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B.

Limitations to the Powers of an Administrative Agency



Matienzon vs Abellera 162 SCRA 1

C. Nature of the Powers of Administrative Agencies

Quasi Legislative
Quasi-Judicial

D. Express and Implied Powers

Villegas vs Subido 30 SCRA 498
LLDA vs Court of Appeals 231 SCRA 292
Polloso vs Gangan 335 SCRA 750
Blaquera vs Alcala 295 SCRA 411
RCPI vs NTC, G.R. No. 93237, 215 SCRA 455
Buenaseda vs Flavier 226 SCRA 645

E. Discretionary Powers Vs Ministerial Duty

Carino vs Capulong, 222 SCRA 593
Mateo vs CA, 196 SCRA 280
Binamira vs Garrucho, 188 SCRA 154

F. Mandatory/Prohibitory and Permissive/Directory Duties and Powers

Article 5 Civil Code

1. Mandatory/prohibitory statute, defined and effect
- Sarina vs CFI of Bukidnon 24 SCRA 715

2. Permissive/directory statute, defined and effect
- Meralco Securities Corp. vs Savellano, 117 SCRA 804

G. Error in the Exercise of Powers

1. Doctrine of non-suability of the state inapplicable
- Shauf vs CA, 191 SCRA 713

2. Estoppel inapplicable
- Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs CTA, 234 SCRA 348

3. Presumption of regularity
- Blue Bar Coconut vs Tantuico, 163 SCRA 716



Acts done by an official are presumed to be valid

IV. INVESTIGATORY POWERS

A. Scope and Extent of Powers
Carino vs CHR, 204 SCRA 483
Concerned Officials of MWSS vs Vasquez, 240 SCRA 502
Deloso vs Domingo, 191 SCRA 545

B. Requirement of Notice and Hearing
Secretary of Justice vs Lantion, 322 SCRA 160
Ruiz vs Drilon, 209 SCRA 695
Pefianco vs Moral, 322 SCRA 439

C. Right to Counsel in Administrative Investigations

D. Importance of Administrative Investigations
Evangelista vs Jarencio, 68 SCRA 99

E. Executive Power to Investigate, source

Section 64c Revised Administrative Code
Power of the President

Section 20 Book III, 1987 Administrative Code
Residual Powers

Larin vs Executive Secretary, 280 SCRA 713
Evangelista vs Jarencio, 68 SCRA 99

V. Quasi-Legislative/Rule-Making Powers

Remolona vs CSC, 362 SCRA 304

Rule Making Power

A. Nature of power, definition

People vs Maceren, 79 SCRA 450

1. Ordinance Power of the President/Delegation to the President
- Sections 23.2, 28.2, Article VI, Constitution
- Sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Book III, Title I, Chapter 2, 1987 Admin Code
a. Araneta vs Gatmaitan, 101 Phil 328
b. Olsen & Co. vs Aldanese, 43 Phil 259

2. Delegation to the Supreme Court
- Section 5.5, Article VIII, Constitution
a. First Lepanto Ceramics vs CA, 231 SCRA 30

3. Delegation to LGUs
- Section 5 and 9, Article X, Constitution
- Sections 54, 55, 56, 57, Republic Act No. 7160

B. Rationale for the delegation of quasi-legislative power
Tatad vs Secretary of DOE, 281 SCRA 330
Eastern Shipping Lines vs POEA, 166 SCRA 533
Pangasinan Transportation Co., Inc. vs Public Service Commission, 70 Phil 221
Calalang vs Williams, 70 Phil 726

C. Limitations on the Rule-Making Power
Smart Communications vs NTC, G.R. No. 151908, 12 August 2003
Philippine Apparel Workers Union vs NLRC, 106 SCRA 444

D. Requisites for Valid Delegation of Quasi-Legislative Power

1. Completeness Test
Tatad vs Secretary of DOE, 281 SCRA 330
U.S. vs Ang Tang Ho, L-4288 20 Nov 1952
Eastern Shipping Lines vs POEA, 166 SCRA 533
People vs Vera, 65 Phil 56

2. Sufficient Standard Test
Chiongbian vs Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
Cervantes vs Auditor General, L-4043, 26 May 1952
Pelaez vs Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569
Ynot vs IAC, 148 SCRA 659

3. Exceptions to the Requirement of Sufficient Legislative Standards
a. Power which is not directly or exclusively a legislative on and has no relation
whatsoever to personal or property rights;
b. Power to regulate a mere matter of privilege

E. Issues on Validity of Legislation

1. Against the delegating statute itself
2. Against the exercise of the delegated power
Solicitor General vs Metropolitan Manila Authority, 204 SCRA 837

F. Rule and Rule-Making, Defined

Section 2.2 Book VII, Admin Code of 1987
Section 4, Book VII, Admin Code of 1987
Eslao vs COA, 236 SCRA 161
Supplementary Legislation
1. Classification of rules and regulations
a. Those issued by an administrative superior and directed exclusively to the
subordinates --- rules and regulations of internal administration to be
observed by subordinate officials for the prompt and efficient dispatch of
government business and to facilitate the transactions of the general public
with the government;
b. Those directed not only to the inferior officers but also and primarily to
private individuals, fixing the manner by which the terms of a statute are to
be complied with.

2. Types of rule-making
2.1. Rule-making by reason of particular delegation of authority (supplementary
or detailed legislation)
2.2. Rule-making by the construction and interpretation of a statute being
administered (interpretative legislation)
2.3. The ascertainment of facts which will form the basis for the enforcement of
a statute (contingent legislation or determination)

G. Supplementary/Detailed Legislation
1. Source
2. Requisites for validity
a. Vda de Pineda vs Pena, 187 SCRA 22
b. UST vs Court of Tax Appeals, 93 Phil 376
c. Boie Takeda Chemicals vs Dela Serna, 228 SCRA 329
d. GMCR vs Bell Telecommunication Phil., Inc., 271 SCRa 79
e. Toledo vs CSC, 264 SCRA 19
f. Grego vs COMELEC, 274 SCRA 481
g. Conte vs COA, 264 SCRA 19
h. China Banking Corp vs HDMF, 307 SCRA 44
i. Romulo, Mabanta vs HDMF, 333 SCRA 777
j. Nasipit Lumber Co. vs NWPC, 289 SCRA 667

3. Requirement of reasonableness
a. Bears a reasonable relation to the purpose sought to be accomplished;
b. Supported by good reasons;
c. Free from constitutional infirmities or charge of arbitrariness

H. Interpretative Legislation

1. Distinction between rule and interpretation
- Victorias Milling Co vs Social Security Commission, 114 Phil 555

2. Types of executive construction/interpretation
a. Construction by an executive officer directly called to implement the law. It
may be express (embodied in a circular, directive or regulation) or implied
(practice or mode of enforcement of not applying the statute to certain
situations; by usage or practice);
b. Construction by the Secretary of Justice as Chief Legal Adviser of the
government. May be reversed by President in the exercise of the power to
modify, alter or reverse;
c. Interpretation handed down in an adversary proceeding in the form of a
ruling by an executive officer exercising quasi-judicial power.
d. Weight accorded to administrative constructions
- Asturias Sugar Central vs Commissioner of Customs, 29 SCRA 617
- Melendres vs COMELEC, 319 SCRA 262
- Peralta vs CSC, 212 SCRA 425
- United Christian Missionary Society vs SSC, 30 SCRA 982

3. Construction of administrative rules and regulations
- Ollada vs Secretary of Finance, 109 Phil 1072

I. Contingent Legislation or Delegation to Ascertain Facts
Cruz vs Youngberg, 56 Phil 234
People vs Vera, 65 Phil 56
US vs Ang Tang Ho, 43 Phil 1
Lovina vs Moreno, 9 SCRA 557

J. Penal Rules and Regulations
1. Requisites for validity of penal rules and regulations
- Marcos vs CA, 278 SCRA 843
- US vs Panlilio, 28 Phil 608
- Peopl vs Exconde, 101 Phil 1125
- People vs Maceren, 79 SCRA 450

2. Imposition of penalties by administrative authorities

K. Rate-Fixing Power
Philcomsat vs Alcuaz, 180 SCRA 218

L. Effectivity of Administrative Rules and Regulations

1. Publication requirement
Section 2, Civil Code
Section 18, Book 1, 1987 Administrative Code
Chapter 2, Book VII, 1987 Administrative Code
- Tanada vs Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446

2. Notice and hearing requirement
Misamis Oriental Association of Coco Traders vs DOF, 238 SCRA 63

3. Application, general rule that the issuance of rules and regulations to implement
the law does not require that there be prior notice and hearing conducted by the
administrative agencies. However, if the statute making the delegation requires
such hearing, then one must be conducted before such rules and regulations are
issued. On the other hand, if the statute is silent on the matter, a public hearing, if
practicable, may be conducted.

VI. ADJUDICATORY POWERS

A. Quasi-Judicial Power and Quasi-Judicial Body, defined
a. Quasi-judicial power
b. Quasi-judicial body

Smart Communications vs NTC, G.R. No. 151908, 12 August 2003
Santiago, Jr. vs Bautista, 32 SCRA 188
Filipinas Shell Petroleum Corp. vs Oil Industry Commission, 145 SCRA 433

B. Distinguished from Judicial Power
a. Judicial power

Carino vs CHR, 204 SCRA 483
Luzon Development Bank vs Association of LDB Employees, 249 SCRA 162

C. Distinguished from Administrative Function

Presidential Anti-Dollar Salting Task Force vs CA, 171 SCRA 348
Cojuangco vs PCGG, 190 SCRA 226
Sideco vs Sarenas, 41 Phil 80
Ocampo vs U.S., 234 US 91

D. Distinguished from Legislative Power or Rule-Making

Lupangco vs CA, 160 SCRA 848

E. Rationale for Vesting Administrative Agencies with Quasi-Judicial Power

C.T. Torres Enterprises, Inc. vs Hibionada, 191 SCRA 268

F. Scope of Quasi-Judicial Powers of an Administrative Agency

GSIS vs CSC, 202 SCRA 799
Angara vs Electoral Commission, 63 Phil 139
Provident Tree Farms vs Batario, Jr., 231 SCRA 463
Tejada vs Homestead Property Corporation, 178 SCRA 164
Cario vs CHR, 204 SCRA 483

G. Classification of Adjudicatory Powers

1. Dispensing powers
2. Directing powers
3. Enabling powers
4. Summary powers
5. Equitable powers

VII. THE POWER TO ISSUE SUBPOENA

Carmelo vs Ramos, 6 SCRA 836

Section 13, Book VII, 1987 Admin. Code

Caamic vs Galaon, 237 SCRA 390
Universal Rubber Products vs CA, 130 SCRA 104
Masangcay vs COMELEC, 6 SCRA 27

VIII. THE POWER TO PUNISH FOR CONTEMPT

People vs Mendoza, 92 Phil 570
Camelo vs Ramos, 116 Phil 1152

IX. POWER TO IMPOSE PENALTIES

Scotys Department Store vs Micaller 99 Phil 762
CAB vs PAL, 63 SCRA 524

X. POWER IN DEPORTATION AND CITIZENSHIP CASES

Lao Gi vs Court of Appeals, 180 SCRA 756


ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS

I. JURISDICTION

A. Definition

People vs Mariano, 71 SCRA 600

B. Extent of Jurisdiction of Administrative Agencies Performing Quasi-Judicial Acts

Chin vs LBP, 201 SCRA 190
Taule vs Santos, 200 SCRA 512

II. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED

Sections 1 and 2.1 Book VII, 1987 Administrative Code

A. Source of Authority to Promulgate Rules of Procedure
Section 5.5, Article VIII, Constitution
- Angara vs Electoral Commission, 63 Phil 139

B. Limitations on the Power to Promulgate Rules of Procedure

First Lepanto Ceramics vs CA, 231 SCRA 30

C. Technical Rules Not Applicable

Kanlaon Construction Enterprises vs NLRC, 279 SCRA 337
Ang Tibay vs CIR, 69 Phil 635
Police Commission vs Lood, 127 SCRA 757

D. Justiciable Controvery and Forum Shopping

SEC vs CA, 246 SCRA 738

Section 2.5, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

- Santiago, Jr. vs Bautista, 32 SCRA 188
- Villanueva vs Adre, 172 SCRA 876
- Chemphil Export & Import Corp. vs CA, 251 SCRA 257
- First Phil. Intl. Bank vs CA, 252 SCRA 259
- R. Transport Corp. vs Laguesma, 227 SCRA 826
- Galongco vs CA, 283 SCRA 492

E. Institution of Proceedings; Acquisition of Jurisdiction

Section 5, Rule 7 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure
- Santos vs NLRC, 254 SCRA 675
- Matanguihand vs Tengo, 272 SCRA 704

F. Pre-trial Conference; default

Section 10, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code
- Auyong vs CTA, 59 SCRA 110

G. Hearing

Secretary of Justice vs Lantion, 322 SCRA 160
Section 11.1, Book VII 1987 Admin. Code
- Medenilla vs CSC, 194 SCRA 278
- Simpao vs CSC, 191 SCRA 396
- Alejandro vs CA, 191 SCRA 700

H. Evidence

Section 12.3, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code
- State Prosecutor vs Muro, 246 SCRA 505

1. Proof beyond reasonable doubt
- People vs Bacalzo, 195 SCRA 557

2. Clear and convincing evidence
- Blacks Law Dictionary 5
th
ed. p.227

3. Preponderance of evidence
- New Testament Church of God vs CA, 246 SCRA 266

4. Substantial evidence
- Velasquez vs Nery, 211 SCRA 28
- Malonzo vs COMELEC, 269 SCRA 380

I. Decision

Section 2.8, 14 Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

Marcelino vs Cruz, 121 SCRA 51
Romualdez-Marcos vs COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300

1. Form of decision
- Mangca vs COMELEC, 112 SCRA 273
- Malinao vs Reyes, 255 SCRA 616

- Sections 2.13 and 2.12, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

2. Publication of decisions
- Section 16.1.2, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

3. Finality, promulgation and notice of decision
- Section 15, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

- Robert Dollar Company vs Tuvera, 123 SCRA 354
- Lindo vs COMELEC, 194 SCRA 25
- Jamil vs COMELEC, 283 SCRA 349

- Section 14, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

- Zoleta vs Drilon, 166 SCRA 548

4. Collegiate decision, requirement to be valid

- Mison vs COA, 187 SCRA 445
- Aquino-Sarmiento vs Morato, 203 SCRA 515

5. Finality of decisions
- Section 15, Chapter III, Book VII Admin Code of 1987
- Administrative Order No. 18 Section 7

- Uy vs COA, 328 SCRA 607
- Camarines Norte Electric Cooperative vs Torres, 286 SCRA 666

6. Application of the doctrine of res judicata
- Republic vs Neri, 213 SCRA 812
- Brillantes vs Castro, 99 Phil 497
- Ipekdjian Merchandising vs CTA, L-15430, 30 Sept. 1963
- Teodoro vs Carague, 206 SCRA 429

J. Administrative Appeal in Contested Cases
Section 19, 20, 21, 22, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

Mendez vs CSC, 204 SCRA 965
PCIB vs CA, 229 SCRA 283
Diamonon vs DOLE, 327 SCRA 283
De Leon vs Heirs of Gregorio Reyes, 155 SCRA 584
Vda de Pineda vs Pena, 187 SCRA 22
Reyes vs Zamora, 90 SCRA 92

Section 23, Book VII, 1987 Admin Code

Zambales Chromite Mining Co. vs. Court of Appeals, 94 SCRA 261
Ysmael vs Dep. Exec. Sec., 190 SCRA 673

K. Execution
Divinagracia vs CFI, 3 SCRA 775
GSIS vs CSC, 202 SCRA 799
Vital-Gozon vs CA, 212 SCRA 235

III. DUE PROCESS OF LAW IN ADMINISTRATIVE ADJUDICATION

A. Substantive and Procedural Due Process, defined
Santiago vs Alikpala, 25 SCRA 356
Secretary of Justice vs Lantion, 322 SCRA 160
Albert vs CFI of Manila, 23 SCRA 948

B. Cardinal Primary

IV.