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Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

P-ISSN 2350-7756 | E-ISSN 2350-8442 | www.apjmr.com | Volume 2, No. 4, August 2014


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P-ISSN 2350-7756 | E-ISSN 2350-8442 | www.apjmr.com

Implementation of the Firearms Amnesty Program
in the Municipality of Bauan, Batangas

JOSE ROMMEL BAGSIT AGENA, MPA
Masters in Public Administration, Graduate School, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City,
PHILIPPINES

Date Received: May 2, 2014; Date Published: August 15, 2014

Abstract - Executive Order 817 is the law that grants amnesty to persons with unrenewed licensed
firearms and those in possession of loose/unregistered firearms; provided, that the concerned individual or
holders of said firearms submit then to the Philippine National Police for registration and licensing. This
study aimed to determine the extent of implementation of Fire Amnesty Program in Bauan Municipal Police
Station. This study utilized descriptive-correlation with comparative method to interpret the necessary data
gathered in the succession of this study. It was found out that majority of the respondents are 30-39 years
old, male, BS graduate, SPO1 and PO3 working 10 years and above. Both group of respondents (police
respondents and residents of Bauan, Batangas) assessed that Bauan Police Station implement the fire
amnesty program in license application, renewal and loose firearms to a great extent. There is significant
difference on the extent of implementation of fire arm amnesty program in terms of loose fire arms.

Keywords- Firearms Amnesty, Bauan, Batangas, Firearms

I. INTRODUCTION
Increasing globalization and multi-nationalism in
politics and economic enterprise has created a
corresponding global playing field for terrorism,
corporate fraud and organized crimes. The government,
specifically the law enforcement sector, has to deal with
existing and increasing complex crimes-organized
syndicates and criminals had acquired logistical
capabilities in term of firearms and weapon that are
modern and sophisticated; and, recent incidences of
crimes show that most of the bloody and violent of
these crimes were committed with the use of firearms.
The Philippine National Police is mandated to
provide peace and order as they are vested with the
authority to enforce the law and keep the country safe
and peaceful. One product of a stress laden society is
the increased violence and crime. Criminal
apprehension and crime prevention is one of the most
important tasks of the PNP organization and their main
objective is to apprehend criminals and prevent crime
and certain place of occurrence (Del Rosario, 2005).
The PNP statistics as of May 2009 reveals that there
are an estimated 1.1 million loose firearms proliferating
in the country today. Of this total, 50% are considered
firearms with unrenewed licenses, 48% are firearms in
the hands of the general population (529,550) while the
remaining 2% belongs to the threat groups (15,675) and
criminal elements (5,725).
Unless the capacity of the countrys police and law
enforcement system and relevant legislation match the
growing sophistication in crime and crime technology,
particularly in firearm control, there is a danger that the
country becomes the haven of terrorism and
international crime syndicates.
The PNP as a law enforcement agency and public
service provider has several important roles to perform
in the maintenance of peace and public order. As the
premier agency mandated to enforce all laws, rules and
regulations for the protection of lives and properties;
investigate; maintain peace and order and ensure public
safety as well as internal security with the active
participation of the community, the PNP has taken the
initiative towards creating communities of peace and
order that fosters enabling environment for progress and
development. Currently, there are 559,326 firearms with
expired license and some 529,550 unregistered firearms
in the hands of the general population. The proliferation
of loose and unregistered firearms have been identified
as the critical log, in the Log Jam Concept serving
as one of the main obstacles in PNP anti-criminality
Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research | Vol. 2, No. 4| August 2014
Agena, J. R., Implementation of the Firearms Amnesty Program in the Municipality of Bauan, Batangas
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drive. The PNP statistics from 2005-2009 show that
97.7% of all gun related crimes are committed with the
use of loose and unregistered firearms. In 2007 national
and local elections, 229 election related violent
incidents were recorded of which 178 (78%) were
committed with the use of firearms.
It is illegal to own or possess firearms, including
their ammunitions, without license. A person with a
license to possess firearm alone cannot carry or
transport a firearm outside of his or her residence; he or
she must additionally have a license to carry firearm.
The licenses to possess and carry firearms are issued by
the chief of the National Police. With respect to police
and military personnel, their authority to possess and
carry firearms are covered by mission orders, which are
issued by their respective commanders or superiors as
enumerated under the Implementing Rules and
Regulations to PD 1866.
Furthermore, subject only to certain exceptions
such as those involving police and military personnel on
duty, the carrying or transport of firearms during
election period is prohibited even by license holders.
Right now, Verzosa said concerned PNP officials
have already started to craft some guidelines on how to
effectively institute a total control of firearms in the
country. One of them, he revealed, is their proposal to
seek for a stiffer penalty against those who would yield
unlicensed firearms. We are looking at some problems,
especially pertaining to criminality, wherein the usual
mode of its occurrence is the use of loose firearm. So
we will come up with a strategy for a gun control, said
Verzosa.We now have technical groups
simultaneously working for us to have a total study
against loose firearms and gun control. Our Civil
Security Group (CSG) for one is conducting study on
this last amnesty and it will even possibly
recommending or enacting, proposing some laws,
pertaining to the increasing penalty for illegal
possession of firearms, he added.
One of the proposals, Verzosa revealed, is to deny a
person with the opportunity to post bail if he yields
more than two loose firearms.Illegal possession of
firearms is a bailable offense. No matter how many
guns, you will be just penalized for one, one count for
each Now we are trying to propose that if you were
caught with two or three long firearms at the same time
that should be non-bailable. For short firearms,
probably five should also be a non-bailable, said the
PNP chief.We should have a level of penalties, if you
were caught with a large number of firearms, that would
make the case non-bailable, especially those members
of the syndicate (Sangco, 2008).
This study aims to determine the increasing
incidence of crimes and violence perpetrated with the
use of firearms that has become a global phenomenon
which needs to be addressed through stricter firearm
control. In the Philippines, as a cited example, RCBC
Calamba Branch Hold-up Case is an incident that has
sparked public clamour for a more stringent gun control
policies. However, the gun culture among Filipinos -
one which attributes power to the gun owner, the gun
being a symbol of status and machinismo - has
contributed greatly to the problem.
The researcher had decided to conduct a study
based on the above reasons. He wanted to gather some
basic information that may help him to assess the
performance of Bauan Municipal Police Station in the
implementation of Firearms Amnesty Program.

II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aimed to propose a re-implementation of
the Fire Amnesty Program in Bauan, Batangas.
More specifically, the study sought to determine the
extent of implementation of Fire Arm Amnesty
Program in terms of license application, renewal and
loose fire arms; and, to test the difference in the
responses when grouped according to two groups of
respondents.

III. METHOD

Research Design
This study utilized descriptive-correlational with
comparative method to obtain the necessary data to be
gathered in the succession of this study. The descriptive
method is a strategic way to pursue and present the
detailed phenomena in an advantage of assessment
(Maxfield, 2007). It also describes the data and
characteristics of a population. This study will rely on
the implementation of firearms amnesty program of
Bauan Municipal Police Station.
Participants of the Study
The respondents of this study were 39 or 100% of
Bauan PNP members detailed at theBauan Municipal
Police Station. Another set of respondents were the 50
residents of Bauan who applied for licensing, renewal
of loose firearms during the programs implementation
in May 2010.

Instrument
The study utilized a researcher- made questionnaire
patterned from Firearms Control Reputation and other
literature and studies but was modified to suit the
present investigation. There were two sets of
questionnaire, one for the PNP members and another is
Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research | Vol. 2, No. 4| August 2014
Agena, J. R., Implementation of the Firearms Amnesty Program in the Municipality of Bauan, Batangas
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P-ISSN 2350-7756 | E-ISSN 2350-8442 | www.apjmr.com
for residents of Bauan, Batangas. The questionnaire
consists of the extent of implementation of fire arms
amnesty program of Bauan Municipal Police Station.

Procedure
The researcher read several books, articles, and
related empirical studies to collect and absorb data
relevant to the present study. Books and other reading
materials concerning fire arms amnesty program had
been searched from different libraries here in Batangas
City before distributing the questionnaires. The
researcher presented the instrument to his adviser for
validation and personally distributed the questionnaires
to the respondents.

Data Analysis
The data gathered were tabulated, analyzed and
interpreted using weighted mean to assess the extent of
implementation of the firearms amnesty program and t-
test to compare the responses of two groups of
respondents.
Results and Discussion

Extent of implementation of Firearms Amnesty
Program
Table 1shows the extent of implementation of
firearms amnesty program in terms of license
application. Both group of respondents (police
respondents and residents of Bauan, Batangas) assessed
that Bauan Police Station implement the fire amnesty
program in license application to a great extent as it got
the composite mean of 3.34 (police respondents) and
3.27 (residents).
According to the police respondents, the item The
applicant for amnesty must, when surrendering the
firearm or ammunition, notify the relevant Designated
Firearms Officer in writing if he/she intends to apply for
a license to possess the firearm or ammunition, as
contemplated in section 139 (4) (a) of the Act and lodge
the application within fourteen days from the date on
which the firearm and ammunition was surrendered
got the highest weighted mean of 3.67 and verbally
interpreted as a very great extent.
Among the low mean scores, the item Provide a
certified copy of her/his competency certificate (if
already issued), (Applicant must show her/his original
competency certificate to the Designated Firearms
Officer); and Provide a certified copy of the legal
firearm license, permit or authorization applicable to the
specific firearm (if applicable) with weighted mean of
3.23.
Furthermore, according to the residents of Bauan,
the item Where the applicant do not possess a
competency certificate, she/he must apply for a
competency certificate in accordance with the
provisions of the Act. 16 Lyceum of the Philippines
University Graduate School Page

Table 1. Extent of Implementation of Firearms Amnesty Program Instrument
Bauan Police Residents
Application for License WM VI R WM VI R
1. All such applicants must comply with the following requirements in
addition to the requirements of regulation 14 of the Firearms Control
Regulations, 2004
3.36 GE 3 2.98 GE 7
2. Provide a certified copy of her/his competency certificate (if already
issued).
3.23 GE 6.5 3.04 GE 6
3. Where the applicant does not possess a competency certificate, she/he
must apply for a competency certificate in accordance with the
provisions of the Act. ..
3.26 GE 5 3.52 VGE 1
4. Provide a certified copy of the Amnesty form on which the applicant
has indicated her/his intention to apply for the specific firearm license.
3.28 GE 4 3.23 GE 5
5. The applicant for amnesty must, when surrendering the firearm or
ammunition, notify the relevant Designated Firearms Officer in writing
if he/she intends to apply for a license to possess the firearm or
ammunition
3.67 VGE 1 3.46 GE 2
6. Provide a comprehensive motivation (preferably in the form of a
statement under oath or affirmation).
3.38 GE 2 3.44 GE 3
7. Provide a certified copy of the legal firearm license, permit or
authorization applicable to the specific firearm (if applicable).
3.23 GE 6.5 3.25 GE 4
Composite Mean 3.34 GE 3.27 GE

Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research | Vol. 2, No. 4| August 2014
Agena, J. R., Implementation of the Firearms Amnesty Program in the Municipality of Bauan, Batangas
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Such applicant must undergo the prescribed training
and practical test regarding the safe and efficient
handling of a firearm as well as the prescribed test on
the knowledge of the Act got the highest weighted
mean of 3.52 and verbally interpreted as very great
extent. While the item All such applicants must
comply with the following requirements in addition to
the requirements of regulation 14 of the Firearms
Control Regulations, 2004 got the lowest weighted
mean of 2.98 and verbal interpreted as great extent.
Table 2 shows the extent of implementation of
firearms amnesty program in terms of renewal. Both
group of respondents (police respondents and residents
of Bauan, Batangas) assessed that Bauan Police Station
implement the fire amnesty program in renewal to a
great extent as it got the composite mean of 3.39 (police
respondents) and 3.43 (residents).
According to the police respondents, the item
Issuance of Temporary License (stub from renewal
form w/ SBR/OP); PPO/CPO collect applications and
submit to ROPDs/ FED Satellite Offices; and
FED/FED Satellite Offices processes, approves and
issues the License Cards got the highest weighted
mean of 3.44 and verbally interpreted as a great extent.
Among the low mean score, the item
CPO/CPS/MPS Firearms Secretariat (FAsS) submits
weekly accomplishment report to ROPD for subsequent
submission to FED, CSG with weighted mean of 3.23.

Table 2. Extent of Implementation of Fire Arm Amnesty Program in terms of Renewal
Renewal Bauan Police Residents
WM VI R WM VI R
1. List of delinquent FA holders to be furnished to PRO, PPO
and eventually to all City/Municipal Police Stations
3.38 GE 5 3.62 VGE 3
2. CPO, CPS and MPS will deliver letter of notification
assisted by Barangay Officials
3.36 GE 7.5 3.38 GE 6.5
3. Conduct house to house visitation (accomplish visitation
form)
3.36 GE 7.5 3.69 VGE 2
4. Issuance of Temporary License (stub from renewal form w/
SBR/OP)
3.44 GE 2 3.73 VGE 1
5. PPO/CPO collect applications and submit to ROPDs/ FED
Satellite Offices
3.44 GE 2 3.40 GE 5
6. ROPDs submits to FED collected processed applications 3.38 GE 5 3.38 GE 6.5
7. FED/FED Satellite Offices processes, approves and issues
the License Cards
3.44 GE 2 3.56 VGE 4
8. FED/FED Satellite Offices forward approved FAs license
cards to ROPD/Liaison for subsequent release to licensee
3.38 GE 5 2.98 GE 9
9. CPO/CPS/MPS Firearms Secretariat (FAsS) submits weekly
accomplishment report to ROPD for subsequent submission
to FED, CSG
3.33 GE 9 3.12 GE 8
Composite Mean 3.39 GE 3.43 GE

Furthermore, according to the residents of Bauan,
the item Issuance of Temporary License (stub from
renewal form w/ SBR/OP) got the highest weighted
mean of 3.73 and verbally interpreted as very great
extent. While the item FED/FED Satellite Offices
forward approved FAs license cards to ROPD/Liaison
for subsequent release to licensee got the lowest
weighted mean of 2.98 and verbal interpreted as great
extent.
Application of scientific methods to management
and administration of military, government,
commercial, and industrial systems. It is characterized
by a systems orientation, or systems engineering, in
which interdisciplinary research teams adapt scientific
methods to large scale problems that must be modeled,
since laboratory testing is impossible. Examples include
resource allocation and replacement, inventory control,
and schedule of large-scale construction.
Assessing these components of the legal system
may significantly expand the effectiveness of prolonged
efforts to ensure safety and security in a complex
environment. Tactical and operational transitions are
often well planned and rehearsed in military operations
and their synchronization is often essential for mission
success. Functional transitions, like those that comprise
a regional legal system, may occur in a manner that
leaves commanders unprepared. The challenge of
Operation Restore Hope was increasing the
Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research | Vol. 2, No. 4| August 2014
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effectiveness of the Haitian policing effort without
strengthening the Haitian judicial capabilities. OIF has
shown that quickly installing Iraqi judges and
penitentiaries is meaningless without a self-reliant
police force. Maintaining or developing all major
components of a regional legal system is key to success.
Table 3 shows the extent of implementation of
firearms amnesty program in terms of loose firearms.
Both group of respondents (police respondents and
residents of Bauan, Batangas) assessed that Bauan
Police Station implement the program in loose firearms
to a great extent as it got the composite mean of 3.42
(police respondents) and 3.58 (residents).
According to the police respondents, the item
Under the Law, unregistered FAs are considered loose
FAs. Thus, such FAs can be registered under EO 585 if
the said FAs are not included in the FED data base
(FIMS) got the highest weighted mean of 3.59 and
verbally interpreted as a very great extent.
Among the low mean score, the item Document to
show proof of address/billing or any document
indicating the applicants residence is required. This is
to have an official mailing address in case this office
wants to communicate with the applicant in the future
with weighted mean of 3.31.

Table 3. Extent of Implementation of Fire Arm Amnesty Program in terms of Loose Firearms
Loose Firearms Bauan Police Residents
WM VI R WM VI R
1. Applicants may register a loose firearm within one (1) year
upon the issuance of the IRR of EO 585-A
3.49 GE 2.5 3.56 VGE 6.5
2. Filipino citizens who are at least 21 years of age are qualified 3.41 GE 6 3.40 GE 9
3. The following firearms may be registered subject to the
approval of C, PNP, as mandated by law: Handguns
(Pistols/Revolvers) Caliber .22 to .357; shotguns (all gauges);
rifle caliber .22; and all other low-powered firearms
3.36 GE 8 3.33 GE 10
4. Under the Law, unregistered FAs are considered loose FAs.
Thus, such FAs can be registered under EO 585 if the said
FAs are not included in the FED data base (FIMS).
3.59 VGE 1 3.69 VGE 2.5
5. Applicant will pay additional penalty and surcharge if the
firearms has an expired license
3.49 GE 2.5 3.63 VGE 5
6. If the firearm submitted for licensing is not the same firearm
with data existing in the FEDs FIMS, a serial number will be
assigned to the submitted firearm by the FED, CSG.
3.44 GE 4.5 3.65 VGE 4
7. The owner shall be notified of the status of the firearm in
his/her possession and will be requested to turn-over the said
firearm to FED, CSG or to the nearest police unit for deposit
until the adjudication process is completed.
3.44 GE 4.5 3.75 VGE 1
8. Juridical entities can register any number of firearms
provided that they comply with existing rules and regulations
based on RA 5487 and its Implementing Rules and
Regulations.
3.36 GE 8 3.56 VGE 6.5
9. Document to show proof of real identity/name of the
applicant is required. This is to prevent individuals from
submitting fictitious/wrong names
3.36 GE 8 3.52 VGE 8
10. Document to show proof of address/billing or any document
indicating the applicants residence is required. This is to
have an official mailing address in case this office wants to
communicate with the applicant in the future.
3.31 GE 10 3.69 VGE 2.5
Composite Mean 3.42 GE 3.58 VGE


Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research | Vol. 2, No. 4| August 2014
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Furthermore, according to the residents of Bauan, the
item The owner shall be notified of the status of the
firearm in his/her possession and will be requested to
turn-over the said firearm to FED, CSG or to the nearest
police unit for deposit until the adjudication process is
completed got the highest weighted mean of 3.75 and
verbally interpreted as very great extent.

While the item The following firearms may be
registered subject to the approval of C, PNP, as
mandated by law: Handguns (Pistols/Revolvers) Caliber
.22 to .357; shotguns (all gauges); rifle caliber .22; and
all other low-powered firearms got the lowest
weighted mean of 3.33 and verbal interpreted as great
extent.
2. Comparison of Responses on the extent of implementation of Fire Arms Amnesty Program.

Table 4. Comparison of Responses on the Extent of Implementation of Fire Arm Amnesty Program by the Two
Groups of Respondents (tt = 1.960; df = 89 )
Extent of Implementation of Fire Arm Amnesty
Program in terms of:
tc p-value Decision Interpretation
Application of license 1.094 0.277 Fail to Reject Not Significant
Renewal 0.671 0.504 Fail to Reject Not Significant
Loose of firearms 2.231 0.023 Rejected Significant
Legend: Significant at p-value < 0.05

Based on the table, the computed t-value (2.231) in
the extent of implementation of fire arm amnesty
program in terms of loose fire arms is greater than the
critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance; thus,
the hypothesis of no significant difference on the extent
of implementation of fire arm amnesty program in
terms of loose fire arms is rejected. This means that
there is a difference exists on the two groups of
respondents.
This means that the responses of the Bauan police
and residents of Bauan differs due to their different
point of view. Police implement or enforce the law
while residents or the community are the person whom
the law is enforced. The need to draft a Firearms
Control Program within the realities of the Philippine
jurisdiction calls for the immediate attention and the
concerted efforts of all concerned government agencies
as well as other stakeholders. Coupled with the
realization of the multifarious and generally devastating
effects of the firearms control problem, it was then
decided that a broad-based forum that calls for a unified
participation of key sectors of the Philippine society
must be conducted.
The leadership in Bauan is forward, looking
unfettered by bureaucratic red tape and supportive of
entrepreneurial efforts. The crime rate in Bauan is
lowest in the entire Province of Batangas and there has
been no strike in any of the industrial firm in Bauan
over the last several years. The socio-economic
conditions in Bauan and the surrounding areas are the
principal deterrents to the spread of insurgency to this
community.

Table 3. Proposed Program
Key Area Objectives Implementation Person Responsible
Implementation of
Firearms Amnesty
Program
To enhance the implementation of
Firearms Amnesty Program
Seminar
Modules
Management
Awareness about
the program
To enhance the awareness of the
firearms owners about the firearms
amnesty program
The firearms owners will
undergo seminar about the
program as part of firearms
licensing.
Bauan Police station
and PNP members
and firearms owners

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Both groups of respondents (police respondents and
residents of Bauan, Batangas) assessed that Bauan
Police Station implement the firearms amnesty program
in license application, renewal and loose firearms to a
great extent. There is a significant difference on the
responses of the two groups of respondents on the
responses of two groups of respondents on the extent of
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implementation of amnesty program in terms of loose
arms. A program is proposed to enhance the
implementation of firearms amnesty program in Bauan
Municipal Police Station.
PNP Bauan may recommend to re-implement the
Firearms Amnesty Program. Bauan Municipal Police
Station may conduct seminars about the Firearms
Amnesty Program to reinforce its implementation. The
police officers of Bauan Municipal Police Station may
strictly comply with the Firearms Amnesty Program. A
future study is recommended to have an in-depth
assessment of the extent of implementation of Firearms
Amnesty Program in other municipalities.

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