MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
CONTENTS
1 ARITHMETIC..................................................................................11
1.1 Introduction...........................................................................11
1.2 Arithmetic Terms...................................................................11
1.3 directed numbers..................................................................13
1.4 factors...................................................................................14
1.4.1 Prime Numbers........................................................14
1.4.2 Highest Common Factor HCF!...............................1"
1.4.3 #o$est Common %u&ti'&e #C%!.............................1"
1." Arithmetica& Precedence.......................................................1(
1.".1 )odmas *+am'&e.....................................................1(
1.( Fractions...............................................................................1,
1.(.1 Addition of Fractions................................................1,
1.(.2 ubtraction of Fractions...........................................1.
1.(.3 %u&ti'&ication of Fractions........................................11/
1.(.4 0i1ision of Fractions................................................11/
1., decima& fractions...................................................................111
1.,.1 Addition 2 ubtraction.............................................111
1.,.2 %u&ti'&ication 2 0i1ision...........................................112
1.3 4eights and %easures.........................................................113
1.. 5atio and Pro'ortion.............................................................114
1.1/ A1erages and 'ercentages...................................................11"
1.1/.1 A1erages..................................................................11"
1.1/.2 Percentage...............................................................11(
1.11 Po$ers and 5oots................................................................11,
1.11.1 Po$ers.....................................................................11,
1.11.2 5oots........................................................................113
2 ALGEBRA.......................................................................................21
2.1 Introduction...........................................................................21
2.1.1 6'eration.................................................................21
2.1.2 )asic #a$s...............................................................23
2.2 *7uations..............................................................................24
2.2.1 o&1ing #inear *7uations.........................................24
2.3 Trans'osition in *7uations...................................................23
2.3.1 Construction of *7uations.......................................21/
2.4 imu&taneous *7uations.......................................................211
2." 7uadratic e7uations..............................................................213
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3 NUMBERS......................................................................................31
3.1 Indices and Po$ers..............................................................31
3.1.1 tandard Form.........................................................33
3.2 Numbering 8stems.............................................................33
3.2.1 0ecima& 8stem of Numeration...............................33
3.2.2 )inar8 8stem of Numeration..................................3"
3.2.3 6cta& 8stem of Numeration....................................3(
3.2.4 Con1ersion to other bases.......................................3,
3.3 &ogarithms.............................................................................3.
4 GEOMETRY....................................................................................41
4.1 angu&ar measurement...........................................................41
4.1.1 Ang&es associated $ith 'ara&&e& &ines.......................42
4.2 9eometric Constructions......................................................43
4.2.1 Triang&e....................................................................43
4.2.2 imi&ar 2 Congruent Triang&es.................................44
4.2.3 Po&8gon....................................................................44
4.2.4 :uadri&atera&s..........................................................4"
4.2." Para&&e&ogram...........................................................4"
4.2.( 5ectang&e.................................................................4(
4.2., 5hombus..................................................................4(
4.2.3 7uare.....................................................................4(
4.2.. Tra'e;ium................................................................4(
4.2.1/ Circ&es......................................................................4,
4.3 Area and <o&ume..................................................................41/
4.3.1 Area.........................................................................41/
4.3.2 <o&umes...................................................................414
5 GRAPHS.........................................................................................51
".1 construction.........................................................................."1
".1.1 9ra'hs and %athematica& Formu&ae......................."4
".1.2 Function and ha'e.................................................""
".2 Nomogra'hs........................................................................."3
6 TRIGONOMETRY...........................................................................61
(.1.1 Trigonometrica& Ca&cu&ations 2 Formu&a..................(2
(.1.2 Construction of Trigonometrica& Cur1es..................(4
(.2 1a&ues in 4 7uadrants...........................................................((
7 COORDINATE GEOMETRY..........................................................71
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8 COMPLEX NUMBERS...................................................................81
3.1 TH* A59AN0 0IA95A%....................................................32
3.1.1 Addition and subtraction of com'&e+ numbers........33
3.1.2 %u&ti'&ication and di1ision of com'&e+ numbers......33
3.1.3 Po&ar=rectangu&ar coordinates..................................3"
9 CALCULUS.....................................................................................91
..1 F>NCTI6N AN0 #I%IT.....................................................1
..1.1 Functions..................................................................1
..1.2 gradients...................................................................2
..1.3 infintesima&s and &imits..............................................4
..2 0IFF*5*NTIATI6N...............................................................(
..2.1 gradient of a straight &ine..........................................(
..2.2 gradient of a cur1e....................................................,
..2.3 the differentia& coefficient deri1ati1e!........................
..2.4 the genera& ru&e.........................................................1/
..3 %A?I%A AN0 %INI%A..........................................................12
..4 INT*95ATI6N......................................................................14
..4.1 Area under a gra'h...................................................1"
..4.2 Integra&s....................................................................1,
..4.3 Indefinite integra&s.....................................................2/
..4.4 0efinite integra&s.......................................................22
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PAGE INTENTIONALLY LET BLAN!
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1 ARITHMETIC
1.1 INTRODUCTION
%athematics is the basic &anguage of science and techno&og8. It is an e+act
&anguage that has a 1ocabu&ar8 and meaning for e1er8 term. ince mathematics
fo&&o$s definite ru&es and beha1es in the same $a8 e1er8 time@ scientists and
engineers use it as their basic too&.
#ong before an8 meta& is cut for a ne$ aircraft design@ there are &itera&&8 mi&&ions
of mathematica& com'utations made. A1iation maintenance technicians 'erform
their duties $ith the aid of man8 different too&s. #iAe the $rench or scre$dri1er@
mathematics is an essentia& too& in the maintenance@ re'air and fabrication of
re'&acement 'arts. 4ith this in mind@ 8ou can see $h8 8ou must be com'etent in
mathematics to an acce'tab&e &e1e&. These notes co1er the com'&ete
mathematics s8&&abus re7uired to com'&8 $ith the BA5(( )1 and )2 &icence
&e1e&.
Arithmetic is the basic &anguage of a&& mathematics and uses rea&@ nonnegati1e
numbers. These are sometimes Ano$n as counting numbers. 6n&8 four
o'erations are used@ addition@ subtraction@ mu&ti'&ication and di1ision. 4hi&st
these o'erations are $e&& Ano$n to 8ou@ a re1ie$ of the terms and o'erations
used $i&& maAe &earning the more difficu&t mathematica& conce'ts easier.
1.2 ARITHMETIC TERMS
The most common s8stem of numbers in use is the "#$%&'( s8stem@ $hich uses
the ten digits /@ 1@ 2@ 3@ 4@ "@ (@ ,@ 3@ ..
These ten $ho&e numbers from ;ero to . are ca&&ed %)*#+#,. Abo1e the number
nine@ the digits are reused in 1arious combinations to re'resent &arger numbers.
This is accom'&ished b8 arranging the numbers in co&umns based on a mu&ti'&e of
ten. 4ith the addition of a minus ! sign@ numbers sma&&er than ;ero are
indicated.
To describe 7uantities that fa&& bet$een $ho&e numbers@ fractions are used.
C.&&.) /,'$*%.) are used $hen the s'ace bet$een t$o integers is di1ided
into e7ua& segments@ such as 7uarters. 4hen the s'ace bet$een integers is
di1ided into ten segments@ "#$%&'( /,'$*%.) are t8'ica&&8 used.
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tudents $i&& be fami&iar $ith this s8stem and the basic o'erations@ $hich ma8
in1o&1e Addition@ ubtraction@ %u&ti'&ication and 0i1ision.
4hen numbers are added@ the8 form a 0&.
4hen numbers are subtracted@ the8 create a "%//#,#)$#.
4hen numbers are mu&ti'&ied@ the8 form a 1,."0$*.
4hen one number the "%2%"#)"! is di1ided b8 another the "%2%.,!@ the resu&t is
a 30.*%#)*.
It is usefu& if a student is 'roficient at sim'&e menta& arithmetic@ and this is on&8
'ossib&e if one has a Cfee&D for numbers@ and the si;e of numbers. A Ano$&edge of
sim'&e Ctimes tab&esD is a&so usefu&.
TIMES TABLE
The fo&&o$ing sim'&e tests for di1isibi&it8 ma8 be usefu&. A number is di1isib&e b8E
2 if it is an e1en number.
3 if the sum of the digits that form the number is di1isib&e b8 3.
4 if the &ast t$o digits are di1isib&e b8 4.
" If the &ast digit is / or ".
1/ if the &ast digit is /
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1.3 DIRECTED NUMBERS
0irected numbers are numbers $hich ha1e a F or G sign attached to them.
0irected numbers can be added@ subtracted@ etc. etc@ but care shou&d be taAen to
ensure a correct so&ution. The fo&&o$ing ru&es shou&d assist.
To '"" se1era& numbers of the '&# sign@ add them together and ensure sign of
the sum is the same as the sign of the numbers.
To '"" 2 numbers $ith "%//#,#)* signs@ 04*,'$* the sma&&er from the &arger. The
sign of the resu&tant the difference! is the same as the sign of the &arge number.
eg. 12 F ( H 12  (! H ( (
If there are more than 2 numbers@ carr8 out the o'eration 2 numbers at a time@ or
'roduce t$o numbers b8 adding u' a&& the numbers $ith &iAe signs. And then
a''&8 the ru&es abo1e.
eg. 1"  3 F 13  1. F ( H 1"  3! H 23 F 13 H 1/  1. H 2. F ( H  23
or 1" F 3! F 1.! H 42 and F13 F( H F1.
42 F 1. H  23
To 04*,'$* directed numbers@ change the sign of the number to be subtracted
and add the resu&ting numbers.
eg. 1/  (! H  1/ F ( H  4
,  F13! H ,  3 H 11
A minus in front of bracAets shou&d be taAen to mean G1. >sing the abo1e
e+am'&e G(! shou&d be read as G1(! i.e. minus 1 times minus si+. imi&ar&8@ a
'ositi1e sign in front of bracAets shou&d be read as F1@ so F(! shou&d be read as
F1(! i.e. '&us 1 times minus (.
The 1,."0$* of t$o numbers $ith &iAe signs is 'ositi1e F1e!@ the 'roduct of
numbers $ith un&iAe signs is negati1e 1e!.
4hen "%2%"%)+ numbers $ith &iAe signs@ the 7uotient of the resu&t is F1e. 4hen
di1iding numbers $ith un&iAe signs@ the 7uotient is G1e.
This can be summarised as fo&&o$sE
567 8 567 9 567 57 8 567 9 57
567 8 57 9 57 57 8 57 9 567
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1.4 ACTORS
4e Ano$ that 2 + ( H 12. 2 and ( are /'$*., of12. 4e cou&d a&so state that@ as
3 + 4 H 12@ 3 and 4 are a&so factors of 12. imi&ar&8 12 and 1.
This ma8 seem ob1ious@ but it is sometimes usefu& to IfactoriseI a number@ i.e.
determine the factors that maAe u' the number. %ore common&8 it is necessar8
to find the factors of an a&gebraic e+'ression.
E8'&1(#
Find the 'ossib&e factors of (/.
in other $ords@ find the integers that di1ide into (/!.
The factors $i&& beE
1@ 2@ 3@ 4@ "@ (@ 1/@ 12@ 1"@ 2/@ 3/ and (/
ChecA them 8ourse&f.
1.4.1 PRIME NUMBERS
A 'rime number is a number $hose on&8 factors are 1 and itse&f.
The 'rime numbers bet$een 1 and 3/ areE
1@ 2@ 3@ "@ ,@ 11@ 13@ 1,@ 1.@ 23 and 2..
ChecA them 8ourse&f.
It is sometimes usefu& to e+'ress the factors of a gi1en number in terms of 'rime
numbers.
For e+am'&e@ &et us &ooA at the factors of (/ again@ taAing 4 and 1" as 2 factors.
4 + 1" H (/!@ but 4 has factors of 2 and 2@ and 1" has factors of " and 3. Hence
the number (/ can be e+'ressed as 2 + 2 + 3 + "@ $hich are a&& factors of (/.
NoteE $e ha1e no$ factorised the number (/ in terms of 'rime numbers.
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1.4.2 HIGHEST COMMON ACTOR 5HC7
The highest common factor is the biggest factor number! that $i&& di1ide into the
numbers being e+amined. u''ose that $e taAe 3 numbers@ 1,(4@ 21// and
2.4/. The highest common factor of these numbers is 34. In some instances
8ou $i&& be ab&e to identif8 this 1a&ue sim'&8 b8 &ooAing at the numbers@ in others
8ou $i&& need to ca&cu&ate it. To ca&cu&ate the HCF@ $e must identif8 the factors of
each number in terms of 'rime numbersE
4e then se&ect the common 'rime factors and mu&ti'&8 them together to 'roduce
the High Common Factor@ in this caseE
1.4.3 LO:EST COMMON MULTIPLE 5LCM7
The &o$est common mu&ti'&e of a set of numbers is the sma&&est number into
$hich each of the gi1en numbers $i&& di1ide e+act&8. The #C% can be found b8
mu&ti'&8ing together '(( of the factors common to each of the indi1idua& numbers.
Consider the 're1ious three numbers@ 1,(4@ 21// and 2.4/ and their factors.
The #o$est Common %u&ti'&e of these three numbers $i&& beE
2 + 2 in a&&! + 3 + 3 in 1,(4! + " + " in 21//! + , + , in 1,(4 and 2.4/!
oE 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + " + " + , + , H 44@1// is the #.C.%
1,(4 + 2" H 44@1//
21// + 21 H 44@1//
2.4/ + 1" H 44@1//
.
Issue / Page 5
34 , 3 2 2
2.4/ , , " 3 2 2
21// , " " 3 2 2
1,(4 , , 3 3 2 2
44@1// , , " " 3 3 2 2
2.4/ , , " 3 2 2
21// , " " 3 2 2
1,(4 , , 3 3 2 2
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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1.5 ARITHMETICAL PRECEDENCE
The term Arithmetic Precedence means the order in $hich $e carr8 out arithmetic
functions. ometimes it doesnJt matter $hat order $e carr8 them out.
Consider the e+'ression 2 F 3 H ". It maAes no difference if $e $rite 3 F 2 H ".
Again@ consider 3 + 4 H 12@ there is no difference if $e $rite 4 + 3 H 12.
Ho$e1er@ if I $rite 2 F 3 + 4@ $hat is the ans$erK
If $e first add 2 F 3@ $e $i&& get " and then " + 4 H 2/.
A&ternati1e&8@ mu&ti'&8ing 3 + 4 H 12@ adding 2 $e get 14.
If $e are going to agree on the ans$er $e must first agree on the ru&es $e use.
This introduces the to'ic Ano$n as arithmetica& 'recedence@ and is most easi&8
remember b8 the term BODMAS. )60%A indicates the 'recedence@ or the
order in $hich $e 'erform our ca&cu&ationsE
B stands for )racAets
O stands for I6fI
D stands for 0i1ision
M stands for %u&ti'&ication
A stands for Addition
S stands for ubtraction
1.5.1 BODMAS EXAMPLE
Find the 1a&ue ofE (4 1(! F , 12!  2. F3(!2 F.!
This e+'ression becomesE
(4 1(! F 1.!  ,!,! )
H 4! F 1.!  ,!,! 0
H 4! F 1.!  4. %
H  23  4. A
H  ,2 
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1.6 RACTIONS
is an e+am'&e of a P,.1#, ,'$*%.)@ genera&&8 abbre1iated to fraction.
It has the same meaning as 11 1(@ that is@ 11 di1ided b8 1(.
The number '4.2# the &ine is the N0&#,'*.,L the number 4#(.; the &ine is the
D#).&%)'*.,.
is a&so a fraction@ but because 23 is greater than 4@ it is ca&&ed an I&1,.1#,
/,'$*%.). It $i&& norma&&8 be $ritten as @
$hich is the same as H H H .
imi&ar&8@ cou&d be con1erted to because 3 + , H
so .
1.6.1 ADDITION O RACTIONS
The im'ortant thing to remember here is that on&8 fractions $ith the same a
common! denominator can be added or subtracted.
E8'&1(# 1 H H 1
If the denominators are not the same@ then it is necessar8 to find the (.;#*
C.&&.) D#).&%)'*., 5LCD7 and to 'ut each fraction in terms of this 1a&ue.
Finding the #o$est Common 0enominator is essentia&&8 the same as finding the
#o$est Common %u&ti'&e@ $hich $as co1ered in a 're1ious to'ic.
E8'&1(# 2
In this e+am'&e@ the #C0 of 1(@ 12 and 3 is 43. In some cases it ma8 be 7uicAer
to find a common denominator b8 sim'&8 mu&ti'&8ing the denominators together
i.e. 1( + 12 + 3 H 1"3(. Note@ this is not the #C0.
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Ha1ing found the #C0@ each fraction no$ needs to be e+'ressed in terms of the
#C0. This is achie1ed b8 di1iding the #C0 b8 the denominator and mu&ti'&8ing
the resu&t b8 the numerator.
0i1ide the #C0 b8 the denominator 43 1( H 3
%u&ti'&8 the resu&t b8 the numerator 3 + , H 21
and so can be $ritten as
A&ternati1e&8@ di1ide the #C0 b8 the denominator 43 1( H 3
And mu&ti'&8 to' and bottom of the fraction b8 the resu&t
so is the same as .
imi&ar&8@ 0i1ide the #C0 b8 the denominator 43 M 12 H 4
%u&ti'&8 to' and bottom of fraction b8 4
Fina&&8 con1erts to .
o the 3 fractions become
4ith the common denominator in '&ace@ the addition becomes .
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E8'&1(# 3
in this case $e ha1e 3 im'ro'er fractions
First add the $ho&e numbers together@ so the ca&cu&ation becomes.
.
The #C0 of 3@ ( and 12 is 12. >sing this@ the sum becomes.
H H ( F .
This sim'&ifies to become ( F 2 F .
1.6.2 SUBTRACTION O RACTIONS
The basic 'rocedure is 1er8 simi&ar to that used for additionL find the #C%@
con1ert the indi1idua& fractions@ but subtract the numerators instead of adding.
There ma8 be one difference $hich is im'ortant.
E8'&1(# 4
1
st
subtract the $ho&e numbers@ 3  1 H 2@ so the ca&cu&ation becomes
. The #C% is 12@ so the sum becomes .
No$@ is +,#'*#, than and so H1! is Iborro$edI from the 2@ so
becomes @ $ritten as .
To a1oid confusion@ 8ou ma8 find it easier to con1ert the &%8#" )0&4#, 3! to
im'ro'er fractions !@ find the #C%@ 'erform the subtraction and then sim'&if8 the
ans$er.
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1.6.3 MULTIPLICATION O RACTIONS
These ca&cu&ations are genera&&8 easier to 'erform than addition and subtraction.
E8'&1(# 1
im'&8 mu&ti'&8 the numerators together and mu&ti'&8 the denominators together.
o and then con1ert to a mi+ed number or sim'&if8 as necessar8.
E8'&1(# 2
Con1ert into im'ro'er fractions@ so becomes and becomes .
Then mu&ti'&8 as before. @ and con1ert to a mi+ed number .
1.6.4 DI<ISION O RACTIONS
To di1ide t$o fractions $e in1ert the "%2%., the number $e are di1iding b8! and
mu&ti'&8.
E8'&1(# 1
First&8@ con1ert into im'ro'er fractions. Then in1ert the second fraction and
mu&ti'&8.
so H + H H 14.
N.*#. *1er8 o''ortunit8 shou&d be taAen to sim'&if8 b8 Icance&&ingI numbers
abo1e and be&o$ the &ine $here1er 'ossib&e.
For e+am'&e H + $hich becomes , + 2 H 14
a , abo1e and be&o$ the &ine cance&s@ as does an 3!.
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1.7 DECIMAL RACTIONS
0ecima& fractions are fractions $here the 0enominator is e7ua& to some 'o$er of
1/@ i.e. 1//@ 1///@ 1//// etc.
For e+am'&e@ is a decima& fraction.
0ecima& fractions are usua&&8 re$ritten as decima&s. This is 1er8 easi&8 done b8
using a D#$%&'( P.%)*. TaAe the e+am'&e .
P&ace a decima& 'oint to the right of the numerator to' number!. Then mo1e the
decima& 'oint to the &eft@ b8 a number of '&aces e7ua& to the number of InoughtsI
in the denominator bottom number!. 5emo1e one nought from the denominator
for each mo1e.
o@ starts as becomes then and fina&&8 an8 1a&ue o1er 1 is e7ua& to that
1a&ue so the ans$er becomes N12"
$ou&d become 12." etc.
A)> /,'$*%.) $') 4# /.,&#" %)*. ' "#$%&'(? 4> "%2%"%)+ *@# )0&#,'*., 4> *@#
"#).&%)'*.,.
For e+am'&e becomes /.3,". Found b8 a 'rocess of &ong di1ision .
1.7.1 ADDITION A SUBTRACTION
The main thing to remember $hen adding or subtracting decima& numbers is to
ensure the8 are correct&8 &ined u' using the decima& 'oint as a reference.
E8'&1(# 1
2.(33 F 34.41
the ans$er is 3,/.3
Issue / Page 11
2 N ( 3 3
3 4 N 4 1 /
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1.7.2 MULTIPLICATION A DI<ISION
%u&ti'&ication of 0ecima&s is the same as ordinar8 I&ongI mu&ti'&ication@ but the
number of decima& '&aces in the ans$er must e7ua& the sum of decima& '&aces in
the numbers being mu&ti'&ied.
E8'&1(# 1
(.24 + 3.121
There are t$o digits after the decima& '&ace in the first number and 3 in the
second. Therefore@ there must be " digits after the decima& '&ace in the ans$er@
so the ans$er becomes 1.N4,"/4.
Common sense he&'s here. A number s&ight&8 greater then ( is mu&ti'&ied b8
another number s&ight&8 greater then 3. #ogica&&8 the ans$er shou&d be
a''ro+imate&8 13!.
0i1ision is a&so the same as ordinar8 &ong di1ision@ but again a sim'&e ru&e he&'s
to sim'&if8 the 'rocess O0o not tr8 to di1ide b8 a fractionJ. %u&ti'&8 both the di1isor
and di1idend b8 a 'o$er of ten mo1e the decima& '&ace to the right! so that the
di1isor becomes a $ho&e number.
E8'&1(#
3("/ 4"."(  %u&ti'&8 both numbers b8 1// 1/
2
! to gi1e 3("/// 4""(
,(. /3(4  %u&ti'&8 both numbers b8 1/// 1/
3
! to gi1e ,.(/// 3(4
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(243121(241243/
(24//13,2///1.4
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1.8 :EIGHTS AND MEASURES
A $ide number of different $eights and measures are used during the
maintenance of aircraft. The ones that come to mind first are 'robab&8 fue&
ca'acities@ t8re 'ressures@ tem'eratures and s'eeds. There are ho$e1er 1er8
man8 others@ $hich 8ou $i&& meet as 8ou 'rogress through 8our course.
First&8@ the most common&8 used s8stem in a1iation toda8 is the S>*#&#
I)*#,)'*%.)'(# I!. This s8stem is based on mu&ti'&es of 1/ and has been
acce'ted $ide&8@ $ith one or t$o e+ce'tions. It consists of a standard set of units
for (#)+*@ 5&#*,#7@ &' 5C%(.+,'&7@ *%&# 5#$.)"7@ *#&1#,'*0,# 5!#(2%)7@
$0,,#)* 5'&1#,#7 and (%+@* 5$')"#('7. There are se1era& other units $hich@
$hi&st not being 'art of the basic .I. ones abo1e@ are in common use and sti&& use
the metric s8stem for ca&cu&ations.
An o&der s8stem that is sti&& used in some countries toda8@ is the I&1#,%'(
S>*#&? $hich uses a mi+ture of o&d units such as feet and inches for &ength@
'ounds for $eight@ ga&&ons for ca'acit8 and Fahrenheit for tem'erature.
Pou $i&& occasiona&&8 meet a mi+ture of s8stems@ $hich $i&& re7uire con1ersion
from one to another. A good e+am'&e is the amount of fue& 'ut into an aircraftQs
tanAs. Pou $i&& find this being measured in im'eria& ga&&ons@ American ga&&ons@
im'eria& 'ounds@ I Ai&ograms or metric &itres.
Changing a 7uantit8 in one unit to a 7uantit8 in another unit re7uires a
$.)2#,%.) /'$*.,. 4hen the 7uantit8 in the first unit is mu&ti'&ied b8 the
con1ersion factor@ the resu&t is the 7uantit8 in the second units. For e+am'&e@ to
con1ert im'eria& ga&&ons to &itres@ the8 must be mu&ti'&ied b8 4."4(
E8'&1(# 1
Con1ert 2" ga&&ons into &itres.
2" + 4."4( H 113.(" #itres.
E8'&1(# 2
Con1ert 1"// mi&es into Ai&ometres using the con1ersion factor 1(/.4
1"// + 1(/.4 H 2413. Ri&ometres.
NoteE Pou $i&& norma&&8 be gi1en the con1ersion factor@ ho$e1er@ 8ou ma8 ha1e to
trans'ose a formu&a in order to use it.
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1.9 RATIO AND PROPORTION
This to'ic is an e+tension of se1era& 're1ious to'ics. 5atio and 'ro'ortion are
essentia&&8 statements that &inA t$o or more I7uantitiesI together. For e+am'&e@ a
O3 to1 mi+ of sand and cementJ@ $hich ma8 be $ritten as a 3E1 mi+ of sand and
cement@ means Omi+ 3 'arts of sand to 1 'art of cementI. This is a common&8
used statement $hich 8ou $i&& notice has no forma& units@ a&though 1o&ume is
inferred. Parts cou&d be re'resented b8 sho1e&s fu&&@ bucAets fu&&@ $hee&barro$s
fu&& etc.
The mi+ture sim'&8 has a tota& of 4 'arts@ of $hich 3 'arts@ @ is sand@ and 1 'art
is cement.
A ratio therefore sim'&8 'ro1ides a means of com'aring one 1a&ue $ith another.
For e+am'&e@ if an engine turns at 4///r'm and the 'ro'e&&er turns at 24//r'm@
the ratio of the t$o s'eeds is 4/// to 24//@ or O" to 3J $hen reduced to its &o$est
terms. This re&ationshi' can a&so be e+'ressed as "=3 or "E3.
The use of ratios is common in a1iation@ such as $hen considering the
com'ression ratio in an engine. This is the ratio of c8&inder dis'&acement@ $hen
the 'iston is at the bottom of its stroAe com'ared $ith the dis'&acement $hen it is
at the to'. For e+am'&e@ if the 1o&ume of the c8&inder at the bottom of its stroAe is
24/ cm
2
and at the to' becomes 3/ cm
2
the ratio is 24/E3/ or@ reduced to its
&o$est terms@ 3E1.
Another t8'ica& ratio is that of different gear si;es. For e+am'&e@ the ratio of a
dri1e gear $ith 1" teeth to a dri1en gear $ith 4" teeth is 1"E4" or 1E3 $hen
reduced. This means that for e1er8 one tooth of the dri1e gear there are three
teeth on the dri1en gear. Ho$e1er@ $hen $orAing $ith gears@ the ratio of teeth is
o''osite the ratio of re1o&utions. In other $ords@ since the dri1e gear has one third
as man8 teeth as the dri1en gear@ the dri1e gear must com'&ete three re1o&utions
to turn the dri1en gear once. This resu&ts in a ,#2.(0*%.) ,'*%. of 3E1@ $hich is the
o''osite of the ratio of teeth.
A 'ro'ortion is a statement of e7ua&it8 bet$een t$o or more ratios and re'resents
a con1enient $a8 to so&1e 'rob&ems in1o&1ing ratios. For e+am'&e@ if an engine
has a reduction gear ratio bet$een the cranAshaft and the 'ro'e&&er of 3E2@ and
the engine is turning at 2,//r'm@ $hat is the rotationa& s'eed of the 'ro'e&&erK In
this 'rob&em &et <
1
re'resent the unAno$n 1a&ue@ $hich in this case is the s'eed
of the 'ro'e&&er. Ne+t@ set u' a 'ro'ortiona& statement using the fractiona& form@
3=2 H 2,//=<
'
. To so&1e this e7uation@ cross mu&ti'&8 to arri1e at the e7uation 3<
'
H 2 + 2,//@ or "4//r'm. To so&1e for <
'
di1ide "4// b8 3. Thus@ the 'ro'e&&er
s'eed is 13//r'm.
Issue / Page 14
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MATHEMATICS
E8'&1(# 0i1ide S24/ bet$een 4 men in the ratio of .E11E13E1".
The norma& 'rocedure for this t8'e of 'rob&em is toE
A. Add a&& of the indi1idua& 'ro'ortions to find the tota& number of 'arts.
). 0i1ide the tota& amount b8 the number of 'arts to find the 1a&ue of each
'art.
C. %u&ti'&8 each ratio b8 the 1a&ue of each 'art.
o. . F 11 F 13 F 1" H 43
S24/ di1ided b8 43 H S". Therefore each 'art is $orth S".
. + " H 4"
11 + " H ""
13 + " H ("
1" + " H ,"
The 'ro'ortions are therefore S4"@ S""@ S(" and S,"
A usefu& checA is to add the indi1idua& 'arts together@ to ensure the tota& is the
amount 8ou started $ith.
1.1= A<ERAGES AND PERCENTAGES
1.1=.1 A<ERAGES
4hen $orAing $ith numerica& information@ it is sometimes usefu& to find the
a1erage 1a&ue. 4hen estimating the time a 'articu&ar Tourne8 $ou&d be no 'oint in
basing the time on the s&o$est s'eed or the highest s'eed@ a&$a8s use an
a1erage s'eed.
4e $ou&d a&so use a1erage fue& consum'tion to estimate ho$ much fue& an
aircraft $ou&d use for a 'articu&ar f&ight.
In both of these t8'es of ca&cu&ation@ $e can on&8 $orA out the a1erage b8 di1iding
the tota& distance or fue& used b8 the time.
E8'&1(# 1
An aircraft tra1e&s a tota& distance of ,"/ Am in a time of 3 hours 4" minutes.
4hat is the a1erage s'eed in Am=hrK
A1erage s'eed H Tota& 0istance=Time H
hr = Am 2//
," . 3
,"/
Issue / Page 15
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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E8'&1(# 2
An aircraft uses 3// ga&&ons of fue& for a f&ight of duration 4 hours. 4hat is the
a1erage fue& consum'tionK
A1erage Fue& Consum'tion H
hour = ga&&ons ,"
4
3//
1.1=.2 PERCENTAGE
Percentages are s'ecia& fractions $hose denominator is 1//. The decima&
fraction /.33 is the same as 33=1// and is e7ui1a&ent to 33 'ercent or 33U. Pou
can con1ert common fractions to 'ercentages b8 first con1erting them to decima&
fractions and then mu&ti'&8ing b8 1//. For e+am'&e@ "=3 e+'ressed as a decima&
is /.(2"@ and is con1erted to a 'ercentage b8 mo1ing the decima& 'oint t$o
'&aces to the right@ the same as mu&ti'&8ing b8 1//. This becomes (2."U.
To find the 'ercentage of a number@ mu&ti'&8 the number b8 the decima&
e7ui1a&ent of the 'ercentage. For e+am'&e@ to find 1/U of 2//@ begin b8
con1erting 1/U to its decima& e7ui1a&ent@ $hich is /.1. This is achie1ed b8
di1iding the 'ercentage figure b8 1//. No$ mu&ti'&8 2// b8 /.1 to arri1e at the
1a&ue of 2/.
If 8ou $ant to find the 'ercentage one number is of another@ 8ou must di1ide the
first number b8 the second and mu&ti'&8 the 7uotient b8 1//. For instance@ an
engine 'roduces 3"h' from a 'ossib&e 12"h'. 4hat 'ercentage of the tota&
horse'o$er a1ai&ab&e is being de1e&o'edK To so&1e this@ di1ide the 3" b8 12" and
mu&ti'&8 the 7uotient b8 1//.
*+am'&eE
3" M 12" H /.(3 + 1// H (3U 'o$er.
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Another $a8 that 'ercentages are used@ is to determine a number $hen on&8 a
'ortion of the number is Ano$n. For e+am'&e@ if 413/r'm is 33U of the ma+imum
s'eed@ $hat is the ma+imum s'eedK To determine this@ 8ou must di1ide the
Ano$n 7uantit8@ 413/r'm@ b8 the decima& e7ui1a&ent of the 'ercentage.
*+am'&eE
413/ M /.33 H 11@///r'm ma+imum
A common mistaAe made on this t8'e of 'rob&em is mu&ti'&8ing b8 the 'ercentage
instead of di1iding. 6ne $a8 of a1oiding maAing this error is to &ooA at the
'rob&em and determine $hat e+act&8 is being asAed. In the 'rob&em abo1e@ if
413/r'm is 33U of the ma+imum then the ma+imum must be greater than 413/.
The on&8 $a8 to get an ans$er that meets this criterion is to di1ide b8 /.33.
1.11 PO:ERS AND ROOTS
1.11.1 PO:ERS
4hen a number is mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f@ it is said to be raised to a gi1en 'o$er. For
e+am'&e@ ( + ( H 3(L therefore (
2
H 3(. The number of times the 4'# )0&4#, is
mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f is e+'ressed as an #81.)#)* and is $ritten to the right and
s&ight&8 abo1e the base number. A 'ositi1e e+'onent indicates ho$ man8 times a
number is mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f.
*+am'&eE
3
2
is read I3 s7uaredI or I3 to the 'o$er of 2I. Its 1a&ue is found b8 mu&ti'&8ing 3
b8 itse&f.
3 + 3 H .
2
3
is read I2 cubedI or I2 to 'o$erI. Its 1a&ue is found b8 mu&ti'&8ing 2 b8 itse&f 3
times.
2 + 2 + 2 H 3
If the e+'onent is a negati1e integer@ the minus sign indicates the in1erse or
reci'roca& of the number $ith its e+'onent made 'ositi1e.
*+am'&eE
2
3
is the same as the reci'roca& of 2
3
$hich is so
2
3
H
3
1
2 2 2
1
Issue / Page 17
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MATHEMATICS
An8 number@ e+ce't ;ero@ that is raised to the ;ero 'o$er e7ua&s 1. 4hen a
number is $ritten $ithout an e+'onent@ the e+'onent 1a&ue is assumed to be 1.
Furthermore@ if the e+'onent does not ha1e a sign@ F or ! 'receding it@ the
e+'onent is assumed to be 'ositi1e.
1.11.2 ROOTS
The ,..* of a number is that 1a&ue $hich@ $hen mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f a certain
number of times@ 'roduces that number. For e+am'&e@ 4 is a root of 1( because
$hen mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f@ the 'roduct is 1(. Ho$e1er@ 4 is a&so a root of (4
because 4 + 4 + 4 H (4. The s8mbo& used to indicate a root is the ,'"%$'( sign
x ! '&aced o1er the number. If on&8 the radica& sign a''ears o1er a number@ it
indicates 8ou are to e+tract the 30',# ,..* of the number under the sign. The
s7uare root of a number is the root of that number@ $hen mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f@
e7ua&s that number. 4hen asAed to e+tract a root other than a s7uare root@ an
%)"#8 )0&4#, is '&aced outside the radica& sign.
For e+am'&e@ the cube root of (4 is e+'ressed as
(4
3
Another $a8 of indicating roots is b8 sho$ing the root of a number is b8 sho$ing
an e+'onent as in 'o$ers. In the case of roots@ ho$e1er@ the e+'onent is sho$n
as a fraction.
The cube root of (4 can a&so be e+'ressed as
3
1
(4
The s7uare root of 1( $ou&d be e+'ressed as
2
1
1(
Issue / Page 18
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
2 ALGEBRA
2.1 INTRODUCTION
<er8 often students $i&& c&aim that the8 ne1er ha1e and ne1er $i&& understand
A&gebra. The8 sa8 the8 can understand and $orA $ith numbers@ but not $ith
&etters@ and 8et A&gebra is designed to maAe matters sim'&e and c&ear.
For e+am'&e@ su''ose a room is " metres &ong b8 3 metres $ide and $e need to
Ano$ ho$ much car'et is needed to co1er the f&oor. No one $ou&d ha1e an8
hesitation in ca&cu&ating the ans$er@ 1" s7uare metres m
2
!. )ut that ans$er on&8
a''&ies to that room. The +#)#,'( ans$er is that the area is found b8
&0(*%1(>%)+ (#)+*@ b8 ;%"*@ or breadth!.
i.e. Area H &ength + breadth.
)ut it is easier to $rite A H # + b@ $here the &etters A@ #@ b re'resent in this case
Area@ #ength and breadth@ and that is $hat A&gebra is a&& aboutL &etters re'resent
some 1ariab&e and on&8 $hen 'articu&ar 1a&ues. i.e. numbers are Ano$n@ do $e
resort to them instead.
o $hen using A&gebra@ it is im'ortant to state $hat the &etters re'resent. ome
&etters are often used@ 'articu&ar&8 + and 8@ but g often re'resents acce&eration due
to gra1it8@ re'resents densit8@ and so on. This is $hat A&gebraic ).*'*%.) is
about.
2.1.1 OPERATION
A&gebraic o'erations are in essence the same as $hen using numbers.
o A""%)+ a and b is $ritten a F b
S04*,'$*%)+ a and b is $ritten a  b
M0(*%1(>%)+ a and b is $ritten ab
D%2%"%)+ a b8 b is $ritten a=b
S30',%)+ a a
2
4e are not restricted to 2 &etters on&8.
a mu&ti'&ied b8 b and di1ided b8 c becomes@ &ogica&&8@
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Note a&so that the order in $hich &etters a''ear is basica&&8 unim'ortant.
a + b + c + d H abcd H bdac H cadb etc. etc.
3 + 4 is ob1ious&8 the same as 4 + 3 etc.!
4hen s8mbo&s such as + and 8 are mu&ti'&ied together $e do not need to inc&ude
the mu&ti'&ication sign. This is the same if a number and a s8mbo& are mu&ti'&ied
together.
3 + 8@ 4 + ;@ s + '@ a + b@ 8 + ; + m
can a&& be $ritten $ithout the mu&ti'&ication sign as 38@ 4;@ s'@ ab and 8;m
The same is not true of numbers on their o$nE
, + 3@ 4 + " and ( + , cannot be $ritten as ,3@ 4" and (,.
L%C# T#,& are terms com'rised of the same a&gebraic 7uantit8  this is
im'ortant. ,+@ "+ and 3+ are a&& terms containing +
,a@ 4b@ 3a and (b can be s'&it into t$o grou's of &iAe terms@ ,a and 3a@
and 4b and (b.
If &iAe terms contain numerica& coefficients@ the8 can be sim'&ified.
,+ F "+  3+ H , F "  3!+ H .+
,a F 3a F 4b  (b H 1/a  2b.
Terms &iAe ab F cb  db ma8 be sim'&ified as a F c  d! b.
b is a common factor of the 3 terms!
Issue / Page 2
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4hen dea&ing $ith a&gebraic terms and e+'ressions the abi&it8 to factorise is a
great asset. imi&ar&8@ the abi&it8 to di1ide numerator and denominator b8 the
same terms i.e. cance&&ing to' and bottom! a&&o$s sim'&ification.
2.1.2 BASIC LA:S
A&gebra obe8s the same &a$s of 'rocedure as Arithmetic@ i.e. )60%A.
Note that )racAets a''ear rather more often in A&gebra@ and are on&8 remo1ed
$hen there is a good reason to do so@ for e+am'&e@ $hen further o'erations
u&timate&8 &ead to greater sim'&ification.
3+ F ,8!  4+ F 38! H 3+ F ,8  4+  38 H + F 48
Note es'ecia&&8 that $hen remo1ing bracAets@ a&& the terms inside the bracAets
are mu&ti'&ied b8 $hat is immediate&8 outside the bracAets. The basic 'rocedure
is as fo&&o$s.
a + F 8! H a+ F a8
a F b + F 8! H a F b+ F b8 both + and 8 are mu&ti'&ied b8 b!
a F b! + F 8! H a+ F a8 F b+ F b8 + and 8 are mu&ti'&ied b8 aFb!
a F b!
2
H a F b! a F b! H a + a! F a + b! F b + a! F b + b!
H a
2
F ab F ab F b
2
H a
2
F 2ab F b
2
4hen /'$*.,%%)+@ e+amine each term is order to &ooA for common factors.
the common factors of a
2
b and 2ab
2
are a and b the8 a''ear in both!@
hence a
2
b  2ab
2
can be $ritten ab!a  2b!.
ab! and a  2b! are both factors of the com'&ete e+'ression a
2
b and 2ab
2
.
As a&read8 stated@ the abi&it8 to IseeI factors is an asset.
Issue / Page 3
2b
a
b b a (
b a a 3
ab (
b 3a
2
2
/
/
/
/
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
a+ F b+ F a8 F b8
H + a F b! F 8 a F b! H + F 8! a F b!
or H a + F 8! F b + F 8! H + F 8! a F b!
A&gebra can be e+tended to inc&ude fractions.
e.g. F H bd is the #C0@ ad F cb is the Numerator!
2.2 EDUATIONS
The statement a G 4 H " is an e7uation. 4hat $e are sa8ing is that an unAno$n
7uantit8 minus 4 e7ua&s ". It does not taAe a genius to $orA out that the unAno$n
7uantit8 in this case is .@ there is on&8 one 1a&ue that $i&& be correct. The 1a&ue of
a can be ca&cu&ated using guess$orA or e&imination. The 'rocess of estab&ishing
that a H . is ca&&ed so&1ing the e7uation.
2.2.1 SOL<ING LINEAR EDUATIONS
A &inear e7uation is one containing on&8 the first 'o$er of the unAno$n 7uantit8.
"8 G " H 38 F . or "m G 2! H 1"
These are both &inear e7uations.
4hen $e so&1e &inear e7uations@ the a''earance of the e7uation ma8 change.
For e+am'&e@ the first e7uation cou&d be re$ritten as "8 G 38 H . F " and the
second as "m G 1/ H 1". )oth of these &ooA different from the origina& form@ but
e7ua&it8 has been maintained and the8 are therefore the same.
The genera& ru&e for a&& e7uations isE
:@'*#2#, >.0 ". *. .)# %"# ./ *@# #30'*%.)? >.0 &0* ". *@# '&#
*. *@# .*@#, %"#.
)8 con1ention $e name each side of the e7uation #eft Hand ide #H! or 5ight
Hand ide 5H!
Issue / Page 4
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2.2.1.1 E30'*%.) R#30%,%)+ M0(*%1(%$'*%.) ., D%2%%.)
o&1e the e7uation
4
"
+
( ) ( ) 24 1 + 2 3 4 + 2
24 3 + ( 3 + 2 +
24 " + 4 so 2. + 4 and the so&ution is
2" . ,
4
2.
+
Issue / Page 7
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2.3 TRANSPOSITION IN EDUATIONS
Consider a formu&a e7uation! gi1en in a certain form.
(a F 11 H 2"  a
This contains one a&gebraic 7uantit8@ IaI@ $ithin an e7uation. ThinA of an
e7uation as a statement of Oba&anceJ. In this one@ (a F 11 on the #H e7ua&s@ or
ba&ances@ 2"  a on the 5H.
As $e ha1e one e7uation and one unAno$n OaJ@ there is on&8 one numerica& 1a&ue
$hich can 'roduce a ba&ance. 4hat is itK
)8 mani'u&ating *,')1.%)+ is the $ord! the e7uation@ it is 'ossib&e to iso&ate
the OaJ on the #H and ba&ance it $ith an actua& number on the 5H. This $i&&
then be the uni7ue 1a&ue of OaJ. #ooA again at the e7uation.
(a F 11 H 2"  a
To remo1e the OaJ on the 5H@ $e must add OaJ to both sides.
(a F 11 F a H 2"  a F a
therefore ,a F 11 H 2"
To remo1e F 11@ $e must subtract 11 from both sides
,a F 11 G 11 H 2"  11
so ,a H 14
and if ,a H 14 then a H 2
4e ha1e found that a H 2. This is the uni7ue 1a&ue $hich satisfies
(a F 11 H 2"  a.
tud8 it again to see ho$ $e $orAed to iso&ate the re7uired term OaJ on one side@
and ,#&#&4#,@ $hat 8ou do to one side of an e7uation@ 8ou must do to the other
side if the ba&ance is to be maintained.
Here is another a formu&a in1o&1ing se1era& a&gebraic s8mbo&s.
Find N@ if C H
5emember@ $e $ant N on one side b8 itse&f. It is im'ortant to get a Qfee&Q for the
form of the e7uation. To he&'@ $e $i&& 'ut bracAets around N  n!.
o C H
To remo1e the 2' $e must mu&ti'&8 both sides b8 2'
Issue / Page 8
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C + 2' H + 2'
$hich gi1es 2C' H N G n!
To remo1e the n@ $e must add n to both sides
2C' F n H N G n! F n H N
ThatQs it@ N H 2C' F n
HereQs another e+am'&e.
< H the 1o&ume of a cone!.
Find r the radius!@ ste' b8 ste'.
<+ 3 H .= mu&ti'&8 both sides b8 3!
H H r
2
di1ide both sides b8 h!
R#&#&4#,@ to find r@ taAe the s7uare root of r
2
and do the same to both sides.
This is $hat trans'osition is a&& about. 4e are rearranging formu&as e+'ressed
as e7uations@ $hich then a&&o$s us to find a 'articu&ar numerica& 1a&ue for one
unAno$n! 7uantit8 if the other numerica& 1a&ues are gi1en.
6ne im'ortant 'oint@ it is on&8 'ossib&e to find an unAno$n 7uantit8 if a&& the other
1a&ues are Ano$n. This is Ano$n as Qso&1ing an e7uationQ.
The ru&e is@
6ne unAno$n 7uantit8 can be deduced from one e7uation@
T$o unAno$ns re7uire t$o different e7uations@
Three unAno$ns re7uired three different e7uations@
and so on.
2.3.1 CONSTRUCTION O EDUATIONS
As a&read8 stated@ %aths ser1es as a Itoo&I for *ngineers at the design stage.
0esign is the creation of a com'onent or mechanism .) 1'1#,@ i.e. before it taAe
sha'e in meta& or '&astic. The design engineer ho'efu&&8 maAes it strong enough
 his Ano$&edge of materia&s and their strengths a&&o$ him to do this b8
ca&cu&ation. He uses formu&as and e7uations.
Issue / Page 9
h.
3<
r
r. r
h
3<
2
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
To do this@ he must a&&ocate &etters to re'resent some 1ariab&e or Ano$n 7uantit8.
He can then construct a formu&a or e7uation b8 using the &etters $ithin some
Oreasonab&eJ statement about the situation. He studies the situation and then
maAes the statement.
Ho$ do $e construct e7uations from the facts contained $ithin a scenarioK
*+am'&e 1
ThinA of a number@ doub&e it@ add ( and di1ide the resu&t b8 3. 4hat is the
ans$erK
#et the number 8ou thinA of be A. 0oub&ing this number gi1es 2A.
If ( is then added@ $e ha1e 2A F (@ $hich must then be di1ided b8 3@ maAing
the ans$er H . This formu&a can be used to ca&cu&ate the ans$er no matter $hat
number 8ou thinA of.
*+am'&e 2
If one side of a rectangu&ar fie&d is t$ice as &ong as the other@ and the short side is
1//m. Ca&cu&ate the area of the fie&d.
#et the short side of the fie&d be #. The &ong side is therefore 2 + # or 2#.
To ca&cu&ate the area $e mu&ti'&8 one side b8 the other@ soE
Area H 2# + # H 2#
2
$here # e7ua&s 1//m
Area H 21//!
2
H 2////m
2
*+am'&e 3
A certain t8'e of motor car cost se1en times as much as a certain maAe of motor
c8c&e. If t$o cars and three motor c8c&es cost S3"//@ find the cost of each
1ehic&e.
#et the cost of a car be C at 'resent C is an unAno$n!.
#et the cost of a motor c8c&e be % another unAno$n!.
4e Ano$ that 2C F 3% H S3"// this has t$o unAno$ns $ithin one e7uation!.
)ut $e a&so Ano$ that C H , + %@ therefore@ $e can substitute for C in the first
e7uation.
2 ,%! F 3% H S3"//
14% F 3% H 1,% H S3"//
% H H S"//
Issue / Page 1=
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
The cost of a motor c8c&e is therefore S"//@ and the cost of a car must be , ?
S"// H S3"//.
Here 2 e7uations $ere constructed from the facts@ and then combined to a&&o$ a
so&ution to be found.
In the ne+t e+am'&e@ $e form e7uations from the facts@ and then trans'ose to
'roduce a so&ution.
*+am'&e 4
Three e&ectric radiators and fi1e con1ector heaters together cost S,4/. A
con1ector cost S2/ more than a radiator. Find the cost of each.I
#et 5 re'resent the cost of a radiator@ and C re'resent the cost of a con1ector.
Then 35 F "C H S,4/
And C H 5 F 2/
35 F " 5 F 2/! H 35 F "5 F 1// H ,4/
35 H ,4/  1// H (4/
5 H H S3/ the cost of a radiator!
and C H 3/ F 2/ H S1// the cost of a con1ector!
2.4 SIMULTANEOUS EDUATIONS
Consider the e7uation 4+  38 H 1. There are 2 unAno$ns + and 8! in one
e7uation@ and so the e7uation cannot be so&1ed to gi1e a sing&e 1a&ue for + and 8.
There are an infinite number of 1a&ues of + for $hich there are corres'onding
1a&ues of 8. For e+am'&eE
if + H 4@ then 8 H " if + H ,@ then 8 H . if + H 1@ then 8 H 1
Issue / Page 11
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
Ho$e1er@ if a second e7uation e+ists@ for e+am'&e + F 38 H 1.@ then these t$o
e7uations can be e1a&uated simu&taneous&8 to gi1e sing&e 1a&ues for + and 8.
The 'rocess is sim'&e and in1o&1es modif8ing the e7uations@ $hi&st sti&& 'reser1ing
the e7ua&ities.
4+ G 38 H 1 1!
+ F 38 H 1. 2!
The method of so&ution of a&& simu&taneous e7uations is toE
first mani'u&ate one or both of the e7uations so that the coefficient of one of
the unAno$ns is the same in both e7uations.
then add or subtract one of the e7uations from the other to 'roduce a third
e7uation $ith on&8 one unAno$n. The other ha1ing become ;ero.
so&1e the ne$ e7uation to find the unAno$n.
'ut the so&ution into one of the origina& e7uations to find the other unAno$n.
'ut both so&utions into the e7uation not used in the stage abo1e to checA 8our
ans$ers.
>sing the t$o e7uations abo1e as an e+am'&eE
4e do not need to mani'u&ate either of the e7uations because the coefficient of
8 is the same in both e7uations. Therefore@ $e can e&iminate the C8D 1a&ue sim'&8
b8 adding the t$o e7uations. The resu&t isE
"+ H 2/ o 8 9 4
If $e then substitute + H 4 in the second e7uation $e getE
4 F 38 H 1. o 38 H 1.  4 H 1" o > 9 5
6ur so&utions are + H 4 and 8 H "
*+am'&e 1
2+ F 38 H 3 1!
3+ F "8 H 11 2!
%u&ti'&8 e7uation 1! b8 the coefficient of + in e7uation 2!.
2+ F 38 H 3! + 3 H (+ F .8 H 24
%u&ti'&8 e7uation 2! b8 the coefficient of + in e7uation 1!.
2+ F "8 H 3! + 2 H (+ F 1/8 H 22
Issue / Page 12
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
o (+ F .8 H 24 3!
(+ F 1/8 H 22 4!
ubtract e7uation 4! from 3!
/+  18 H 2.
so 8 H 2 and 8 H 2
substitute 8 H  2. in either e7uation 1! or 2! to so&1e for +. I ha1e se&ected 1!.
2+ F 32! H 3 therefore 2+ H 14 and + H ,
ChecA 8our ans$er b8 substituting both 1a&ues in e7uation 2!. 0o not use
e7uation 1! because it $i&& not high&ight an error. If 8ou had used e7uation 2! to
find +@ then the checA shou&d be carried using e7uation 1!.
3+ F "8 H 11
3,! F "2! H 11 therefore 21 F1/! H 11  correct
The same resu&t $ou&d be found if 8 $as e&iminated as sho$n be&o$.
2+ F 38 H 3! + " 1/+ F 1"8 H 4/ 3!
3+ F "8 H 11! + 3 .+ F 1"8 H 33 4!
+ H , etc.
2.5 DUADRATIC EDUATIONS
An8 e7uation of the form 8 H a+
2
F b+ F c@ $here a@ b and c are numbers@ is
Ano$n as a 7uadratic e7uation. An e7uation of this t8'e $i&& 'roduce a cur1e
ca&&ed a 'arabo&a. The actua& 1a&ue for coefficients a@ b and c $i&& determine the
e+act sha'e and 'osition of the cur1e.
Issue / Page 13
2a
4ac  b b
2
t
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
,
_
+ t
2
1
1 and
3
2
are  2 P 'oints case@ this in
3
2 
or
2
1
1
12
3 
or
12
13
+
12
13 "
12
144 2" "
+
( 2
( ( 4  "  "  
+
2
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
It $i&& be noted that one of the cur1es cuts the +a+is at 'oints P and .
P and  are Ano$n as the ,..* of the e7uation. A&ternati1e&8@ P and  are the
1a&ues of + $hich satisf8 the condition 8 H a+
2
F b+ F c H o.
It can be sho$n that the 5oots are found to be e7ua& toE
This e7uation gi1es t$o 1a&ues@ one for P the other for .
E8'&1(# Find the roots of 8 H (+
2
 "+  ( a H (@ b H "@ c H (!
Note  de'ending on a@ b and c@ it is 'ossib&e that b
2
 4ac resu&ts in a
)#+'*%2# 2'(0#. It has been considered im'ossib&e to find the s7uare root of a
negati1e 1a&ue. The e7uation concerned is then said to ha1e ). ,#'( ,..*.
4hen b
2
 4ac is negati1e@ the e7uation is said to ha1e $.&1(#8 ,..*@ $here
the roots com'rise both a rea& and imaginar8 com'onent. This conce't is not
considered in these notes.
Issue / Page 14
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
3 NUMBERS
3.1 INDICES AND PO:ERS
It is often to necessar8 to mu&ti'&8 a number b8 itse&f once@ t$ice or se1era& times.
To indicate this@ a method of notation has e1o&1ed@ $hich is both con1enient and
ca'ab&e of being e+tended to introduce other conce'ts.
3 + 3 is $ritten as 3
2
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 is $ritten as 2
"
4 + 4 + 4 is $ritten as 4
3
etc@ etc.
In the abo1e e+am'&es@ the number being mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f is Ano$n as the
4'# and the number of times it is mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f is Ano$n as the 1.;#, or
%)"#8. A&ternati1e&8@ the number 2 has been raised to 'o$er ".
Po$er 2 and 'o$er 3 are genera&&8 referred to as the s7uare and the cube.
3 + 3 H 3
2
H . . is the s7uare of 3 or 3 s7uared e7ua&s .
4 + 4 + 4 H 4
3
H (4 (4 is the IcubeI of 4. or 4 cubed e7ua&s (4
)ut 'ut another $a8@ 3 is said to be the 30',# ,..* of .@ 4 is the $04# ,..* of (4
and 2 is the /%/*@ ,..* of 32.
The method of notation used is thatE
It is 'ossib&e to re$rite the abo1e@ so that 3 H .
/."
@ 2 H 32
/.2
and 4 H (4
/.333
.
4here the 'o$er is e+'ressed as a decima&@ instead of a fraction.
To a&&o$ the use of numbers in1o&1ing 'o$ers and indices@ some ru&es ha1e
e1o&1ed@ $hich are re'roduced@ using the s8mbo& N to re'resent an8 base
number.
5u&e 1. N
2
+ N
3
H N
"
N
'
8 N
4
9 N
5' 6 47
5u&e 2. N
"
N
2
H N
3
H H N
2
Issue / Page 1
3
3
1
"
"
1
2
1
(4 or (4 4
32 or 32 2
. or . 3
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
N
'
N
4
9 N
5'  47
5u&e 3 N
2
!
3
H N
2
+ N
2
+ N
2
using ru&e 1 this e7ua&s N
(
5N
'
7
4
9 N
5' 8 47
or N
'4
5u&e 4 N
2
N
2
H N
2 G 2!
H N
/
An8 number di1ided b8 itse&f e7ua&s 1
so N
/
H 1
Therefore H N
/
N
2
using ru&e 2 this e7ua&s N
2
9 N
'
a&so 9 N
'
because 1 N
2
is the same as N
/
 N
2
H N
/ G 2!
H N
2
5u&e " If N1=3 + N1=3 + N1=3 H N1 H N
then N
1=3
must be the third root of N@ because the on&8 number that can
be mu&ti'&ied b8 itse&f 3 times to maAe N is the third root of N.
therefore N
1=3
H
simi&ar&8 if N
2=3
+ N
2=3
+ N
2=3
H N
2
then N
2=3
must be the third root of N
2
therefore N
2=3
H
so N
'E4
9
Issue / Page 2
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
3.1.1 STANDARD ORM
If the number 3.34, is mu&ti'&ied b8 1/@/// then the 'roduct is 334,/. This
ca&cu&ation can be $ritten as 3.34, + 1/
4
H 334,/.
4hen 334,/ is $ritten as 3.34, + 1/
4
@ it is Ano$n as tandard Form.
A number in standard form has t$o 'arts. The first 'art is a number bet$een 1
and 1/ but does not e7ua& 1/!@ and the second 'art is 1/ raised to some $ho&e
number 'o$er. The first 'art is ca&&ed the M')*%'@ the second 'art the
E81.)#)*.
To e+'ress a number in standard form@ mo1e the decima& 'oint &eft or right to
create a number bet$een 1 and 1/ the mantissa!@ and then create the e+'onent.
The 1a&ue of $hich e7ua&s the number of '&aces b8 $hich the decima& 'oint has
been mo1ed. If the 'oint $as mo1ed #eft@ the 'o$er is 'ositi1e@ if the 'oint $as
mo1ed 5ight@ it is negati1e.
*+am'&es "2( H ".2( + 1/
2
/.3,1( H 3.,1( + 1/
1
/.//2 H 2./ + 1/
3
3.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS
The most $ide&8 used s8stem of numbers is the decima& s8stem@ based on the
hinduarabic s8mbo&s /@ 1@ 2@ 3 etc but roman s8mbo&s such as <@ ?@ # and C are
a&so $e&& Ano$n and understood. Toda8@ the 'ractice of engineering re7uires a
measure of com'etence in hand&ing se1era& different s8stems of numera&s.
In genera& a s8stem of numeration consists of a set of s8mbo&s together $ith a
ru&e b8 $hich the s8mbo&s can be combined together.
N0&4#, is the 'ro'ert8 associated $ith a set or co&&ection of things. It is
inde'endent of the nature of the indi1idua& items in the set. The number fourteen
ma8 be $ritten as 1" or ?I<. In this case the number is the same but the s8stem
or numeration is different.
3.2.1 DECIMAL SYSTEM O NUMERATION
In the decima& s8stem@ the s8mbo&s are combined b8 arranging them in a
hori;onta& &ine@ the contribution that each digit maAes being go1erned b8 its
'osition. A decima& 'oint enab&es numbers &ess than one to be re'resented.
Issue / Page 3
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
E8'&1(# 1
0ecima& 3(3 is rea&&8E
3 1/
2
! F ( 1/
1
! F 3 1/
/
!
or in co&umn formE
1=
2
5@0)",#"7
1=
1
5*#)7
1=
=
50)%*7
3 ( 3
E8'&1(# 2
0ecima& 4"2.(4 is rea&&8E
4 1/
2
! F " 1/
1
! F 2 1/
/
! F ( 1/
1
! F 4 1/
2
!
or in co&umn formE
1=
2
1=
1
1=
=
1=
1
1=
2
4 " 2 ( 4
Ten is Ano$n as the 4'# or ,'"%8 of the decima& s8stem. The %)"#8 indicates
the 'o$er to $hich the base is raised.
The base@ and the 'articu&ar inde+ to $hich it is raised is ca&&ed the ;#%+@*.
e.g. &east significant $eight H 1/
/
H 1
ne+t most significant $eight H 1/
1
H 1/
The numbers b8 $hich $eight is mu&ti'&ied are ca&&ed "%+%*. In 'ractice on&8 the
digits of the s8stem are $ritten@ the $eight being im'&ied e.g. 3(3@ "3.24.
N.*#F / is counted as a digit@ so that there are ten digits in the decima& s8stem@
/ to . inc&usi1e.
Issue / Page 4
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
3.2.2 BINARY SYSTEM O NUMERATION
6n&8 the s8mbo&s / and 1 are used and the base is t$o@ other$ise the s8stem of
numeration is the same as before. The t$o digits / and 1 are referred to as 4%*@
an abbre1iation of binar8 digits.
E8'&1(# 1
1/11/1 is rea&&8E
1 2
"
! F / 2
4
! F 1 2
3
! F 1 2
2
! F / 2
1
! F 1 2
/
!
or in co&umn formE
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
=
1 / 1 1 / 1
H 4" in decima&!
E8'&1(# 2
11/.11 is rea&&8E
1 2
2
! F 1 2
1
! F / 2
/
! F 1 2
1
! F 1 2
2
!
or in co&umn formE
2
2
2
1
2
=
2
1
2
2
1 1 / 1 1
H (.," in decima&!
N.*#F A&& digits to the right of the 4%)',> 1.%)* refer to negati1e 'o$ers.
Issue / Page 5
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
The binar8 s8stem is 1er8 suitab&e for use $ith e&ectrica& s$itching circuits. A
s$itch is either off or on corres'onding@ for e+am'&e@ to / and 1 res'ecti1e&8.
There is no ambiguit8.
3.2.3 OCTAL SYSTEM O NUMERATION
In the octa& s8stem of numeration the s8mbo&s / to , are used and the base is 3.
Again the s8stem of numeration is the same as that used for decima& and binar8@
$ith each co&umn increasing b8 a 'o$er of one as 8ou mo1e from right to &eft.
E8'&1(# 1
3,(
3
is rea&&8E
3 3
2
! F , 3
1
! F ( 3
/
!
or in co&umn formE
8
3
8
2
8
1
8
=
/ 3 , (
H 2"4 in decima&!
E8'&1(# 2
3,N13 is rea&&8E
3 3
1
! F , 3
/
! F 1 3
1
! F 3 3
2
!
or in co&umn formE
8
2
8
1
8
=
8
1
8
2
/ 3 , 1 3
in decima& H 3 + 3! F , + 1! F 1 + /N12"! F 3 + /N/1"(2"!
Issue / Page 6
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
H 31N14/(2"
N.*#F A&& digits to the right of the .$*'( 1.%)* refer to negati1e 'o$ers.
3.2.4 CON<ERSION TO OTHER BASES
Con1ersion from "#$%&'( *. ')> .*@#, 4'# can be achie1ed b8 di1iding the
decima& number re'eated&8 b8 the ne$ base and recording the remainder. The
remainder gi1es the number in the ne$ base and shou&d be read from bottom to
to'.
*+am'&e G con1ert 2.
1/
to binar8.
5esu&t 1 1 1 = 1
2
*+am'&e 2 G con1ert ",
1/
to octa&
5esu&t 7 1
8
*+am'&e 3 G con1ert (3
1/
to he+adecima&
5esu&t 3
16
Issue / Page 7
2 2.
2 14 5em 1
2 , 5em =
2 3 5em 1
2 1 5em 1
/ 5em 1
3 ",
3 , 5em 1
, 5em 7
1( (3
1( 3 5em 1557
/ 5em 3
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
To con1ert 4%)',> )0&4#, *. "#$%&'(.
The easiest $a8 to con1ert from binar8 to decima& is to remember the $eightings@
or if necessar8 $rite the $eightings abo1e each binar8 digit@ and add them u'.
*+am'&e 1 G con1ert 1 / 1 1 / 1 to decima&.
2
5
5327
2
4
5167
2
3
587
2
2
547
2
1
527
2
=
517
1 / 1 1 / 1
1 + 2
"
! F / + 2
4
! F 1 + 2
3
! F 1 + 2
2
! F / + 2
1
! F 1 + 2
/
! H 4"
1/
An a&ternati1e method for &ong binar8 numbers is to taAe the &efthand digit@
doub&e it and add the resu&t to the ne+t digit to the right as sho$n be&o$ doub&e
and add to ne+t digit to the right!.
1 = 1 1 1 =
1 2 " 11 23 4(
To con1ert 4%)',> *. .$*'( ., 2%$# 2#,'.
*ach octa& digit can be re'resented b8 3 binar8 digits. Therefore@ to con1ert from
binar8 to octa&E
i. s'&it the binar8 number into grou's of 3 digits starting from the right.
ii. $eight the numbers in each grou' 4 G 2 G 1
iii. find the tota& of each grou' of 3 digits@ the resu&t is the octa& 1a&ue.
*+am'&e 1 G con1ert 1 / 1 1 1 / / 1 to octa&
)inar8 No 1 / 1 1 1 / / 1
4eighting 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1
6cta& No sum! 2 7 1
Ans$er 1 / 1 1 1 / / 1
2
is e7ua& to 2,1
3
The re1erse 'rocess shou&d be used to con1ert octa& to binar8. Con1ert each
digit into a 3 digit binar8 number Aee'ing the order of digits the same. 4orA from
the bottom to the to' of the tab&e sho$n abo1e to con1ert 2,1
3
to binar8.
Issue / Page 8
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
To con1ert 4%)',> *. @#8'"#$%&'( ., 2%$# 2#,'.
The 'rocess for con1erting a binar8 number to a he+adecima& one@ is the same as
that used to con1ert binar8 numbers to octa&. *ach he+adecima& digit can be
re'resented b8 4 binar8 digits@ therefore the binar8 number is s'&it into grou's of
4 digits starting from the right. The $eightings this time are 3 G 4 G 2 G 1.
Again@ the re1erse 'rocess is used to con1ert from he+adecima& to binar8.
Con1ert each he+adecima& digit into its binar8 e7ui1a&ent Aee'ing the order the
same.
*+am'&e 1 G con1ert A,
1(
to binar8.
He+adecima& No A 7
4eightings 3 4 2 1 3 4 2 1
)inar8 No 1 / 1 / / 1 1 1
Ans$er A,
1(
is e7ua& to 1 / 1 / / 1 1 1
2
3.3 LOGARITHMS
#ogarithms are a mathematica& conce't that $as de1e&o'ed to sim'&if8
mu&ti'&ication and di1ision of &arge numbers. #ogarithms enab&e mu&ti'&ication
and di1ision to be 'erformed using addition and subtraction. The use of
&ogarithms is no &onger so $ides'read as the e&ectronic ca&cu&ator has become so
readi&8 a1ai&ab&e.
5emembering that $hen@ for e+am'&e@ 2" is $ritten as "
2
@ " is Ano$n as the 4'#
and 2 as the 1.;#,@ then the (.+',%*@& of 2" can be e+'ressed as 2@ to the base
".
The +#)#,'( "#/%)%*%.) is@ that if > 9 '
8
then 8 9 (.+
'
>
o &ogarithms can be ca&cu&ated for an8 base a@ but genera&&8 on&8 &ogarithms to
the base of 1/ or e 2.,1! are used@ and are common&8 a1ai&ab&e in tabu&ar form.
Ho$e1er@ &ogarithms are more easi&8 obtained from the ca&cu&ator.
An e+am'&e of the function of &ogarithms is sho$n be&o$.
E8'&1(# Ca&cu&ate (.412 + 23.1(2
From the ca&cu&ator the &og
1/
of (.412 is /.3/(.. and the &og
1/
of 23.1(2 is
1.3(4,3.
o (.412 + 23.1(2
H 1/
/.3/(..
+ 1/
1.3(4,3
Issue / Page 9
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
and using the &a$s of indices
(.412 + 23.1(2 H 1/
/.3/((. F 1.3(4,3!
H 1/
2.1,1,,!
It is no$ necessar8 to find the base 1/ number $hose &ogarithm is 2.1,1,,. The
ca&cu&ator sho$s this to be 143."14,4 this is the ')*%(.+ of 2.1,1,,!. If the
ca&cu&ator is used to so&1e (.412 + 23.1(2@ the 'roduct is 143."14,4.
It is im'ortant to rea&ise that this e+am'&e sho$s ho$ &ogarithms $') be used@ in
'ractice@ the ca&cu&ator is used as norma&. If a di1ision is to be 'erformed@ the
'o$ers of &ogs are 04*,'$*#".
It is the $.)$#1* of a &ogarithm that is im'ortant at this stage@ because it re
a''ears &ater.
Issue / Page 1=
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 1
MATHEMATICS
4 GEOMETRY
4.1 ANGULAR MEASUREMENT
If t$o straight &ines are dra$n@ $e can see that the8
maAe an Iang&eI.
)ut ho$ are Qang&esQ e+'ressed or measured. Consider a sing&e &ine@ and rotate it
through a com'&ete re1o&ution.
Then the ang&e that this &ine has turned through is
3(/V.
A degree is of a re1o&ution.
Note that ha&f a re1o&ution is therefore 13/V and a
right ang&e W of a re1o&ution! is ./V.
Note that 1 degree can be subdi1ided into (/ minutes and 1 minute can be sub
di1ided into (/ seconds 1er8 sma&&!.
A fe$ definitions are inc&uded hereE
An Acute ang&e  &ess than ./V
An 6btuse ang&e  bet$een ./V and 13/V
A 5ef&e+ ang&e  greater than 13/V
Com'&ementar8 ang&es  their sum is ./V
u''&ementar8 ang&es  their sum is 13/V
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4.1.1 ANGLES ASSOCIATED :ITH PARALLEL LINES
No$ consider 2 'ara&&e& &ines@ cut b8 a trans1ersa&.
A H C@ ) H 0 the8 are o''osite and e7ua&!@ simi&ar&8 # H P@ and % H :.
A&so A H #@ 0 H :@ etc. etc. the8 are $.,,#1.)"%)+ ang&es!
0 H %@ C H # the8 are '(*#,)'*# ang&es!
0 F # H 13/ H C F %! these are %)*#,%., ang&es@
and are su''&ementar8!
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4.2 GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTIONS
There are man8 different sha'es associated $ith geometr8. The more common
ones are described in the fo&&o$ing te+t.
4.2.1 TRIANGLE
A triang&e ob1ious&8 has 3 sides and 3
interna&! ang&es. The sides are often
re'resented b8 the 3 sma&&! &etters a@ b and
cL the ang&es b8 the &arge! &etters A@ ) and
C.
The 3 ang&es add u' to 13/V.
The construction of a dotted &ine 'ara&&e& to A) and an e+tension of )C 'ro1es
this.
The area of a triang&e H X base + 1ertica& height
4.2.1.1 T,%')+(# T>1#
There are man8 different t8'es of triang&e. The main t8'es and features are
summarised as fo&&o$sE
A$0*#')+(#" triang&e has a&& of itJs ang&es &ess than ./V.
O4*0$#')+(#" triang&e has one ang&e greater than ./V.
S$'(#)# triang&e has three sides of different &engths.
R%+@*')+(#" triang&e has one of itJs ang&es e7ua& to ./V. The &ongest side is
o''osite the ./V ang&e rightang&e! and is ca&&ed the h8'otenuse.
I.$#(# triang&e has t$o sides and t$o ang&es e7ua&. The e7ua& ang&es &ie
o''osite to the e7ua& sides.
E30%('*#,'( triang&e has a&& itJs sides and ang&es e7ua&.
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4.2.2 SIMILAR A CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Pou ma8 stud8 t$o triangu&ar sha'es and estimate $hether the8 are the same or
not. 4e need to be more 'recise.
If the8 ha1e the same sha'e@ $e are rea&&8 sa8ing that their ')+(# are the same@
the8 are then described as %&%(', *,%')+(#. imi&ar triang&es do not ha1e to be
the same si;e. 6ne triang&e ma8 ha1e sides t$ice or ten times as &arge as
another triang&e and sti&& be c&assified as simi&ar.
If the8 are e+act&8 the same sha'e and %G#@ their %"# are the same &ength@
then the8 are described as C.)+,0#)* *,%')+(#.
It is sometimes necessar8 to determine $hether triang&es are Congruent. A
sim'&e criteria e+ists to assist us. T$o triang&es are congruent ifE
Their corres'onding sides are of e7ua& &ength. side@ side@ side!
The8 ha1e t$o ang&es and the common side e7ua&. ang&e@ side@ ang&e!
The8 ha1e t$o sides and the inc&uded ang&e is e7ua&. side@ ang&e@ side!
The h8'otenuse and one side of a rightang&ed triang&e are e7ua& to the
h8'otenuse and the corres'onding side of another rightang&ed triang&e.
4.2.3 POLYGON
A 'o&8gon is a geometric c&osed figure bounded b8 straight &ines. The term 'o&8
means mu&ti. A triang&e has the &east number of sides. 6ther mu&tisided figures
ha1e names indicating the number of sides. HenceE
Pentagon G " sided@ He+agon G ( sided@ 6ctagon G 3 sided
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4.2.4 DUADRILATERALS
A 7uadri&atera& is an8 foursided sha'e. There are 1arious t8'es@ some are
common and 8ou are 'robab&8 fami&iar $ith their names. ome are not so
common.
ince a 7uadri&atera& has four sides@ it can be di1ided into t$o triang&es. The sum
of itJs ang&es must therefore be 3(/V.
4.2.5 PARALLELOGRAM
A 'ara&&e&ogram has both 'airs of o''osite sides 'ara&&e&. The fo&&o$ing
'ro'erties a''&8 to 'ara&&e&ogramsE
*ach 'air of o''osite sides is e7ua& in &ength.
*ach 'air of o''osite ang&es are e7ua&
The diagona&s bisect each other
The diagona&s bisect the 'ara&&e&ogram and form t$o congruent triang&es
4.2.6 RECTANGLE
A rectang&e is a 'ara&&e&ogram $ith itJs ang&e e7ua& to ./V. It has the same
'ro'erties as a 'ara&&e&ogram $ith the addition that the diagona&s are e7ua& in
&ength.
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4.2.7 RHOMBUS
A rhombus is a 'ara&&e&ogram $ith a&& of itJs sides e7ua& in &ength. It a&so has a&& of
the 'ro'erties of a 'ara&&e&ogram and the fo&&o$ing additiona& 'ro'ertiesE
The diagona&s bisect at right ang&es
4.2.8 SDUARE
A s7uare is a rectang&e $ith a&& the sides e7ua& in &ength. It has a&& the 'ro'erties
of a 'ara&&e&ogram@ rectang&e and rhombus.
4.2.9 TRAPEHIUM
A tra'e;ium is a 7uadri&atera& $ith one 'air of sides 'ara&&e&.
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4.2.1= CIRCLES
Circ&es are not Tust 'articu&ar mathematica& sha'es but
are in1o&1ed in our e1er8da8 &ife@ for e+am'&e@
$hee&s are circ&es@ gears are basica&&8 circu&ar and
shafts re1o&1e in a circu&ar fashion. Hence@ $e
must be a$are of some im'ortant definitions
and 'ro'erties.
If the &ine 6P is fi+ed at 6 and rotated around 6@
the 'oint P traces a 'ath $hich is circu&ar  it forms
a circ&e.
The &ength 6P is the R'"%0 of the circ&e. Note that 6P H 6A H 6) and that
the &ength of the &ine A) is c&ear&8 e7ua& to t$ice the radius. A) H 26P. A) is
the D%'&#*#, of the circ&e 0 H 25!.
4e a&read8 Ano$ that if 6P is rotated through 1 com'&ete re1o&ution@ it $i&& ha1e
rotated through 3(/ degrees@ but $hat is the distance tra1e&&ed b8 P in tracing this
circu&ar 'athK Put another $a8@ ho$ far $i&& a $hee& $hose radius is 5@ ro&& a&ong
a surface@ during one re1o&utionK
The distance@ Ano$n as the Circumference is ob1ious&8 de'endent on the &ength
of the &ength of the diameter@ but can be ca&cu&ated 'recise&8 from the e7uation
C H 0 H 25!. The 1a&ue is actua&&8 the ratio bet$een the circumference of
a circ&e and itJs diameter.
9reeA &etter@ 'ronounced I'iI! can be a''ro+imated to 3.142. It $i&& certain&8
be found on a scientific ca&cu&ator@ but the fraction is a 1er8 good a''ro+imation.
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The &ine AP dra$n so that it touches the circ&e at 'oint P is Ano$n as the T')+#)*
to the circ&e. It shou&d be noted that AP is a&$a8s at rightang&es to the radius 6P.
*+am'&eE A $hee&@ diameter ,1" mm@ maAes 3/ re1o&utions. Ho$ far does it
mo1e from its start 'ointK
The distance mo1ed in 1 re1. H the &ength of the circumference.
distance in 1 re1. H + diameter
H ! ,1"! mm
distance in 3/ re1s. H 3/! ! ,1"!
H (,41/ mm
H (,.4 metres
4.2.1=.1 R'"%') M#'0,#
4e a&read8 Ano$ that an ang&e of 3(/V re'resents 1 com'&ete re1o&ution. )ut
there is another im'ortant unit of angu&ar measurement@ Ano$n as the R'"%').
Consider a circ&e of radius 5 and consider an arc A)@ $here &ength is a&so e7ua&
to 5. The ang&e at the centre of the circ&e@ A6) is then e7ua& to I 5adian.
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It can be deduced that I re1o&ution is e7ui1a&ent to 2 5adians@
i.e. I re1 H (.2332 rads.
Therefore 3(/V H 2 rads@ and $e can deri1e con1ersion factors@ as thatL
1V H radians@ or
H 1 radian a''ro+. ",.3V!
6ne fina& and usefu& 'oint concerning radian measure.
If an arc of a circ&e@ radius r@ subtends an ang&e@ e7ua& to 5adians@ the &ength of
the arc is r..
Note a&so that if a 'oint P is mo1ing $ith s'eed N@ then the rotationa& s'eed is
e7ua& to N H r.!.
is e+'ressed in 5adians 'er second.
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4.3 AREA AND <OLUME
4.3.1 AREA
4e are a&read8 fami&iar $ith the conce't of &ength@ e.g. the distance bet$een 2
'oints@ $e e+'ress &ength in some chosen unit@ e.g. in meters. If $e $ant to fit a
'icturerai& a&ong a $a&&@ a&& $e need to Ano$n is the &ength of the $a&&@ so that $e
can order sufficient rai&. )ut if $e $ish to fit a car'et to the room f&oor@ the &ength
of the room is insufficient. 6b1ious&8 $e a&so need to Ano$ the $idth. This t$o
dimensiona& conce't of si;e is termed A,#'.
4.3.1.1 R#$*')+0(', A,#'
Consider a room 4m b8 3m as sho$n abo1e. C&ear&8 it can be di1ided u' into 12
e7ua& s7uares@ each measuring 1m b8 1m. *ach s7uare has an area of 1 s7uare
meter. Hence@ the tota& area is 12 s7uare meters usua&&8 $ritten as 12m
2
for
con1enience!. o@ to ca&cu&ate the area of a rectang&e@ mu&ti'&8 &ength of one side
b8 the &ength of the other side.
4m + 3m H 12m
2
0onQt forget the m
2
!.
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4.3.1.2 A,#' ./ T,%')+(#
This conce't can be e+tended to inc&ude nonrectangu&ar sha'es.
Consider the triang&es A)C and A0C $hich together form a rectang&e A)C0.
Ins'ection re1ea&s the 2 triang&es are congruent. Hence their areas are e7ua&
and the area of A)C H area of A)C0.
If $e consider this diagram@ the area of the triang&e can be seen to e7ua&
+ base + 'er'endicu&ar height.
This is true for an8 triang&e@ but remember its the 'er'endicu&ar height. Note
again that base in meters! + height in meters! gi1es m
2
.
A theorem e+ists stating that triang&es $ith the same base and dra$n bet$een
the same 'ara&&e&s $i&& ha1e the same area.
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4.3.1.3 A,#' ./ C%,$0(', S@'1#
The area of a circ&e is gi1en b8 the formu&aE
A H r
2
$here r H radius! or
4
d
2
d
A
2
2
,
_
,
_
,
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4.3.1.5 C'($0('*%.) ./ A,#' ./ S@'1#
ometimes an area ca&cu&ation must be made $here the obTect or sha'e is not
one of the common sha'es &isted. ometimes it is made u' from a combination
of sha'es.
*+am'&eE An office 3."m b8 (.3m is to be fitted $ith a car'et@ so as to &ea1e a
surround (//mm $ide around the car'et. 4hat is the area of the
surroundK
4ith a 'rob&em &iAe this@ it is often he&'fu& to sAetch a diagram.
The area of the surround H office area  car'et area.
H 3." + (.3!  3."  2 + /.(! (.3  2 + /.(!
H "3.""  ,.3! ".1!
H "3.""  3,.23 H 1(.32m
2
Note that (//mm had to be con1erted to /.(m. 0onQt forget to inc&ude units in the
ans$er e.g. m
2
.
4e ma8 need to find the area of an obTect that is a combination of sha'esE
In this case the sha'e com'rises a rectang&e and a semicirc&e.
The rectang&e has dimensions 1"/mm + 1//mm
The semicirc&e has a diameter of 1//mm
Tota& area is the sum of the t$o indi1idua& areas.
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Area H 1// + 1"/! F
2
2
r
H 1"/// F
2
2
13.2, 3.2, 1"///
2
"/
mm +
4.3.2 <OLUMES
S.(%" are obTects that ha1e three dimensionsE &ength@ $idth and height. Ha1ing
the abi&it8 to ca&cu&ate 1o&ume enab&es 8ou to determine the ca'acit8 of a fue&
tanA or reser1oir@ ca&cu&ate the ca'acit8 of a cargo area or $orA out the 1o&ume of
a c8&inder. <o&umes are ca&cu&ated in cubic units such as cubic centimetres@ cubic
metres@ cubic inches etc. Ho$e1er@ 1o&umes are easi&8 con1erted to other terms@
such as &itres. For e+am'&e@ a cubic metre contains 1/// &itres of &i7uid.
Instead of s7uares@ $e no$ consider cubes. This is a 3dimensiona& conce't and
the t8'ica& units of 1o&ume are $04%$ &#*,# m
3
!.
If $e ha1e a bo+@ &ength 4m@ $idth 3m and height 2m@ $e see that the tota&
1o&ume H 24 cubic metres 24m
3
!.
*ach &a8er contains
4 + 3 H 12 cubes.
There are 2 &a8ers.
Hence the 1o&ume is
12 + 2 H 24m
3
.
)asica&&8@ therefore@ $hen
ca&cu&ating 1o&ume@ it is necessar8
to &ooA for three dimensions@ at ./V
to each other@ and then mu&ti'&8 them together. For a bo+  t8'e sha'e@
mu&ti'&8ing &ength + $idth + height H 1o&ume.
For irregu&ar or 'articu&ar sha'es@ different techni7ues or a''ro+imations can be
used@ or sometimes a s'ecific formu&a ma8 e+ist.
For e+am'&eE
<o&ume of c8&inder H 5
2
h 5 H radius@ # H height!
<o&ume of cone H 5
2
h
<o&ume of s'here H 5
3
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Note that a&& these formu&ae contain 3 dimensions so that $hen mu&ti'&ied@ a
1o&ume $i&& resu&t.
e.g. 5
2
h H 5 + 5 + h or 5
3
H 5 + 5 + 5
I/ >.0 @'2# ).* +.* 3 "%&#)%.)? >.0 @'2# ).* +.* ' 2.(0&#I
*+am'&eE 4hat is the cubic ca'acit8 of a 2 c8&inder engine@ $ith a 4.,# of ,,mm
and a stroAe of 3.mmK
bore H diameter H ,,mm
stroAe H height H 3.mm
<o&ume of c8&inder H area of circ&e + height.
<o&ume of 1 c8&inder H
<o&ume of 1 c8&inder H 41444/ mm
3
<o&ume of 2 c8&inders H 32333/ mm
3
Note that in this e+am'&e@ the dimensions ha1e been gi1en in mm. The 1o&ume
$ou&d norma&&8 be gi1en in cm
3
.
Note@ to con1ert mm
3
to cm
3
@ di1ide b8 1/!
3
.
32333/ mm
3
becomes 323.33 cm
3
.
4hen ca&cu&ating areas or 1o&umes@ remember the basic formu&as@ but be read8
to s'ot $hen an area or so&id bod8 is a combination of basic sha'es that can be
added or subtracted.
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,,
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PAGE INTENTIONALLY LET BLAN!
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5 GRAPHS
9ra'hs are a 'ictoria& method of dis'&a8ing numerica& data that enab&es 8ou to
7uicA&8 1isua&ise certain re&ationshi's@ com'&ete com'&e+ ca&cu&ations and 'redict
trends. The data can be 'resented in man8 different $a8s as sho$n be&o$@ and
most data can be 'resented in an8 format. Ho$e1er@ care shou&d be taAen $hen
se&ecting a format to use@ some formats are better suited to 'articu&ar t8'es of
data or data sets. For e+am'&e@ if ha1e a $ho&e amount di1ided into Ano$n
'ro'ortions@ then this is better 'resented as a 'ie chartL if $e ha1e a &ist of scores
in a test@ then a bar gra'h is better. If $e are '&otting tem'erature $ith res'ect to
time then a continuous &ine gra'h is better@
5.1 CONSTRUCTION
In order to construct gra'hs effecti1e&8@ some sim'&e ru&es shou&d be fo&&o$ed.
First of a&&@ 'resent the data in a c&ear@ tabu&ar form. The data $i&& data $i&&
genera&&8 com'rise 2 1ariab&es@ one that is being 1aried@ the %)"#1#)"#)*
1ariab&e@ and the one that changes as a resu&t of the 1ariation@ the "#1#)"#)*
1ariab&e its 1a&ue de'ends on the 1a&ue of the other!.
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For e+am'&e@ an e+'eriment $as conducted@ $here a 1o&ume of gas $as heated.
As the tem'erature of the gas increased@ it $as noted that the gas e+'andedE its
1o&ume increased. The first 7uantit8@ the tem'erature@ is the %)"#1#)"#)*
1ariab&e and the second 7uantit8@ the 1o&ume@ is the "#1#)"#)* 1ariab&e.
The ne+t stage is to '&an the use of the gra'h'a'er so as to 'resent the gra'h in
the c&earest manner 'ossib&e.
The gra'h constructed b8 '&otting a series of 'oints@ each one re'resenting a
'articu&ar 1a&ue of the inde'endent and corres'onding de'endent 1ariab&e. o
the gra'h must be dra$n so that each 1a&ue a''ears or fits! on the 'a'er.
)efore C'&ottingD the 'oints@ the t$o a+es must be dra$n@ and the sca&es chosen.
The hori;onta& +a+is! $i&& re'resent the inde'endent 1ariab&e and the 1ertica& 8
a+is! the de'endent 1ariab&e. The sca&es cross at the origin 6.
There is no merit in dra$ing sma&& gra'hs. Choose sca&es so that com'&eted
gra'h fits the sheet of gra'h 'a'er.
#ooA at the &argest righthand@ and the sma&&est &efthand 1a&ues that $i&& be
'&otted a&ong the +a+is. ubtract the #H 1a&ue from the 5H 1a&ue to gi1e a range
of 1a&ues H some number of units!. tud8 the gra'h 'a'er to find ho$ man8
&arge s7uares there are from &eft to right.
No$ di1ide the 1a&ue found b8 the subtraction@ b8 the number of &arge s7uares.
This shou&d gi1e an idea of a suitab&e sca&e. That is@ so man8 units shou&d be
re'resented b8 1 &arge s7uare a&ong the +a+is. The most usefu& sca&es are 1@ 2@
"@ 1/@ 2/@ "/ units etc. etc to 1 &arge s7uare.
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The same 'rocedure is used for the 8a+is. ubtract the sma&&est &o$er! 1a&ue
from the &argest u''er 1a&ue! to gi1e the range@ di1ide b8 the number of &arge
s7uares bet$een to' and bottom of the 'a'er.
Ha1ing done this@ dra$ the 2 a+es@ and marA off the units@ using 8our chosen
sca&es.
The gra'h 'a'er has no$ been 're'ared for the obTect of the e+ercise@ i.e. to
transfer the data from the tab&e to the gra'h.
The transfer is 1er8 sim'&e@ taAe one 1a&ue of the inde'endent 1ariab&e and dra$s
a faint! &ine to coincide $ith its 1a&ue a&ong the +a+is so as to intersect $ith a
simi&ar &ine dra$n from the 8a+is for its corres'onding de'endent 1a&ue.
The intersection re'resents one '&otted 'oint of the gra'h.
The 'rocedure is re'eated for each 'air of 1a&ues in turn. 4hen a&& the 'oints
ha1e been '&otted@ a continuous &ine is dra$n through the 'oints.
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The $a8 in $hich the &ine is dra$n de'ends on the nature of the data. It is
'robab&8 true to sa8 that most mathematica& or scientific data change gradua&&8 or
'rogressi1e&8  the8 ma8 form a definite re&ationshi'. In this case@ ". ).* Toin
the 'oints $ith a series of straight &ines.
)ut tr8 to dra$ a continuous &..*@ &ine.
This 'robab&8 means that the &ine on&8 goes through some not a&&! of the 'oints 
donJt $orr8L e+'erimenta& or '&otting errors can occur. There shou&d be rough&8
the same number of 'oints on both sides of the smooth cur1e. ometimes@ it is
fair&8 ob1ious that a straight &ine is the most! reasonab&e OfitJ to the 'oint@ and this
is often the case for sim'&e scientific e+'eriments.
5.1.1 GRAPHS AND MATHEMATICAL ORMULAE
This course is designed for engineers@ not mathematicians and so maths is
1ie$ed as a ser1ant@ not a master.
#ater@ it $i&& be seen that one 'h8sica& 7uantit8 $i&& 1ar8 as another 7uantit8
1aries@ $ith the t$o &inAed b8 some mathematica& &a$ or e7uation. An e+am'&e is
that the drag force 0! 1aries according to the s7uare of the airs'eed <!.
*+'ressed as a formu&a 0 H A <
2
This re&ationshi' can be '&otted in gra'hica& form@ and it is reasonab&e to 'resume
that it $ou&d be of the same form as the maths re&ationshi' of 8 H +
2
$here 8 is
considered as a function of + 8 H f+!
There are man8 mathematica& functions@ e+am'&es might beE
8 H m+@ 8 H +
2
@ 8 H +
3
@ 8 H sin +
8 H e
+
@ 8 H cos + etc. etc.
This to'ic &ooAs at the sha'e and characteristics of these functions $hen
e+'ressed gra'hica&&8@ so that a sim'&e &inA can be made $ith 'h8sica&
'henomena@ $hich demonstrates simi&ar characteristics.
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4hen a mathematica& function is '&otted@ certain sha'es e1o&1e characteristic of
that function. If@ fo&&o$ing an e+'eriment during $hich data is gathered@ that data
creates simi&ar sha'es@ then a 'resum'tion &inAing formu&a and e+'eriment ma8
made.
5.1.2 UNCTION AND SHAPE
The 1ariab&e 8 is often described as a function of +. Here se1era& different
functions are considered gra'hica&&8.
Function > 9 &8 $here m is some constant coefficient.
8 H m+ gi1es a straight &ine@ 'assing through the origin 6.
m is the s&o'e of the gra'h and H tan 6! the greater the 1a&ue of m@ the stee'er
the s&o'e. 6b1ious&8 for a straight &ine@ the s&o'e is constant for a constant 1a&ue
of m.
If m is 1e@ the &ine s&o'es as sho$n. if m H 6@ the O&ineJ P H 6 coincides $ith the
+a+is!.
Function > 9 &8 6 $
This is a 1ariation of 8 H m+.
C is a constant@ and is c&ear&8 the 1a&ue of 8 $hen + H 6. 8 H m.6 F c H C!. This
1a&ue of C measured a&ong the 8 a+is is Ano$n as the interce't.
Function > 9 C8
2
$here A is some constant.
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This gi1es a cur1e@ Ano$n as a 'arabo&a. As A increases the 1a&ue of A+
2
a&so
increases. Note that the s&o'e is no &onger constant. This is a function $hich is
common&8 found in 'h8sica& situations.
Function > 9 C8
3
etc.
This is the characteristic sha'e. Note that the gra'h has Turning 'oints@ $here
the (.1# $@')+# from F1e to G1e and 1ice 1ersa.
Functions $ithin this fami&8 are &ess &iAe&8 to be encountered during this course.
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Function > 9 %) 8 and > 9 $. 8.
)oth of these functions are re'etiti1e but the $ord used to describe such
beha1iour is 'eriodic in this case@ the 'eriod is 3(/V or 2 radians!.
Note that the cosine gra'h O&eadsJ the sine gra'h b8 ./V $hen such beha1iour
occurs@ it is often referred to a O'hase differenceJ.
These gra'hs are often found@ 'articu&ar&8 in e&ectrica& $orA.
Function > 9 #
8
@ > 9 #
8
@ > 9 1 J #
8
8 H e
+
is Ano$n as the *+'onentia& function. It is a&so often found in *ngineering
a''&ications. ome 1ariations on the basic function are a&so sho$n.
5eference has a&read8 been made to the s&o'e of a gra'h. traight &ines ha1e a
constant s&o'e. Cur1es ha1e 1ariab&e s&o'es@ and often inc&ude turning 'oints
often termed ma+ima and minima!. %athematicians determine s&o'es b8 using a
branch of mathematics ca&&ed Oca&cu&usJ G a &ater to'ic. *ngineers are often
interested in s&o'e@ because de'ending on the 1ariab&es@ the s&o'e itse&f
re'resents a 'h8sica& 7uantit8 G more about this in the Ph8sics modu&e.
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The area under a gra'h is a&so often usefu& and ma8 re'resents a 'h8sica&
7uantit8.
The area can be ca&cu&ated b8E
Considering sim'&e sha'es and a''ro+imating
Counting s7uares.
>sing ca&cu&us
5.2 NOMOGRAPHS
The need to sho$ ho$ t$o or more 1ariab&es affect a 1a&ue is common in the
maintenance of aircraft. N.&.+,'1@ are a s'ecia& t8'e of gra'h that enab&e
8ou to so&1e com'&e+ 'rob&ems in1o&1ing more than one 1ariab&e.
%ost nomogra'hs contain a great dea& of information and re7uire the use of
sca&es on three sides of the chart@ as $e&& as diagona& &ines.
In fact@ some charts contain so much information@ that it can be 1er8 im'ortant for
8ou to carefu&&8 read the instructions before using the chart and to sho$ care
$hen reading information from the chart itse&f.
I&&ustrated is a fair&8 t8'ica& gra'h of three 1ariab&es@ distance@ s'eed and time. If
an8 t$o of the three 1ariab&es is Ano$n@ the a''ro+imate 1a&ue of the third can be
7uicA&8 determined. In this e+am'&e@ the dotted &ine indicates a Ano$n s'eed and
time. The resu&ting distance tra1e&&ed can be e+tracted from the gra'h at the 'oint
$here these t$o dashed &ines meet.
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4hi&st this nomogra'h is much too sma&& for accurate com'utation@ it can be seen
that $hen tra1e&&ing at around 2"/ Anots for three and a ha&f hours@ 8ou $ou&d
tra1e& a &itt&e &ess than 1/// nautica& mi&es.
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B(')C P'+#
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6 TRIGONOMETRY
)asic trigonometr8 in1o&1es e+'ressing the ang&es of a rightang&ed triang&e in
re&ation to &engths of the sides of the triang&e.
The ratio of the o''osite side &ength to the h8'otenuse &ength in the diagram is
termed the IsineI of the ang&e .
h
o
H8'otenuse
6''osite
in
h
a
H8'otenuse
AdTacent
Cos
a
o
AdTacent
6''osite
Tan
T@## ,'*%.K &0* 4# ,#&#&4#,#"I
ome students find the mnemonic IS.@$'@*.'I to be he&'fu& in this res'ect!.
These ratios are used 1er8 e+tensi1e&8 in %aths and cience and 1er8 man8
modifications to the basic ratio ha1e been e1o&1ed.
Ho$ can these ratios be used in 'racticeK
Consider a triang&e $ith side &engths 3@ 4@ " 65 (@3@1/ as sho$n.
From our definition of sine@ H /.( H sine
H /.3 H cosine
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No$ $hi&e it is ob1ious that is 1,.1.,*%.)'( to the side &engths@ $hat is its
actua& 1a&ue in degreesK
e.g. if /.( is in'ut into a ca&cu&ator and the sin
1
button is o'erated@ the screen
dis'&a8 $i&& be 3(.3(.3.,("V.
The actua& ca&cu&ation of sine@ cosine and tangent is be8ond the sco'e of this
course@ but the 1a&ues of each ratio and the corres'onding ang&e ha1e been
com'i&ed in tabu&ar form@ but can be found using a scientific ca&cu&ator.
if /N3 is in'ut and the cos
1
button o'erated@ or if H /N,"@ and the tan
1
button o'erated the same 3(N3(.3.,(" $i&& be dis'&a8ed.
Con1erse&8@ if 3(N3(.3.,(" is in'ut@ and the sin button is o'erated@ /N( $i&& be
dis'&a8ed
6.1.1 TRIGONOMETRICAL CALCULATIONS A ORMULA
*ar&ier $e considered the basic trigonometr8 functions. The8 can no$ be a''&ied
to 'ractica& situations.
E8'&1(# A church s'ine is Ano$n to be (/ metres high. 4hen the to' is 1ie$ed
through a theodo&ite@ the ang&e bet$een the &ineofsight and the
hori;onta& is 1"V. Ho$ far is the theodo&ite from the base of the
s'ineK
The distance 0 is the unAno$n 7uantit8. Ang&e 1"V and side height! (/m are
Ano$n.
Therefore@ an e7uation can be formed@
,
_
1" tan
A
6
0
(/
Trans'osing
1" Tan
(/
0
>sing the ca&cu&ator@ (/ tan 1" H 223.. metres.
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This i&&ustrates the basic 'rinci'&e $hen so&1ing trigonometr8 'rob&ems. Aetch a
diagram if necessar8@ identif8 the Ano$n and unAno$n 1a&ues@ and then e+'ress
them in terms of the sides of the triang&e and the corres'onding ang&e.
The basic trigonometr8 ratios $ere e+'&ained $ith reference to a rightang&ed
triang&e. )ut their use can be e+tended for use $ith an8 triang&e.
E8'&1(#
A)C is an8 triang&e. u''ose a &ine A0 is dra$n so that ang&e )0A H ang&e
C0A H ./V. A0 is no$ the height of the triang&e.
The area of the triang&e H a + A + 0
but H sin C
therefore A0 H bsinC
ubstituting in
The area of the triang&e H X a.bsinC
>sing a simi&ar method it can be sho$n that the area of the triang&e is a&soL
X b.csinA H X a.c.sin)
>sing these &ast t$o e7uations $e can deri1e the sine formu&a.
X .b.c.sinA H X.a.c.sin)
b.c.sinA H a.c.sin)
b.sinA H a.sin) di1iding through b8 c!
H
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Another usefu& formu&a is the Cosine formu&a. Again it a''&ies to an8 triang&e A)C
and has three forms.
These formu&a can easi&8 be 'ro1ed b8 dra$ing A0 'er'endicu&ar to )C@ and
using P8thagoras!.
6.1.2 CONSTRUCTION O TRIGONOMETRICAL CUR<ES
If radius 6P is rotated antic&ocA$ise@ the ang&e P6A! increases and the 1a&ue
of sine a&so increases because AP increases in re&ation to 6P!.
If the radius 6P has a &ength of 1 unit@ sine H H AP the &ength AP!.
Issue / Page 4
ab 2
c  b a
C Cos
ac 2
b  c a
) Cos
bc 2
a  c b
A Cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
If a gra'h of sine &ength AP! is '&otted against ang&e @ the t8'ica& cur1e resu&ts.
Note the re'etition e1er8 re1o&ution 3(/V! and that the 1a&ues of sine range
bet$een F1 and 1.
The gra'h for cosine is %&%(', but dis'&aced b8 ./V.
The gra'h for tangent is deduced from the other t$o cur1es.
At ./V and 2,/V@ the 1a&ue of tan becomes %)/%)%*>.
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6.2 <ALUES IN 4 DUADRANTS
Ins'ection of the sine and cosine cur1es sho$ that the 1a&ues change from F1e to
1e to F1e etc.@ as ang&e increases. It is im'ortant to ha1e an idea ho$ these
changes are &inAed to the a''ro+imate 1a&ue of .
This diagram sho$s ho$ the 1a&ues of sine@ cosine and tangent taAe F1e or 1e
1a&ues@ de'ending the 1a&ue of @ $ithin one of the four 7uadrants.
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7 COORDINATE GEOMETRY
9eometr8 has 're1ious&8 considered certain $e&&Ano$n regu&ar sha'es@ e.g.
circ&es@ rectang&es and triang&es@ and studied their 'ro'erties. These studies
ha1e considered the sha'e in iso&ation@ i.e. $ithout reference to an8 'articu&ar
datum.
Coordinate geometr8 e+tends these studies b8 introducing datums@ and then
e+'ressing the 'osition of the significant features of sha'es $ith reference to their
datum. The datums $e chose are usua&&8 the +@ 8@ ; a+es $e use in gra'hs.
E8'&1(#. u''ose $e had a rightang&ed triang&e@ sides and &engths 3@ 4 and "
units.
4e Ano$ that the ang&es are a''ro+imate&8 3,V@ "3V and ./V.
4e might chose to '&ace the triang&e in our +@ 8 '&ane@ $here 'oint A is 2 units
a&ong the + a+is@ and 1 unit a&ong the 8 a+is. The coordinates of 'oint A then
become 2.1!.
As &ong as AC is dra$n 'ara&&e& to the +a+is@ 'oint C becomes (.1! and 'oint )
becomes (.4!. If $e introduce 'oint 0 as the mid'oint a&ong A)@ it is c&ear that
the coordinates of 0 are 4@ 2."!. If $e $ere to fi+ 'oint A@ but rotate the triang&e@
the coordinates of ) and C $ou&d change@ e1en through the &ength of the side
remains unchanged.
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Point C mo1es from (.1! to become ".4(@ 3! and 'oint ) mo1es from (.4! to
become 3..(@ "."(!.
Note G the student $i&& not be re7uired to ca&cu&ate the change in coordinates but
to a''reciate ho$ a change of 'osition is accom'anied b8 a change in co
ordinates@ e1en though the basic sha'e is unchanged.
In this e+am'&e@ the 'oint A@ ) and C ha1e coordinates $hich are 'ositi1e integer
1a&ues@ but the8 cou&d ha1e been gi1en s8mbo&s@ such as +
a
@ 8
a
! +
b
@ 8
b
! and +
c
@
8
c
!.
In further %aths studies@ this $ou&d be more usua&.
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8 COMPLEX NUMBERS
Pre1ious&8 it $as sho$n that certain 7uadratic e7uations cou&d be so&1ed a''&8ing
the 7uadratic formu&a
a
ac b b
2
4
2
t
to find rea& so&utions to the 7uadratic e7uation /
2
+ + c bx ax / a
then / 4
2
ac b
If $e taAe the 7uadratic +Y  1/+ F 4/ H /@ then the rea& so&utions are found $here
the gra'h cuts the +a+is. For this 'articu&ar e7uation there are no rea& so&utions
as the gra'h does not cut the +a+is at a&&.
For e7uation +Y  1/+ F 4/ H / the 7uadratic formu&a gi1es the fo&&o$ing so&utions
1" " t
6b1ious&8 it is not 'ossib&e to e1a&uate 1" in rea& terms. To get around this
'rob&em the s8mbo& L mathematicians use %! $as introduced to re'resent the
term 1 and is defined as
L 9 1
This no$ meant that a so&ution cou&d be found for an8 e7uation of the form
8M 6 , 9 = $here is , is an8 'ositi1e rea& number!.
A&& numbers of the form 4L@ $here b is an8 non;ero number@ constitute the set of
%&'+%)',> )0&4#,.
The fo&&o$ing are e+am'&es of imaginar8 numbersE L? 3L? N2L? OL? LE5.
#ooAing bacA at the e+am'&e abo1e the number 1" " + a''ears@ and using the
s8mbo& L 9 1 this becomes
j 1" " +
This &eads to e7uations of the form ' 6 4L@ $here ' and 4 are rea& numbers@
4e ca&& the form ' 6 4L a $.&1(#8 )0&4#,.
The fo&&o$ing are e+am'&es of com'&e+ numbersE 1 F 2T@ 3T G "@ ,T@ , F /T@
j
2
1
2
1
+
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8.1 THE ARGAND DIAGRAM
Com'&e+ numbers ma8 be re'resented 'ictoria&&8 on rectangu&ar or Cartesian
a+es. The hori;onta& or +! a+is is used to re'resent the ,#'( '8%@ and the 1ertica&
or 8! a+is is used to re'resent the %&'+%)',> '8%.
uch a diagram is ca&&ed an A,+')" "%'+,'&.
The diagram sho$s the Argand 'oints A@ ) and C re'resenting the com'&e+
numbers 2 F 3T!@  3 F T! and 1 G 3T! res'ecti1e&8.
N.*# *@# 1.%)* 52 6 3L7 % *@# #30%2'(#)* ./ '>%)+ 52?37 ')" ).* 2 1(0 3L.
9eometric trans&ation@ rotation and di&ation of Argand 'oints can be carried out
through the addition@ subtraction@ mu&ti'&ication and di1ision of the com'&e+
numbers in1o&1ed.
Issue / Page 2
3B
2B
B
 B
 2B
 3B
 3  2  1 1 2 3
A
)
C
Imaginar8 a+is
5ea& a+is
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8.1.1 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION O COMPLEX NUMBERS
T$o com'&e+ numbers are added=subtracted b8 adding=subtracting se'arate&8 the
t$o rea& and t$o imaginar8 'arts.
E8'&1(#
A""%*%.)
2 F 3T! F 3 G 4T! H 2 F 3T F 3 G 4T
H 5 J L
S04*,'$*%.)
2 F 3! G 3  4T! H 2 F 3T  3 F 4T
H  1 6 7L
8.1.2 MULTIPLICATION AND DI<ISION O COMPLEX NUMBERS
M0(*%1(%$'*%.)
%u&ti'&ication of com'&e+ numbers is achie1ed b8 assuming a&& 7uantities in1o&1ed
are rea& numbers and then using the additiona& ru&e LM 9 1.
E8'&1(#
3 F 2T!4 G "T!
H 12 G 1"T F3T G 1/TY remember TY H 1!
H 12 G 1/!! F T1" F3!
H 22 J 7L
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D%2%%.)
0i1ision of com'&e+ numbers is achie1ed b8 mu&ti'&8ing both numerator and
denominator b8 the com'&e+ conTugate of the denominator.
A com'&e+ conTugate of a com'&e+ number is obtained b8 changing the sign of
the imaginar8 'art. Hence the com'&e+ conTugate of a F bT is ' J 4L. The 'roduct
of a com'&e+ number and its com'&e+ conTugate is a&$a8s a ,#'( number.
E8'&1(#
*+'ress
j
j
4 3
" 2
+
in the form a F bT
H
7 5
7 5
j
j
x
j
j
j
j
4 3
4 3
4 3
" 2
4 3
" 2
2
2
1( 12 12 .
2/ 1" 3 (
j j j
j j j
+
+
remember TY H 1!
2"
23 14 j
j
2"
23
2"
14
or =.56 J =.92L
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8.1.3 POLARERECTANGULAR COORDINATES
In 're1ious cha'ters it $as sho$n that +@ 8! coordinates $ere used to re'resent
'oints of a '&ane.
)8 choosing a 'air of 'er'endicu&ar a+es + 2 8!@ then each 'air of rea& numbers
a 2 b! determines a uni7ue 'oint of a '&ane. The intersection of the t$o
reference numbers com'&etes a rectang&eL such coordinates are sometimes
Ano$n as ,#$*')+0(', $..,"%)'*# the8 are a&so referred to as Cartesian
coordinates!.
An a&ternati1e $a8 of s'ecif8ing the 'osition of a 'oint on a '&ane $ou&d be to
gi1e first its distance from the origin and second the ang&e the &ine Toining it to the
origin maAes $ith the +a+is. This is the basis of 1.(', $..,"%)'*#.
The 'oint is at distance , from the origin@ such that the &ine Toining it from the
origin maAes an ang&e P $ith the 'ositi1e x a+is@ has 'o&ar coordinates 5,? P7.
Issue / Page 5
8
+ /
a@ b!
b
a
8
8
+
r
Z
r@ Z!
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MATHEMATICS
, is ca&&ed the polar or radial distance@ and Z is ca&&ed a polar angle.
A&though the student $i&& not be re7uired to 'erform e+tensi1e ca&cu&ations using
either s8stem in this modu&e@ a basic a''reciation is necessar8. This shou&d
inc&ude the abi&it8 to re&ate one s8stem to the other.
To con1ert 'o&ar coordinates to rectangu&ar is re&ati1e&8 eas8.
E8'&1(#
If $e are gi1en a 'oint $ith 'o&ar coordinates r@ Z!
From trigonometr8 $e can determine x and y
r
x
$.
and
r
y
%)
therefore
$. r x and
%) r y
The rectangu&ar coordinates corres'onding to the 'o&ar coordinates r@ Z! are
r cosZ@ r sinZ!
Issue / Page 6
r@ Z!
+
8
Z
r
+
8
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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The 'rob&em of con1erting from rectangu&ar to 'o&ar coordinates is on&8 s&ight&8
more difficu&t.
)8 P8thagoras Theorem@
the &ength
2
y x r +
and the ang&e Z is such that
2 2
y x
x
r
x
+
$.
and
2 2
y x
y
r
y
+
%)
An easier method of finding Z is to use trigonometr8 again
x
y
*')
rearranging gi1es
,
_
x
y
1
*')
%ost scientific ca&cu&ators ha1e function Ae8s to 'erform these ca&cu&ationsE
&ooA for the P R and R P functions.
Issue / Page 7
r
+
8
+
8
+@ 8!
Z
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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PAGE INTENTIONALLY LET BLAN!
Issue / Page 8
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9 CALCULUS
9.1 UNCTIONS AND LIMITS
9.1.1 UNCTIONS
Pre1ious&8 it $as sho$n that the re&ationshi' bet$een t$o 1ariab&es@ x and y can
be e+'ressed as y 9 mx 6 c.
The 'rinci'&e is not confined to &inear re&ationshi's@ but ma8 a&so be e+tended to
such e7uations asE
y 9 sin x? y 9 e
x
#*$
ince 1a&ues are attributed to x it is Ano$n as the %)"#1#)"#)* 2',%'4(#.
Corres'onding 1a&ues of y ma8 then be determined@ and is Ano$n as the
"#1#)"#)* 2',%'4(#.
The de'endence of y u'on x is usua&&8 $ritten as y H f(x)@ in $hich f(x) is a
shorthand $a8 of indicating some e+'ression in terms of x.
E8'&1(#
8 H +Y  4+ F 3@
f+! is +Y  4+ F 3
imi&ar&8 in
8 H sin 2+
f+! is sin 2+
In each of the abo1e e+am'&es an e+'&icit statement has been made@ i.e. y is
e7ua& to some function of x. uch functions are Ano$n as #81(%$%* /0)$*%.).
It is ho$e1er 'ossib&e to $rite a function such as 98 6 68> 6 4>M 9 1 in $hich
a&though there is no direct statement of y in terms of x@ it is e1ident that
corres'onding 1a&ues of y cou&d be determined b8 gi1ing 1a&ues to x.
uch a function is Ano$n as an %&1(%$%* /0)$*%.).
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9.1.2 GRADIENTS
If a bod8 is mo1ing in a straight &ine@ such that its dis'&acement s metres@ from its
starting 'oint@ after t seconds is go1erned b8 the e7uationE
2
1/ 12 t t s + i.e. s H f(t)
)8 gi1ing a series of 1a&ues to t and ca&cu&ating the corres'onding 1a&ues of s
then a gra'h of
2
1/ 12 t t s + can be '&otted sho$ing ho$ s changes as t
changes see tab&e ..1 and gra'h ..1 be&o$!.
t = 1 2 3 4 5
s 12 21 28 33 36 37
T'4(# 9.1 /., /0)$*%.)
2
1/ 12 t t s +
%+ 9.1 G,'1@ ./ /0)$*%.)
2
1/ 12 t t s +
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Information about the s'eed of the bod8 can be obtained from the gra'h b8
constructing chords.
E8'&1(#
61er a 'eriod of " seconds the increase in s is indicated b8 P 9 25 &#*,#. The
obTects a1erage s'eed o1er this 'eriod is
1 1
"
"
2"
ms ms
.
The a1erage s'eed during the " second 'eriod is gi1en b8 the (.1# or +,'"%#)*
of the chord A.
imi&ar&8 the bod8Js a1erage s'eed o1er the first 4 seconds is gi1en b8 the s&o'e
or gradient of the chord A* H
1
(
4
24
ms
.
For &onger 'eriods of time its 'ossib&e to determine the gradient of the gra'h
direct&8 from the gra'h. Tr8ing to determine sma&&er 'eriods of time such as R#
using the abo1e method becomes increasing&8 difficu&t and inaccurate.
It is 'ossib&e to determine accurate resu&ts b8 using the actua& function
2
1/ 12 t t s + .
E8'&1(#
After 3 seconds s H 12 F 1/3! G 3!Y H 33m
After 3.1 seconds s H 12 F 1/3.1! G 3.1!Y H 33.3.m
After 3.11 seconds s H 12 F 1/3./1! G 3./1!Y H 33./3.m
0uring the time 'eriod t H 3 s and t H 3.1 s the bod8 co1ered /.3.m at an a1erage
s'eed of 3.. ms
1
. )8 shortening the time 'eriod to /./1 seconds i.e. t H 3 s to t H
3./1 s the a1erage s'eed becomes 3... ms
1
.
If the same e+ercise is carried out for time 'eriods Tust 'rior to 3 seconds it can
be inferred that at the 'recise time of 3 seconds the '$*0'( or %)*')*')#.0
s'eed is 4 &
1
.
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9.1.3 ININTESIMALS AND LIMITS
A shorter method of arri1ing to the conc&usions sho$n 're1ious&8 $ithout using
s'ecified inter1a&s $as de1ised b8 Ne$ton and #eibni;.
It $as suggested that a sma&& increase in an8 7uantit8 simi&ar to s might be
indicated b8 using the s8mbo& s de&ta s!@ $hich re'resents a minute&8 sma&&
change in s. A simi&ar change in t $ou&d be denoted b8 t.@ and in x b8 x.
E8'&1(#
%+0,# 9.2 @.; ' #$*%.) ./ *@# $0,2#
2
1/ 12 t t s +
P% re'resents the dis'&acement s at time 6% t!
:N re'resents the distance s F s! co1ered in time 6N t F t!.
In both cases s and t are 1er8 sma&&.
The gradient of the chord P: re'resents the a1erage s'eed bet$een time t and
t F t! and can be measured as
t
s
PR
QR
.
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S%)$# D % .) *@# $0,2#
2
1/ 12 7 5 7 5 t t t t s s + + + +
2 2
2 1/ 1/ 12 7 5 t t t t t t + + 1!
., P
2
1/ 12 t t s + 2!
S04*,'$*%)+ 527 /,.& 517
2
2 1/ 7 5 t t t t s
D%2%"%)+ 4> t
t t
t
s
2 1/
The e+am'&e abo1e sho$s that a formu&a can be deri1ed for ca&cu&ating the
a1erage s'eed for an8 'eriod of time ho$e1er sma&&.
If the 1a&ue of t in the e+'ression
t t
t
s
2 1/
is a&&o$ed to get sma&&er and
sma&&er i.e. a''roach ;ero!@ then
t
s
/
is re'&aced b8
dt
ds
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9.2 DIERENTIATION
9.2.1 GRADIENT O A STRAIGHT LINE
The 're1ious section 'ro1ed that it is 'ossib&e determine the rate of change of
distance $ith time either o1er a s'ecified inter1a& or at a 'articu&ar instant from
the gradient of the a''ro'riate chord or tangent.
The techni7ue is not restricted to distance=time 'rob&ems@ but can be a''&ied
$hene1er one 'arameter is changing in res'onse to another.
Fig ..3 9radient of a straight &ine
If a bod8 is mo1ing a&ong a straight A) Fig ..3!@ starting at P+@ 8!@ an increase
N% H P5! in x 'roduces an increase 5: in y.
The ratio of the increase in y to the increase in x
,
_
PR
RQ
e i . .
is ca&&ed the gradient
of the s&o'e of &ine A). C&ear&8 this gradient is e7ua& to tan .
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9.2.2 GRADIENT O A CUR<E
The gradient of a cur1e at an8 'oint is defined as the gradient of the tangent to
the cur1e at that 'oint.
Figure ..4 9radient of a cur1e
6n figure ..4 &et P+@ 8! be an8 'oint on the cur1e.
#et N% H +@ then the corres'onding increase in y is 5: so 8 H 5:.
Then
x
y
/
(%&
denoted asE
dx
dy
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E8'&1(#
y H x[
Figure .." y H fx! H x[
>sing the methodo&og8 from section ..1.3E
#et P+@ 8! be an8 'oint on the cur1e.
N% re'resents a sma&& change + in +@ and 5: re'resents the change 8 in 8.
Thus : is the 'oint + F +@ 8 F 8!. As both P and : &ie on the &ine thenE
for P 8 H +[ 1!
and for : 8 F 8 H + F +![
H +[ F 3+Y+ F 3++!Y F +[ 2!
ubtracting 2! G 1!
8 F 3+Y+ F 3++!Y F +[
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0i1iding b8 +
2 2
3 3 x x x x
x
y
+ +
Then b8 definition the gradient of the tangent to the cur1e
x
y
dx
dy
x
/
(%&
i.e.
2
3x
dx
dy
>sing the method a''&ied to the cur1e y = x then the gradient of y 9 8M at +@ 8!@
i.e.
dx
dy
is 28
9.2.3 THE DIERENTIAL COEICIENT 5DERI<ATI<E7
dx
dy
is ca&&ed the differentia& coefficient of 8 $ith res'ect to +@ or the deri1ati1e of 8
$ith res'ect to +.
The 'rocess of obtaining
dx
dy
is ca&&ed differentiating 8 $ith res'ect to +.
It is sometimes $ritten as
dx
d
8!.
E8'&1(#
dx
d
+Y F "+! or
dx
x x d 7 5 "
2
+
the8 both mean the same thing.
A&though
x
y
n n
nax ax
dx
d
$here ' and ) are constants $hich ma8 be 'ositi1e or negati1e@ fractions or
integers.
For ease of mani'u&ation the genera& ru&e can be broAen do$n into a number of
ru&esE
The 'o$er ru&e
The constant mu&ti'&e ru&e
The constant ru&e
The sum ru&e
E8'&1(#
T@# 1.;#, ,0(#
4here 8 H +
"
taAe the 'o$er "@ and bring it in front of +E
8 H "+
"
then reduce the 'o$er b8 1@ so the deri1ati1e
becomesE
8 H "+
4
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T@# $.)*')* &0(*%1(# ,0(#
4here 8 H (+Y taAe the 'o$er 2 and 'ut it front of the coefficientE
8 H 2 \ (+Y mu&ti'&8 the coefficient b8 so thatE
8 H 12+Y reduce the 'o$er b8 1@ so the deri1ati1e becomesE
dx
dy
9 12+
T@# $.)*')* ,0(# 517
8 H "+ this is a &ine of the form 8 H m+ F c
the s&o'e is "@ thus the deri1ati1e is "@ thereforeE
dx
dy
H "
T@# $.)*')* ,0(# 527
8 H " this is a hori;onta& &ine $ith a s&o'e of ;ero
thus its deri1ati1e is a&so ;ero@ soE
dx
dy
H /
N.*#F
., ')> )0&4#,E$.)*')* $? %/ > 9 $ *@#) >K 9 =
O 5 3.147 ')" # 5 2.727 ',# )0&4#, ).* 2',%'4(#? .F
> 9 O8 >K 9 O
> 9 OR >K 9 =
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T@# 0& ,0(#
8 H 2+
(
F +[ F +Y F + F 1/ use the constant mu&ti'&e ru&e for the first term
the 'o$er ru&e for the ne+t three terms
the constant ru&e for the &ast term
thereforeE
dx
dy
H 12+
"
F 3+Y F 2+ F 1
9.3 MAXIMA AND MINIMA
Consider the cur1e f +! in figure ..(. It sho$s a number of turning points@ Ano$n
as local maxima and local minima.
Figure ..( 9ra'h of f (+!
At these turning 'oints@ the tangents are 'ara&&e& to the +a+is@ that is@ their s&o'es
are ;ero. o at a ma+imum or minimum 'oint@ the gradient of the cur1e@ and
hence
dx
dy
@ is ;ero.
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To the &eft of e1er8 &oca& ma+ima@ the s&o'e is 'ositi1e.
To the right of e1er8 ma+ima@ the s&o'e is negati1e.
To the &eft of e1er8 minima@ the s&o'e is negati1e.
To the right of e1er8 minima@ the s&o'e is 'ositi1e.
T@% % ') %&1.,*')* ,#0(* *@'* (#'" *. *@# .(0*%.) ./ &')> 1,'$*%$'(
1,.4(#&.
E8'&1(#
Find the ma+ima and minima of the fo&&o$ing functionE
8 H 3+
"
G 2/+[
1! Find the first deri1ati1e of 8
,
_
x
y
3+
"
G 2/+[
H 1"+
4
G (/+Y
2! et the deri1ati1e e7ua& to ;ero and so&1e
1"+
4
G (/+Y H /
1"+Y +Y  4! H /
1"+Y + F 2! + G 2! H /
1"+Y H / ., + H 2 ., + H 2
+ H /@ 2 2 2
3! Put the 1a&ues of + /@ 2@ 2! into the origina& function 8 H 3+
"
G 2/+[
$hich gi1es 8 H /@ (4 2 (4
4e no$ ha1e the 1a&ues for the &oca& ma+ima and minimaE
/@ /! 2@ (4! 2@ (4!
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4! 0etermine $hether the coordinates re'resent ma+ima or minima b8
ca&cu&ating the second deri1ati1e
2
2
x
1"+
4
G (/+Y
H (/+[  12/+
"! In'ut 1a&ues of + into the second deri1ati1e to determine the turning 'oints
For + H /@ the 1a&ue is / a 'oint of inf&ection
+ H 2@ the 1a&ue is H 24/@ $hich is negati1e
+ H 2@ the 1a&ue is H 24/@ $hich is 'ositi1e
>sing the ru&es gi1en abo1eE
the coordinate 2@ (4! is a &'8%&'
the coordinate 2@ (4! is a &%)%&'
9.4 INTEGRATION
The 're1ious sections ha1e sho$n that using differentiation it is 'ossib&e to find
so&utions to the 'rob&emE
gi1en 8 H f+!@ find
dx
dy
It is a&so 'ossib&e to find so&utions to the re1erse 'rob&emE
gi1en
dx
dy
H f +!@ find 8
This 'rocess is ca&&ed %)*#+,'*%.).
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9.4.1 AREA UNDER A GRAPH
u''ose that 8ou ha1e to so&1e the 'rob&em of ca&cu&ating the area A bounded b8
the cur1e 8 H +!@ the +a+is@ and &ines + H a@ + H b as in figure ..,
Figure .., cur1e of 8 H +!
uch an area cannot be found direct&8 as sum of rectangu&ar or triangu&ar areas@
but $e cou&d find an a''ro+imation to its 1a&ue.
Figure ..3 cur1e of 8 H +!
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As can be seen from figure ..3 the first attem't using rectangu&ar a''ro+imation
$i&& not get a resu&t 1er8 c&ose to the true 1a&ue.
Figure ... cur1e of 8 H +!
)8 using sma&&er and sma&&er rectang&es it can be seen that the accurac8 of
a''ro+imation is great&8 increased.
Integration then ma8 be considered as the 'rocess of summing u' an Q%)/%)%*#
)0&4#, ./ ,#$*')+(#K to gi1e an e+act resu&t.
An a&gebraic &imiting 'rocess can be used to e1a&uate the area A using
rectang&es but is be8ond the sco'e of this course!.
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9.4.2 INTEGRALS
It $ou&d be a 1er8 tiresome business if 8ou had to e1a&uate the &imit of a sum in
order to find an area.
It $ou&d be ad1antageous to de1e&o' a techni7ue for finding the areas bounded
b8 the gra'hs of a $ide 1ariet8 of functions.
If $e a''&8 a method of u''er and &o$er sums to find the area of the region under
the gra'h 8 H +@ from + H a to + H b figure ..1/!.
Figure ..1/ gra'h of 8 H +
Rno$ing that the area of a triang&e is X base \ height and b8 a''&8ing the &imiting
'rocess mentioned ear&ier it is found that the re7uired area isE
2 2
2
1
2
1
a b
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The same 'rocess can be used to find the area A bounded b8 the cur1e 8 H +Y@
the +a+is@ and the &ines +H a and + H b figure ..11!.
Figure ..11 9ra'h of 8 H +Y
The resu&ts sho$ that from the +@ 8 intersect $e $i&& ca&& /!@ the area from / to a is
3
3
1
a
and@ simi&ar&8@ the area from / to b is@
3
3
1
b
thus the re7uired area is Tust the
difference bet$een the t$oE
3
3
1
b

3
3
1
a
A&though it is not 1er8 $ise to guess a genera& resu&t from on&8 t$o s'ecia& cases@
it is tem'ting in this case to do so as the resu&ts ha1e striAing simi&arities.
a! )oth ans$ers are the difference of t$o terms of the same form.
b! The first term in1o&1es b and the second term in1o&1es a.
c! In this form@ the e+'onent is one more than the e+'onent in the origina&
function.
d! The e+'onent is the same as the number in the denominator.
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From 're1ious discussions if $e ha1e a function
n
x
1!
the standard deri1ati1e of the function $i&& be
1
n n
nx x
x
a''&8ing the &ogic of the 're1ious 'age to the integra& a first guess of integrating
cou&d be
1 + n
x
2!
if 2! is differentiated $ith res'ect to + the resu&t isE
n n
x n x
dx
d
7 5 7 5 1
1
+
+
3!
com'aring 1! and 3!@ the8 $i&& be the same if $e cou&d get rid of the n F 1! termE
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
4!
if 4! is differentiated $ith res'ect to + the resu&t isE
n
n
x
n
x
x
,
_
+
+
1
1
+
1
1
n
x
dx x
n
n
4hen integration is to be carried out the notation
dx x
n
is used.
The s8mbo& is the mathematica& notation for integration.
+
n
re'resents the 1ariab&e about to be integrated.
d+ is $hat is to be integrated $ith res'ect to +.
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9.4.3 INDEINITE INTEGRALS
If $e consider the functionsE
8 H +[@ 8 H +[ F ( and 8 H +[ F 1/
a&& ha1e the deri1ati1eE
2
3x
dx
y
#ooAing at the gra'h of 8 H +[ figure ..12! it can be seen that are an infinite
number of 'ossib&e '&aces that +[ ma8 be '&aced on the gra'h.
Figure ..12 9ra'h of +[ F c
Thus the Ano$&edge of the gradient is insufficient to describe uni7ue&8 the
so&ution for +[. o $hen a function is integrated an arbitrar8 constant must be
inc&uded to taAe account of the infinite number of O'ara&&e&J functions.
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>sing the ear&ier e+am'&esE
8 H
2
3x
H
3
3
1
x
adding the arbitrar8 constant gi1es
H
c x +
3
3
1
4here c cou&d re'resent /@ ( or 1/ or in fact an8 constant!.
Thus for indefinite integra&s the genera& ru&e isE
+
+
+
c
n
x
dx x
n
n
1
1
E8'&1(#
Integrate 8 H "+ F ( $ith res'ect to +
+ dx x ( "
H c
x x
+
+
+
+
+ +
1 /
(
1 1
"
1 / 1 1
H c
x x
+ +
1
(
2
"
2
H
c x x + + (
2
1
2
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9.4.4 DEINITE INTEGRALS
4hen carr8ing out integration $ith definite 1a&ues the method is as fo&&o$sE
a! Integrate the function@ omitting the constant of integration.
b! ubstitute the 1a&ue of the u''er &imit for +E re'eat the 'rocess for the 1a&ue
of the &o$er &imit.
c! ubtract the &o$er &imit from the u''er &imit.
E8'&1(#
Consider the gra'h of 8 H +Y@ + H 2 and + H " figure ..13!
Figure ..13 9ra'h of 8 H +Y
Integrate 8 H +Y $ith res'ect to +@ for + H " and + H 2
This is $ritten asE
"
2
2
dx x
Issue / Page 22
EASA 66 CATEGORY B1
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MATHEMATICS
i! Integrate the function
"
2
2
dx x
H
"
2
3
3
1
1
]
1
x
ii! ubstitute the 1a&ue of the u''er &imit for +E re'eat the 'rocess for the 1a&ue
of the &o$er &imit and subtract the &o$er &imit from the u''er &imit
( ) ( )
1
]
1
1
]
1
3 3
2
3
1
"
3
1
H
3
2
2
3
2
41
H 3.
For definite integra&s the basic ru&e isE
1
]
1
+
+
+ b
a
b
a
n
n
c
n
x
dx x
1
1
H
1
]
1
+
+
1
]
1
+
+
+ +
c
n
a
c
n
b
n n
1 1
1 1
Issue / Page 23
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PAGE INTENTIONALLY LET BLAN!
Issue / Page 24