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IN THE PIMA COUNTY SUPERIOR COURT

State of Arizona, )
)
Appellee ) Lower Court
Case No
) TR-13063378
s )
)
)
!o"n !a# $n%er"ill )
)
Appellent )
_______________________________

A&&'LLANT(S )')*RAN+$)
!o"n !a# $n%er"ill
36,- . /aile# +rie
Tu0son Arizona 8-711
312-0721
!o"n !a# $n%er"ill
A3ent for
!*4N !A5 $N+'R46LL
36,- . /aile# +rie
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State7ent of 8a0ts
My appeal is based on the folloin!" #i$st% &'d!in! by the (iolation (ideo the
state offe$ed as e(iden)e% 9Court Re0or% 1:18 appro;< 17 7in), the
state (iolated a #ede$al $e!'lation*Se0tion 1+<0- Stan%ar% 1, of t"e
)$TS+)+ In addition% ina))'$a)ies o))'$$ed in the p$ose)'tion,s )ase% and thei$
)lai-s $e!a$din! -y ti-e into $ed and the ti-e of the yello li!ht phase as not
s'bstantiated by the (iolation (ideo they p$esented as e(iden)e be)a'se
-eas'$e-ent on the (iolation (ideo is . se)ond inte$(als/ The$efo$e% the state
did not p$o(e by a p$eponde$an)e of e(iden)e hi)h de-onst$ates a la had
been (iolated that I as $esponsible fo$ $'nnin! the $ed li!ht/ Note that I
$efe$en)e all state-ents ith testi-ony offe$ed in the )o'$t $e)o$ds of 01.2 and
3145 and -y e6hibits/ I also p$o(ided t$ans)$ipts of both t$ials he$e ea)h
passin! -in'te 's'ally is noted in the t$ans)$ipt so one )an st'dy hat as
spo7en in $itin!/
The (iolation (ideo p$esented by the state (iolates the #ede$al $e!'lation
p$ohibitin! the yello and !$een a$$os shinin! si-'ltaneo'sly *';"i=it 1+-6)/
The to a$$os that a$e ill'-inated% shine beteen /8 9 /0 of a se)ond to!ethe$/
See the state iolation i%eo% ';"i=it 1+ and this pheno-enon is
des)$ibed in the -:30 trial re0or%in3 at 3- 7inutes/ In the state(s
iolation i%eo that as displayed in )o'$t one )an obse$(e the 8 a$$os
shinin! )on)'$$ently sta$tin! sli!htly befo$e the to 8

se)ond -a$7/ :oth a$$os
$e-ain ill'-inated and )lea$ly (isible fo$ /3 *31.5) of a se)ond/ #o$ one se)ond
the to a$$os see shinin! to!ethe$ hen 'sin! a -a!nified !lass% th's the
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steady yello li!ht phase of the li!ht as not 4/3 b't no$e than li7ely than not
)lose$ to 4/. se)onds*';"i=it 1+-6)/
Othe$ dis)$epan)ies )ontained in the state e(iden)e in)l'de
ina))'$ate info$-ation abo't the photo enfo$)e-ent syste- at the
inte$se)tion%
la)7 of p$oof of independent )e$tifi)ation fo$ a))'$a)y of the $ed li!ht
)a-e$as%
la)7 of p$oof that the )a-e$a testin! in)l'ded testin! on -o(in! (ehi)les%
and la)7 of p$oof fo$ $e!'la$ -aintenan)e of the t$affi) si!nals/
In addition% the state failed to p$o(e that they did not sho$ten the phase of
the yello li!ht to in)$ease the n'-be$ of )itations and $e(en'e% ith thei$
(iolation (ideo/
A))o$din! to Ma$7 Spea$ *E6pe$t ;itness)% the )a-e$a dete)tion syste- as
not a li(e syste- ith 8 (ideo loops itho't delays/ *Court re0or% 1:18
a=out 1 7inute)/ Ma$7 Spea$,s C'$$i)'l'- <itae is in)l'ded in *';"i=it
1<,A)/ Instead the inst$'-ents e$e i$eless senso$s that had a /8 se)ond
delay *Court re0or% -:30 - 7inutes)% *See also a pee$ $e(ie st'dy
)ond')ted by $esea$)he$s f$o- P'$d'e Uni(e$sity p'blished in the &o'$nal%
T$anspo$tation Resea$)h Re)o$d" =o'$nal of the T$anspo$tation Resea$)h :oa$d
*';"i=it 1<,>)/ This a$ti)le is also online/ To see -o$e info$-ation on the
senso$s see *';"i=it 1<1C)/ M$/ Spea$ stated to the )o'$t that the !$a)e
pe$iod fo$ the left hand t'$n !oin! No$th bo'nd O$a)le to Ri(e$ as only /.
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se)ond *Re0or% -:30 sli3"tl# =efore -2 7inutes)% *';"i=it 1<,C
)ontainin! the e-ail f$o- >ie'tenant Ri)ha$d Ane-one)/
Offi)e$ ?o'!las on the othe$ hand% )lai-ed the$e is a /8 se)ond !$a)e pe$iod
at the $ed li!ht )a-e$a at the site of -y )itation se(e$al ti-es in )o'$t
testi-ony*Re0or% 1:18 appro;i7atel# 7in ,,)/ Othe$ dis)$epan)ies
in)l'de% *State ';"i=it 1A) stated the posted the speed as 03 hen it as
a)t'ally 05 -iles pe$ ho'$ *';"i=it 1A-1)/ The )itation also )lai-ed that I as
/4 se)onds into $ed li!ht befo$e I $ea)hed the inte$se)tion and the yello *a-be$)
li!ht phase as 4/3 se)onds *';"i=it 1C)% *';"i=it 1+)/ Yet the state )annot
p$o(e these ti-es a$e a))'$ate 'sin! thei$ (iolation (ideo ti-ed in . se)ond
inte$(als *';"i=it 14-1)/ Also in ';"i=it 1C% the pi)t'$e ta7en /4 tenths of a
se)ond into the yello li!ht shos -y (ehi)le blo)7in! the inte$se)tion line
*Re0or% 1:18 at ,, 7in)/ The state did not disp$o(e that -y (ehi)le -ay
ha(e al$eady been in the inte$se)tion fo$ so-e ti-e hen the still pi)t'$e as
ta7en *';"i=it 1C)/ ';"i=it 1+ )lai-s I as !oin! 8@ -iles an ho'$ and
ass'-es I as !oin! 8@ -iles an ho'$ as the li!ht )han!ed f$o- !$een to yello%
yet the state )an not p$o(e this be)a'se the (ideo as not $e)o$din! at this ti-e
*Re0or% 1:18: at ,3 7in)% *Re0or% -:30 appro;< -8 7inutes)%
*';"i=its 1C an% 1+)% *';"i=it 3 &oli0e '?uations)/
The State failed to p$o(ide e(iden)e that the )a-e$a and li!hts e$e p$ope$ly
-aintained *Re0or% 1:18 at ,3 7in -,6 7in)% *';"i=it 1+-1)/ An
additional dis)$epan)y o))'$$ed be)a'se the state did not p$o(e that they did not
sho$ten the yello li!ht ith thei$ iolation i%eo *';"i=it 14-,) be)a'se
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of . se)ond -eas'$e-ent inte$(al in the (ideo/ Re-a$7ably hoe(e$% Offi)e$
?o'!las stated that the$e as no ti-e asso)iated ith the (ideo *Re0or% 1:18
,8 7in)/ Spea$ testified that offi)e$s )lai- the )a-e$as a$e a))'$ate to /.
*.1.5) of a se)ond b't the (ideo e(iden)e p$o(ided by the state is -eas'$ed in
se)onds *Re0or% 1:18 7 7in)% *@iolation Clip f$o- T')son Poli)e and
';"i=it 14-,)/
Additionally% the$e is a-ple e(iden)e indi)ated the state -ay ha(e sho$tened
the yello phase of the li!ht to )$eate -o$e )itations and $e(en'e *';"i=it 1>-
3)/ The$e is also a T')son A<OA a$ti)le s'!!estin! lo)al offi)e$s -ay ha(e
sho$ted yello li!hts he$e *Re0or% -:30 7in ,8)% *';"i=it 1+-, >o)alities
and Cities Sho$t Yello >i!hts)/
The$e is no independent )e$tifi)ation fo$ the a))'$a)y of the photo
enfo$)e-ent )a-e$as B*Re0or% 1:18 - 7inutes)% *States ';"i=it 1>,
17 7inutes A ,0 7inutes)C% *';"i=its 1>-1 an% 1>-,)/ No p$oof as
offe$ed that the$e as testin! of the )o-plete )a-e$a syste- in)l'din! the
(ehi)le senso$s/ The state also did not sho if the testin! that ATS )ond')ted on
thei$ )a-e$as tested a)t'al -o(in! (ehi)les end to end/ The state offe$ed no
p$oof that testin! as done on -o(in! (ehi)les so hen -y )itation states that I
did not $ea)h the inte$se)tion 'ntil /4 se)ond into the $ed li!ht phase% the$e as
no p$oof offe$ed by the state that this )alib$ation of ti-e as a))'$ate/ The$e is
also s'ffi)ient e(iden)e to s'!!est photo enfo$)e-ent )a-e$as a$e often
ina))'$ate *';"i=it 1>-,)/
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State7ent of Law
The (iolation (ideo the state p$esented as e(iden)e a!ainst -e (iolated the
Man'al of Unifo$- T$affi) Cont$ol ?e(i)es Se0tion 1+<0- Stan%ar% 1,
Appli0ation of Stea%# Si3nal 6n%i0ations< In the state iolation
i%eo shon in )o'$t as e(iden)e a!ainst -e% I fo'nd that al-ost at the 8
se)ond -a$7% the !$een a$$o and the yello a$$o e$e shinin! si-'ltaneo'sly
(isible to the na7ed fo$ al-ost half a se)ond/ He$e is the $ele(ant se)tion of the
$e!'lation/
Se0tion 1+<0- Stan%ar% 1,
.8 The folloin! )o-binations of si!nal indi)ations shall not be si-'ltaneo'sly
displayed on any one si!nal fa)e o$ as a $es'lt of the )o-bination of displays
f$o- -'ltiple si!nal fa)es on an app$oa)h"
C/ D$een a$$o ith Yello A$$o pointin! in the sa-e di$e
Sin)e in A$iEona -y )itation is )onside$ed a )i(il )ase% *Rule 17 Rules of
'i%en0e an% >ur%en of &roof) apply to it/ :elo is the $ele(ant se)tion
of that la/
*a) The A$iEona R'les of E(iden)e shall not apply in )i(il t$affi) )ases/
E(iden)e -ay be ad-itted s'b&e)t to a dete$-ination that the e(iden)e
has so-e p$obati(e (al'e to the fa)t at iss'e/ Nothin! in this $'le is to be
)onst$'ed as ab$o!atin! any stat'to$y p$o(ision $elatin! to p$i(ile!ed
)o--'ni)ations/
*b) The states b'$den of p$oof shall be by the p$eponde$an)e of e(iden)e/
*)) Not 7noin! the definition of p$obati(e I in)l'ded it he$e/ probative
ad&/ in e(iden)e la% tendin! to p$o(e so-ethin!/ Th's% testi-ony hi)h is
not p$obati(e *does not p$o(e anythin!) is i--ate$ial and not ad-issible
o$ ill be st$i)7en f$o- the $e)o$d if ob&e)ted to by opposin! )o'nsel/
*See" p$obati(e fa)ts% p$obati(e (al'e)
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A))o$din! to Offi)e ?o'!las% the )o'$t is t$yin! to dete$-ine" ?id the
defendant $'n the $ed li!htF Conside$ this G'ote f$o- the re0or% -:30
appro;< -2 7in/
M$/ Unde$hill t'$ned in a !ood n'-be$ of e6hibits/ M$/ Spea$ spo7e of hat he
$efe$$ed to as e$$o$s/ ;hat e a$e he$e loo7in! at is hethe$ a$e not a $ed li!ht
as $'n/ Ti-es aside f$o- hat they had stated% e,$e loo7in! at si-ple fa)t%
as M$/ Unde$hill past the p$olon!ation of the )'$b line hi)h is this hite line
that I,- depi)tin! he$eH That is hat is in f$ont of the )o'$t today/ ?id M$/
Unde$hill $'n the $ed li!ht o$ did he not $'n the $ed li!htF
Con0lusions
A))o$din! to the (iolation (ideo% the state (iolated a #ede$al $e!'lation by
alloin! the !$een and yello a$$os to shine si-'ltaneo'sly fo$ pe$haps al-ost
half a se)ond *';"i=it 1+-6)/ See also the state iolation i%eo/ Maybe
the a$$os did not shine si-'ltaneo'sly b't the (ideo p$esented as e(iden)e
shos that the !$een and yello a$$os did/ If the a$$os did shine
si-'ltaneo'sly e(en fo$ &'st /8 se)onds then this a-o'nt of ti-e sho'ld be
added to the !$a)e pe$iod so instead of indi(id'als ha(in! to be -o$e than /.
se)ond into the $ed li!ht phase befo$e )itations a$e iss'ed offi)e$s sho'ld
)onside$ the folloin! fa)to$s/ #i$st% offi)e$s allo -oto$ist to be /. se)ond o$
less into the $ed li!ht phase itho't iss'in! )itations at this lo)ation be)a'se
offi)ials )lai- the photo enfo$)e-ent )a-e$as p$o(ide a))'$ate ti-e $eadin! to /
. se)ond/ Hoe(e$% offi)e$s need to )onside$ that the !$een and yello a$$os
e$e shinin! si-'ltaneo'sly in the iolation i%eo in (iolation of #ede$al la
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fo$ beteen /8 9 /0 se)onds+ The$efo$e they need to add on to the e6istin! !$a)e
pe$iod anothe$ /8 to /0 se)onds/ This o'ld p$o(ide a !$a)e pe$iod of beteen /4
9 /3 se)ond into the li!ht phase befo$e $ed li!ht )itations a$e iss'ed/
In addition% the$e e$e -any ina))'$ate state-ents in the state,s e(iden)e/
The state )lai-ed the photo enfo$)e-ent syste- had no delays hen M$/ Spea$
p$esented a pee$ $e(ie st'dy that stated that the senso$s that dete)ted -y )a$
in the left t'$nin! lane ha(e a delay o$ laten)y of /8 se)ond *';"i=it 1<,>)/
';"i=it 1<1C des)$ibes the senso$s in !$eate$ detail/ In addition% M$/ Spea$
stated these pa$ti)'la$ senso$s $espond abo't the ti-e a )a$,s f$ont a6le is o(e$
the senso$% b't a!ain this is not p$e)ise/ This laten)y of /8 se)onds needs to be
added into the )al)'lation of laten)y )$eated befo$e/ He$e a$e all the fa)to$s that
ha(e to be added in% to dete$-ine a fai$ !$a)e pe$iod befo$e iss'in! ti)7ets/ They
a$e" the /. se)ond to $efle)t the fa)t that the )a-e$as a$e s'pposedly a))'$ate
to /. se)ondI the /8 9/0 se)ond to a))o'nt fo$ the ti-e that the !$een and yello
a$$os e$e shinin! si-'ltaneo'sly in the state,s iolation i%eo and the /8
se)ond e$$o$ in the senso$s that $epo$t the p$esen)e of )a$s in the lane% to the
)a-e$a/ The total !$a)e pe$iod o'ld be beteen /3 to /J se)ond/ ;hen
obse$(in! the iolation i%eo and obse$(in! the si-'ltaneo's shinin! of the
!$een and yello a$$os on the (iolation (ideo% the !$een a$$o $e-ained shinin!
fai$ly b$i!htly fo$ abo't /8 se)onds so a !$a)e pe$iod of /3 se)onds befo$e iss'in!
)itations at that lo)ation see-s p$etty fai$ to -e/ ;hy a$e the $ed li!ht )a-e$a
enfo$)e$s only alloin! a !$a)e pe$iod of /. se)ond at the site of -y (iolation%
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hen the total possible e$$o$s of the syste- is at least /3 se)ondF This see-s
(e$y 'nfai$ to -e/
Anothe$ ina))'$a)y in the testi-ony as hen the offi)e$ stated the$e as a /
8 se)ond !$a)e pe$iod hen it as late$ dete$-ined that the !$a)e pe$iod as /.
se)ond at the site of -y )itation% O$a)le at Ri(e$ *';"i=it 1<,C)/ Sin)e the
offi)e$ p$ose)'tin! -e in the )ase as not aa$e of the a)t'al !$a)e pe$iod
befo$e ti)7ets a$e !i(en at that site% pe$haps he -ade othe$ e$$o$s in his
testi-ony/
The$e e$e also e$$o$s on the )itation *';"i=it 1A-1)/ The offi)e$ $itin! the
)itation )lai-ed the posted speed as 03 hen the a)t'al posted speed li-it as
05 -iles pe$ ho'$/ In addition% the state p$o(ided no e(iden)e that the photo
enfo$)e-ent )a-e$as e$e independently )e$tified to be a))'$ate and $eliable by
an o'tside a!en)y *';"i=it 1>-1)/ Also the state did not p$o(ide e(iden)e of
-aintenan)e $e)o$ds fo$ the )a-e$as and t$affi) si!nals *';"i=it 1+-1)/ As
sited befo$e the state did not p$o(e that ti-e -eas'$in! )alib$ation testin! as
)ond')ted ith the photo enfo$)e-ent )a-e$as/ So ho do I 7no that the ti-e
into the $ed% o$ the yello li!ht phase $e)o$ded on -y )itation is a)t'ally
a))'$ateF Ho -any othe$ e$$o$s o))'$$ed on -y )itation and in the state,s
testi-onyF
Ne6t% in the fi$st to still photo!$aphs% the state )lai-s that I as /4 se)ond
into the $ed li!ht phase befo$e $ea)hin! the inte$se)tion and the yello li!ht
phase as 4/3 se)onds *';"i=its 1C an% 1+)/ Hoe(e$% ith thei$ (iolation
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(ideo they )annot and did not p$o(e the ti-e into $ed and the yello li!ht phase
is a))'$ate on the )itation and on thei$ still i-a!es be)a'se the state,s (iolation
(ideo is ti-ed only in . se)ond inte$(als *See (iolation (ideo and E6hibit .H9.)/
See also >arnet 8a3el(s i%eo 0lip an% ';"i=it 14-, to !$asp ho little
the state did to sho thei$ (ideo as a))'$ate/ He des)$ibes the holes in thei$
e(iden)e in a b$illiant fashion in *';"i=it 1<1A AB%ait of >arnet
8a3el)/ ';"i=it 1<1> is his )'$$i)'l'- (itae des)$ibin! his e6pe$tise/
Also in state ';"i=its 1C an% 1+% they )lai- I as !oin! 8@ -iles pe$
ho'$ hen t'$nin! left/ They p$es'-e I as !oin! 8@ -iles pe$ ho'$ as the li!ht
as t'$nin! to yello/ Hoe(e$% they )annot tell ho fast I as !oin! hen the
li!ht )han!ed f$o- !$een to yello be)a'se the (ideo did not $e)o$d -y )a$ at
that ti-e/ Sin)e this a$ea as posted at 05 -iles pe$ ho'$ I )o'ld ha(e been
!oin! beteen 8@903 hen the li!ht )han!ed f$o- !$een to yello/ Yet if I a- in
the left lane on O$a)le% a- I li7ely to be !oin! 8@ -iles pe$ ho'$ in a 05 -ile an
ho'$ speed EoneF If I as% then Offi)e$ ?o'!las is )o$$e)t in ass'-in! I had
plenty of ti-e to stop at the stop ba$ fo$ the $ed li!ht/ Hoe(e$% -y speed li7ely
o'ld be infl'en)ed by t$affi) )onditions/ >oo7in! at the state iolation
i%eo% yo' )an see at the ti-e the$e as (e$y li!ht t$affi)/ I o'ld li7ely ha(e
!one faste$ as I app$oa)hed the t$affi) li!ht *';"i=it 3 '?uations)/ If the li!ht
)han!ed to yello in the dile--a Eone% sin)e the )ity of T')son 7eeps thei$
yello li!hts sho$te$ than hat -any e6pe$ts s'!!est% this )$eates a dile--a fo$
d$i(e$s he$e the d$i(e$ has to -a7e a split se)ond de)ision% KShall I b$a7eF If I
do ill I be able to stop befo$e $ea)hin! the inte$se)tion itho't bein! $ea$
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ended% o$ do I ha(e eno'!h ti-e to !et into the inte$se)tion befo$e the li!ht t'$ns
$edFL People espe)ially ones ith sloe$ $ea)tions sho'ld not ha(e to -a7e
s')h split se)ond de)isions at t$affi) li!hts+
E(iden)e shos that -any lo)alities% )ities *in)l'din! T')son) and at least .
state did o$ -ay ha(e sho$tened the yello li!ht phases at t$affi) si!nals
in)$easin! the n'-be$ of $ed li!ht (iolations *';"i=it 1+-,)/ The state
iolation i%eo% hi)h is only ti-ed in . se)ond inte$(als% did not and )annot
p$o(e that the yello li!ht phase on the )itation as a)t'ally 4/3 se)onds as
des)$ibed abo(e/ :e)a'se the iolation i%eo is -eas'$ed in se)onds it is
a))'$ate to abo't /3 se)ond/ So hen the (ideo )lai-s the yello li!ht phase is
4/3 se)onds% it )o'ld be )lose$ to 4 se)onds o$ 0 se)onds/ Conside$in! all these
fa)to$s did the state p$o(e that I as $esponsible by a p$eponde$an)e of
e(iden)eF >o!i)ally thei$ e(iden)e does not hold to!ethe$
Hoe(e$% if a #ede$al $e!'lation as (iolated and the states e(iden)e is f'll of
ina))'$a)ies% to )$eate an en(i$on-ent t$appin! people into $'nnin! $ed li!hts% is
&'sti)e t$'ly se$(ed by na$$oly definin! the b'$den of p$oof to hethe$ the
defendant $an the $ed li!htF This is hat the offi)e$ is )lai-in! is the )o'$t,s &ob
in his testi-ony in his $eb'ttal/ This o'ld be a t$a(esty of &'sti)e be)a'se then
)o$$'pt lo)al% )ity o$ state !o(e$n-ent offi)ials )an then bend the $'les
)on)e$nin! t$affi) $e!'lations to in)$ease $e(en'e as I ha(e !i(en e(iden)e in -y
t$ial/ ;hen defendants a$e not alloed to )$oss e6a-ine thei$ a))'se$s and
G'estion thei$ ass'-ptions% they loose poe$f'l eapons to defend the-sel(es/
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I belie(e the othe$ ina))'$ate state-ents and e$$o$s -'st be a))o'nted fo$ to
$'le &'stly in -y )ase/
The$e is a la$!e$ iss'e he$e/ Sin)e so -any fo$-ally )$i-inal (iolations a$e
no )onside$ed )i(il (iolations e ha(e lost the f'nda-ental $i!ht to fa)e and
)onf$ont o'$ a))'se$s in a la$!e n'-be$ of o'$ t$ials/ This is t$o'blin! be)a'se
the$e is a lot la$!e$ n'-be$ of )i(il )ases (e$ses )$i-inal )ases/ No hi!he$
)o'$ts a$e o'$ only defense 'ntil e find a ay to $e!ain these Constit'tional
$i!hts e s'$$ende$ed to the )i(il )o'$ts/
As a ta6payin! indi(id'al in A$iEona -y ta6es help pay yo'$ sala$ies/
The$efo$e I belie(e yo' a$e to se$(e -e not the $e(e$se/ So on)e yo' $'le%
please e6plain yo'$ $ationale fo$ yo'$ $'lin!/ As a so(e$ei!n indi(id'al% I !a(e -y
sa)$ed t$'st to yo' and alloed the )o'$ts to ha(e &'$isdi)tion o(e$ -e in this
-atte$/ This t$'st has been se(e$ely tested be)a'se the loe$ )o'$t did not
add$ess -y )on)e$ns ith the photo enfo$)e-ent syste- in T')son/ I hope yo'
$'le in the inte$est of the A-e$i)an people and o'$ Constit'tion/
Sin)e$ely%
=ohn =ay Unde$hill

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