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Sarvajna of Karnataka:

The People's Poet

In the realm of Kannada literature, that rich expression of the life of Karnataka and of the
various grand phases of her experience through the ages, are the glorious demesnes of
great poets, great philosophers. Among them stand in the forefront such poet!kings" as
#ampa, #onna and $anna. %he& are not poets of Karnataka merel&, 'ut (orld poets. %he&
can, (ith )ustice, 'e classed (ith *ilton, +ante and Goethe, in the ,ualit& of their
contri'ution to the literature of the (orld, and conse,uentl&, as interpreters of divine
truths to man.
But it is a fact (hich is generall& recognised that poets like *ilton or +ante secure 'ut a
small num'er of readers. %heir intensit& of vision and their richness of expression cannot
stir the masses and illumine the dark corners of their souls. In a (ord, the& are not
popular. %hat is exactl& the case (ith our o(n poets like #ampa. %he praise of these
poets is universal and &et the intelligent appreciation, or even the perusal of their (orks,
is limited to a fe(. Is it the fault of exalted genius that its expression is incomprehensi'le,
or the fault of the people that the& cannot understand them-
Among the popular poets (ho are distinguished '& a certain poetic plainness of
expression as contrasted (ith the poetic magnificence and aloofness" of the literar&
giants, 'ut not unlike them in their reali.ation of %ruth, (hich all pursue, /arva)na stands
supreme. 0is verses are on the lips of ever& countr&man of his, rich or poor, learned or
unlearned. If #ampa and others are poets of the grand" st&le, /arva)na is the poet of the
simple, the lucid current st&le. If the former express eternal truths in a magicall& 'eautiful
language, surrounding them (ith a certain highl& imaginative atmosphere, the latter
expresses the same in verses couched in plain and terse language, (hich, '& their ver&
plainness and terseness, are pleasing and penetrating. But this should not 'e understood
to appl& to all his verses. 0is real poetr& comes in (hen /arva)na stands as a Yogi" (ith
the vision of the 1ternal 'efore him, singing his o(n rich experience of the Be&ond.
/econdl&, he 'rings this vision of his to 'ear upon the societ& of his time, denouncing its
sophistr&, its idolatr&, its complicated and soul!killing s&stem of castes and creeds. 2ot
that idolatr&, as such, is to 'e condemned3 'ut (hen people have lost or misunderstood its
purpose and have made it an end in itself, then the /arva)nas have to rise and roll up the
curtain of darkness that hinders the true vision of the people. %he verses that express this
phase of /arva)na ma& 'e called verses of social satire, instruction and criticism. %hen in
the third categor&, stand his miscellaneous verses such as those on astrolog&, (eather!lore
and the like!terse and pith& expressions of almost all the sides of Karnataka culture.
%here are even riddles (ritten '& him and verses (hich prophes& the events taking place
in the future, such as the one foretelling the fall of the Vi)a&anagara 1mpire. %hus
/arva)na is a t&pical Kannadiga, one (ho kne( himself and his countr& and (ho
understood the secret of the (ell!'eing of the societ& of his time, and devoted his life to
the uplift of his countr&men.
%he time in (hich /arva)na lived is dou'tful. %here have 'een other /arva)nas pro'a'l&,
(ho also composed verses in the %ripadi" metre, and confusion as to (hich of these is
the real /arva)na, is the result. And &et, it is fairl& (ell!esta'lished that he lived in the
sixteenth centur&, some &ears 'efore the decline of the Vi)a&anagara 1mpire. It (as the
time (hen great preachers like #urandaradasa of Karnataka, %ukaram of *aharashtra and
Vemana of Andhra +esa lived and preached the need of sincerit& in life", devotion,
puritanism and renunciation. All of them agreed in denouncing lo( indulgence, lo(l&
conduct and a life (ithout, love for God. And the 'urden of /arva)na4s verses is the same.
%he sternness of their re'uke, the saintliness of their lives, and an almost similar
undertone in their preaching, lead us to conclude that all of them lived in a time of
spiritual laxit& and 'rought a'out a spiritual renaissance (hich served greatl& to lift the
people from their degradation. It is definitel& kno(n that #urandaradasa, %ukaram and
Vemanna lived near the close of the sixteenth centur&. 5e can also consider /arva)na as
their contemporar&, as (e find some of /arva)na4s verses selected '& /ampadane&a
/iddha Viranachar&a for his 'ook of selections from Vachanakaras." %his great compiler
lived some(here a'out 6788. %here are internal evidences also. 0is conception of ideal
kings and ministers, for instance, reminds us of the glorious time of the Vi)a&anagara
/arva)na himself tells us that he (as the son of Basavarasa, a /haiva Brahmin of *asur
in the +istrict of +har(ar, '& a potter4s (ido( named *ali. Basavarasa had gone on a
pilgrimage to Kashi (here he had 'een told '& the God Vish(anath 9in his dream: that he
(ould 'e 'lessed (ith a son endo(ed (ith man& virtues. 0e met *ali in a village called
Am'alur on his (a& 'ack to his native place, fell in love and lived (ith her. /arva)na (as
the fruit of their union.
0is real name (as #ushpadatta. 5hile &et a child, he defied his father and his mother and
refused to ackno(ledge them as his parents, telling them that the& (ere mere agents of a
+ivine (ill in 'ringing a'out his 'irth3 and that his real parents (ere /hiva and #arvati,
the god and goddess of Kailasa. 2aturall&, the parents (ere incensed at this strange
conduct of their son, and finding all persuasive methods of 'ringing him to his senses 9as
the& thought him deranged: futile, the& 'anished him from home. ;rom that time up to
his death, /arva)na (as an exile from home and parents. A lonel&, virtuous man, (ith
unconventional (a&s of thought, and a true heart &earning after the m&steries of God, he
(andered from one end of Karnataka to the other, assimilating the ,uintessence of its
culture and singing, as he (ent, his verses of m&stic experience and elevated preaching.
All of /arva)na4s verses are in the popular %ripadi" metre, a fit medium for conve&ing
great ideas in a 'rief and effective manner. It is hard to 'elieve that he himself (rote them
do(n< he never cared to (rite. 0e (andered from place to place a(akening the people
(ith the chanting of his verses (hich invaria'l& end in his name /arva)na" or that of his
sole +eit&, the one God, the one supreme Being having its a'ode in him3 and that (as all
that he cared for his verses. But the people could not thro( a(a& such (ondrous gems of
splendid hues, even if the& had no value for their o(ner. %he& carefull& stored his verses
up in their memor&, handing them do(n orall& from generation to generation and some
(rote them do(n in manuscripts of palm leaves. %here (ere man& interpolaters, as also
in the case of %ukaram and Vemana. It (as comparativel& eas& to compose verses in the
%ripadi" metre and the& palmed off their o(n verses as his, rounding them off (ith a
formal /arva)na" at the end. But their verses lack the high moral tone and sincerit& of
/arva)na and can easil& 'e distinguished. 2earl& t(o thousand verses of /arva)na are
no( extant and it is 'elieved that man& more ma& still 'e found (ith a little exertion.
One could imagine /arva)na rising earl& in the morning (hen the da(n still lingered like
a maiden (ith her sandaled feet, and (alking ma)esticall& to(ards the river flo(ing near
the temple (here he had passed his night in gentle sleep or un'roken meditation,
murmuring to himself in clear ringing tones (ith a passionate voice=the man& h&mns and
verses=of others and of himself=that he loved to linger over. One could, again, picture to
himself /arva)na (andering from door to door (ith an alms!'o(l in his hand, declaring
the immortal truths and principles of 0induism in his clear, li,uid voice, and in the 'rief
and memora'le verses of his, (aiting for the simple charit& that (ould assuredl& come to
him. 0is mind could never have lain idle in the mean(hile. 0e (ould 'e 'us& noting the
pett& vanities and antics of his fello( creatures, their hustle and 'ustle, and their interest
in all the pett& things that surrounded them. %his (ould cause a slight smile to pass over
his lips and a prett& verse to 'e coined in his memor&. 0o( vain and strange, he (ould
think, (ere the (a&s of men (hen %ruth la& flo(ering in their o(n garden> 0o( the&
cursed, shrieked and laughed and gloried in the (orship of images of cla&> But it (as not
scorn or mere indignation that stirred his (hole 'eing. It (as sheer pit&, the pit& of
Buddha and of ?hrist that made him 'ear (ith the follies of his fello(men and seek to lift
them out of the mire in (hich the& (ere hopelessl& struggling. 0is (as the dut&, he
thought, to let a gleam of sunshine into the darkness of their cham'er (hich might light
their path to 0eaven. 2o( and then he (ould catch a glimpse of a righteous face in the
cro(d and reverence it in his o(n heart. 0e (ould then go to his place, eat (hat had 'een
given and then (ander a(a& in the afternoon to the next to(n or village (hich (ould, on
the morro(, ring (ith the message that he had to impart.
0is poetr& is a revolt against all conventions. Its spirit is the spirit of independence and
highmindedness=(hich is the true spirit of poetr&. Its distinguishing note is its
humanness. *ere scholarship has no place in it, for /arva)na has little art in him, 'ut
a'undance of poetr&. 0e has not the pedantr& of learning (hich sho(s itself in the
la'oriousl& cultivated alankaras" of other poets and their g&mnastics in expression and
hard t(ists of st&le. 2or can (e find in him a sustained poetic endeavour (hich is the
(ork of an essentiall& artistic temperament, rather than that of the purel& human. But the
simple graces of st&le one can here find in plent&, and can light upon rare )e(els of
idioms as often as one likes. Indeed, the chief feature of /arva)na4s st&le is its (ealth of
idioms 'ound together '& a natural lucidit& of expression. 0is verses are popular even to
the present da& as sa(s and (ise sa&ings, prover's and epigrams, and constitute the chief
part of the stock of learning of the masses. An&one cannot 'ut 'e pleased '& the variet&,
cleverness and appropriateness of /arva)na4s expression.
2or can a lover of conventions 'ear (ith the lashes of satire and the unflinching
statements of the naked truth that /arva)na emplo&ed (hen exposing the moral laxities of
his age. But a man=and here lies /arva)na4s glor&=a man (ith his e&es open and (ith his
(its a'out him, can (ell love and adore /arva)na for the (orld of meaning that he
conve&s to him. 0ere is the eternal longing for the one thing that is supremel& (orth
having=God=expressed (ith such rare charm. 0ere is descri'ed (ith infinite (ealth of
po(er and of truth the (a& to the fulfillment of those aspirations. And here is also to 'e
found something of the )o& of realisation (hich it has 'een the glor& of Indian seers to
sing a'out. %he (hole spirit of the Vedanta" is clearl& and admira'l& epitomised. But the
verses of /arva)na are not merel& a re!statement of Vedantic principles or a summar& of
the 0ol& Books. %hose ver& principles hover a'out us all the time, 'ut informed (ith the
life!'reath of poetr& for the& had filled the #oet4s 'eing. %his it is that distinguishes
/arva)na from lifeless moralists and sermonisers, and places him on a higher level, (ith
the saints and great men of all times.
5e shall not concern ourselves here (ith his verses of folk!lore, astrolog& and other
sciences. /uffice it to sa& that /arva)na has given a fitting expression to the folk!lore of
Karnataka, to his kno(ledge of the different parts of the countr& and the seasons of the
&ear, =to the code of our t&pical morals, manners and religious customs, =to (hat oft
(as said 'ut never so (ell expressed". 0is verses concerning astrolog& and other sciences
reveal his thorough kno(ledge of these and his stead& application to the same, and can
(ell 'e passed over (hen (e come to consider his poetr&. But this much must 'e said
a'out them< he has selected from them certain poetical situations to (hich he gives
simple expression. 5e (ill not like(ise give to his riddles and prophetic verses more
than a casual attention. 0is riddles have much (it, 'eaut& and fanc& in them, and sho( us
(hat a fine and versatile mind /arva)na4s (as. ?onsider the follo(ing fanciful one< ! @a
monke& came out of a horse3 and there came also an elephant (ith t(o horns. Both of
them fought together in the sk&.@ 5ho (ill not 'e amused (ith the light fanc& of the
#oet, (hen he comes to kno( that he touches here upon the changing phenomena of the
clouds- 0ere is his prophes& a'out the 'attle of %alikota (hich signalised the fall of the
Vi)a&anagara 1mpire<
@%he corpses (ill 'e stre(n for man& a mile
Around the field, and innumera'le come
%he kites and cro(s that feed upon the dead.@
But this part of /arva)na4s (orks claims separate treatment (ith similar (orks of other
'ards of our province and this is not the place to enter into detail on that su')ect.
?oming to /arva)na4s poetry (hich (as 'ut part of (hat he (rote or composed, (e
'reathe again the calm and cool air of pure philosoph& and moral purit& and 'eaut&. 0is
most striking characteristic is his invinci'le faith in God, the creator, the giver and the
ordainer of all things<
@5ho made the rose and filled it (ith perfume-
5ho deposited (ater nectar!s(eet
In the soft heart of palm- Bo( do(n> Bo( do(n>
0e made all things and made the kokil" sing.@
It is greatl& to /arva)na4s credit that he sa( through the foul mist of castes and creeds in
an age 'linded '& the same<
@2o sense of narro(ness is to the pure3
2o difference of caste a &ogi" kno(s3
Anaided, undivided '& the ro(s
Of pillars, stands the high roof of the sk&.@
0e realised full& the eternal truth<
@Book to th& Bord (ho lives and moves over all3
2ev4r in 0is net of faint illusions fall3
5omen all fleeting shado(s, (ealth a dream,
%ruth doth (ith constant light through ages 'eam.@
%he ver& life of a Brahmacharin" that he lived sho(s the full realisation of the high ideal
that he had 'efore him. Yet the universalit& of his outlook could not 'ut lead him to pa&
his tri'ute to (omen<
@In (oman is centred the (orld4s happiness3
5oman is the guide to heaven.
/he gives man prosperit& nor makes it less.@
0e could exclaim in his exalted moments (hen he attained the vision of %ruth<
@%ruth shines at last and kno(ledge comes like da(n,
And darkness lifts itself from me a(a&3
%he em'lem of 0is high love have I (on3
%he so'er clouds of miser& one '& one
0ave vanished far and I have found m& (a&.
5hat more- /alvation sure> I )ourne& on and on>@
%hese lines, summing up as the& do the (hole personalit& of /arva)na, verif& for us the
truth of his religious experience '& their unfaltering tone and sureness of vision. In his
pure )o& of living and his un'ounded love of humanit&, he could also find (ords to sa&<
@%he people in ever& to(n are m& relations3
%he men in ever& ,uarter are m& friends3
5hom shall I leave 'ehind-@
As /arva)na himself said in a prett& verse, a Cnani" is kno(n '& his silence, a fool '& his
talk. And /arva)na (ould not have men learn like parrots, 'ut to earn pure kno(ledge for
the realisation of truth. It is difficult indeed to distinguish from among his verses those
(hich came out of his experience, and those (here he sought inspiration in lifting up his
fello(men. %he one thing is the other. ;or he never preached (hat he did not practise, nor
practised (hat he did not preach. 0is (hole life runs parallel to his achievements as an
angel among men.
%he first point (hich he emphasises for the 'enefit of all men is the necessit& of a Guru"
(ithout (hom redemption is impossi'le. 0e declares again and again that a Guru"
himself is God, that in the service of a Guru" alone lies the one solution of the pro'lem
of life for man. According to /arva)na, caste and creed are mere (ords to a seeker after
his Guru".
/econdl&, /arva)na sho(s us in his poetr& the a'surdit& of customs and conventions and
their (orthlessness and futilit& in contri'uting to true kno(ledge. #ilgrimages to hol&
places are of no use (hatsoever (hen man cannot see the right (a& to truth<
@5hat if man 'athes in hol& (aters far,
%he (aters of the calm Godavari
%he gentle Krishna=kno(ing not the star
%hat shines on him=he never can 'e free.@
0e declares again and again that there is onl& one God, the omniscient, the shapeless and
the infinite, and no 'lind (orship of images of cla& can lead man to 0im. 0e directs his
criticism against all castes (hen he sees that the& have d(indled do(n to soulless
institutions, Brahmanism, Cainism and Binga&atism. %his inspiring criticism (as one of
his chief ,ualities as a poet. But it is also (orth nothing that he loves (hole!heartedl& the
good features of each of them.
%hirdl&, he asks us to take up the attitude of Vairag&a" to(ards the pleasures of this
(orld and to(ards the (orld itself, in order to o'tain pure happiness and eternal 'liss. It
is noticea'le here, ho(ever, that he does not ask us to relin,uish our share in the
activities of the (orld. 5hat is re,uired is onl& an understanding of the true nature of
things. 0ence he explains the man& duties of men in their o(n sphere, of a king or a
minister, and descri'es the various temptations of the (orld and the (a& to avoid them.
+o not consider, he sa&s, the life of prosperit& to 'e the one enduring thing for &ou. It is
as a cro(d gathered at a fair and vanishing the ver& next moment after it is over. Is a lake
or (ell al(a&s full to the 'rim- +o not think prosperit& to 'e al(a&s there for &ou.
#overt& follo(s it at its ver& heels.
0e gives paramount importance to the fact that ever& one has to 'end to his destin&=man
or god. %here is no escaping it. 1ven the %rimurtis" are 'ound '& it. And he goes on to
give a (ealth of illustrations from our fertile m&tholog&=Krishna, the king of kings,
meeting his death through an arro( from the 'o( of a 'lunt (oodman3 /hiva, the greatest
of the gods, (andering like a lunatic, his 'od& gre& (ith ashes and (ith no other
ornaments 'ut snakes to adorn him. *oreover<
@5hen Krishna guided all the #andavas,
%he #andavas themselves 'eing great and 'rave,
5hen he himself had 'orne him like a god,
;ate (illed and none could A'himan&u save.@
One reaches the cro(ning heights of attainment, according to /arva)na, (hen in one
'lend together the t(o essentials of Bhakti" and Cnana". *ere Cnana" is also (orth& of
'eing sought after and mere Bhakti" also is the glor& of its possessor3 'ut (here the t(o
meet and mingle, there 'ursts into full 'loom the flo(er of $ealisation. And &et 'oth
Cnana" and Bhakti" are one and the same in their essence. 0e also explains the
technicalities of certain modes of (orship and forms of meditation as a means to this end<
@#lace on the lotus!leaf of &our o(n frame
%he gem of &our o(n soul, the 'rightest gem>
And meditate upon it till &ou live
In its o(n splendour as 0is 'rightest gem.@
0e thus descri'es the purest form of meditation. 0e descri'es the vain attempts of men to
seek God '& la'orious paths and sa&s that the Kingdom of God is (ithin us<
@%ruth is the tree that in &our garden gro(s3
/eek not in vain in far!off lands unkno(n,
;or the fe( petals of a single rose,
5hen man& a rose is in &our garden 'lo(n.@
%he greatest tri'ute of /arva)na, perhaps, is to the +ani" to him (ho has given a (a&
his all in charit&<
@/a& not that he is of the common cre(3
0e comes (ith endless fortune at his (ill
%o enrich the (orld>@
0e finds no difference 'et(een a God and a giver (hatsoever, for a giver also gives his
all to his fello(men, (hile God gives life and food to the (orld. ?harit& is an attri'ute of
God 0imself. 0e unhesitatingl& declares that a +ani" is a splendour among men<
@%he art of music doth mark out a man,
?haste (oman shines like to an evening star,
A giver outshines all.@
Again and again he (arns men to 'e charita'le. +eath is inevita'le, do not lavish &our
(ealth on the maids that fit &our fanc&, for others (ill feed upon it3 give it a(a& in
charit&. @5hat &ou have given a(a& is &ours3 (hat &ou hug and hide as &ours goes to
other men. +o not think that &ou (ere charita'le in vain. %he glories of its re(ards a(ait
&ou in heaven.@
A short revie( of /arva)na4s poetr& thus involves a consideration of his philosoph& as
(ell. ;or, /arva)na (as essentiall& a philosopher as much as he (as a poet, and made use
of his innate poetic ,ualities to give expression to this side of his personalit&. 0e did not
invoke his poetical faculties to call forth 'eautiful imager& and to give to his imagination
a local ha'itation and a name". %hat (ould not have 'een in consonance (ith his
achievements as an itinerant 'ard, a(akening the long!dormant moral and religious sense
of the people '& means of pith& verses, destined to carr&on his (ork in other lands and in
other generations long after he had passed a(a&. And (hat (ork (as done '& him (as
uni,uel& and (onderfull& done. ;or, he 'e,ueathed to later generations poetr& of a
singularl& chaste and 'eautiful kind, and a (ealth of 'eautiful expressions and idioms
(hich have 'ecome part of the ever&da& life of his countr&men.
/arva)na, as the ver& name expresses, is an all!comprehensive personalit&. %here (as
scarcel& an& side of Karnataka culture to (hich he did not give expression in his poetr&.
Yet it testifies to his modest& and no'leness of mind that he never plumed himself upon
his kno(ledge. %hat kno(ledge (as, as he himself has told us, gathered from various
sources and learnt from various persons. An occasional (ord from a passing stranger, or
the meaningless talk of a group of persons as he casuall& passed '& them, (ould suddenl&
illumine man& things to him and thro( light upon facts and ideas that he had not kno(n
'efore. It did not come to him '& learning from 'ooks 'ut '& earning it from all ,uarters.
5hat (as his, essentiall&, (as a'ove all God!gifted.
/arva)na considered himself as the servant of his fello(men from the ver& 'eginning. 0e
studied the likes and dislikes and the good and 'ad tendencies of his countr&men, and
devoted himself to their uplifting at an& cost. It (as a great sacrifice, no dou't, 'ut
/arva)na sa( the real and onl& glor& of his life in serving the cause of others. 0e (as an
apostle of freedom in 'oth life and literature. 0e himself has told us< @It is freedom alone
that I love in this (orld.@ 0e had his o(n independent (a& of thinking and shunned an&
glor&=even the home of his parents=(hen it came into conflict (ith his ideas and
principles. 0e did not add to old 'eauties that had outgro(n themselves in poetr&, 'ut
created an entire ne(ness in it. 5hat significance and excuse is there to tread upon the
same paths (hich man& have trodden 'efore us (hich (ere in accord (ith their tastes 'ut
are in discord (ith our o(n- /arva)na feared none. 0e unflinchingl& expressed his
opinions 'efore an&'od& and ever&'od& and mercilessl& denounced the evils of
contemporar& societ& (hich others (ould fain pass over. 0e 'elonged to no religion 'ut
his o(n=that (hich ackno(ledged 'ut one Sarvajna, though others might assign him to
an& caste the& liked.
But the prime force and po(er that give this incontesta'le strength to /arva)na4s lova'le
personalit&, (as his faith in God and his un(avering love and devotion for the ?reator of
all things. 0erein lies the ke&!note to his (onderful personalit&. 0erein is to 'e found the
secret of his achievements as a poet and friend of humanit&. 0e suffered much to help
those that suffered. 0e himself struggled in the dark to plant there the ra&s of light. 0e
'ore patientl& (ith the man& ill!doings of his fello(!men, to do them good in return. But
in all this, there (as not a single selfish motive that could 'e traced to the spot!less
character of /arva)namurti. Bife meant nothing else to him 'ut the service of his
fello(men, (hich (as the service of God. And this is (hat his poetr& voices forth (ith so
much truth and fervour for all time.
Some Verses of Sarvajna
5ho made the peacock4s feathers thousand!
5ho made the sk& as (ondrous as it is-
5ho made the leaves, the flo(ers,
Bo( do(n, vain man> for all these (orks
are 0is>
5ho made the rose and filled it (ith
5ho deposited (ater nectar!s(eet
In the soft heart of palm- Bo( do(n> Bo(
0e made all things and made the Kokil sing.
Book to &our Bord (ho lives and moves ov4r
2ev4r in 0is net of faint illusions fall3
5omen are fleeting shado(s, (ealth a
%ruth doth (ith constant light through ages
God 'id the melon rest upon the ground3
%he 'an&an fruit gro(s on the giant tree3
;or ever& thing a fit place has 0e found
%hat man ma& rest in peace and happ& 'e.
0e (ho doth contemplate (ith stead& mind
Apon his Bord is no (orse at his home
%han in a temple3 'ut he (ho doth find
0is (a& to temples (ith a (andering mind
Is 'etter in his home than in a dome.
?an there 'e fire from the peaceful moon-
?an ever ocean dr& and feed no cloud-
A (orld!famed (arrior turns a co(ard
%han a devotee lose his faith in God.
Be calm and (ise nor let the 'od& free
%o kill itself3 for ever d(ell on good3
Bar (ith high 'arriers that disastrous flood
Of dark temptations, =live 'ut to 'e free>
0e has no shape3 'ut 0e is as the sk&
*a)estic, invisi'le, infinite,
Bives hidden from the mortal e&es that tr&
%o see 0is face, 'lind (ith 0is flood of
Great God (ho lives in mouldering shapes
of cla&,
In images 'are to the e&e of da&,
In pictures gro(ing indistinct and (an< =
0o( can he not live in the heart of man-