMMEN#ATIONS
• #he &9I has gone ahead and started implementing 3ey portions of the +r-it 'atel committee,s
recommendations.
• 9y choosing the Consumer 'rice Index (C'I) as the metric of inflation and adopting a glide path of gradual
disinflation over this year and next &9I is ta3ing steps to ma3e policy more predictable and transparent.
• Earlier &9I had given more weightage to .holesale 'rice Index (.'I) than C'I as the 3ey measure of
inflation for all policy purposes.
• #his also includes explicit recognition of the glide path for disinflation transition to a bi1monthly monetary
policy cycle progressive reduction in access to overnight li!uidity at the fixed repo rate and a
corresponding increase in access to li!uidity through term repos and introduction of longer1tenor term
repos as well as going forward term reverse repos.
• Inflation Indexed 9onds 1 #o expand investor demand for inflation1indexed bonds &9I said Gdesign changes
improving their attractiveness to the general public are being wor3ed out.H
• Inclusion and customer protection 1 #o enlarge the ban3ing correspondent (9C) base &9I said that the
inclusion of new entities as well as a relaxation of existing distance restrictions was being considered.
• #he &9I 7overnor further said that ban3s should not levy penal charges for non1maintenance of minimum
balance in ordinary savings ban3 account and inoperative accounts Gbut instead curtail the services
accorded to those accounts until the balance is restored.H #he &9I would frame comprehensive consumer
protection regulations based on domestic experience and global best practices.
T$O NE$ BAN1S / I#FC AN# BAN#'AN )ETS IN PRINCIPLE NO#
• #he &9I granted in principle approval to ICBC and 9(;C0(; to setup ban3s while also considering the
application of 'ost 9an3 of India after consultations with the 7overnment of India.
• It was convinced that these entities would be able to do -ustice to the central ban3,s declared slogan of
@financial inclusion,.
• Burther G.hile the &9I has been conservative in granting in1principle approval to only two applicants in this
round what is very heartening to note is the stated outloo3 to review the guidelines and ma3e this a regular
process moving towards an @on1tap, policy including differentiated licencesH
TIMELINE ON BAN1 LICENSIN) IN IN#IA
• $)6%1$)?)N Bollowing a spate of mergers and amalgamations the number of commercial ban3s in the
country decreased from ?65 in $)6% to <* in $)?).
• Euly $)?)N $6 ma-or commercial ban3s were nationalised with the basic ob-ective of ensuring credit flow to
priority sectors of the economy.
• (pril $)<5N Six more commercial ban3s were nationalised.
• Eanuary $))>N &eserve 9an3 of India (&9I) released guidelines for licensing of new ban3s in the private
sector. $5 new ban3s were formed on the basis of these guidelines. #hese were 7lobal #rust 9an3 ICICI
9an3 0CBC 9an3 (xis 9an3 9an3 of 'un-ab IndusInd 9an3 Centurion 9an3 IC9I 9an3 #imes 9an3 and
Cevelopment Credit 9an3.
• Eanuary 455$N &9I revised the guidelines for new ban3 licences. #wo new ban3s M :ota3 Mahindra 9an3 and
LES 9an3 M were formed.
• Bebruary 4? 45$5N Bormer finance minister and now president 'ranab Mu3her-ee announces in his budget
speech (for 45$51$$) that companies and business houses will be allowed to set up new ban3s.
• (ugust $$ 45$5N &9I releases discussion paper on entry of new ban3s in the private sector.
• Bebruary 44 45$>N &9I releases guidelines for licensing of new ban3s.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

1/ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Euly $ 45$>N Aast date for submitting applications for new ban3ing licence. &9I discloses names of 4?
applicants for new ban3ing licence M two of them drop out while one new player gets added to the list later.
• September 6 45$>N &9I governor &aghuram &a-an announces setting up of a committee headed by 9imal
Ealan to screen the applications.
• (pril 4 45$6N &9I grants in1principle approval to ICBC and 9andhan Binancial Services to set up ban3s. #he
in1principle approval will be valid for $< months.
6UALIFYIN) CRITERIA
• 'romoter groups should have sound credentials and integrity financial health successful trac3 record of
running a business for at least $5 years
• #hey should never be under the scanner of any regulator enforcement and investigative agencies.
• #o own a ban3 they also needed to set up wholly1owned non1operative financial holding companies
(;=B0Cs) to be registered as a non1ban3ing financial company with &9I.
• It was also made clear that the ;=B0C and the ban3 should not have any exposure to the promoter groupD
• #he ban3 cannot invest in the e!uity or debt capital instruments of any financial entities held by ;=B0CD
• #he board of the ban3 should have a ma-ority of independent directors.
• #he promoters were to list their shares on stoc3 exchanges within three years of starting operations and
bring down sta3e to $*8 in $4 years.
ANALYSIS
• ;ew 'olicy 1 #he &9I has reiterated that the new ban3 licences will be an on1tap process from here on and
guidelines for the same will be issued soon.
• Emerging competition 1 #he process of gradual entry of ban3s over a period of time would smoothen out
future competition in the sector and also reduce ris3s of failure of new ban3s
• #he government,s rationale for new ban3 licences has been to extend the geographical coverage of
organised finance and to promote financial literacy and inclusion
BAC1)ROUN#
• *an'han1 is well1established in rural parts of Eastern India. It essentially caters to the Gentrepreneurial /
ban3ableH masses by extending them credit via -oint liability group (EA7) model. .hereas other typical
corporate ban3s find it difficult to ma3e rural branches profitable 9andhan should be able to leverage its
rural presence effectively
• ID!C li"ite' M was setup by the government in $))% to cater to infrastructure financing needs of the
country.
RATIN) FOR 'OUSIN) PRO0ECTS 7 NATIONAL 'OUSIN) BOAR#
• #he ;ational 0ousing 9an3 said it will soon come up with a rating for housing pro-ects in association with
ban3s to help buyers ma3e informed decisions.
• G.e have sought &9I nod to launch the ;091I9( rating for real estate pro-ects. #he ratings won,t be
mandatory for allH said ;09 chairman and managing director.
• +sing the rating ranging from $1% (seven being the best one) for a pro-ect a buyer can ma3e a more
informed decision and go for the best pro-ect.
• #he rating will be given by one of the registered rating agencies and be made public.
• (spects li3e financial details legal issues li3e land titles trac31record of the builders approvals received by
the pro-ect and repayments made to financiers among others will be considered while arriving at the rating.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

11 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SEBI PITC'ES FOR TEAC'IN) CAPITAL MAR1ETS TO SC'OOL STU#ENTS
• Mar3et watchdog Securities and Exchange 9oard of India (Sebi) has suggested the inclusion of additional
financial concepts related to capital mar3ets in school syllabus to broaden the hori"on of students 3een to
pursue finance as a sub-ect after passing out school.
• Inclusion of financial concepts and a different approach of introducing such concepts shall be duly
considered when the process of revising the syllabus and textboo3s will be done by C9SE in 45$61$*
• (s part of its efforts to spread financial awareness Sebi has been inviting students from schools colleges
and professional institutes interested in learning about the mar3et regulator and its role since Bebruary
45$$.
• GIt is proposed to increase the number of such visits with new areas of catchment in terms of institutions
even at the regional and local offices.H
• Bor spreading financial literacy among more students Sebi said the process of initiating @;ational Binancial
Aiteracy (ssessment #est, (;BA(#) has been started and will be completed by (ugust.
• #he test is part of Sebi,s @;ational Strategy for Binancial Education, drafting which was initiated in 45$$1$4
and has now been finalised.
EPFO TO ALLOT UNIVERSAL NUMBERS BY OCT 14
• &etirement fund body E'B= will provide permanent or universal account numbers (+(;) on the pattern of
core ban3ing services to its over five crore active subscribers by =ctober $* this year.
• +niversal (ccount ;umber 1 #he +(; would be one account number which would be allotted to a
subscriber for various schemes run by the E'B= for his entire service period with different employers
• Positi#es 1 #he +(; will facilitate subscribers in avoiding filing of 'B transfer claims on changing -obs.
• It is expected to provide great relief to those wor3ers in organised sector who fre!uently change -obs
particularly in construction sector.
• #he +(; will help reduce the wor3load of the E'B= to a great extent as it receives over $4 la3h claims
annually for transfer of 'B account on changing of -obs by its subscribers.
• #he E'B= has engaged C1C(C for preparing a roadmap for implementing the +(; programme for its
subscribers.
• *acgroun'1 #he Centre for Cevelopment of (dvanced Computing (C1C(C) is the premier research and
development organisation under the Ministry of Communications F Information #echnology for carrying
out &FC in I# Electronics and associated areas.
$TO ON )LOBAL TRA#E
• !orecast 1 7lobal trade is expected to increase by 6.% per cent in 45$6 better than the average of 4.4 per
cent in the past two years on the bac3 of pro-ected improvements in the developed economies the .orld
#rade =rganisation (.#=) said.
• #he world trade growth is pro-ected to accelerate to *.> per cent in 45$* as against the past two years of
45$4 and 45$> were growth has averaged only 4.4 per cent.
• Analysis 1 (lthough the 45$6 forecast of 6.% per cent is more than double the 4.$ per cent increase of last
year it remains below the 451year average of *.> per cent.
• &eason for slow growth 1 ( combination of flat import demand in developed economies (5.4 per cent) and
moderate import growth in developing economies (6.6 per cent).
• =n the export side both developed and developing economies only managed to record small positive
increases ($.* per cent for developed economies and >.> per cent for developing economies).
• Conclusion M #hough the trade forecast for 45$6 is premised on an assumption of > percent growth in world
7C' growth at mar3et exchange rates while the forecast for 45$* assumes output growth of >.$ percent
volatility is li3ely to be a defining feature of 45$6 as monetary policy in developed economies becomes less
accommodative.
• Burther Concluding the Coha round would provide a strong foundation for trade in the future and a
powerful stimulus in today,s slow growth environment.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

13 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
FISCAL #EFICIT CONTROL MA1ES 'I)'ER )RO$T' C'ALLEN)IN)
*#n anal&sis of te impact of go(ernment>s effort to reign in fiscal deficit !& e=penditure cuts,
• #he government,s effort to narrow fiscal deficit since last two years by expenditure cuts has resulted in
lower pro'ucti#e spen'ing.
• ( reduced fiscal deficit1to17C' ratio in BL$6 for the second year in a row has come at the cost of lower
productive spending whose effects could be felt in the years to come since the government,s productive
spending has a multiplier impact on the economy in subse!uent years.
• #he $>th Binance Commission had last year set a capital expenditure1to17C' target of 6.* per cent by BL$*
however the report said the ratio for BL$6 was $.% per cent and the same is budgeted for BL$*.
• Even if revenue grants provided by the government for capital creation to the States are added to the
Centre,s capital expenditure the government,s total budgeted spending for productive purposes will only
be 4.< per cent in BL$*.
• In the last two years productive spending J which is capital expenditure and the revenue grants for capital
creation in critical areas such as public infrastructure education and health care J has been lower than
budgeted by nearly &s. $.< trillion.
• In terms of per person spending the government only spent an incremental &s. $$5 on productive
spending while it spent an additional over &s. $)55 per person on other expenditure over the last two
financial years.
STEPS TO BE TA1EN
• #he government which could limit fiscal deficit within the target either by raising revenues or by cutting
spending must aim to reverse this trend and raise the government,s productive spending.
• .hile large part of the current expenditure is stic3y J salaries pensions and interest payments J cutting
unproductive spending on subsidies mainly on fuels such as 3erosene and li!uefied petroleum gas would
be necessary.
• #his will have to be supplemented through tax reforms such as 7S# which will improve the government,s
revenue position and fund higher capital spending. #herein lies the challenge for the next government.





Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

14 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
SOCIAL ISSUES
VOTIN) RI)'TS FOR T'E #ISABLE#
• &ecent estimates by the .orld 0ealth =rgani"ation (.0=) and others put India,s disabled population at
more than <5 million person.
• Let numerous hurdles prevent voters with disabilities from full participation in the electoral process.
• Some of them areN lac3 of access ramps and unavailability of voting mechanism for the hearing or sight
impairedD lac3 of accessible campaign material.
ISSUE OF UNSOUN#NESS OF MIN#
• (rticle >4? provides an overarching framewor3 comprising !ualifications and dis!ualifications for being a
voter in the general and assembly elections. It enshrines the value of universal adult suffrage and states that
every person who is a citi"en of India and of legal age has the right to vote with a few exceptions.
• =ne such exception is Gunsoundness of mind.H (dditionally the &epresentation of 'eople,s (ct $)*$ (@&'
(ct,) provides the procedural framewor3 for elections in India and similarly dis!ualifies a person from being
registered to vote if he or she is of Gunsound mindH and is found to be so by a Gcompetent courtH.
• 0owever the term Gunsoundness of mindH is vague and undefined and there is no ob-ective criterion laid
down to guide the Gcompetent courtH in determining what constitutes unsoundness of mind.
• Even if a person,s disability in no way interferes with his ability to understand the positions of candidates and
to ma3e a choice he can be deprived of the right to vote under this legal framewor3.
SECRECY OF VOTE
• (s per the Conduct of Election &ules $)?$ Ioters with disabilities are often allowed to ta3e a GcompanionH
with them who is usually a family member or a voting facility presiding officer cler3 or agent to physically
assist them in voting.
• #his essentially deprives the disabled the power of secret ballot.
• Section $4< of the &' (ct provides for the GMaintenance of secrecy of votingH and stipulates that no other
elector should be allowed inside when an elector is inside the voting compartment.
• #he provision for the disabled is considered outdated by many and considered as one stemming from a
charity model of understanding disability and not from a rights1based model.
$AY A'EA#
• #here is a need to scrap the Gunsoundness of mindH exception and tying any voter registration
dis!ualification to the lac3 of specific cognitive abilities in ma3ing an informed electoral choice only when
declared so by a competent court. ((s done in the +S()
• .e should also pursue the use of assistive and new technologies that would ma3e voting accessible for
persons with disabilities to ensure secrecy and independence in voting
• ;eed to ma3e building entrances rooms voting tables and Electronic Ioting Machines (EIM) accessible
would do away with voters with disabilities needing assistance.
CURATIVE PETITION A)AINST SECTION "" 0U#)EMENT
• 7ay activists and the ;a" Boundation moved the Supreme Court with a curative petition see3ing to correct its
-udgment which upheld the validity of Section >%% of the I'C
BAC1)ROUN#
• Section >%% criminali"es sex between homosexuals
• Celhi 0igh Court had held that Section >%% of the I'C violated (rticles $6 $* and 4$ of the Constitution.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 9ut the Supreme court in Cecember 45$> set aside this ruling and upheld the validity of this Section
• #he court had held that minuscule fraction of population can,t claim fundamental rights
ANALYSIS
• Celhi 0igh Court had held clearly that dignity autonomy and privacy were part of the right to life and
personal liberty under (rticle 4$. 9ut the Supreme Court did not give a single reason why that article was not
violated by the criminalisation of gay sex.
• (rticle $6*(>) re!uires that a minimum number of five -udges sit to decide any substantial !uestion of law
relating to the interpretation of the Constitution. #he court ought to do this strictly.
• (lso misuse of Section >%% is one of the principal forms of discrimination against the transgender
community. #ill the time this section in not declared unconstitutional transgenders would continue to
witness discrimination inspite of Supreme Court,s latest -udgment.
• Constitutional protection ought to be made available to a particular group regardless of its si"e.
• #he verdict on the transgender community now provides one more reason why Section >%% ought to be
amended to de1criminalise gay sex
LE)AL RECO)NITION FOR TRANS)EN#ERS
• Supreme Court in its landmar3 -udgment has recogni"ed the transgender community as a third gender along
with male and female.
• 9y virtue of this verdict all identity documents including a birth certificate passport ration card and driving
licence would recognise the third gender earlier such rights were not available to transgenders.
• It has also directed the Centre and States to ta3e steps to treat them as socially and educationally bac3ward
classes and extend reservation for admission in educational institutions and for public appointments
• #he Centre and State governments would also provide medical care to transgenders in hospitals and provide
separate public toilets.
• It directed the Centre and State governments to operate separate 0II Sero1surveillance Centres as
transgenders faced several sexual health issue
• 9y ending the gender binary the Court has opened the discussion on the rights of marriage adoption and
inheritance for the transgender community.
ANALYSIS
• #he recognition of transgenders as a third gender is not a social or medical issue but a human rights issue.
• =ur society often ridicules and abuses the transgender community and in public places li3e railway stations
bus stands schools wor3places malls theatres hospitals they are sidelined and treated as untouchables
• #he transgender people as a whole face multiple forms of oppression in our country especially in
healthcare employment and education.
• #he time has come for us to provide a dignified life to transgenders. (ll this can be achieved if a beginning is
made with the recognition of transgenders as the third gender.
• 9y doing so the court has not only upheld the rule of law but also advanced -ustice to the class so far
deprived of their legitimate natural and constitutional rights.
ANALYSIS OF )OVT. SERVICES
• =utcomes using data from the India 0uman Cevelopment Survey (I0CS) of 455615* and 45$$1$4 paints a
picture of stri3ing dissonance between government programmes and experiences at the ground level. Some
of them have been discussed below.
RI)'T TO E#UCATION
• #he implementation of the &#E should in theory lead to higher enrolment in government schools and better
educational outcomes.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

21 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• 9ut the results are ironically different.
• 'rivate school enrolment increased from 4< to >* per cent between 455* and 45$4 for children of ?1$6 years
even before poor students in private schools were reimbursed.
• ( small decline was noted in reading and writing s3ills among children of <1$$ years.
• .hile *6 per cent of children could read a simple paragraph in 455* there was a decline to *4 per cent in
45$$. Same was the case with basic arithmetic too.
• 9ut unfortunately government schools witnessed a decline as large as *8 in some cases.
NR'M
• ;&0M is supposed to strengthen preventive and curative care particularly in rural areas and in States with
poor health infrastructure such as +ttar 'radesh 9ihar &a-asthan Madhya 'radesh.
• 0owever a very small proportion of the Indian population relies on public facilities. (bout %5 per cent of
patients visit private providers.
• Ironically the greatest increase in the use of private services is in high1focus large States li3e +.'. 9ihar
&a-asthan M.'. and =rissa. ((s high as *8)
LEARNIN)S FROM 0ANANI SURA1AS'A YO0ANA
• ESL has on the other hand has been a success and led to a stri3ing increase in hospital deliveries.
• #his increase is greatest in large focus States. 0ere the hospital delivery rate has -umped from 4* per cent to
*? per cent between 455* and 45$4.
• Most of this improvement is in government hospitals J from $6 per cent to 65 per cent.
• #his success may be due to the efforts made by medical personnel in response to cash incentives they
receive and the fact that hurdles to hospital delivery li3e transportation have received consideration in
programme design.
• Experience from this program suggests that focussing on smarter organisation of public services that aligns
with provider incentives and enhances efficiency offers potential.
PRIVATE VS PUBLIC
• .hen as3ed in 45$4 about their confidence in government and private schools and medical facilities *> per
cent of the respondents expressed confidence in government schools compared to %4 per cent for private
school
• #here is no reason to believe that private doctors and teachers are more !ualified than government doctors
and teachers.
• #ypically government recruitment standards are more stringent about training and !ualifications while there
is little control over the private sector
REASONS FOR #ISENC'ANTMENT $IT' )OVERNMENT SERVICES,
• 'arents and patients feel disrespected by government service providers and may find they get better service
if they pay.
• 7overnment facilities are often irregular in their opening times and teacher and doctor absenteeism adds to
the disenchantment.
• #he I0CS found that children are scolded and physically punished in both government and private schools
and therefore classroom environment is not friendly and supportive.
REPORTIN) OF C'IL# ABUSE CASES
• Indian Medical (ssociation (IM() has -oined hands with +nited ;ations International Children,s Bund
(+;ICEB) to sensiti"e doctors on the issue of reporting child abuse cases.
• #he programmes include sessions on how to identify cases of child abuse wor3shops and an information
boo3let.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

22 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• Children are sub-ected to abuse even within institutional set1ups including schools despite the ban on
corporal punishment
• *>8 of children in country have reported one of more form of sexual abuse
• ?*8 of school going children reported facing corporal punishment
ANALYSIS
• It is a step in the right direction as everyone in society has the responsibility to ensure care and protection of
children
• Coctors across the country are seeing an alarming rise in the number of child abuse cases.
• Most of the times doctors are not sure of the correct !uestions to as3 in the case how to document and
collect evidence reassure the child/parents and then the procedure to inform the correct authorities to ta3e
action in the matter.
• Such an initiative would identify and report abuse as early as possible to ensure that the child remains safe.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

29 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
'EALT'
ROTAVIRUS 7 VACCINE 11(E
• Iaccine $$?E is an indigenously developed rotavirus vaccine
• Curing recently conducted trials it had *?.6 per cent efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in
infants during their first year of life.
• Iaccine would be made available to the government at not more than K$ a dose is expected to be licensed
shortly.
• Efficacy would further shoot up when widespread immunity is achieved through sustained vaccination of a
ma-ority of infants.
• In a nutshell the vaccine is envisaged to revolutioni"e the fight against rotavirus.
$'AT IS ROTAVIRUS,
• &otavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children.
• In India alone the disease annually 3ills over $55555 children below the age of one (one1fourth of global
deaths).
• #he ma-ority of instances of the disease caused by the virus occurs during the first two years of age.
STEPS T'AT CAN BE COMPLEMENTE# BY T'E )OVERNMENT
• 7overnment should !uic3ly include it in the national immunisation programme.
• #here is a compelling need to improve social infrastructure in order to control other pathogen1caused
diseases li3e cholera.
• 7overnment should adopt the same model to develop drugs for other neglected tropical diseases.
'AVOC OF MERS
$'AT IS MERS,
• In September 45$4 an Egyptian doctor at a Saudi (rabian hospital isolated a new human virus in samples
ta3en from a man who had died of pneumonia and 3idney failure
• #he virus came to be 3nown as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (ME&S1CoI).
• #ill last month 455 cases of people infected by the virus were reported to the .orld 0ealth =rganisation
with <* deaths
• ME&S virus does not easily spread from one person to another but has high fatality rate.
VIRUS SPREA#IN) ITS FAN)
• #here has been a spurt in infections since last month with *> more cases and eight additional deaths being
reported to the .0=
• #he vast ma-ority of all cases have occurred in the Middle East with Saudi (rabia accounting for a large
proportion of them
• (sia recently reported its first cases J and the first death from the virus.
• India and especially states li3e :erala need to be watchful given the large number of travelers to and from the
region
• Central and State governments should put in place well thought1out plans for testing and surveillance as well
as for dealing with any cases that turn up.
• (t the same time all the hospitals need to be ready to handle patients who have the virus


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

24 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
REALITY OF CANCER IN IN#IA
• =ne million new cases of different cancers are diagnosed every year in the country
• (round ?55555 to %55555 people were 3illed in 45$4.
• ;early 65 per cent of all cancers were due to tobacco
• Men were the most affected by tobacco with the commonest cancers being those of the lung and of the lip
and oral cavity
• In the case of women breast cancer is the most common followed by cervical cancer
• India,s cancer burden is pro-ected to increase to $.% million by 45>*. Mortality will double to $.4 million a
year by 45>*.
ANALYSIS
• (ll this reflects the failure of the government in implementing tough measures to counter the tobacco
companies, devious ways of luring young minds
• Changed lifestyle is one of the ma-or reasons for the increase in breast cancer incidence.
• &ural areas have recorded one1third of the total breast cancer cases in urban areas and the big metros have
higher numbers than non1metro cities.
• #he three pillars of reducing the mortality are prevention early detection and more effective treatment.
(ction on first two has been lac3adaisical and even treatment is not available easily.
• Cetection rates are poorN More cancer registries are needed to cover a greater percentage of the population.
#hose in place today cover less than $5 per cent of India,s population.
• India has only one oncologist per *555 population even the distribution is s3ewed as south and western parts
have ?58 of cancer facilities.
T'REATS FROM MALARIA
)AINS MA#E IN FI)'T A)AINST MALARIA
• 7lobal efforts to control and eliminate malaria have saved an estimated >.> million lives.
• 9etween 4555 and 45$4 malaria mortality rates have been reduced by 64 per cent and the incidence of
malaria has decreased by 4* per cent globally.
• 9angladesh 9hutan the Cemocratic 'eople,s &epublic of :orea ;epal and Sri Aan3a reduced the incidence
of malaria cases by more than %* per cent from 4555 to 45$4.
• India is expected to decrease malaria incidence by *51%* per cent by 45$*.
• Sri Aan3a is in the elimination phaseD the country has had no indigenous cases since ;ovember 45$4 down
from 45>555 cases in 4555.
• Cespite several positives three out of four people are at ris3 of malaria in the South1East (sia region
• .0=,s South1East (sia &egion comprises $$ member1statesN 9angladesh 9hutan the Cemocratic 'eople,s
&epublic of :orea India Indonesia Maldives Myanmar ;epal Sri Aan3a #hailand and #imor1Aeste.
YET T'REATS LOOM LAR)E
• #he gains in malaria control could be reversed due to increasing parasite resistance to drugs mos!uito
resistance to insecticides and re1transmission in places where the disease has been eliminated.
• #he emergence of artemisinin resistance in Cambodia Myanmar #hailand and Iietnam threatens the global
achievements in malaria control and elimination.
• (nother danger is that the (nopheles mos!uitoes which carry malaria parasites are increasingly becoming
resistant to insecticides.
$'AT IS ARTEMISININ ,
(rtemisinin1based combination treatment ((C#) is currently the first line treatment for the most lethal type of malaria
'lasmodium falciparum.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2% www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
EN)A)IN) T'E PRIVATE SECTOR IN FI)'T A)AINST MALARIA
• #here is a need for involvement of all sectors of society in the fight against malaria if our gains are to be
sustained and scaled1up in hard1to1reach communities
• #here are numerous examples of private sector involvement such as Brom 'apua ;ew 7uinea to Myanmar
investments by =il Search Aimited and Moattama 7as #ransportation Company respectively have help drive
down malaria burden
• Involvement of private sector not only helps expand mar3ets but also increase access to life1saving
interventions
$AY A'EA#
• Bunding needs to be increased for diagnostics drugs insecticide1treated mos!uito nets and research and
response to drug and insecticide resistance
• #here is a need to empower communities to protect themselves
• Investments are needed to develop new tools to conduct operational research to address bottlenec3s in
malaria1control programmes
ALARMIN) RISE IN CASES OF LIVER #ISEASES
• (s per health experts India may become the Gworld capital of liver diseasesH by 454*
• Some of the reasons for increasing cases of fatty liver diseases are urbani"ation and changes lin3ed with it li3e
sedentary lifestyle consumption of fattening food uncontrolled blood sugar obesity smo3ing and high
alcohol inta3e.
• #hese factors also increase the ris3 of ;on (lcoholic Steatohepatitis (;(S0) often called as silent liver disease
• It resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people who drin3 little or no alcohol.
• #he ma-or feature in ;(S0 is fat in the liver along with inflammation and damage.
• It can lead to death if not treated in time and could also develop into cancers
• It is found in all age groups but more common in 6516) years of age
CAMPAI)N TO PROMOTE RATIONAL USE OF ANTIBIOTICS
• Cespite governmental chec3s and prohibition of over1the1counter sale of antibiotics several chemists
continue to sell them
• Self1medication with antibiotics is now a growing trend among the general population
• #his is a source of concern especially with larger number of antibiotic1resistant cases being reported.
• IM( has therefore proposed to aggressively target doctors to ensure that they don,t over1prescribe
antibiotics
• ( nation1wide campaign would be launched which will include wor3shops tal3s and a pledge @on rational use
of antibiotics,
• It is aimed specifically at telling the doctors to not over1prescribe antibiotics to ensure that patients aren,t
encouraged to self1medicate
PARTNERS'IP TO COUNTER PE#IATRIC TB
• Child #9 Civision of the Ministry of 0ealth have partnered with Indian (cademy of 'aediatrics (I(') to train
the doctors and disseminate information on the updated guidelines Opublished last yearP for diagnosis and
management of paediatric #9.
• #his initiative if successful is li3ely to result in more children with #9 being correctly diagnosed on time and
managed.
• In time to come children in India with paediatric #9 will stand a better chance of being diagnosed early and
treated without much delay.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

2/ www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
PROBLEMS $IT' PE#IATRIC TB
• (ccording to the .0= $5145 per cent of all #9 cases occur in children in high1burden countries li3e India.
• +nfortunately only seven per cent (<6555 cases) of childhood #9 cases were diagnosed in 45$$.
• Coctors are not fully trained to correctly suspect and diagnose paediatric #9 on time and manage the
disease.
• Children under five years of age have difficulty in producing sputum the most basic sample re!uired for
bacteriological confirmation of the disease.
• .0= has approved contact tracing of children below five years in households where an adult has been
recently diagnosed with active pulmonary #9 disease.
• 9ut in reality awareness about contact screening of such children and its implementation is Gsub1optimalH.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

21 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
ENVIRONMENT
BAN ON MININ) IRON ORE IN )OA LIFTE#
• #he Supreme Court has lifted the ban on mining iron ore in 7oa but put an annual cap of 45 million tonnes
on excavation.
• Court has also directed for ade!uate monitoring (by State Cepartment of Mines and 7eology and the State
'ollution Control 9oard) of its impact on different ecological and environmental parameters which will also
help the expert committee in its future appraisal.
• (lso the lessees who benefit the most from mining must contribute $5 per cent of their sale proceeds to the
7oan Iron =re 'ermanent Bund for sustainable mining.
• ;o mining would be allowed within one 3m of national par3s boundaries
• .or3ers hit by stay in some areas would be paid *58 of wages
• It directed the Centre to notify eco1sensitive "ones around national par3s and sanctuaries within six months.
BAC1)ROUN#
• Bollowing a report by Eustice M9 Shah Commission SC had banned mining transportation and export of iron
ore in 7oa last =ctober because of alleged irregularities in the process
• In ;ovember court allowed e1auctioning of the extracted iron ore lying un used in 7oa
ANALYSIS
• #he decision by the court is a welcome step as 7oa heavily depended on iron ore mining for revenue as well
as employment
• ( ban to protect the environment would have seriously affected the livelihood of nearly $.* la3h people in the
State who were employed in the industry
• Ierdict is a testimony to the fact that the problem with mining is not the activity itselfD rather it is illegal and
unregulated mining that needs curbed
• Mining in areas outside the lease territory and under1reporting production were some of the reasons that led
to protests and conse!uent ban on mining.
• State government has now been permitted to grant fresh leases as per its own policy whether by auction or
other means and it is their responsibility now to ma3e a transparent policy
• If the government wants a well regulated mining policy that is environmentally sustainable is not a difficult
goal to achieve.
LON)E# BILL VULTURES SI)'TE# IN NIL)IRIS
• .ildlife officials and volunteers of an ;7= have sighted five long1billed vultures in the north1eastern slopes
of the ;ilgiris.
• #hese vultures have been fast disspearing from the ecological landscape of ;ilgiris in the past.
• Ciclofenac an anti1inflammatory drug used for both animals and humans poses a ma-or threat to the
survival of vultures.
LON) BILLE# VULTURES
• Aong1billed vultures are found only in the north1eastern slopes of the ;ilgiris.
• .hite1bac3ed :ing and Egyptian vultures are the other three species found in the ;ilgiris and the Moyar
valley its ad-oining area.
• 0uge cattle population is found in the ;ilgiris and its surrounding areas. #his could be one of the reasons
the vultures thrive here.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

23 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
$'AT ARE VULTURE RESTAURANTS,
• ( new concept that aims to augment the population of the scavenging birds which help 3eep the
environment clean by feeding on carrion.
• It has been successfully running in a small place in 'un-ab.
• #his concept has attracted four vulture species including the 7riffon Iulture and the 0imalayan Iulture in
large numbers at Char :alan in 'un-ab
• Cead cattle that have died a natural death are collected from a village and fed to vultures.
• ( veterinary conducts a post1mortem to unearth whether it died naturally or due to poison. =nly if the
cattle died naturally then it is fed to vultures.
STOP $'ALIN) IN ANTARCTIC2 IC0 TO 0APAN
• International Court of Eustice (ICE) has as3ed Eapan to stop its whaling programme in the (ntarctic 7angetic
dolphin
• Eapan catches about $555 whales each year in the region for what it calls scientific research
• 9ut in May 45$5 (ustralia filed a case arguing that Eapan,s programme is actually commercial whaling in
disguise
• Eapan had failed to demonstrate that the slaughter was of any scientific value
• Eapan launched its GscientificH whaling programme after the International .haling Commission banned
commercial whaling in $)<?.
• Court,s decision is considered legally binding and Eapan said it would abide by the court,s ruling
• #he verdict in the 0ague however did not cover whale meat sales in Eapan which are legal or the
country,s slaughter of a smaller number of whales in the north1west 'acific and in its own coastal waters
0APAN8S BI))EST ONLINE RETAILER EN#S $'ALE MEAT SALES
• #he Eapanese online retailer &a3uten is to end all online sales of whale and dolphin meat by the end of (pril
after the international court of -ustice ordered Eapan to immediately halt its annual whale hunts in the
southern ocean.
• #he decision by &a3uten comes soon after the +:1based Environmental Investigation (gency (EI() exposed
the company as the world,s biggest online retailer of whale products and elephant ivory.
• &a3uten confirmed that it had as3ed sellers to cancel sales of whale meat products on its website Gin
accordanceH with the ICE ruling. 0owever the ruling explicitly did not cover whale meat sales in Eapan which
are legal or the country,s slaughter of a smaller number of whales in the north1west 'acific and in its own
coastal waters.
• It is the first time the (ntarctic hunt during which harpoon vessels target almost $555 mainly mine whales
has been cancelled in more than a !uarter of a century. Eapan launched its GscientificH whaling programme
after the International .haling Commission banned commercial whaling in $)<?.
• Many of the whale products originated from species that have been protected since the $)<? moratorium.
&a3uten,s sales ban covers not only the mammals, meat but also s3in bone and other products.
14 IN#IAN BIR#S AMON) )LOBALLY EN#AN)ERE#
• (s per a study fifteen Indian bird species are part of a list of avians which are evolutionarily distinct and
globally endangered
• #hese birds are 9engal Blorican Aesser Blorican 7reat Indian 9ustard Sociable Aapwing Eerdon,s Courser
Spoon1billed Sandpiper Siberian Crane .hite1bellied 0eron .ood Snipe Mas3ed Binfoot Christmas
Island Brigatebird.



Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

24 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
)LOBAL $ARMIN) $ORSENIN) 'UN)ER )LOBALLY
• ( +nited ;ations scientific panel has said that global warming is ma3ing the -ob of feeding the world harder
and more expensive.
• 'anel has claimed that a warmer world will trigger Ghotspots of hungerH among the world,s poorest people
and put the crunch on .estern delights li3e fine wine and robust coffee.
• Bood prices are li3ely to go up somewhere in a wide range of three per cent to <6 percent by 45*5 -ust
because of climate change.
ANALYSIS
• .orld is facing the spectre of reduced yields in some of the 3ey crops that feed humanity due to global
warming as several reports in past have suggested that climate change hurts food production
• Even though heat and carbon dioxide are often considered good for plants the overall effect of various
aspects of man1made warming is that it will reduce food production
• In the past too several years the scientific literature has been overwhelming in showing that climate change
hurts food production
IN#IAN #ELTAS ARE SIN1IN)
• #his has been claimed by an (merican professor and sea level rise has not been cited as the reason
• &ather building up of dams that starve the deltas of sediments groundwater mining and artificial courses
for rivers are the ma-or reasons.
• (mong all the deltas :rishna delta is the worst affected one because of the presence of large dams
• In 7anga delta ground water mining was cited as the prominent reason for the sin3ing
SOLAR CAPACITY IN IN#IA CROSSES 24+000 M$
• #otal grid1connected solar capacity commissioned under the ;ational Solar Mission crossed the 4*551M.
mar3 and stood at 4?>4 M.
• 7u-arat ()$? M.) topped the cumulative capacity table followed by &a-asthan (%>5 M.) Madhya 'radesh
(>6% M.) and Maharashtra (46) M.) among others.
• Solar energy has become a very attractive option in the recent past especially due to rise in prices of diesel.
(s diesel serves as a bac3up power option given the fre!uent power cuts solar power can serve as a useful
alternative to diesel.
EART' #AY CELEBRATE#
• Iarious institutions and individuals hosted multiple events across the Capital and other parts of the country
to celebrate the Earth Cay145$6, on (pril 44
• #hey see3 to create awareness on the need to save the earth from ecological degradation
• Conservationist Mi3e 'andey also screened films on the 7angetic dolphin which is on the brin3 of
extinction
• 7angetic dolphin is found not only in the 7anges but also in rivers li3e the 7hagra and the Sur-u.
+nfortunately they are being 3illed and the meat sold at an extremely cheap price.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

9" www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN#IA AN# $ORL#
IN#IA PROPOSES )LOBAL 8NO/FIRST/USE8 CONVENTION ON N/$EAPONS
• 'itching for a nuclear weapon free world 'rime Minister Manmohan Singh has proposed a global
convention for Qno1first1useQ of atomic arsenal to ma3e the world a safer place.
• Spea3ing at an ICS( seminar on RA Nuclear "ree #orld$ "rom %onception to &ealityR the 'M proposed that if
all states possessing nuclear weapons recognise that the nuclear weapons are only for deterrence and are
prepared to declare it we can !uic3ly move to the establishment of global no1first use norm. In many ways
this can open the ways to gradual reduction and finally elimination through a nuclear weapon convention.
Such a convention would re!uire necessary verification. It would also re!uire political measures to ensure
the stability is maintained at the level as nuclear arsenal approaches "ero.
• 0e also said that it is important to reduce the importance of nuclear weapons. 0owever this cannot be done
by a single nation but re!uires a multilateral agreement.
• Cespite being a nuclear weapon state India remains convinced that a nuclear weapon1free world would
enhance our security. Conse!uently our nuclear doctrine lays emphasise on a credible minimum deterrent
and a no1first use policy. #he doctrine reiterates IndiaQs continued commitment to the goal of nuclear1
weapon1free world. 0e also said as a Rresponsible nuclear weapon state that remains committed to non1
proliferation India supports the idea of a nuclear1weapon1free world because we believe that it enhances
not -ust IndiaQs security but also global security.R
• #he proposed convention can open the way to gradual reduction and finally elimination through a nuclear
weapons convention.
• .hile spelling out the dangers of the nuclear power and the need to control the use of atomic weapons
Singh also highlighted the benefits of nuclear energy. #he 'rime Minister noted that by 45>4 India intends
to produce ?4555 M. of electricity through nuclear power.
IN#IA 7 C'INA
(
T'
ROUN# OF IN#O/ C'INA STRATE)IC #IALO)UE
• #op diplomats from India and China participated in the sixth Strategic Cialogue held in 9ei-ing to ta3e stoc3
of the status of bilateral relations and explore new initiatives to improve ties as well as expanding
cooperation on common regional challenges such as the situation in (fghanistan. Boreign secretary Su-atha
Singh co1chaired the tal3s with her Chinese counterpart vice foreign minister Aiu Shenmin.
• #he two sides reviewed the entire range of bilateral relations including plans for leadership1level visits in
the second half of this Lear of India1China Briendly Exchanges.
• (ccording to the statement of the ministry of foreign affairs of the 'eople,s &epublic of China China is
willing to wor3 with India to 3eep the momentum of high1level contacts and exchanges of visits to enhance
strategic mutual trust to expand practical cooperation and friendly exchanges to strengthen the strategic
communication and coordination on ma-or international and regional issues and to control and handle
differences in a proper way so as to promote the China1India strategic cooperative partnership to anew step.
• ( host of issues including mutual concerns over stability in (fghanistan in the bac3drop of the +S plans to
withdraw its troops from there besides IndiaQs over +SC >* billion trade deficits with China was expected to
figure in the dialogue. Ai3e India China too is concerned over the return of #aliban and al12aida which could
have a destabili"ing effect on its Muslim +ygur Tin-iang province which is experiencing a spat of terrorist
attac3s. India was expected to flag its concerns once again on +SC >* billion annual trade deficits and see
ma-or opening for I# and pharmaceutical products in Chinese mar3ets besides investments from China.
• Mrs. Singh along with her Chinese interlocutors also finali"ed plans to hold the year long 7limpses of India
festival all over China. #he Indian embassy has also drawn out an ambitious plan to hold events showcasing
IndiaQs cultural prowess besides business and investment opportunities as part of year of friendly exchanges
initiative being observed this year.

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

91 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
IN#IA C'INA NAVAL E*ERCISE
• India decided to send the naval stealth frigate I;S Shivali3 to participate in an international fleet review and
maritime exercise hosted by the Chinese ;avy on (pril 4> 1 an exercise that has ac!uired particular
diplomatic significance with the +nited States declining to -oin the review after Eapan was excluded from the
event.
• ChinaQs 'eopleQs Aiberation (rmy ('A() ;avy hosted the review and exercise in the northeastern port of
2ingdao the head!uarters of its ;orth Sea fleet as it prepares to mar3 its ?*th anniversary with great
fanfare.
• .ith India and 'a3istan ta3ing part the review and exercise will also provide a rare instance of both
countries -ointly ta3ing part in a naval exercise.
• #he fleet review and maritime exercise will ta3e place along with the annual meeting of the .estern 'acific
;aval Symposium (.';S) M a +.S.1established grouping of 45 countries including (ustralia Canada &ussia
Eapan South :orea and China and three observers 1 India 9angladesh and Mexico.
• #he international fleet review and exercises on (pril 4> and 46 have however ac!uired diplomatic colour
after the 'A( ;avy declined to invite Eapan. China invited EapanQs ;avy chief to attend the .';S but the
'A(; decided to exclude Eapan from the international fleet review and exercise to which a number of other
countries were invited.
• 9y pulling out of the fleet review and exercise the +.S. has signaled its support to Eapan although both
countries will attend the .';S.
• Chinese officials said the six1day1long stay of Shivali3 would also help build trust between two countries that
have rapidly developing navies with an increasingly wide presence across the Indian and 'acific oceans.
• China has invested billions in building a modern blue1water ;avy but is still ta3ing tentative steps in
spreading its presence only starting to venture more deeply into the Indian and 'acific =ceans beyond the
South and East China Seas. In Bebruary a three1ship flotilla of the 'A(; for the first time held a *1day
exercise in the Aombo3 Strait near Indonesia in the Indian =cean. #he 'A(; has also held more than a do"en
drills near the 7ulf of (den along sea routes crucial to China,s energy security.
• (s more Chinese ships sail west and Indian ships sail east both countries have used this wee3,s exercise to
stress their intent to ensure they will deepen mutual trust to address any insecurities. #o that end both
countries have also discussed holding another round of maritime exercises later this year. #he bilateral
exercise is li3ely to coincide with the India1+.S. Malabar maritime exercise which may also involve Eapan for
the first time in seven years and ease any anxieties China may have had about India,s strategic intentions.
C'INA3S VISA POLICY CASTS A S'A#O$ ON YOUT' E*C'AN)E
• Chinese embassy said that it is Gin communicationH with India about arranging the visit of a youth delegation
to 9ei-ing in May 45$6 which has been cast in doubt over the Chinese government,s continuing policy of
issuing stapled visas to residents of (runachal 'radesh.
• #he Indian Louth (ffairs Ministry has according to recent reports in ;ew Celhi conveyed its concern to the
Ministry of External (ffairs (ME() after the Chinese Embassy reportedly as3ed the Ministry to not include
youth from (runachal 'radesh in the delegation.
• .ith both the countries deciding to mar3 45$6 as a Gyear of friendly exchangesH cancelling the visit is li3ely
to cast a cloud on diplomatic ties.
• (t the same time sending a delegation without representation from (runachal 'radesh will be seen as the
Louth (ffairs Minister reportedly suggested in a letter to the ME( as ac!uiescing to China,s position. China,s
policy of issuing stapled visas has emerged as an annual stic3ing point that has recently complicated youth
and sports exchanges. China claims around )5555 s!. 3m in (runachal 'radesh while according to India it is
illegally occupying ><555 s! 3m in (3sai Chin in the western sector. China maintains that its stapled visa
policy for (runachal 'radesh in place since around 45$5 is GconsistentH with its policy for all GdisputedH
areas.


Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

92 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
RATAN TATA APPOINTE# BOAR# MEMBER OF C'INA BAC1E# BOAO FORUM
• &atan #ata the doyen of Indian industry was on #hursday inducted as a member of the 9oard of 9oao
Borum for (sia (9B() a rare distinction for an Indian in the Chinese government1bac3ed influential body.
• #his is the first time a senior Indian business leader was accorded the distinction. It is also recognition for
#atas as a global conglomerate.
• #he $*1member 9oard of 9B( included former Eapanese 'rime Minister Lasuo Bu3uda former Malaysian
'rime Minister (bdullah (hmad 9adwai former Singapore 'rime Minister 7oh Cho3 #ong and former prime
minister of Brance Eean1'ierre &affarin besides former +S #reasury Secretary 0enry 'aulson.
• 9B( was formed in 455$ on the lines of the .orld Economic Borum in Cavos Swit"erland. Every year top
worldQs political and business leaders gather at 9oao to brain storm on global political and economic issues.
#he Bederation of Indian Chambers of Commerce (BICCI) is an ordinary member of the forum.
• &atan #ataQs nomination to the board of the 9B( is seen as part of ChinaQs efforts to push closer ties with
India.
• (ccording to Mr. &atan #ata Indian companies have generally failed to ta3e advantages of the technologies
and opportunities offered by the China mar3et. 0e also spo3e glowingly of the record of Chinese companies
in going global drawing parallels with his own experience. 0e identified automobile company Chery and
telecom giants 0uawei and S#E as three Chinese companies he was most impressed by.
A6A=ASIS @) I6DIA B &HI6A +$AD# $#A=+I@6S
• In case of trade relations the bilateral trade has seen a downward trend since 45$$ with 45$> registering a
$.*8 decline. #he current trade deficit with China stands at K >$.64bn. #he leadership of both the countries
have set an ambitious target of K$55 billion to be achieved by 45$*1 which loo3s implausible now.
• (larming levels of deficit and the rising imports from China has cast a shadow on the once flourishing trade.
China,s predatory trade practices which include a mulish refusal to allow free flow of its currency ma3ing its
exports advantageousD low wagesD local tax incentives and aggressively subsidi"ing domestic players1 all
ma3e the current trade between these two countries unsustainable. 9esides Indian exporters are routinely
confronted with mar3et access issues in China.
• It would be difficult to sustain good trade relations between the two countries unless some concrete steps
are ta3en by both the sides to bridge the growing deficit. #his is a problem that India is grappling not only
with China but with several of its trading partners including Indonesia and a few other (SE(; countries.
#here are !uite a few reasons for the growing deficit with China.
• India,s economic growth has seen a shift from agriculture to the services sector over the years. #he software
services and I# enabled services exports in particular has been one sector where India has not only had a
competitive edge globally but also as against China. 0owever this golden industry faces restrictions in the
Chinese mar3et with the country,s increasing focus on developing its service industry in an attempt to create
more employment for its youth. #he International Cata Corporation says that China with a $58 share of
global software developers is already ahead of India which has ).<8 of the world share. #he threat is
notably serious because China is wooing Indian investment to help set1up its own software services industry.
.hile Indian software and services industry exports are focused on the developed mar3ets and the industry
as such does not face a slowdownD India needs to eye the Chinese software industry to arrest the fast1
widening trade deficit with China. Burther there is a need to build on the value chain in software services.
• #he farm sector and agro1processing industry also face limited access in Chinese mar3et continuing the
Chinese trend to allow limited access in the higher1value sectors. In the past China has banned several
agricultural exports from India including 9asmati exports without providing sufficient scientific evidence as
is re!uired under the (greement on Sanitary and 'hytosanitary Measures.
• #he 'harmaceuticals and auto component exporters confront similar issues in China. #hus nearly all the
sectors in which India en-oys a comfortable and comparative advantage are routinely sub-ected to non1trade
barriers in China.
• (part from mar3et1access issues and China,s unfair trade practices India,s own set of structural hurdles1
some of which are deep1rooted1 and productivity gap with China are to be blamed for the ballooning trade
deficit with China. #his is because in defiance of the $*) anti1dumping cases against China since $))4 the
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

99 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
largest among foreign nations across a broad spectrum of sectors1 steel pharmaceuticals consumer goods
etc1 trade deficit looms large. India,s manufacturing industry relies on inexpensive and s3illed labour and the
manufactured products are cost1effectiveD yet the competitiveness is not maintained owing to low labour
productivity. =n one hand the business regulatory environment is !uite cumbersomeD on the other the
infrastructural bottlenec3s and inflexible and archaic labour laws ma3e it worse for the growth of
manufacturing sector.
• 9esides India hasn,t even been able to ma3e the best of its comparative advantage with China. Bor instance
even after the lifting of the ban on 9asmati exports India has failed to tap the under1exploited Chinese
mar3et. India faces tough competition from rival 'a3istan which continues to rule the world,s largest rice
mar3et with its price competitiveness. &aw materials li3e iron ore bauxite and cotton which ma3e up bul3 of
India,s exports to resource1hungry China have also continued to post a downward trend owing to mining
bans in :arnata3a and 7oa by the Supreme Court. 9efore the bans India was the largest exporter of
steelma3ing raw1materials to China1 a slot replaced by (ustralia and 9ra"ilD while iron1ore remains China,s
top import commodity. ( sharp decline in their exports in the last two years has pulled down India,s overall
exports to China by about 4*8. Bor a country rich in mineral resources caps on production and exports
greatly minimi"e the scope of sustainable capitali"ation of these resources.
• Curing his visit to India last year the Chinese 'remier Ai :e!ian! promised to address India,s concerns by
opening up the mar3et and proposed to step up investments in India by establishing Chinese investment
par3s. 9ut while China honors its tardy commitments India must loo3 to diversify its trade bas3et especially
in labour1intensive sectors such as textiles as China battles rising labour costs and unfavourable
demographics challenging its low1cost manufacturing advantage. 9ut more importantly while the trade1
diversification process is still in its gestation period India must loo3 at the areas where it en-oys a
comfortable competitive edge1 s3ill intensive sectors li3e I# and pharmaceuticals which ma3e the perfect use
of India,s intellectual capitalD agro1processingD raw materials and intermediate products1 and thus improve
the productivity gap. 9ridging the trade deficit with China would go a long way not only in sustaining the
trade relations but also help in enhancing them.
IN#IA 7 USA
IN#IA CONCLU#ES PACT $IT' US ON TA* EVASION UN#ER FATCA
• India has concluded an @in substance, agreement with the +S to combat possible tax evasion by (mericans
through Indian financial entities.
• #he @in substance, agreement with India under Boreign (ccount #ax Compliance (ct (B(#C() was concluded
on (pril $$ the +S #reasury said.
• India will provide information available with Indian financial institutions on offshore accounts or assets of
(mericans or their entities. 0owever for now the +S will not provide India information on Indian entities
though it will exchange information on accounts of Indians. #he +S will give information on foreign accounts
of Indian individuals but not entities. #hey have assured us of full reciprocity at the earliest. #he matter will
be reviewed in 45$?. #he +S has been widely critici"ed for using pressure tactics to secure information from
other countries without reciprocity.
• Mar3et regulator SE9I plans to issue guidelines for mar3et intermediaries in this regard these fiscal sources
said.
• #he +S said India has consented to Model $ M Intergovernmental (greement (I7() under B(#C(. (s per
Model $ financial entities will be re!uired to report information on +S account holders to the +S I&S
(internal revenue service) through C9C#.
• #he B(#C( re!uires the +S government to sign I7(s with various countries including India where (merican
individuals and companies may hold accounts and other assets. =ther regulators li3e &9I are also expected
to issue guidelines to ensure compliance of B(#C(.
• Signing of I7( coupled with regulatory measures from SE9I would be helpful for Indian financial institutions
and corporates to better comply with this significant legislation.
• .hile B(#C( became a law way bac3 in 45$5 the final regulations were issued for it in Eanuary 45$> and it is
set to come into effect from Euly $ 45$6 after signing of I7(s with different countries.
• #he law aims to chec3 and impose withholding tax on illicit activities of some wealthy individuals who use
offshore accounts to evade millions of dollars in taxes.
Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

94 www.visionias.in ©Vision IAS
• ( noncompliance with B(#C( entails >5 per cent withholding tax on certain +S source payments
• #he +S #reasury had released two formats of the I7( M Model $ and Model 4. In Model 4 financial
institutions will report information directly to the +S I&S rather than their local -urisdictions.
REA# -REA#/EN)A)E/AC'IEVE/#REAM.2 IN#IO/US ALLIANCE TO IMPROVE REA#IN)
S1ILLS AT IN#IAN SC'OOLS
• +nited States and India have launched a reading initiative named &E(C (&ead1Engage1(chieve1Cream)
(lliance. #his initiative has been launched with an aim to improve the reading s3ills of millions of primary
school1aged children in India which see3s to discover and test reading solutions.
• &E(C (lliance initiative is a partnership programme of >.4 million +S dollars between the +S (gency for
International Cevelopment (+S(IC) and the Indian Center for :nowledge Societies (C:S).
• #he day of the launch of initiative saw an expert panel discussion and reading exhibition. Curing this event
the synopsis of C:S,s @% Steps to &eading, report was also released. #he % Steps to &eading report provides a
plan for improving the reading abilities of India,s children.
IN#IA 7 RUSSIA 7 AF)'ANISTAN SYNER)Y
• (head of ;(#= troops downsi"ing their presence in (fghanistan India has firmed up a far1reaching deal with
&ussia to supply arms to the troubled country under which ;ew Celhi will pay for the military e!uipment
that will be sourced from Moscow.
• +nder this historic deal &ussia will supply its own defense e!uipment to (fghanistan and India will pic3 the
tab. #he deal which had been under intense negotiations for the past few months was clinched after a high1
level Indian team made a !uiet trip to Moscow in Bebruary and stitched up the loose ends even as &ussia
was bracing for the challenge in +3raine. It is reported that the first order under the deal is already reported.
• India through the strategic partnership with (fghanistan is committed to provide arms and ammunition to
strengthen the (fghan ;ational (rmy. #he arrangement with Moscow allows ;ew Celhi to fulfill this
commitment an issue on which :abul has been sending reminders including detailed lists of its
re!uirements.
• #he issue was debated at len