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Hindu Rock-cut Architectureof the WesternDeccan

E r r o n a ( R a s l n a x u l e P u asn )

-..-.lut the Control of the Deccan was taken from the veloped, enabling craftsmen to push the archi-
--. ot tlre Early Western Calukyas around 75o1 by the tectural type to its limits. The Kailasanatha
::ce the Raptrakugas, who in this way began a hegemony ternple is more than simply a building; it
--ukyas, that was to last more than two hundred years, is a complex with all the essentialelements of
:- of the until about 973. Although the political might of contemporaneous free-standing southern-type
- :itnova- this farnily has been widely acknowledged,very temple units, including a main building, Nandi
: earlier litde is known about the artistic developments shrine, gateway, surrounding cloisters,and sub-
.--'llouta that rook place during the period oi thcir sidiary shrines.
supremacy. The principal site associatedwith It is difficult to say how long it took to create
these rulers is lllora, where several cave ex- the main temple and its surrounding elements
cavations were carried out, appalently under or the precisesequenceof the excavations.Most
their aegis. Without a doubt, the most ambi- scholars today feel that the major portion of
tious and impressive of these-indeed, perhaps the monument, including the central temple and
in all of South Asia-is Cave 16, the Kailasanetha Nandi shrine, aswell asperhapsthe gateway, be-
temple. One of the last important Hindu ex- long to the reign ofthe Rasrakota king Krsna I,
cavations,it representsnot only the most striking who ruled from around 757 to 773. However,
cave temple of the more than thirty at the site, it is likely that the temple was planned and
but also the culmination of rock architecturein begun under his predecessor,Dantidurga, since
South Asia. Its boldness suggestscenturies of the excavationnext to the Kailesanatha,Cave rj
tradition in which carving techniques and an (the misnamed"Dai Avrtar"). bearsan inscrip-
understandine of the rock medium were de- tion of the earlier monarch who reigned from


. .o'!

16.r. Kailasanathstcrnple corlplex tiorn rvcst shorvins cltrance

wr1l rnd grtcrv:r,v.Ellori], Mahart:trr, L1dia. Rtitr:rku!e Pcriocl.
Mainly ca. third qu;rrtcrcighth ccnturv.

arouncl 73J to 7J7 and the tlvo cavc monuDlents hcrc, just as it is gencrally in latcr south lndian-
bear unr.nistakablestylistic ties to cach other.z stylc ternples. The southcrn dcrivation for the
Generalconceptualrclations betr,vccnthis monu- forn.r is clearly seen in thc piiastcred niches
rncnt and the Virfipaksa tcmple at Pattadaka] bearing rcprcscntationsof various dcities whosc
(Figs.r5.3-9), rvhich datcsfrom approximately slendcr builds, ornanentatioll, pointed crowns,
thc fourth dccadeof thc cighth century, further and facial features furthcr indicate a southern
s u g g c ' ta d . r t cn e " r f h e m i d d l e o f t l r e e i g h t h sourcc(Fig. 16.z).Most of thc deitiesshorvnto
centr,ry for the Kailasanatha, althougl.r thc thc lcft of the entrAncc are Saivite while those
relationships betwccn the two teDrPles havc t o t l r c r i g h t r r < p r i m , , r i l y V . r i . n a r i t e. r n r r -
been vastly overemphasized.Indeed, whilc thcy rangcment also carried oLrt in the gallcry at
. h c r c c e r r . r i nf e a r u r c ,b c c - , u s cr h c y r r e b o r h the rcar of the precinct.
r o r r t h c r n - . r y l cr n o n u n r c n t sd r t i n g f r o n r . L p - After passingthrough the monurncntal gate-
proximatcly the samc time, the dilTerences way in the ccntcr of thc stone screenwall, the
bets'een thcm are at least as significant as those visitor enters a pit, for Jike the Paldya ternple
):ctwccn any othcr two crcatioirsin thc sPectrum at Kalugun.ralai (Fig. ra.37), thc Kailasanatha is
of lndic art. a totally free-standingten.rplcr','ithin a larsc Pit
From the exterior, thc templc compicx is that was excxvatcd to cleate a spaccaround the
alnost complctcly screcncdby a rock-cut rvall c c n r r . ' lr n . , s '( F r g . r t , . 3 ) .H o w c v e r . i n ( o n t r J . l
rvith a eateway in the centcr (Fig. 16.r). Al- to thc un{inished Pendya example rvith lvhich
though now rnuch dantaged duc to surface the Kailasanathais approximately contempor-
abrasion, the gatcway was an important feature aneous,the RastrakDtamonunlent is carvecland
r6.2. Detail, carvinsisto lefr of
cnirrnce to Kxiltsanatha tcmple
compourld. Ellore, Maherasrrx,
India. Rastrakntaperiod.Ca. third
quarter eishth ccntur,v.

16.3.Vicw of KailasanathxtcD-
ple from lorthwcst. El]ora,
Maharastn, India. Rrstraklta pc-
riod. MaiDty ca. third quartcr
cighrh century.


o 5 lo 15 21)

fiira quarter eighth century'

0 r0 30 60

0 5 l0 t5 2a
completed both inside and out. Further, sub- in the right wall of the pir .nd arorher templc,
sidiary shrines, chapels, and gallerres wcre ex- rivaling the Kailasanathaitsel{ is located at the
cavated in the surrounding rock wall, creating left. The latter excavationJcalled the LankeSvara
a temple cor.nplexof ovcrwhelming scope and temple, consistsof a pillared nandapaenteredby
ambition. Since thcse elements, as well as thc stairs at the wcst and a shrine with an enclosed
temple parts, occur on lrforc than onc level, it circumambulatory passageway.Like thc main
is best to study thc plan of the tenlple in two tcmple, it is dedicatcdto Siva.
stagcs,the lower and upper stodes (Fig. rrS.a). Stone bridges, carved from the living rock,
The lower srory greatly resemblcsa typical connect the gateway, Nandi pavilion, and en-
south Indian ternple complcx in its rcctangular trance porch of the ter:rple so that separarestairs
format, yet it diflcrs frorn both the Rajasirhhc- are not needed to visit the sccond story of each
ivara tenplc at K-iicipurxrll and the Virupaksa entity (Fig. 16.5). The main temple has a south-
temple xt Pattadakal in that the surrounding e:rr-style flafld that is capped by a pyramidal
wall does not contain cvenly spacedsubsidi:rry supcrstructurerising in clearly defined stagcsand
shrincs.Instead,it has sevcralrather large shrincs 'fhe
crowned by a. iikharc. five smaller shrincs
and a gallery:ilong thrcc siclesat the rear con- surrounding the fi:,ain dflafla arc also southern
taining huge sculptcclpanels. The monumental in form. Thc solid lowcr story of thc Nandi
ni;vo-storied gateway providing accessto the tcmple and that o[ the main temple arc more
t e m p i c c o r ) r p o u n do n r h c w e s ( i s o n a o a x i s than seven mcters high and, iu the caseof the
with :r detaclrcdNandi na4dapaand the ten.rple main temple, has approximatcly life-size ele-
propcr. The lowcr stories of both the Nandi phants carved around it. A pair of enornous
shrine and main tcmple are solid ancl cannot pillars (stanbhas)flank the Nandi pavilion; and
be cntered. In plan, the lower story of rhc a pair of elephants (the one at the right is
main tcnlple seen-rs somervhat unusual, consist- badly damaged) were also rock-cut and must
ing of a rectangular form lvith projections have been part of the original schemc since
at the sidesand rear, but the shape is clarified matrix had to be left for their crcatron.
in the upper story, for at dlat icvel, thc ten.rple, Thc cxtcrior of the tenplc is riclJy carved
which mry be crrrered.brc.rksinro ir, corn- with nichcs, pilasters,windows, and cornicesas
ponctlt parts: a. ldtrdaparvith sixtcen pillars well as imagcs of deitics, nithrnas, ar'd other
arrangcd in four groups of four to create a figures. Even more elaborate than the monu-
kind of cruciforn.r effect for the aislcs, a pro- nents of thc Early Western Calukyas and
jecting porch at the front (west) ancl one on Pallavas,the richncss of carving suggestsrapid
eithcr side, and an antechambcr and srnall movement toward thc alnost totally filled
cubical slrrine cncased in in extremcly thick surfacesof n.rany late Indic temples. Although
rvall. Thc shrine may be circumambulatcd by the iconographic prograrn of the temple is not
exiting at tlre rear of the nandapa atd snlkng
f'lly ktto*tr, most of the depictions are of
along an unroofed passagcway that has {ive Saivitc subjects,but a considcrablenumber arc
smallershrincs"garlanding" thc centrrl sancturn. Vaisnavite. Interspersedwith thc many reliefs
Except for the addition o[ thcse five shrincs, and {igures of varying sizeson thc temple sur-
and thc fact that the circumar.nbulatorypassage facc are huge panelscontaining gigantic figures
is not encloscd,the plan of thc tcmple is quite or tableaus.Under the stone bridge between thc
norrllal and n-raybc relatcd to nuncrous nrollu- Nandi shrinc and the ternple porch, on the east
ments, both in southcrn and northern Indir. side ofthe Nandi shrine,is a large pancl showing
On drc second icvcl, thc Nandi slrrine may Siva in one of his angry aspectsas destroycr of
also be entered. The excavationsin the sccond r h e d e n r o n . A n d h a k a ' u r a( f i g . r 6 . 6 ) . C r a c c -
story of the surrounding wall do not reflect firlly po'cd arrd rerr-armcd.Sivr hold. rhc skin
those below, a {bature th:rt is fcasible in cave of a slain elephant bchind him and is accon.r-
architecture when the relationship berwccn the penied by his consort, Pervati (at the right),
two need not be stmcturrl. Ts,'o shrines occur whorn he fondlcs afl-ectionatclywith one hand,



.: ::ch

r- :ld
'. =di
-_ tre
: -re


r6.J. Frollt cornponentsof Kailasanathaternple,

fron south. Ellora, Maheristra, India. Rrsira-
kala period. Mainly ca. third quarter eighch

16.6. Siva as Descroyerof Andhakasura,Kaila-

sanatha temple. Ellora, Maharestra,India. Ra-
strakutaperiod. Ca. third quartereighth ccntury.

and the saptumatrfrar(seven mothers), who of other Hindu caves. Possibly, the popular
appearassmall carvingsin the round at the lower name KailSsanathawas given to this temple
left. The origin of tbe saptamat/<as is tied into becauscof the associationwith Siva as lord of
the Andhakasura story as given in Puranic Kailasain this relief.s
literature, for when Siva attempted to slay the The dramatic efect of the tcmple, enclosed
dernon, drops of blood from the wounds of the within the mountain inelf, is partly the result of
demon created new demons as tlrcy fell to the large and dynamic carvings, such as those
earth. The various gods sent their ir&tls to help discussed,at a number of key locations within
stop the blood, thus explaining the presenceof the temple precinct. One of the nost compelling
the saptamafikas.Afurities to south Indian style groups is found in an excavated hall on the
carvings of the Pallavas and Early Westem second level of dre right wall of the temple
Calukyas are seen in the elongation of Siva's enclosure,which is dedicatedto the saptamaqkas
torso with its typical roll of flesh beneath the and popularly called the Hall of Sacrifice.
horizontal waistband. The very full hair style Human-size, in thc round, deeply carved repre-
is part ofthe iconographic convention, although sentations of the natykas, Galresa, aud other
the rather rcalistic, three-dimensionaltreatment figures line three walls of the shrine, virtually
of the locks of hair secmsto bc a tie to stylcs surrounding the devoteewho might enter. Three
of the preceding centuries of the Gupta and of the best-preservedfigures are on the western
post-Gupta periods. wall, and show Durga at the right with her lion
Another important and huge relief shows the vehicle, a goddessseatedupon a lotus pedestal
multiarmed, multiheadeddemon Ravar.ra shaking in the center, and Kala, a male skeleton with
the sacredmountain abode of Siva and Pervati, the bodies of two naked, dying men, one across
Mount Kailasa (Fig. i6.7). Located under the his lap and another below (Fig. 16.8). In this
porclr on the south side of the na4/apa of the case,the robust, fullfigured forns ofthe western
central temple, this relief with its approxirnately Deccan that had been seen at sites like Ajanla
human-size figures and three-dimensionally and Aurangabad seem to be present, and it is
carved detailscreatesa highly dramatic effect. Its evident fiom other portions of the Kailasanatha
story, like n.ranyother Hindu tales,rnay be read complex as well that artisansof both southern
on two levels.The first is a sirnpleaccount of the and western Deccan heritage worked on the
attempt by the dcmon Rdvana to wreak havoc monument, although the southern style prevails.
on Kailasa by shaking it and Siva's subsequent A great degree of realism, probably exploited
overpowering of Revana through the use of for dramatic effect, is seenin the naked igures
only his great toe. On a more sublime level, and especiallyin the depiction of Kala. Siva as
the story is an expressionoffaith in the unlimited destroyer of Andhakasura,the story that ex-
power of Siva and the reassurancethat evil, no plains the origin of the saptumatkas,is fittingly
matter how strong, cannot surpassthe greatness depictedto the left of this hall.Tlie assignmentof
of rhe god. The relief showsRavanain a caviry a separateshrine at a Siva temple to the seven
beneath stylized mountain forms, Siva and mothers is a feature that becomes increasingly
Parvati sit atop the central cluster of rocks and common after this period in the Deccan and
Siva's dwarves (garas), animals, and attendants other parts of India, and is refective of the
accompany them. Parvati, leaning toward her growing imporrance of flemale imagery in
lord, suggeststhe emotional drama of the story Hinduism. As in Buddhism, and seen already
and another female figure to Parvati's right in the rock architecture created for Buddhist
seemsto be rundng in fright into the distance. establishmentsin the Deccan, Hinduism of the
In thesefigures, as in most adorning the temple, post-Gupta periods shows increasing use of
clearsouth Indian al{uritiesare seenin treatment female symbolism, the female essentiallyrepre-
of the slender body forms, high hair styles, senting the jaAri that is a necessalycomponent
headdresses,and ornamentation. The subject for the achievement of release(rzo.Qsa), that is,
itself appearsseveraltimes at Ellora in a number a reintegrationwith the UniversrLPrinciple.
:.rlar r6.7.RavanaShakirlgMounr Kxil,sa,
..-t" Kailasxnathr tc rplc. Ellore, Maha-
:-l of rastre, Indi.r. Rislrakiita pcriod. Ca-
third quarter eighth ccntury.

6.8. Matr[as, Kri]asan,dla tcm-

plc. Ellora, Mrhiragfra, Lldia
Ra;trakritr Fcriod. Ca. third
quar!cr cigllth ceniLrry-

C o N c t u sl o l t

Although the Kailesanethatemple complex is the creation of such an extraordinary monument

not the only monument of the RaggakOta is an intriguing issue,especiallysincea short time
dynasty, it is certainly the most impressive.A after it was made, Hindus virtually abandoned
few other cavesat Ellora and somein&equentlv the rock-cut technique in favor of structural
discussedstructural temple, throughout rhe buildings. Thus, the artistic tradition ended soon
Deccanarealsoascribed to the Raptrakftaperiod, after the production of one of its most remark-
and all of thesemust be thoroughly studied able achievementsand never again was a rock-
beforethe full implicationsof the Kailasanatha cut monument of such scope attempted.4
templeare understood.The motivation behind
a short time
..i smrctural PART FOUR
ended soon
*as a rock-


1; ir+ E


Li-l r
i \ l n i-tl l $ C r
t<rt <L
t-J- lt tt I LL tt I
>-F-Zi a
D e t a i la f 1 7 . 2 3 .


Kaimrr and RelatedSchools

Although regional cultural variations havc bccn long after the art tradition of the northwest was
discerniblc since the carliest begimines of Indic viablc. Thc stucly of thc regional styles of art,
civilizatiot, they bccane incrcasingly rvell t1ren,shoulclbe b"sed upon the premise that
dcfincd over the ccnturies. Aftcr thc Gupt:r witl.rin cach region thcrc is sone conrmonality,
pcriod in particular, regional art schools paral- as wcll as upon the recognition that a great deal
lcling linguistic, cultural, and social patterns ^f -.'i"n, i.t" -,irhi"
rnay be broadly defined according to the tlncc The Hinralayan valley of Ka(n.rir, although
major geographic divisions usually uscd to gcographicallysccludedfrorl the rest of South
describe the South Asian subcontincnt, that is, Asia, has bccn :r part of thc Indic culturel sphere
northern, southern, and ccntral (Deccan).Thcsc sincc thc timc of A(oka. lts geographicsituation,
catcgories should not bc viewed as absolutc, bounded on all sidesby high nrorrntains,has led
especial)y in thc casc of the Dcccatr schools, to an insularity that contributcd to the dcvcl-
which often sharc characteristicsof both north- opn-rcnt of its rrniquc cultural characteristics.
crn and southem art, or in the caseof the coastal Kainriri art is nrainly dcpcndcnt on Indic
rcgions, where on thc cast and on thc lvest idior.ns, modifieci by inllucnces from Bactro-
certain artistic ties may bc sccn from north to Gandhera, Iran, and Inner Asia. Through
sorth, alnost seeming to obviate thc threc these neighboring rcgions, inlluenccsfrom later
divisions. Witl.rin thc broad sphcres of the western Asiatic Hcllcnisn-rn-ray also bc traced.
notthern, soLrtlrcrn,aud central divisions, thcre Howcvcr, for all these inlluences, the Ka6rniri
is a grcat dcal ofvariation arising from nuineroLls idiom was unique and earned the region a
factors itcl,-rding strong local tr:rditrons,as secn, rcprltatiorl throughout Asia for its sophisticated,
for exarnplc, in thc cascof thc art of Kaimrr, elegant, and technic;r)ly supcrb schoolsofart.
where the Bactro-Gandhera hcritagc pcrsistccl Thc history of Kaimir has been chronicled


in an inportant and possibly unique text Iarly traditions indicatc that the Kaimlr
relativc to Indic historiography, tlte Raja- Valley was a part of thc Maurya empire and
tarcigirl. W titten in about rr481 by Kalhana, that Aioka hin.rselffounded the capital, Srina-
son of Ca4paka,a n.rinisterto King Harga (ro89- gara, at a location now lnown as Pendrerhan,z
rror) of the first Lohara dynasty, it dcscribes just south of modern Srinagar. Howevcr, no
the history of Ka{mir uP to tlrc timc of its archaeological finds in Ka6rnir testify to
writing, detailing the building of cities aud Maurya artistic activity in thc region. Only a
temples, designating the Patrons, and giving single monarch is mentioned in the Raiatndigittt
some of the undcrlying rcasoning behind thcir as intervening betwcen thc Maurya and thc
actions. Howcver, Kalhana is lnainly accurate Kulana pcdods, but during Kusana timcs, the
concerning thc period of his life and the im- history becomes more clear. Ka(miri cities
mediately preceding periods,for which he sccms foundcd by thc Kus-a4asar€ still known, such as
to have been able to rely on contemPorary Kaniskapura (modcrn Kanispur) and Huvi5ka-
documents. His accuracy decreascsthe further pura (modern U;kur). Of these,Uskur rcmained
hc extendsbackward in tine until the chronicle an important Buddhist site for severalccnturies
becomesa jur.nbleof lcgendscoupled with bits of , n d u n d e r u c n t. r r l e , r sttu o t n a j o r r c n o v . ' t i o n s .
histodcaiinformation for the early periods.Using one in the latc fourth ccntury and anothcr in the
this material as wcll as some collateral sources, cighth. It is gencrally bclieved that Kaniska held
however, it is possiblc to providc an outline rhc fourth Buddhist council in Ka(n.rir, thereby
of the history of Ka(n.rirfron.r the timc of ASoka demonstrating its importance as a Buddhist
t o r h c m i d d l c o I r l r c t w c l f i l r c e t t r t t r y..r g r i n ' t centcr by thc sccondcentury 4.o.3
which the artistic dev€loPncnts may bc seen.

Prr-K alxola RxMAtNs

The earlicst sitc that has yielded important sinilar to that of the railya hall cavc at Kondivtc
artistic remains is Herwan (Harvan), a (Fig.5.r9) cxccpt that therc is no survivrng
Buddhist monastery a short clistance ftoln evidcncc of thc prescnce of thc -vr.rpa.WJrat
Srinagar. It is situatedhalfway up the slopc of a rcmaitrs is a low section of thc wall and original
mountain bordcring a lateral branch of the floor of thc courtyard, which were faced with
rnain vallcy. Founded under thc Kusenas,pcrhaps stamped clay tilcs (Fig. r7.r). Thc floor tilcs
at thc tine o[ Kaniska's cottncil, thc r-nonastery lvere arranfled to suggcst the form of an cnor-
was apparentlyactive for a colsiderablclength mous open lotus, which lnay havc rcpresented
of tilDe. Constrtlction tcchniques found at the transcenclcnt cosmic lotus, along with
Harwan mngc fron-r carefully cxccuted "Kusdna borclcr and othcr motifs. The centcr of the lotus
diaper" walls to a rather crudc pcbble and rrud has r lorv raiscd arca r,vith a hole in the middle
version usually assignedto thc middle or latc of it, as if it scrvcd as a stand or sttpport.
Hola pcriod (mid-fiftb ccntLrry or later). Very Ka(nir's associationswidr both the northcrn
little has actually survivcd at Harwan, and Indian art schools and thosc of western Inner
were it not for thc cottrtyard tilcs found in Asie lrc ,.viderrrfrorn the tilc', .rs .ccn in I
associationwrth tlte caitya irall, thc site would rather comnlon typc of Har*''an tilc that shorvs
have little to testify to its former inportance thrcc seatedasceticsin the ccntral band, with a
Thcsc early remains, however, alrcady display rorv of gecsc(iam-sa)bclow and a railing with
at least two strands of the an-ralgatuthat is to figures abovc (Fig. r7.z). The gccsc nlotif was
become thc Ka(n.riri school, as they bctray known in ancicnt Indic art sincc the Maurya
both wcstern Asiatic and Gupta assocratrotrs. period (Fig. and thc portrayal of figurcs
Of the surviving lertulants at Harwan, the convcrsing above a railing rvas well established
caitya hall is the most intercsting. Its plan is by thc Kuslna pcriod at Mathrtra. Howcver,
hat dre Kaimir
ur,r'a empire and
re capital, Stna-
r as Pdudreqhan,2
r. Howevet, no
mir testify to
' region. Only a
the Rajaturaigina
daurya and the
u!a[a times, the
Kaimiri cities
. known, such as
) and Huviska-
Uskur remained
r 7.r . Sectionof tile llo or of caityah^11,Herwan, Kaimir,
India. Ca. fourth centrry. TeIIa cotta.
'jor renovations,
LCanother in the
rat Kaniska held
Ka:imir, thereby r7.2. Floor tile. Fron H,rwan, Ka5mir, India. Ca.
IS a Buddhist fourth century. Stamped terra cotta. H: J3.4 cm. Is-
3 tituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Romc.

the rather distinctive facial rypes of the convers- one illustrated (Fig. r7.3), have stimulated some
ing figures are probably derived from the more debateregarding their age, but their relationship
avc at Kondivte naturalistic renderings of the Bactro-Gandhara stylistically to materials from Hadda suggests
s no surviving regions of the northwest, here reduced to almost that they were produccd in the late fifth or
te -rlrpd. What caricaturelike renderings, and not the Mathure early sixth ccntury. Slightly fuller facial features
'all and original style. The ascetictype, too, might be traced to and a softening of the details distinguish these
;ere faced with the earlier art of the northwestem portions of works frour Hadda examples. A few pieces
t ire floot trles the subcontinent.The numerals on the tiles. show a strong relationship to the Gupta idiom
rm of an enor- which may have been used to expedite rhe of the late fifth century, especiallyin thc softly
r1'e rePresented proccssofcorrcctly placingthem in rheiroriginal rnodcled facial fearurcs.alrhough a rangc in
'- along with contexts, are in the Kharosthi scripr, which was stylcs suggcstseidrer diffcrcnr periods of pro-
Lterof the lotus prevalent in tJre northwest. The use of this duction. or. aiternatively.that artistsofseparatc
r in thc middle script suggeststhat the Kidara ("Little") Kuganas, traditions worked at rhe site. Thcse examplcsof
sllPPort. a branch of the main family, were still in power the modeler's art may bc considercdrepresenta-
h the northem or had recentlycontrollcdthc region.This would tive of a major art form in Ka6mrr during thc
\restefn Inner confirm the usual fourth-century dadng for thc pre-Karkota period.
. as seeI1ln a tiles, a suggestionthat is also supported by the Very few. stone sculptureshave been found
rile thac shows treatment of the foliate motifs in thc band ot that belong to the pre-Kerkota period, yet an
I band, with a geese,which resemblcsCupra-periodcxamples isolatcd carving representing Karttikeya, fiom
: railing with from norrh and north-cenrralIndia. Bijbchara, docuruentsthc cxistenccof a mature
:ese motif was Other important pre-Karkota-period sites stone sculptureidiom from that time (Fig. r7.4).
t rhe Maurya are Akhnur and Uskur, ancient Huviskapura, Thc image is not a tentative experiment by a
rval of figures which was founded by rhe Kus5r.racnrpcror scr.rlptorreaching for forms half-realized in the
.:ll established Huviskain rhc secondcentury,r.o.Thc surrriving creative moment. On the contrary, it demon-
ra. Howcver, sculpture heads from these sites,asuch as thc stratesa senseof sure cornpletion by a master

r7.3. Head. Frorn Akhnur, Ka6rnir, India. Ca. latc

frfth or early sixth century. Terra cotta. H: rr.5 cu.
National Museum, Karachi.


r7.4. K:rttikcya. Fronr Bijbehara,Ka(mir, India. Ca. r7.1. Brddha. Provenanccunknorvn. Frorr norrhwcst
fifth or sixrh century. Grcy-black stone. H: roj.J cur. Lrdia or Pakisran.Ca. mid-fifth ro nlid-sixth century.
Sri Pratap Singh MuscuiD,Srinagar. Mctal. H: 32.4 cru. Sri PrarapSinsh Museunr, S.inaear.

, India. Ca. late skilled in his craft and con-{ident of his technical abhayamudra in the Sri Pratep Singh Museum
ona. H: r t.5 crn. and visual solutions. Although the date of the (Fig. i7.5). Although its findspot and place of
piece is uncertain, very late Sassano-Iranian ele- manufacture are uncertain, it was collected at a
ments in the treatment of the streamersat the time when the museum's attention was entirely
sidesof the head and the detailing of the girdle focused on the provinces of Ka3mir, Jarnmu,
and dagger with their pearl ornamentation sug- and to some degreeLadakh, and it is reasonable
gest that this is a work from the H[na period, to assumetlat it came from one of these three
approximately fifth or sirth century, since these regions. The featuresof the face, treatment of
elements are emphasizedon Hu4a coins. The the robe, and proportions of the body are
relative\ Hellenjstic tteatment of the torso and related to forms widely found in Bactro-Gan-
rather muscular body, along with the deep folds dhara images. Further, the compressedstature
of the garment, are reminiscent of Kusa4a-period ofthe figure, the heavinessofthe drapery (wlnch
works from Gandhara and Bactria, revealing obscuresthe forms of the body), and the large
Ka(mrr's arristicdebt to that rradition. How"- size ofthe hands and feet all suggestthe Bactro-
ever, other Gatures demonstrate that the Kaimiri Gandhara sryle of around the fourth century.
style was also touched by the Gupta schoolsof However, there is a fullness to thc features of
northern and north-central India. The huskv. the face, especially the cheeks and lips, that is
stockybody build and detailingof rhe anaromy. more appropdately identified as fifth or sixth
while ultimately based on the muscular body- century, and thus a date of 45o-55o may be
type popularized in Kusana-periodworks, along postulated. Although rather strictly in the
with the full form of the now badly battered Bactro-Gandherastyle, the image provides in.r-
face,suggestworks ofthe fifth century like those portant evidence of a stylistic source for later
at Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh. Kadmiri sculptureand painting, whether or not
A few rnetal imagesare also known fiom this it was actually made in Kaimrr.
period, including a standing Buddha displaying

T H E K A R K o T AP r u o t ( c a . 6 z 5r o 8 5 5 )

While there was undoubtedly a great deal of pedirya II (ca. 66t-vr) could have founded thc
artistic activity during the early part of the Kerkota tradition of monument building prior
Karkota period, it is not until the reign of to the rcigrl of Lalitaditya. Further, it is possible
Lalitaditya (ca.7z4-5o) that monuments may that several of his successorsfollowcd in his
be assignedto a particular patronage.According footstepsby constructing ten.rplesand patroniz-
b the Rajatardigiryt,Lalitadttya conquered most ing monasteries. The fact remains, however,
of north India to the Bay of Bengal. These that the eighth century was a major period of
military adventures were probably massive templc construction, using durable materials,
raiding and looting expeditions rather than tme largely attributable to the wealth and power of
conquests.As a result ofthem, however, lalitadi- Lalitaditya.
tya carried back to Kaimir inestimable treasure, The remains at Martaqda probably date from
mostly in the form of gold, silver, and bronze. 'fhc
the period of Lalitaditya. Rajaturaigitt Ls
The vast wealth accrued by Lalitaditya must quite explicit on the subject, for in the section
have been a major factor in stimulating large- on Lalitaditya it statesthat "That liberal [king]
scaleart production during the eighth century built tlre wonderftrl lshrine] of Matta4da, wrth
in Kaimir. Some authors attribute virtually its massive walls of stone within a lofty en-
any eighth centLlry nonument or sculpture to closute (prasarlantar)."s1^1 r-O rt^, however,
the period of Lalitaditya, but two monarchs was not the fotuder of the site, for his work
From northwest
:id-sixrh century. before him also had long and prosperousreigns. there was a reconstruction of an earlier temple,, Srinagar. Both Durlabhavardhana(ca. 625-6r) and Prate- perhapsof the sixth century, that is now com-
r7-6. Phlr of Mata4rJa ternplc. Mertaqda,
Kr(rrrr, Indn. Krrkota period.probrbly rcign
of Lalitaditya. Ca. second cluarter eighth

r7.7. Martttda temple frorn wcst. Mtrtl4da'

Kri rrrr, Indir. K,rkor.r pcr'od. probabll rcign
of Lalinditya. Ca. second quarter eighth

r7.8. North pcristylc, Mart,4da ler1rple.Mar-

t:nda, Kaalnir, India. Karkota Period, proba-
bly rcign of Lalit:ditya. Ca. second quarter
cighth ccntury.

-fhe of Surya werc placcd around thc plinth of the

pletcly lost. Rajataraigi1t further reveals
;hat tilc temple was dedicatcdto dre dcity of the temple. The iconography is Martanda/Snrya as
tcxt 6 the Univcrsal, r'ith thc temple's ccntral image
sun, S[rya, who is called Martanda in the
the secondaryimages.
T h c t c n r p l ei , r c c t a n g t t l ai nr p l a n . c o r r s i ' t t n g conceivcdofas en-ranating
Architcctr-rrally,thc tenPle and its successors
of a ttv4dapaanda shriue(Figs.17.6,r7'7)'Two
havc generatcd n.ruch discussion rcgarding thc
double slrrincs frank the napdapaon the westcrn
sorirce of thcir forms. Early writers, like Sir
cnd. It is enclosed in a vast courtyard by a
Alexandcr Cunninghan.r, sarv the Ka(mlri style
peristylc wall having eighty-four secondary
as a nanifestation of Creek stylcs.? But such
, i.r it. The colunurs of this peristylc are
relationships c1o not ncccssarily ir.nply new in-
Ilutcd, and their basesand capitals are clearly
fusions of influcncc. Hellcnizing elencnts arc
reminisccllt of Syrio-Roman typcs (Fig' t7 8)'
Thcrc is a gate to the colnPould on the west, obviorisly present in tlle architccturAl details of
and major lccondary shrir-rcsin the center of thc tenpl; such as the pcdiment motif and
cach of the two side rvalls. Each of drc eighty- trilobatearches(Fig. r7.7), the surroundingpcri-
four nichesoriginally containcd an iurage, prob- stylc, the var,ltcd arches, and cngagcd col-
ably of somc forn.rofsurya, and morc dePictions [n-rns. The use of these fornls reflccts wcsterr

1:- ' .

' \lrrrrr:rqr, a--:.r,
: : :labl,v rcign
::.:icr eighth it-',.i:;,
: '-,roba-
! .r:rrtcr

: :- of the
, :,lf\:.i as
. -laccssors
:.:-:ltrg thc
:,. likc Sir
' .jriri stylc
llLrt stlclr
'. ncrv irt-
' -:ntnts arc
. leteils of
' :notif and
::r,iinq peri-
r.!l{ -
::glgecl col-
-. -. ts wesaern

Asiatic tastes, and especially idioms that had thousandpras&asof copper (nearlythree hundred
been prescnt in Gandhara, Bactria, and other tons),8 the nurnber eighty-four thousand being
regions of the northwest. The peaked roof and r convenrionused to design:rte a vtsr quantity
pyramidal section of pediments were known in and not a literal mcasurement.Lavish expendi-
Bactro-Gandhara art since the Parthian pcriod; tures of this sort, evcn if exaggerated,can only
a good exar-npleof a n-ronument that bearsthis come when there is tremendous incomc to the
motif is the Sttrpa of the Double-headed Eaglc kingdom, suggcstingthc veracity of the clairns
(Fig. 2.8). These later survivalsin Ka(mir should of Lalitaditya's conquests.
come astro surprise,in light ofthe history of the None of thcse imagcs survives today, but the
region and its associationwith adjacent areas. remainsofthe calt1'abuilt by Lalitaditya, which
Mertanda is one of the earliestand yer largest would have housed the BThad Buddha, verify
of the Ka(n.riri stone tcmples known to have the claims regarding the size of the Buddha
cxisted. It is likely, however, that it was not image. The plan of the structure (Fig. r7.9) is
innovative in design but simply refected cstab- known from thc surviving plinth, which had a
lished architecturrl traditions, probably pri- .eriesofeighr 'tairs on the east.idegiving access
marily in wood. Sincc the Parthian-pcriod tradi- to the top. A pradok5i4apatha around thc massive
tions at Taxila reveal sirnilar architectural orders, block that originally supported the Buddha
it may be assumedthat the basic style had bccn would have allowed circrunambulation around
present in the irnmediatc vicinity since the thc main figurc. The original appearanccofthe
first century of the Christian era and that it was building may be infcrred from a Painting at
very much the local convention by thc eighth Alchi that is bclieved to depict this monunlent
century. Thus Martenda is an expressionof the (Pl. r9),e a suggestionsuPPortedby the internal
contemporaneoLls trends in Kalintr, whilc at evidcnceofthe dimensionsand form ofthe plan
the same time it clearly displays its heritage in as determincd by the foundations, the thickness
Bactro-Gandhara and ultimately other western ofthe remaining wall, and textual evidence.The
Asiatic sources. height of the structure was probably between
In the eighth centruy, Ka6tlrir was a ma1or thirty and forty meters, and in style, it may
centcr of lluddhisn whose inllucnce was felt have resen-rbled contemporaneous Ka6miri
widcly throughout north and castcrn Asia. At structurcs charactedzedby a peakcd roof, like
the epicenter of Kaimiri Buddhism was the that shown in the Alchi painting. The enormous
site of Parihasapura,rvl-roscnronuments, though imagc of the Buddha, which may have stood
today barely knorvn, scrvcd as models all across thirty n1eters tall, refected certain rcligious
Asia from the Pat't.tir Mountains to Japan. concepts sweeping Asia during this period in
Although n.Luch destroyed, Parihasapura still which the Universal Buddha (presumably
gives thc visitor a senscof its forrner grandcur, Vairocana) was scen as a B/ra,y' Buddha. That
for thc sceleof the rcnrains is truly impressive. the type must have been comDron in the Indic
Originally, there was mtlch more to the site sph"ie i, indi."ted by prcserved examples in
th:rn just the tlrrcc surviving bascmcntsof Br-rd- stucco, as at N5land5 in eastell1India, or stone,
dhist builclingswould indicatc Rajaturahgi,li such as at Kanheri (Fig. rz,.z4) and Bamiyan
describesthe town as "mocking the residence ( F i g . l o . z 5 ) . H o w c v e r . t n e t a l e x . r n t p L rhs a v e
of Indra" (in Treyastrirh(a paradise)and tells of i , , * i u c J o n l y o L r t : i d ct h c l n d i c c o n r e x t .b u c
the imagcs madc by King lalitaditya for drc a cornmon source in India for these traditions
various temples, including a rePresentationof can hardly be disputed sincc all of the regions
Vis4u as Ma&rakeiata, one of Visnu as P,rrt- irr uhiclr rhc fuhad Buddlr, conrenrion is
hasakelaua(thc patron of the city), :utd a Brhad found wcre in contact lvith ancient India as
Buddha (Great Buddha), thc thrce rnade respcc- a source of Buddhological information. The
tively of eighty-four tholrsand rola/<asof gold in.rageconn.rissionedby Lalitaditya rrrust havc
(about five tons), cighty-fottr thor-rsandpolas of becn incrcdibly impressive-a ruetal figure,
silvcr (about twcnty-o11ctons) and cighty-four probably gilded or of the yellowish color of
h duee hundred
thousand being
a vast quantity
[-adsh expendi-
rared, can only
l income to the
n- of the claims

r roday, but the

hadirya, which
Buddha, veriS'
d the Buddha
r Fig. i7.9) is
L l-hich had a
f. gro'ing ".ces
ni the massive
| &e Buddha
:Lrion around
p:rance ofthe
r : lainting at
h! monunent
f,,r-:he internal
re ofthe plan
5 =e thickness
| <.: ience. The
Ll-,',- berween
Lr-e. it may
Kaimiri qo
fr:-i Fo-lL. - _-.
le: roof, like
f:. :norrnous
r2.9. Plan of Lalitaditya's.aitl,a. parihesapura,Kaarnir,India. Ker_
:il_e stood kola period, reign oflalitidirya. Ca. secondquartereighth century_
= reiigious
, :eriod in
::::umably most Kaimiri metal work, larger than most of Lalitaditya's understanding of Buddhism.
a::la. rna[ people had ever seenor conceived-of, resplendent Thus, Cafrku4a's stipa night have been both
- :he Indic as the morning sunlight refected frorr it. One taller than the caitya of the king and superior to
c=::rples in can scarcely imagine the awe and overwhelming it due to Cariluna's implied understanding of
,rr stone, sense oftfie majestyofthe Buddhathar a devotee Buddhism. As in the caseof Lalitaditva's caitva.
Saruyan must have Glt as he srood at the feet of the '"1-
little remains of the original *ootrrn"o,,
:-:s have Buddha and looked up ro the image "which though again, other evidence,including textual
reachedup to the sky."ro descriptions,enablesus to make inferencesabout
:,-:ditions Another monument at Padhasapura,the Jt pa
_ its form. Speci{ically,a secondstructure depicted
built by Cairkuna, who was the Tokharian mini- in the Alchi composition(Pl. r9) almostceriainly
ster of Lalitaditya, is also notable for its size represents Cankur.ra's stipa, for tlrc f,wo monu-
and lavishness.In the Rajatffahginl it is described ments at Parihesapuramust have stood as twin
as "loftier even than the mind of the kine."rl paragons of Kasmiri Buddhist architecture for
: =: have ln context, rhe referenceto rhe mind oithe
- r., ;tgure, generationsafter their creation. The stupa shown
king rnight actually beto the caityaofLalitaditya, in the Alchi painringsecmsto reston a complex
:rlor of which would have been raisedas an expressron basesuggestiveof the cruciforrn p aficarathaplan
362 LA|ER NoRTHERN scHools

:l It-
-r-' -L"

r- -:
, , .it! Plan of Cairkur.Ia\ ritpd.
Parihlsapura, Kainllr, I11dia.
-iil l i Karkota pcriod, reign of Lalitadi-
: tya. Ca. second quarter eighth
, ' ,,, 1

revealed by thc surviving foundations (Fig' Stylistically, the figure betrays the Kaimiri artist's dcbt to the ffaditions of the Bactro-
A o.u't be, ofstone sculptureshave beenfound Gandhara region, which are espcciallyvisible in
in associationwith Cankuna's srlpa, although rlre toqdlile;armerrt wirh its cnrphasizedfolds
their original locations on thc monument arc ,,u", rlle tor'o. Thc rarhcrnturcr'thrfotms of che
body and s\ight coxtrapposto pose reveal furthcr
not knorin. Sevcral,including the one illustr:lted
ties to thc traditions ofthe northwest. Howevcr,
h e r ci l i g . r 7 . rt ) . r t e r e p r c ' e n t r t i o no'f c r o w n c d
rhc clinqing rn.rnn, r in u hich thc drapcry revcnls
Brrd.'1h,ri. AlLhouglr cx:rt,rplcsof rhis srrbjcct
rh" forir.trof rhe body bcnearh clerrly demon-
are known ^t le"rt the sixth century, thc
crorvned Buddha had becorne a well-known stratcs an overlay of Gupta-period aesthetics.
iconograpl.ricform in Buddhist art not only in Even the downcf,st eycs, albeit on a western
f"(rn"rr but in other parts of ancicnt India and Inner Asian facial type, are reminiscent of GuPta
Asi.rbt rhc eiqhdrccntury.I lte crorvtr'tteckl'ce' formulations. Thc crown, with its pcarl designs
rnd cairingsusu.rllyfottndotr rlte'c Ggure'do not and Sassanid-typestrealners, suggcsts further
indicrrc .r contrldicrion of irscetici5nlor 'rn associationsbetween Kaimlr and the westcrn
adoption of a rnaterialistic vicw within the Asian realn-rs.
reliiion. Radrer, thesc onancnts symbolize thc Another irnportant site of thc Kerkota Pedod
hisilest achievencnt, Universality, and thcre- is Pendrethan, where A6oka is believed to have
foie, although thcsefigurcs en.rbodythe principlc founded a capital, and that was often pa-
ofl.ristoricalBddclhasQintaaakaya),they are also tronized by the rtling monarchs of Ka3lnir. As
,.lepictiorrs ol lnas(snt ,hognkaya)rnd es;'ccially at n.ranyKaimiri sites,both Buddhist and Hindu
oI rhe Adi Brrddlr.rslril/ralilaAaya('clf-origi- rernains have cone to light at Pandrelhan. A
nated). Crowned Buddha figurcs invariably snall but nearly perfectly intact Hindu templc
wcar the norn.ral robe of a Buddha and thus at Pandrcthan was probably built in the eighth
crnnot be confuscd rvith bodhisattvas in art' or ninth century, although it is cornn.ronly

r .i . r n r ' s r / , l P d .
. :r:r, trrclia.
: ::: oi Laliradi- r 7 . r 2 . H [ l . ] u t c n r p l c , i r o n l \ r , c s r .p a n d r c t h i n , K r i D r i r ,
.:.lrrcr eighrh india. Posiblv Kirkorr pcriod. C.r. cighth-ninth ccrl_

: :ir t!:lslnll
' :.:. B:rctro- ascribedto rhc terlrh throlrgh trvcllth centudcs
(Fis. r7.rz).1!The tcrnplcillLrstrarcs in rnoclcllike
: r'isiblein siruplicitv thc besic format of xrchirecturxl
: : r-.izeclfolds ordcrs iclcnti6ablcin l(a(n.rir sincc rhe cighth
: :ms of the cclltrlry! but th:it clerivcclfiorl I lone-stending
: .'.rI further rvoocior lrchitccturc tradition. Thc peakccl,
.:. Hort'evcr,
gablcd roof is cspcciallysuitablcfor rhc snorvy
r . -'j I lcve:lls
H r r ' ; r ' ) . l r l r l c r . . W l ' i l . r / r cs p c r. l i . [ n r r. s . , r r .
: i_ alenloD-
rnoclificclover tinrc in fcaturcssuch as thc u,idth
: -',cstl1ctics.
of the ccntnl ercir or slopcof rhc roof. it is this
:: , \l'CSIeIn
roof typc that is espcciallycharactcristic of rhe
, ::: of (ir.rpta
Ka(niri style. Thc tcnrplc rcsts on a ptlnttl
:-- .,.11clcsigns built in thc ceDtcr of a tarrk; rhc u.all of thc
- - - .:. iilrthcr tenk parallcls thc shapc of the plinth r.ith its
:, \,cstern
oFsct sidcs.In contrastto n-ran1. other tcrrplc
traclitionsof thc posr,Guprap",in.1,,.r1r",.uip-
- :,: -.raPc.riocl tural dccorltion of thc nonunrcrrt is sinpL.
'-'-: to lt:rve
A rorv of c:Lrvcdelephantsat thc basc of thc
Pa- cctrtralshrineancltheclccoration ofthe doorrvay,
i-rntir. As
pilastcrs,anrl a fcl. lceturcsofrhc roofcoruprise
: ::r.l HindiL
the nrejor c'nrbcllishr.ncnt of thc strucrure.Tilc
:::rhel. A r 7 . r r . C r o w r l c d l 3 u d d h r F r o n r P r r i h a s a p u r e ,K r i n r i r .
figurc oiLakulria ebovcthe lintel olitheJoorrviry
: :: :,: rcruple India. Fron Cxnkunr's -r/tpd. K.rkore pcriod, rcign
o f l a l i t a d i r v ; r . C e . s e c o , r r dq u a r t c r c r s r r u c c r m r . , .
inclicatcs tlut tl-rc rnonurucnt r,vasprobebly a
:: rr. cightlr
Storlc. H r2S.2 cIr. Sri Prrrjp SiDgh NluscLnr, Sive tcmple crectcclfor the lralupatasect.Thc
. r:runonly itrterior of the tcmplc is also sinLplce-riccptfor


r7.r3. Ceiilng parcl, Hindu te rPle. P.ndr€!hen,

Karkolapciod. Ca. eighth
Krinlir, India.Possibl,v

a beautifully carved ceiling panel (Fig. r7'r3)' r7-r4. Indr,ni. Fronl Pandre{han,Kaarnir,India.Prob-
Clearly bascd on wooden Prototypesr-and ulti-- ably Kirkotx pcriod. Ce. iatc cighrh-carlyninth ceD-
rury. Beigc stone.F{: ca. r5o cln. Sr1PratapSingh
mately dcrived fron the "lantern-roof" type of
westcrn". Asia, this type of cciling becomes
a stlndard feature in n-ranynorthern Indian tellr-
plc sclrools.In tlris cxample, t'idyadharacouples
i."- to r".,r. as atlantids, supPorting the archi- Indra, rcveals thc still visible amalgamatory
tectural bcams of thc recessedsquares The nature of tl.reKa(n1iri style complex (Ftg' t7't4)'
uitlyadharasstlPporting the ccntral square arc The goddess is recognized by the njru tbat
r'r',.,.h smaller in scale than those at the four ,he holds in her lcft hand and by thc elcphant,
exterior corncrs of the cciling ancl those around Indr:r's uahana, that aPPea$ behind hcr' Hcr
the central lotus panel are still smaller' Thus, sharply dclineated anatomical structure suggests
the efcct of distance,or ratircr in.rplied heieht, stylistic associationswith Bactro-Gandhara
is providecl for the configuration. The uidya- idiom, as does the heavy treatment of the lolds
The costumc, esPe-
/laras in particular seerr.tto snPPortan eighth to ^the acrossher legs.
of drapery
ninth ccnttrry date for thc ternple' for the softly cially tunic, is Iranian in type and the
modeled, feshy bodics, simple jewelry, and animated posture is relatcd to north-central In-
elaborate,curly coifrurcs suggestthe imagcry of dian post--Guptamodcs. In Particular, the figure
thh period throughout northem ancl north- rr.r"vi" .on.rp^..d to other stylistic idioms that
centrallndia. .,,mbine thc Hellenizcd northwcstem and Indian
A numbcr of isolated stollc sculPturcsrecov- no.1es, srtch as those of the Post-GuPta Period
ered f.on-r Pindrctl-nn also scctu to datc fron in Rajasthan(Fig. rr.r3). Yct, like them, it is
this period, around thc latc eishdr or early ninth- nlorc thxn thc sur-nof these associationsand is
cintlry. An imagc of lnclrlni, the consort of representativeof a distinctive local idion'

Trrr Urrera Dvwlsrv (ce. 855ro 939)

Avantivarman (r. ca. 855-83), founder of the was modeled after the Martanda temple, al-
Utpala d1'nasry, revived the moment of pros- though it is on a smaller scale(Fig. r7.r5). The
perity that Lalitaditya had brought to Kaimir. more ruined condition of the Avantisvarnin
While still heir apparent, he founded Avantipura temple makesclosecomparisondifficult, but it is
(modem Vantipur), and built theie the temple certain that the later temple was more elaborate in
of Avantisvamin. Later, as monarch, he built detailing. Its iconographic principles are identical
the Avantiivara ternole. The earlier of the two to those of Martanda, except that the central
temples, the Avantisvamin, dedicated to Vipr-ru, shrine contained an image of Viq4u, there called

;mrr, India. Prob-

-<arlv ninth cen-
St Pratap Singh

lex (Fig. r7.r4).
th.e vajro that
,r the elephant,
:hind her. Her
:ucture suggests
ent of the folds
costume, esPe-
npe and the
)fth{entral In-
rrlar, the figure
stic idioms that
$em and Indian
n-Gupta period
r7. r5. Plan ofAvantisvamin tem-
lilie them, it is ple. Avantipura, Kaimir, India.
ociations and is Utpala period, reign of Avan-
cal idiom. tivannan. Ca. 8JJ-83.
366 Lt'-tERNoRTHERNscHoors

to left of stairsto shrine'Avantisvtnin r7.r7. Villru Catrrnhrti. FroDrAvantipura'Ka3mtr'

r?.r6. Sculpturc India.Utpalaperiod,posibly rcign o,f Avantivannan
,J-pi.. ,qtar"ipt*, Kailnir, lndia Urpala period'
Ca. 8J5-83' C". sss 8':.Bi"ck .to"". H: 47 crn Sri Pradp Singh
reigirof Avantivarrnan.

Each schcme.Abovc the blocLsrr trh figurrtive carving

Avantisvami, insteadof Martanda / Sfrya'
around the peristyle presur.rably is a cornice of geomctrized l1ower designssup-
of th" ,",
jdentical form oorted bv in.itition brackets ornarnented with an imagc of Visnu in
figite,.ath considercdto be an iion, h""i, end intcrspersedwitli bird and plant
""or."1 designs.Each figural con.rpositionis cornpletely
cmanatioll and J reflection of the central deity'
frllci by the figures, giving a crowded appear-
N.i,i". -or. nor less than him but identical
form his to ihc paoels.An overall flatnessis suggested
io hi-, they representedin graphic "nc.
by the arrangement of Iigures and the satneness
may oi th" depth'of.rrving ai'ott thc entrrcsurfacc'
The orieinal richness of ornamentatlon
at" ligurc' are fullcr in ltoln rh.rn
bc seen in"some of the surviving sculptures
the h-aveshorter proportions, and
ih. ,ir". p"n.l, on the balustradesfanking ""ili", "*"-pl.r,
,.,r""1 stiffncss, denonstrating that the
stairsto the shrine demonstratc the exuberance "
of the left Ka(mrri idiom, like many othcr Indic styles
oi-,tr. ..,, tp,orut 'ryle. Thc fronr face soft
by of the ninth century, had abandoned the
Urt,,.,r"a. ,t'olv, .t frgtrreof Vi'ntr anended and post-GuPta hcritage'
and modeling of the Gupta
t-o f"*"1" .o.rro.t,,- p'"'o"-t"bly Laksmi
faceof the Th" ttt"i" frg.,.", io parti;lar have fattened'
Srrrrvarr(Fig. t 7.1o).wlile the imer
"rho*, with a taut, muscular aPPearance'
,rnt. t,on. r royal figure or possibly broad torsos of
still reminiscent of thc Hellenized heritage
lndra, occomprniedby artendrntsThc opposite
a similar the region.
frl,o,r"d", toth" ,ighi ofrhe stair"'berr"
scHooLS ji67
and an ethicalone,and eachofthcsc is.ssociatcd
rvith one gri;ra (quality). Thus, Sarirkarsene
begins thc proccssof cre:rtionwitl.r bola(porvcr)I
Pradyumna continucs it, at rvhich tinre the
duality ofpralrri and p11flta appcar through thc

usc of rrl-irarla (sovcrcignty); and Animddha
crcatcs iranifcst rratter u'ith Jalrl (crcative
cnergy). The cthical activities inclLrdcthe tcach-

ing of uronotheisticthcory by Sarhkarsana,
the trrnslrtion of this theory into practicc by
Pradyumna,:rnclthe liberationachicvcdthrough
the practice by Anirr-rcldha,with the rcspective
gunas of jiana (rvisdorr), r,ir7o (hcroism), ancl
trjas (spiritual porvcr). In Keimrr, wherc thc
Ptiicar-ara doctrinc rvas poptlar, images of
\'...... .... .-i-i.. .lllt)ton. lht,

exar.npic,finely carvccl :rncl polished, dcrnon-

stratcslDost clearly the sculptural styie in usc
at Avxntipura, with thc fecial forms associated
with lvcstcrn Imrcr Asian types end the torso
still rcvcaling tics lvith thc stylcs of the north-

west regions.
Anothcr figurc fiom Avantipura r-nly also
have been a proclnct of Avantivarn.ran'sbuilding
r7.r8. BrahrDa.Fronr Avarltipura,K:rlurir, lrrdia. activity at thc sitc (Fig. r7.r8). Thc imagc
: Kirirrrir,
Urpaia pcriod, posibly reign of AventivaruranCa , { c 1i c r . r l r . g ' C R r . ' 1 ' r ' d . rr . . ' , 1 . ' ' . r r : r . c t i c .
8j5-83.Blick sronc.H: Jr cm. Srr Pntnp Singh lvcaring a sin-rplcgermeirt, an anirt al skin on
his lcft shouldcr,but no Je$'elry. Thc fullncss
ofthc torso,rounclcrllcc, and less:rcce[triated
posture arc part ol a disccrniblc trcrrrl in
.ivlng Sculpturcsfrom Avantipure exhibit both a Ka(rutri scuipturc of rhc period, and again
l:: SLIP- varicty in iconosraphic types and a reiatively snggcstafiinitics to wcstcrn Inncr Asian art. A
. lvrth r,ide rangc of stylistic corlvclltio[s. A rcprc- slccknessaud refinerucrrtof thc surfeceof thc
: pl.rnt scntation of Visnu in a four-herded forur, storc pcrv:rc1es the rvork, charactcrizingthc clc-
- -'rcly rvhich may be calleclCaturnrhrti, shows hin1 ganccoftcn associetecl rvith thc arr of tlrc l(aintir
'r cir-
f as a conpositc of four aspects(Fia- r7.r7).ti region.
- -'.\ted The flont (cast) f:rce of thc deity is hunran, Thc Mtrttnda and Avantisv-min tctrrplesxre
:::atless those on the propcr left ancl right sides(north i t r t p o r t . nl r, \ t . . l r r ( r rrros t l r ( p o \ \ ( _. r n , lv i - . r l r t y
-::licc. ancl south) are heaclsof r boar and Jion rcspec- of thc I{arkota :urd Utpala periods rcspcctivcly.
:: than c i v c l y .r v l L i l ct l r . r to r t l t c I e , r ( r n ,. r ) r ' t l ' . r r' ' f . r l l t c i r r , . r r r r o r gr l e u r l i r r r \ t o t ) r l c n L p ' c s
: .. and demon. Thc lion lnd boar llaccsdo not rcfer to surviving in Kainir, yct they are arnong
-Lr the thc Nrsirhha and Varaha auafirs of Visnu but t r . l . ' 1 3 . . tc v c r b r r i l ri r ) f l ) . r rr c j i o n . I l r e l . e c n r
!tYles rad:'cr to t)yihds (cn.Lanations) dcscribcd in thc to havc bnrst uliprcccclcntcd on tlle scene at
: t: soft Pailcar-tra Vaisnavitc doctrine. The hunan the uromcnt in I{air-nir's lristory rvhen its
.::tage. face thus represents Vasudcva, lrom whorr rulcrs rc:rchecl the summit of thcir powcr.
- .::ined, e r n . r r ' . r rl h( e t l r r , c r y r / i , r s rr . r r i r k . r r r . r nl r.,.P r e - nreny l:Ltcr Klinrri temples arc trrch
sentedby the lion), Pradyurura (rcprcsentcclby srteller in scaleand lessgrendioscin conccptioll,
r :e Of rhc bo.rr). A n i r r r d d l r "( r e p r e . q n r qbl 1 t h q they arc oftcn vcry linc cxamples of the archi-
derlon). Each lprla has tr,voactivitics, a creativc tecturaltraclition.

T u r T w o L o n a n a D y N A S T I E SA N D T H EL a s r H r N n u K r l r c s
(Truru ro Fo un.rrrNrs Crurunrrs)

In both architecture and sculpture, the art of

Kaimir after the tenth century is primarily a
tradition of rather limited variation. Small
temples similar to the example at Pandrethan
were built, some of which had compound walls
with nutrerous small cells, like those of the
templcs at Martel.lda and Avantipura. Many of
the sculptural fonns seen from the cighth cen-
tury were codified into unvaryilg types, and,
in general, the images became incrcasingly stifl
showing litdc of thc former vitality of thc
KaSmrri tradition.
This is clearly seenin a number of sculptures
from Verinaga. Onc exanple, probably of the
twelfth century, shows Viqru Caturmurti (Fig.
r7.r9) and thus can be appropriately conpared
to the Visnu Caturnfrti from Avantipura
(Fig. I7.r7). In the later example, the enphasis
on musculature lessens,the posture is straighter,
the {igure is nlore colunnar, and thc face is
much broadcr, with clongated eyes. A thick-
legged, husky form and an overall stiffnessof
the figure characterizethis latcr phaseofKa6nliri
art. In tbis cxamplc, all four arms of the deity
are preserved,providing a complete example of
thc iconographic type. The trvo upper hands r7.r9. Vignu Caturnlrti. Fronl Verintga, Kairnir,
hold tlre lotus (padna\ and conch (3an,L/ra) while India.Ca. tweifthcerrtury'.
Crcy stonc.H:67.5 cu.
thc two lower hands rest on tllc heads of rwo Sri PratapSinghMuseurn, SriDxgar.
vyudhapuru5as. the female personification of thc
mace,gadadeuT (to Visnf s right), ancl thc male on onc leg than on the othcr, is a fcature seen
personification of the rvheel (tabaputusa)to hts in a number of othcr in-ragesfrom Verinaga
left. The dhott worn by Visnu, rvhich is shorter and secmsto have becn a local peculiarity.

KaSvitrrIvonrrs .tNn Mrrar l,nacEs

Ahhough divorccd frorr definitivc association recent political disturbanccs,during which they
w i r h a n y r n o l l l u l i e n r s. i r c . o r t h e r c i g n o f a were brought out by refugees.
particular monarch, the stylistic ancliconographic One splendid composition consists of a
developmentsof ivories and metal images fronr central ivory dcpicting a seated Buddha in
Kainir n.raybe seen to follow much the same dhyara nudra surrounded by a host of other
pattens as those in stonc. The survival of thcse figurcs, including bodhisattvas and emaciated
objccts in sorne cascshas probably been due ascetics(Pl. i3). Flanking the central group and
to their having been exportcd fron Ka(rmr sct into adjacent nichcs in thc wooden archi-
to thc ncighboring regions of rvestern Tibet, tcctural fiamework are two standing Buddhas,
where they werc kcpt in monasteriesr-rntilthe carved out of separatcpiecesof ivory. A slight

r7.2o. Indrr (left) and Brahnre.

From Ka(rrrir resion. Ca. cighth
century. Ivory, wirh painr. H:
10.6cnl (lcft); ro cn (righr).Pre-
scnt whereabostsunknown,

bcvel to the edge of the wooden frame and central figure. Tire beardcd Brahma is rcn.rinis-
thc existencc of a second similar compositionla cent of the Bactro-Gandhara artistic tradition
K:lin1ir, suggeststhat this examplc was part of a sct of of thc Kusata pcriod, visiblc especi:rllyin the
67.5 cnr. Buddhist scencsthat adorned thc drum of a treatrncnt of his drapcry and body. Indra's
votive stupa. The deiicacy and intricacy of dre distinctive crown miy bc traccd to a Sassanian
carving, both ofthe ivory picccsand tbe woodcn source.
:.:Jte seen frame, docun-rcntthe once rich carving traclition Thc metal imagcs of rhc Karkora, Urpala,
that 1tlust have existcd in fragile materials and Lohara pcriods form a contillrurn of
:::\'. alongside the Dlorc nonumcntal arts. Thc s tv l i . r i c t r c n , r . , L , r Jr c o n o g n p h i c i n n o r . r r i o . r .
architectural orders of the woodcn fiamc, r,vhilc that has yct to bc sttdied in clepth.It is gLrite
clearly reflecting those used in Ka6urir in the evident that thc sruvivirlg metal pieccsarc only
eighth century, alsoderuonstratesorrrcothcrwise the slightcst tracc of a massivc,compJcx tradi-
unknown fcatures, for the stcpped arches ancl tion. In ternrsof qLrllity, it is casyto scefrom
,rh they pentafoil may rellect actuai architcctural types. extant cxamplcs tlut Dtxny irnagcs rank an-roug
T w o o r i r c ri v o r y f i g u r c 'o [ r h e . " m e a p p r o r i - the bcst n.rctalwork produced in any culture
:: Ofl n-utc period rcpresent Indra arrrl Bralrra as and that thcre vu'asan cascud facility offabrica-
_:i1a ln they v'ould have appeared in attendance of a tion that suggcsts a vast ancl activc produc-
: other ccntralfigurc ofthe Buddha (Fig. r7.zo). hrdra tion. Incleed, sincc thc technology to cast thc
::.:ciated is drcssedin thc manncr of an lndic monarch Brlal Buddha of Lalitadityahacl alrcady becn
I: ::') xnd whilc Brahna r.ears a robe very much like achicvcd,therc can bc little doubt asto the tech-
' that of a Buddha. Both arc attendedby figurcs
-r.rcnl- nical ability of thc artists.Thc particularalloy of
L --Jhas, who turn thcir attention to thcm as opposed to ziuc ancl coppcr popular in Ka(r.r.ririnctalrvork
r ilLgllr the location of whar rvould havc been the crcatcs a yellorvish color and gives the imagcs,

cen_ r t . : : . B u d d l r r 'f r o r r r K a i r r r i r e g i ' r r 'C r ' e i g h c hc e n -

r?.2r. Surya. Frorn Kainrr region Ca_ seventh r u r ) . B r r s s .H : o 8 c r r r .C l c r e h n d M ' r ' e u r r ro f A r t '
ioru. B."ri. H: 48.6 cm. Clevciand Museum of Cleveland(John L. ScveranccFund)'
Clweland (Gifi of Katherine Holdcn Thayer)'

soft Thc caftan clings to the body in a manner

cven when ungilded, an esPcciallybcautiful'
i n l . r y t n p r r r c c o P l l c r o r s i lver reminiscent of Buddhist robes of the Gupta
glou. ofren. assumes
of thc"c rr orks'1 he pri nrary oeriod, and likc then, the dr:rpery
!1111q11s. thc s,trfrcc legs' and
the main iron.rin.o." at the hem, bctween the
evidence available indicatcs that '^t
of the northwestern thc colla, and cufi-s.In this case, thc
stylistic thrust carlc out
the pre- detail of thc bordcr pattcrn of the garment
Iidic rcsions as sccn in exampics of
as well as later and dcsign of the crown contrast sharply
Karkota"period (Fig. 17 5), Pieccs'
afi of Gan- with the snr"ooth surfaccs of the rest of the ,ft'.* stronf affinities to the
in-rage.On the basis of comparison to works
dhara. Bactria, and associatedregions'
that wxs also nf ,il. ,",,"nth ccntury in other Parts of South
An overlay of the Gupta style
'ctrlpturc tr'rdiri'rn Asia, howevcr, the piece should be assigned
vi.iblc in rhe Kaimrri stonc
tlcganc ro th.rt period.
f o s t c r c d .d. ri s c i n c L i v' cer i c so f s t r b t l c d
a r l
l i c c e 'd i s p l r l r ' i r n r l a r
s cvcntlt- O r l r c rK ' i r l r r i r r t c t np
irn"*.., i".t.''aitg rn'rpprorirtrlely of the styles. of the ancient
srtryr drc"ed in a amalganation
..n,i,ry ,.p."".ni'tion of and the traditions of
f o u n d i n S urya ,rorrh"*a,,"tr1 regions
. " f t " n , ' b o o t r . . , n dl r e i o f a t y p e India after thc Gupta
r T z r ) T h o trgL .,.,rthern and norilt-ccntral
i r , " n " t i " A [ g h . ' n i s t a n1 l - i g pcriocl. Two rcPrcsentxtions Budd]ras' one o[
the Strry..
,t"niine in a rtricrly ftontrl posc (fig r7 'zj)'
tl,c g'a"ful [orrrr' and "rbde i . n a l n e f f ; s . r 7 . : z ). n d o n e ' c a t e d
i;;;; i",r"t. tho'rgh thel probably datc
lrcritege' b",rry id, ireritagc,
lod! tr"n'ir;out sttggestivcof I Gupta
epithers.16 The presencco[ a Tibetan inscrip-
tion on an image of unquestionable Ka6miri
manu&cture suggeststhat the piece rray have
been executed for a Tibetan patron, or that it
was made in Ka3mir, but transportedat an early
date to the adjacent regions of westem Tibet,
where the inscription was added.
The seated Buddha figure is worked in a
virtually identical style (Fig. 17.23).The position
of the hands has protected the drapery on the
torso from wear caused by its being touched
during worship and it may be suggestedthat the
standing {igure might also have had such a
clearly delineated robe. The gestLte is the mudra
of the fourth level of the teachingsdisplayedin
exactly the same manner as seen in the later
westem caves. Since this figure only slightly
postdatesthe latest of those images, it may be
assumed that the iconography is the sarne,
although it is unfortunate thar rnore informa-
tion about the context of the image has not
survived. The facial features are typical of
Kaimiri rendcrings of this date and include the
characteristichigli arching brows; wide, hori-
r. Ca. eighth cen' 17.23.Buddha.Frorn Ka{mir region.Ca. eighthcen- zontal eyes; plump, curved lips; a marked
,\luseum of Art, tury. Brasswith silverinlay.H: 4r.2 crn.Los Angeles delineation of the chin; and a narrow chin but
County Museumof Aft, Los Angeles(NasliandAlice broad brow. The fullnes of the face and treat-
Heeramaneck Collection).
ment of the eyes and brows suggestsstrong ties
to seventh and eighth century Inner Asian
v ln a manner fiom the eighth century, perhapsthe period of One ofthe most elaborate of the known Ka6-
, of the Gupta Lalitaditya, by comparison to the standing miri bronzes is a represeutationof a crowned
raPery assumes crowned Buddha figures from Cairkur.ra'ss/r.lpa Buddha, Vairocana, seatedatop a lotus, f,anked
:n the legs, and (Fig. r7.rr). The metal figures are slightly by stilpas,and accompaniedby numerous other
case, the linear slendererin build, however. The standingimage figures and elemflrs (Fig. 17.24). Its inscrip-
rf the garment hasan accentedbend to the hips, and the weight tion, which contains a date of the year 3 or 8,
contrast sharPly of his body is supported firmly by his stiff left is of litde use in detcrmining the date of rnanu-
rhe rest of the leg, while his right leg appearsto be caught in facture since the era is unspecifiedand the two
Lrison to works motion. The left arm swings out fiom his body, donors, Sankarasenaand Princess Devairiya,
parts of South as if helping to balancethe figure. The implicit are unkno.wn.u The ligatures and style of
ilJ be asigned movement ofthe figure bearsa striking similarity the work, however, suggesta ninth-century date,
to the "walking" Buddhas of Thailand.l5 A Thc fact tlrat onc of thc donors was a prince.s
h.oiav a sin.rilar great deal of wear on the torso has softened indicates the level of patronage that the work
.-: the ancient the details of the drapery, although it is clearly represents, that of the nobility. The whole
: traditions of based on the Bactro-Gandhara heritage. A composition rests on a plain base that contains
, aner the Gupta Tibetan inscription on the base of the piece the inscription, above which is a highly con-
: Buddhas, one calls this the "Respected image of Revered ventionalized rock massin wfuch the Buddhist
|5. r /.?J,/l Negaraja." Here, the term Nagaraja refers to wheel, two deer, and two human figures
r :robably date Sakyarnuni Buddha, in one of his rarely applied may beseen.The rusticatedrock massis arranged

ilr--V"rr..""' Buddhr' Frotl Ke(rnir rcgion. CA'

n.*. *i,r, sl'er inlav-tl.3r cnl :::1,'r::l:l:tt '
Ne\1 York

"l'/ Ro;kcrcllcr3rd collection)'

iiti. *a no.' l"l,' D
KASilliR AND RETATED sclrools tZJ
in cavelike forms containing dresc clemcnts,
scparatedby pillarlikc clustcrsof rock. Above
the rock basc is e rvater surfacc or,rt of rvhich
t } e l o t l s " n . l f \ r ^ , , , i g d r r r c r g c . r h c , , rl , o l e
rcprcsenting the cosmic oceu (that r-r-rr1st be
crosscd to attain enlightcnment) supportcd by
thc goros (drvarves)r'ho representpropcrtics or
catcgoricsof tl.rervorlcl in rvhich tire teachings
of the Buddha arc prcscnt(r.vhee1/decr). Out of
this, thc lotus clncrgcsbcaring aioft tJreUnivcrsal
B . r ,. l h . r( s ,a 1 l , a irL a L a y ni n l r r l r i ,h ' . e r l b o , i , , l
thc essenceof all Btdclhas (Tathayatagarbha),
D r \ r . r l r r \ e n l .. r l , l f i r r r c I l r , l , ' n r . , . r o C i t h c r
sidc of him bear sfrlpasof forner Buddhasrnd
s y r ' r b o l i z ct h c . r r r . r i n u e not f r l r c . " p . , . r v r c r o r '
o f t h c q L t c r fro r , n l i g h t c t r r l e r. r r\ p , r t o f r l r c
ljniversai. Thc BLrddhais seeuas both rrirrrara-
kayd ^id srabhaL,ikafrayo tlrroLrgh the rlcans of
. a ' l h o q o k a y ag.r . ' p l r i c r l l sl l r o w ni r r r l r , " r r a n g e -
rncnt of elemcnts in the composition. These
c l , r | | c' t . . r r e . p c c i f i c r . . c r r r c , . r o c \ o t e r i c
initiations (allisefta) that thc practitioner
r r n . l c r g o e 'r o ( r c v c l o p h r ' c l r q i o L r .. r b i l r r y . r7.25. AvalokileivAr3.Frorn Kx(r)ir region. Lohara
Thus, the cro\r'n rcprcscnts the five jtard and pcriod, reign of Qucen Diddi. Cr. 98o roo3. Bronzc
the chasuble refers to the four quarters of thc rvith silverinl:ry.H: iJ.4 cnr.Sri l,ratrpSjnsh Muscunr,
r r r r r c r . . . I n r l r o r r . r h e f i g r r r <r c p r , * r ' r . r l i c
Buddha as thc Univcrsrl teecl.Lingrhc //ranrra
of the lourth, csotcriclevel.18This icorLogrephic
form is also closcly rclateclif not iclcnticalto
votivc inages fbund throughoot the rvcstcrn assymbolizing the sub.jugationof thc hindranccs
cavcs.reAll of this errrichlicnt is relatccl to the of tire practitioncr. His corpulcncy is also
ir.rcrcasinglycleborateritual aspcctsof RLrclclhisn iconographically spccified. These lcatnres dercr-
ancl eech of the elcmcnts is syrrbolic of various minc tlrrt the fisure is the angry (kro,lha)fotm
initiations, the implication bcinq that l'hcn the of Vajrapeni. Angry fornLs wcrc present in the
i-i,i.-: - ; .....-i... -1. -.,ctiti^ner 1r..,
cavcs of Aurangabad and in othcr earlier corl-
bcconrc a lluddLa. Thts, thc' devotee sees r c x i . .b r r rb 1 l l r , c r ! l l l r . , r n i r r r l .' c n r r r r ) r .r r c

j himself in drc image as thc fully cnlishrcnccl

A drantatic translo|merion of an earlier
probable c1:Lte of this image, thc Lrsagehad be-
come rvidespreadin lludclhist arl. Essentially,
thcsc forms represeDtthc intcnsity rvith which
religiousconccpt is seenin a rcpr.sentationof tirc practitioncr ovcrcoulcs his l-Lindrances and
f' Vajrapani, thc bodhisattva rvho crnbodies thc the fcrvor widr I' he pursucshis task.
=dr'l concept of thc n-Lysticrlporvcr of trinsccn.lcnt A mctal imagc of Avalokitc(vara datccl in
At knorvledgc (P1. ra). In contrasr to pcacc-fir1 the reign of Quccn Didcle (98o-roo3)scrvcsas
--*** reprcscrtatioDs,Vajrapani. iclcntified by the /ojra an ir-nportant clocun-rcntof stylistic change in
ln his lcft hand, hcrc is sho*.n r,ith an angry Ka(miri scrilpturc(Fig. r7.25).20The six-armed
I cxprcssion orr ]ris face, creatcd by the archecl
bron's end barcd fangs.His hair is depictcdin a
bodhisattva is llar.iLcd by Tara and Bhrkuti,
who appcar in a rnuch reclucedscalc.A greater
"1lame-likc" convcntioll and tl-rc c,rnarnenrs arrgularity to thc posc and
treatncnt of the
that he lvears arc serpents,gcncrally rcaarcled fornrs of the body of thc main figure lnarks a
departure from the more softly nodeled forms arching brows and large, half closedeyes are
of previous centuries, yet the still muscular clearly within the broad definitrons of the
torso, distinctive facial features with high Kaimiri style.

T n r A r r o F A D J A c T N TR l c r o N s : W r s r r n t H T M A L A v A N
F o o r H r L L sA N D W E S T E R N
TIBITANCurrunar RrcloN

The metal imagcs made by Ka6n.riri craftsnen link in the development of Hindu sculpture
and, often, the craftsmen themselves,frequently and numbers among the very few surviving
trayeled to neighboring regions, for Ka(mir large-scalemetal inages fron any early period.
served as a cultural and artistic source for much Although the image has not been chemically
oF the surrounding area. Kaimiri rrrists are analyzed, its yellow color suggeststiat it is
known to have traveled throughout Inner Asia probably an alloy primarily of zinc and copper
and even into China, and a number of works of rather than tin and copper, strongly suggesting
art may be attributed to these individuals. Of ties to the work of KaSmiri craftsmen. Possibly,
more immediate interest are works found in a local artist using Kaimiri tcchniquesproduced
the neighboring hill states and the Tibetan an image of a stylistic type that was heavily
cultural areasof Himalayan India, which provide dependenton the post-Gupta traditions of west-
important insights into thc range of artistic em India in particular. The slenderwaist of the
traditions that llourished in Kaimir and its figure contrastedagainstthe full hips and thighs
neighboring states. In somc cases, as in tbe especially characterize thc sryle, although the
western I{imalayan foothills, distinctive local elongation of the form and the richnessof the
styles prevailed, while in others, as in Ladakh, prccisely rendered onlalnents is a prelude to
a virtually pure Ka6miri idion was fostered. the known metal works of Ka6mir. The facial
The temples and sculptures of the western featureslack the highly emphasizedarchedbrows
Himalayan foothills region have been largely and elongated eyes found in KaSmiri sculp-
overlooked in studiesofSouth Asian art. Because tures that were heavily dependentupon Bactro-
of this, many of the monurncnts remain largely Gandhara traditions, and instcad, the face may
unknown, and those that have been identified be associatedwith thc post-Gupta styles of
have not beenplacedwithin the generalhistorical northern and wcstern India.
context.2l However, these regions fostered art Another image in tbc sarne ten.rpleshowing
schools that werc not only relatcd to those of Ngsirhha has been judged by somc to be of a
nearby centers,such as Kaiurir and other parts sorncwhat later date (Fig. t7.27)- However, in
of northern India, but that were also distinctive spite of its unuslral appearance,espccially the
in their own right. pose, the inage probably dates from the same
This can be seen in a large image of Durga approximate period as the Durga. It cxhibits
M r h i . e srrr . r m a r dri .n c a l l c d L a l , s a n ai n i r s i n - many of the same ciraracteristicsof quality
scription, rvhich is in a temple namcd for the and materials of fabrication, although it shows
goddess,the Laksana Dcvi unndir at Br:.hntor an cntirely dillerent anatomical strrlcture, one
in thc Chanrb.rHill rracts(Fig. r7.26). ls in- which n.rore heavily depcnds on the classicistic
scription further revealsthat it was dedicatedin tr.rdirionsof G.rndharaand rclarcdregions.Tlre
the reign of Mcruvarman, a king whose capital fullness of the arns and legs are part of thc at-
was at Brahmor, and who is believed to have tcnlpt to denonstratc graphically the power of
lived in the mrddle ro ldrc sevenrlrccnrury.22 tlrc deiry. .ltlrough 1reis shown in r qrriescenr
This datc falls in the pcriod ofgeneral turmoil in posc, simply scated on an arbitrarily defined
north-central India and is just after the es- landscapesupported by two lions. Again, the
tablishn.rentof the new Ka6n.riridynasty of the high quality of craftsmanship, as well as the
K a r k o L a sf.h u s . i r f o r m . a r r i r n p o r r d n mt issing iconographic ingenuity of the work, suggest
. -.t ..,.. ...
: ::ions of the

- - i,, crrrlntlre

=u' surviving
- -. .1., ^^,;^l

ri':n chemically
::rrs that it is
:!:rr.n. Possibly,
.. ... h,^,t,,..,1
::: \1'asheavily
.r::irrllsOf west-
:.: ( aist of the
-. rn,l rh;dl.
. i,h^,,.1. rl."
:,-inessof the
, .'. prclude to
:- it I Ile Tacl;ll r7.26. Durga MahisAsurarnardini.Ar Laksant Dcvi r7.27. Nrsirhha. At Laksand Dcvi rrraalr'r.Brahrnor,
: r rrched brows ma4lir. Btahnor, Chanba Hill rracrs, Him,chal Chamba Hill rracts, Him.chal Pradesh,India. Ca. rnid-
Pradcsh,India. Reign of Meruvamran.C:. urid-to- to-late seve[rh centruy. Mctal. H: 9r.) crn.
larc scventhcentu.y. Metal. H: r24.r clD.
t: -:!on Bactro-
I -\.- A-^ -.^.,

-:::r sryicsof
the richness of the traditions of thc region. related forms. It is especiallyuseful to compare
. ..1-..L^.".,.- In the western Tibetan cultural arcas of this figure to the bronze from thc rcign of Queen
-:-: ro be of a mNga'-ris (Ndri), La-dwags (Ladakir), and Didda (Fig. r7.25) asit provides an understanding
:lo\\'evcr, in lahul-Spiti to thc eastand southeastof Ka6nir, of the stylistic direction and an idca of the rela-
.t:.cially the Buddhist monasteriesfrorn the eleventh century tive treatmcnt of largc-scaleimagcs as opposed
:--r:rr the same and later have survived ro the present day. to smaller versions.The anatomical stllcture of
::. It exhibits While the original buildings have oftcn been the figures is vcry much thc sarae,diIl^cringonly
. -t ^,,"lif-, s r r b j c c t etdo l a r c ra l t e r a r i o n tsh. e yc o n r a i nm e n y in minor details, although there is lcss of a
: :::h it sirows objccts and paintings produced by Kaimiri Geling of flesir in the largcr figure. Becauseof
:::,tctute, one artists duing their original pcriods of construc- the scale it has becn possiblc to develop the
:-:: classicistic tion. An approximately eleventh-century mctal jewelry and textile design in much greater de-
.: :;gions, The image of a bodhisattva from Lahul-Spiti is such tail, although this greater complexity is also a
:.:i of the at- en exampJe ( F i g . r 7 . 2 8 ) .N e ; r l y h u m a n - s i z ei c. characterisric of rhe larer dare. An inrcre"ting
. :i:; porver of decisivelydemonstratesthat major metal images stylistic Gature is the dctailed elaboration on
::- : qulcsccnt ofa Kaimiri idiom were in usein the rcgion. The the navel ofthe latcr image in contrast to earlicr
::-::h defined attenuation of the figure, relative still-nessof the examples, which has becomc a very stylized
',. lqalD! tne pose, and harshncssof the rnodeling, as well as remlant ofthe cmphasison a muscularanatomy
:, ....'11
as thc the forms of the claborate jewelry, especiaily seenthroughout Ka6miri sculpture schools.This
::i. suggest the crown, characterize the later Kajmiri and Gature occursin painting aswell.

Probably thc nost abund:rnt evidencc of

e\tension of Kain:iri art styles beyoncl thc nuin
politicalccntersof Kaimir is found in the ancietrt
kingdon of Ladakh,norv in thc stateof Ka(nir
in Incli:r.In recent ccnturics, the region has bccn
almost couplctcly uder thc cultural srvay of
I rbct. .ln.r rnd((,1.L..oeK I ls aPrl) (ccrl .r(
esscntiallyan outpost of Tibetan culturc. Horv-
ever, through thc eleventh ccntury, thc rcgion
was greatly influenccd by the cosmopolitan
culture of thc capitals of Kaamir. Such associa-
tions lnd thc transurission of Kaimrri culture
''io to Ladakh is suggested by scvcral isolatcd
'ii, sculpturesand inscriptions.
;:r'- A r n o n gr l r e . e . ; , r ' r h . Lrph.e m o s ri m p r c ' s i v ci .
an enornoLls rock-cut represenhtion of the
Bodhisattva Maitreya carved on the face of a
solitary rock pinnacle at Mulbck, an ancient
stoppillg point on what is now the road between
Srinagarand Leh, thc main netropolis ofLadakh
(Ftg. r7.zg). Standing in splendid isolatiorr, the
pimracle rmrst have bcen an important beacon
for ancient travellers. The nonunental image
nray hrvc been cre.,ted:rround tlte eiglrrlr .rr
ninth century, a clatcsuggestedby both feeturcs
of the anatomy and face of the Maitreya figure.
Although at filst glance, thc somewhat stiff
posturesuggestsa latcr clate,the rather firil body
r.vith its l1eshyappearancerevealstics to cighth-
ninth-ccntury Ka6mtri conventions, Thc attcn-
tion to the abdominal and pcctoral muscles is
standardfor Kaimiri works of that tirne, as are
:, tl.rc high arching brows and full cheeks of the
face. The general simplicity of thc omar.ncnta-
tion andjewciry fruther suggestsan earlier rather
than a latcr date.
The irnage is about nine rneters in height
and is onc of the few surviving Brlal sculpturcs
in thc Indic spherc. It is likely thac the creation
of the sculpturc was related to the Vairocana
cult, which was responsible for other gigantic
in.ragesin thc Kaimir region, such as the now-
lost fuhad Vairocana of Parihasapura.
The history of Ladtkh becones increasingly
clear around the elevcnth century for it was at
that timc that the great Tibctan translator (Tib.
/o-rs--la),Rin-chen bZang-po (qs8-ro:s), and
r7.28.Bodhisattvs. Frorn Lahul-Spitircgion,Hirn'chal
the pa4dita,Drperirkara Atiia (982 roJ4),
Pradesh,India. Ca elcventh centurv Metal H: ca-
rzo cn . NatiotlalMuseull, Karachi' r r e r ea c t i v ei n r h es p r e r do f B u d d h i . r ni n w e 5 t c r t l

r7.29. Bodhisattva Maitreya. Mulbck (Ladakh region),

Kaimir, I11dia. Ca. eighth-ninth cetltury. H: ca. 9 nr.

Tibet and Ladrkh. Rin-chen bZang-po is said chen bZang-po, and had returncd to his fanily the r::,
to have lourded one hundred eighi iernplc" in estateswith the desire ro share his Buddhist exall]:
Lad;,|h. spiri. and Ctr-gc. *"ny ,nor. experience with those in his home vil)age. As
"ni sryl!-.
bulldlng en(leavorsarc arrributed to his fol_ J n e x p r c r \ i o no f l r i s r r n d c r " r a n d i ror fg t L e B r r d _ bcars :
lowers. d l r i s rt e a c h r n g s . r n"dr o i n , r r r r c rp e o p l ci n r h e inhab:::
T h c f i v c r c r n p l c c" o r n p r i s i r qr h e C l r o s - ' k j r o r e s s e n r i , , l lor yf r e l a r i v i r v\ i t u t y a f i ) . "e r r h e d c d i _ thc li:;
\Skr. dharna u,anlala)ai Alclii irr tadakh arc cator)- rnscdption states,23he built the 'Du_ tt-aditr.
clearly thc result of such building activity, for k l ' r r r * . t , , . i c o n o g m p J r i cp r o g r a r r o f r h c rescmf .
they may be attributed to the mid_to_late D u - l h a n g r c f r e . r rB u J d l r i . r r r a c l r i n g sp r o p - nenls :
eleventh century on the basis of stylistic and agated by Rin-chen bZang-po prior to his \l'orkl]:-
cpigraphic evidence (Fig. r7.3o). Although the convcrsion to forms of drc religion being that rh.
exactdrre lor the foundirrgoI Aichi is unc-ertain, preached by Ati(a, $,'hich occurred in eithei tion, cc-
inscriptions at rhe 'Du-khang, the earliest and roJo or roJ4. This scrggeststhat thc structurc had anc:
main building o[ the Chos-'khor, rcveals that was.erectcclby the to4os or 1'erhapsearly ro5os. Thc :
it was built by one Alchi-pa sKal-ldan Shes-rab The enclosedcourtyard in fiont of thc 'Du- lntcflot
of the'Bro fanily, who haclstudicclat Nyar-ma khang makcs it difiicLrltto photograph in its for ther
in Ladakh under immediate followcrs of Rin_ entirety. but dctailsshon that thc entranccto tll Laoa\


s..1"-.f ,
l NJU| l^--
: l/./ Ltl) | )r^|a
: '/ '/^ _ l
z a| oLD;E
!l .'!IN:
";/ ".'./, .'

!5 . ':/ F

4 L
f.l )
',1-,1 :
.y Pla
-- -i l-, the interior of the hall is decorated with fine constitute tte only extant examples of complex
l::ihist examples of wood carvings in the Ka6miri Mahayana Buddhist painted mqf.|olas in the
.-:. As style. The toralla ovet the porch of the building Indic context. This astonishingly well preserved
:i Bud- bearsrampant lions and other composite animals collection of ma4daldsdocuments both major
!:ithe inhabiting semi-roundels(Fig. r7.3 r), suggesting oortions of the Ka(miri Buddhist pantheon and
::: iedi- the vitality of the ancient Kaimri woodcarving ilrtu"lly the whole Brahmanical pantheon as
:": Du- tradition. Details of the ornament3tion closely oerceivedbv the Buddhists.hrtendedastechdcal
:: the resemblethe stoncwork of surviving monu- *"dit"tiotr"l devices for the use of the monks,
PIOP. ments in Kaimir proper. However, the wood- ttrc ma4/alas rcpresent the Sarvadurgatipari! odhana
:o his working is much more detailed, suggesting Tantra cycle, in which Vairocana, as Sarvavid
bemg that the renowned Ka{miri woodcarving tradi- (Universal Knowledge), appears in many differ-
either tion, celebrated for its exquisite workmanship, ins manifestations. All forms, which include
r:ltctufe had ancient roots, Saivavid Vairocana Sakyamuni, Mafiju3ri,
The paintings that decorate the walls of the Prajnaparamita and others, are composed into
interior of the are truly remarkable, these huge ma1dalas, each with thirty-seven
for they, along with a Gw other examples also principal deities and many ancillary figures.
in Ladakh and neighboring Himalayan regions, One of the best preserved examples (P1. 15)


':--,/ r


o2a4o60 100

0 5 l0 l5

r7.3o. Plan of Chos-'khor, including original temples and later

associatedbuildings. Alchi (Ladakh region), Kaimrr, Iirdia.
tiuy figurcs do not seem at all inappropnate on
the wall surfaccs.
T L c c o l o r s o f t l r c D L ' - k h r n gp r i n t i n g s' t r e
confined to muted hues of the prinary colors
o l t r , b l r c k r n d w h i t e . t h c l i n r i r c dt t s eo f g r c e n
l , , d r . l l o * r n J t l r c p r c v . r l c n cocf r e d r n d b l u c
giver'a re.crved tonllily to rlie
"tld-,o"lb "'
deerned suitablc for
ioo-, t l.,i.h was perhaps
meditational purPoses
Thc Surrr-isek(gSrrnr-brt',cg'1 Fig r7 3':)' a
tlrrcc-riercd structilre ncxr ro thc Du-klI'rng'
w . , r ,l i k e t l r c ' D u - k l r a n g . b r r i l tb y r t t r c m b e ro F
tlLe influentirl Bro family T'lrtrl-klrrims- od'
'Du-khang Alchi may havc con-
rr.rr. Wood carving on facadc, the founder of thc Sum-tsek,
(iaiakh region), Kainir, India Ca mid-eleventh cen- structed this building not long after the'Du-
khane was built, asmay be inGrred from stylistic
,nd ipierrphic evidcncc l ike otltcr strucrures
meditative ^, nl.hi ,i't" Sutn-t,ek rcverl' hou tlte native
shows thc hierarchic schemeof thcse
architectural tradition of Ladakh, characterized
c1evices.In thc outer ring arc the exterior
' ' r ' a i r , r s .d' e i t i c so f v a r i o t r 'n o n - B u d d h i s p
r an- bv oiled-up rock walls faced with mud plaster'
hlib""n ,1""ot"t"d with delicatewood carvings
-dh-oru-, wlto, oncc converrcd to t]rc BLrddhisr
of thc Ka(rniri style Triangular pedimcndike
prouid. a safehaven for thc practicc of
g.ld,lhisi ,r.r".litotions Thc outer portion of the fonns are combined widr pillars, pilasters' and
Bud- other arcl.ritecturalelemcnts, all of which find
,rondalo ,.prrscot, tl-rc four contincnts of
ls corlnteltrarts in the itone monun-rentsfound in
d l r i s r c o ' r n o l o g y . ? aT h c c e n t r a l P o r t l o n proper' The
..rr."it"a pill'rrcd chnrnbered the Srrnagar region o[ Kaimtr
", ""ii.lrly "nd flgur", 'et'into ttre rrchitecturrl tottlcxl' (some
t,"it pt"."a ,lirectly on tle centcr of the pinnacle rcplacctnenr')25 rlso
thesc oi which rnry be latcr
of lt,,io,,,ntMe.r.t,ti.tcaxis of the univcrsc ln of cosmo-
deities conforn-r to the stylistic Paraineten
vast hxlls residc the thirty-seven urajor
politan Ka(miri art.
of the nv4lala, who reprcsent the thirty-seven '
Th" ol"n of the building is unusual, perhaps
wings (or aspccts)of enlightenrncnr (bodhiPaksi- qs'encia)ly
c v e n u n i q t r c i, n B u d d h i ' t r r t ' f o r r h c
Lo). by niclret on
squrre cenlr.rl 'plce is cxrcnded
Each fisurc is rendered in exquisite detail and r7'3o) The
,1i" *"rr, ,torrh,'"nd east sides(Fig'
h", elJg"nt, attenuatcd b-ody with a nar{ow by three
"tt in the interior of the Surn-tsek is dominated
-aist ao.l ihe in.rpressionof musculature in thcse
(Pl' sisonric bocllrisattv,itttagc' rhat sr'rnd
torso, characteris;icof tirc Ka(miri idiom
of iilh.r,,ing rc'pectrvclyAvalokiteivara
16). Certain fcaturcs, such as the practice are
(Pl. r7). lri.'itreyr. ind Manjtrsri Thc niches
deuicrine rhe f:rrlLer eye in ' tlrrrc-qu'rrers- whose
ir"o rioti"t in Leight, as are the figures'
vieu frie .rs i[ der.rcbedfro'n the l'ce' tugge't
Asia heaclsarc visiblc to visitors standing on thc sec-
tics to other rcgional schools of South rlte
ond-\torv lloor' A dcdicaroryinscriptionto
(Pl. 3z). Often only abottt- tcn centlmcters ln ' l ' r r l - k h r i nrs-
of I e f t o f M , i t r e y . ,' f c e r e x p' rlr er nc 'cr hpat rt1c l e "
ireigt.r,,,tt"," fig.,,es "t" clearly the work of Body'
of bd 'er up tirc'e rlrrcc
,rriii",otit, xrtis;. h other nural traditions The M'rnjuiri im 'ge u rs
Speech. rnd Mind.26
South Asia, xs at Aja+t' (Pls 8 rr)' patnters
. . e r t . , i i n o r d e rt o r e t ' t o u cb o d i l yi n r p t r r i r i easn d
worked on a lareer s-ale, but hcre the elements
litcrally to obtairr a human Buddha body (nbnarakaya):
ofth" .o,ttpori iJos xPPcarto have bccn
to the the Avalokite(vara was made to temovc vocal
tra,rrf".t.d'fro,tt a manuscript tradition
impurities,, as a Buddha-speechimage' and to
murirl contcxt. Cornbined into extren-relycom-
the obi"i,t body (so'nbhogakaya);ar.d
plex and enormous cornpositions,however' "
:: ':roPrlxte on .1d*
-' -__,1nrlngsarc
: ::::1ilIy colors
::\!- of llfeen
: r.l xnd bluc
: : to thc
: .iritablc for

:. t7.32), a
-tilve con-
:::: the
1 -.t',li"ri.

a !tructules
:t1e natrve
' ::i.rxcterized t'.ta
: :: .rJ plaster, ,.. t,'::..,
: car-vings
- : . .tmentlike
I ,i!CrS,and
. .ich firrd
: :, ioutrd in
_ - rDer. lne
: ::: \ts (some
: .:-:-t)25also
' : cosrro-

.. perhaps
: :\-ientixlly
.: o). The
. :r' thrcc
: r in thcse
- _irrcsvara
- : ',. rvhose
: : tIIe sec-
- i nr tts-

: Body,
: :qc lvas
: . : i r i e sa n d
:.:i1ta4yi)" ,; { .-.-.
'.'l '.?
i-. and to
17.32. South lacc of Sum-tsck. Alchi ( region), Kalmir,
.;i: anal
India. Ca. rnid-eleventh century.
the Maitreya image was made to obtain an "Parthian shot," that is, thcy are tumed shooting
"absolute" Buddha-body (dharnakaya)and as a. backwards over their elephants in the manner
Buddha-mind image. charactedstic of alcient Parthian horsemen.
Manju(ri, Avalokite6vara, and Maitreya are Tlresedeadly warrion uould seemincongruous
the thrcc Great Bodhisattvas of the Sarvavid as ornaments on the robe of a Buddha whose
cycle. In Mahayana Buddhism, all characteristics very name nreans"Etem,rl Life." It may be
of existence are divided into "families" (ftr.rla), suggested,however, that such a design,
usually given as live or six in number. These may bc traced back to much earlier Iranian
bodhisattvxs represent rcsPectively the Vajru, sources,rePresentsa late survival in the Ka(miri
Palrra, and Buddha families and may document context and is indicative of the cultural cross-
a holdover from an early tradition that empha- roads that define Kaimir itself. It is possible
sized only three major family divisions. In tbar suchIururiou" fabricswere the prerogative
contrast to the wooden sculptures on the ex- of Ka6miri nobility, and that the clothing as
terior ofthe building, theseenormous figures arc worn by the Amitayus indicates his royal pre-
made of mud phster that has been painted with rogative as the king of Sukhavati.
the sarnecxquisitc detail found on the walls of Unlike the paincingsofthe'Du-khang, where
the buiiding. Each bodhisattva's/ftofl displaysan color was applied in a flat, gcnerally unshaded
array of forms, including figures and buildings, nanner, the Sum-tsek Paintings arc notable for ::a i

and eachhasits own iconographic theme. the richnessoftheir coloristic cffects.Often, two
In contrast to the paintings of the colors are used to suggest a kind of glowing
which were somber and reservedin their colora- surfaceto the skin offigures and also to provide
tion, the paintings of the Sun.r-tsekvirtually the impressionofdepth and three-dirnensionality
shinner with warnth and color through the to the forrns. Such "shading" may be an out-
gcnerous Lrseof ycllow and green, in addition growth of a long distant ancestry in the Hel-
to red, blue, black, and white (Pls. r7-24). lenistic-Romanized art of the Indic northwest,
It i. unlikcly that the differcnce in paletre for the forms of the bodies seem to be the
between the two buildings was due to a chrono- painted equivalentsof the sharply defined, often
logical difference since the buildings were muscular physiquesseenin Ka6miri sculpture.
aparently built within a short time of each One of the most interesting painted composi-
other. Instead, a religious reason may have tions at Alchi shows Prajfiaparanrita,identified
accounted for the differences, for while the by the book and rosary that she holds, which is
'Du-khang also on the lower story ofthc Surn-tsek(Pl. r9).
was apparently built fqr the nedita-
tions of the nonkhood, the Sum-tsek was She is attended by for.rr emanations of herself
probably intended for the laity. and is the object of devotion ofa noble woman
A smal1 painting of Amitayus, Part of a and a priest, who are shown just below her. To
scherneshowing Sukbavati, the western Paradlse either sideis a depiction ofa tall structure. Given
over which he presides,from the lower story the archaeoiogicalremains at Parihasapuraand
of the Sun.r-tsek,demonstratesthe full richness the renown of that site as a Buddhist center,
of the Sum-tsekcoloration(Pl. r8). The crown along with the forms depicted in the painting,
worn by the figure clcarly indicates that he is it is likely that theserepresentLaliaditya's caitya
Amitayus, and not Amitabha or Ardtabha/ at ??dhasapura with its towering form and
Anitayus. The throne configuration in this gigantic metal Buddha irnege.on the ic[t. and
composition is lessthan half a meter in height, Canknr1a'sstupa, at the right. Thc practice of
'Du-khang, depicting important Buddhist shrinesand monu-
so, as in the caseof the the artists
essentixilyworked in a miniaturist stylc, com- -.nt, be traced to thc earliest pcriods of
bining tiny elcnents to achieve a mural design. surviving Buddhist art. In the Sunga period, for
Thc central {igure of Amitayus is garbed in a example, depictions of the Mahabodhi temple
robc decorated with elephant-riding warriors, and other shrines, were alrcady represented
rnany of rvhom are shown performing the That these monuments are shown with Prajia-

peramite suggests that she was the primary meter in height. Yet, the techniquesofmodeling,
deity of Parihasapura and that the site may the coloration and extreme attention to detail
have been an inportant center for her worship are comparable to these elementsof the minia-
in Ka6mir. tures more commonly seenat Alchi. In general,
The shading of the anatomy of the central the paintings of the second and third stories of
figure is done with meticulous care. As is the this three-tiered building are painted lessfinely
practice throughout the Sum-tsek paintings, and with more limited use of the expensive
each element of the shading is a single pointil- brighter pigments used on the first story. The
listic stroke, so {inely executed that this feature secondstory was not a public area(and can only
is observableonly at great enlargement.Prajfia- be reached by climbing a notched log ladder
peramita's garments and those of her attebdants to the right of the veranda on the exterior of
and worshipers are alsofinely painted renderings the building) and the third story is in fact totally
of the luxurious textiles that may have been inaccessiblebecauseit has no floor at all, and
used by the Ka3miri nobility. Her diadem, with can only be viewed from below. These stories
its very linear forms, may be a descendentof were painted for the completion of the icono-
the "hair net" type of crown seen occasionally graphic program rather dran to be seen up
in Bactro-Gandhara sculptures of the Kugar.ra close, a fact which may have infuenced the
period. Her hemispheric breasts, attenuated artists to use larger scale depictions for their
'waist and animated posture are feninine char- walls, as in the caseof the Prajfrtperamita-Tera.
acteristics that appear widely in South Asian Over the door on the south side of the Sum-
art; however, the extreme narrowness of the tsek and visible to the viewer as he exits the
waist and the attention to anatomical detail and building is a representation of Mahakala, an
musculature in the abdomen and torso typify angry, protective form ofAvalokiteivara (Pl. zr).
the KaSmiri idiom. As a dharnapalaor "protector of the Buddhist
Although the identification of this {igure as a law," Mahakala is chargedwith overcoming the
form of Prajfieparamite is confirmed by the enemies of the faith, namely, those who are
attdbutes she holds, her green color does not difliculr to convert. hence explaining in part
conform to the usual iconographic descriptions his fierce appearance.His name may be translated
ofher. Further, the presenceofthejfua Buddha as"The Great Time," (that is, the Great Destroy-
Amoghasiddhi at the top center in the group of er [Death]) or "The Great Black-One." He is
five jiras rbove her suggeststhat she may also characteristicallyshown as blue in color, though
represenr Sydnrarart(GreenTara),and therefore. can be other colors as well, depending on the
mlght be rdentllledas rrajnaParamlra- 12r2 specific form of Mahakala being depicted. His
This suggestionis strengthenedby the presence position over the entrance/exit to the building
of a secondpainted figure in the Sum-tsek that befits his protective role. Thc triangle bcneath
more clearly combines the features of Prajfra- him represcntsLhe of mctcoric irnn
paramita and Tara (P1.zo). Although this figure intended to imprison all evil-doers. Ofparticular
holds Prajfiaparamita's characteristicattributes, interest among the figures who surround Maha-
the book and the rosary, she is surrounded by kala is the depiction of an angry female who
depictions of peopie affiicted with the eight may be Sri (sometimes said to be dre Buddbist
perils and their salvation by means of devotion hypostasis oi the Hindu goddess Sri; Pl. zz).
to Tara. T'his figure is thus a dual goddess, The iconography of this figure is generalized
symbolizing not only the salvationism of Tara so that it is dificult to determine which of the
but thc suprene salvation dbtainable through several manifestationsof the Sri-type goddesses
the knowledge symbolized by Prajf,aparamita. she represents.She is characterizedby her angry
This representation,which is on a wall of the appearance, skull ornaments, and the mule
second story of the Sum-tsek, is one of the (aluatara) she rides. Like Mahakala, deities of
few major scaleirnagesren.uining in the Ka6miri this classare also dhatmapalas.The shading on
painting style; the figure alone stands about a her skin and that of the animal sherides creates
the sense of an intrer glow, which, Iike the
skin tones ofthe other figurcs as well, is striking ;
against the f,at, dcep blue of the backgrouud.
The ccilings ofthe Sur.n-tsekarc also painted.
The dcsign, which consistsof painted replicas
of lcngths of cloth, accomrnodatesthe strlrctural
divisions of the ceiling with its wooclen beams
(Pl. z3). Today, many Ladekhissuspcndlengths
of cloth as faise ceilings in their: honcs and
sirrines, suggestitrgthat the Sur.n-tsckpaintings
docun-rcntan early nanifestatior-rof this prlctice.
It is likely that thc cloth clesignspainted so
carefully by the Alchi artists \.vereclose rcplicas
of somcofthe luxnrioustextilcsavailabledurirg
17.33.Sourhfaccof Lha-khang+o-rna from southeast.
the clcventh ccntury. Rcflccting thc Ka(n.riri
Alchi (Ladakhrcgion),Kalnrr, India.Ca. third quartcr
position as part of the crossroaclsof Asia, the cleventhcentrry.
textiles revcal a broad cross sectiou of what i
must l-ravcbeen popular techniqucs thct in use, t
including dying, tie-dying, printing, brocrding,
and enbroidcry. Thc varietiesofpattcrns further Ladakh from the east and had exerted his in- I

b e t r a y t l r e . r n , i c t t rl L e r i t r g co f t J r er e g i o t . f o r fluence on Rin-chen bZang-po around ro5o-54. I

dcsignswhich werc cLlrrcDtfrorI lnner Asia to T h e L h e - k l r a n g - ' o - n r tah. c n . a n d i t s p a i n t i n g s .

India and China are reprcscntcd. One popular are vcry propably products of about thc third
r n o t i f .r s c r i c 5o f r o u n d c l rt i r t t t r r u ,rlv i t l t p c . r r l . . quarter of thc clcventh century.
is known from Iran to Japan and is ultimately The style of paintings in this building is ex-
based on Sassaniandesignsof the sixth century emplified by a represcntation of Vairocana/
(Pl. z4). Thc exanple illustratedbearsa pair of Sakyarnuni in thc center of the north wall
dancing figures of clearly Indic origin, thus (Pl. z5). Though painted on a much grander
rcvcalingthe blcnding of traditionstbat is chxr- scalc, lvith thc central figurc almost a meter 1n
actcristic of much of l(ailuri art. height, thc composition may be comparcd to
A tbird building in the Chos-'khor group, a examplcs knorvn from Pala-pcriod paln leaf
modest building known asthe Lha-khang-so-ma m:rnuscriptpainting. Notable amolrg the distjnc-
(Fig. 17.33),bearspaintings of a sl.rarplycon- tive P-la clcments arc the lockcd knecs of the
trasting style. Its siurplc construction i11 the standing bodhisattva attcndants, their arched
typical Ladrkhi rnud ancl rock tcchniclue cloes backs, and badring-suitlikc dlorls. The use of a
not prcpxre the visitor for thc surprise of the biack outline to defilc thc contours and forms
paintings within, which arc in a style thxt is ofthe elcmentsin thc con.rpositionis also typical
clcarly clcrived from the painting idiorn devel- in rnany Pala paintings. Yet, whilc the Buddha
o p c d i r r B i l , n , l B c n g l l i t r r l t c c . L ' t c r np . , r t i o n rnd his attendentbodhisattvas are stronglybased
of the subcontinent during Pala and Scna on Pala types, the figures are "modcled" in a
p e r i o d s .T h o u g l r t l ' e d . r t t o f r h i . . l r t t c l t t r ci ' manuer not seenin Bihar and Bcngal printings.
not fixed by inscription or historjcal documcn- Instcad, the attention to anatomy and shading
tation, its traditional namc, Lha-khang-so-ma, allics the figures to thc KaSmiri stylc and the
Iirerally "thc ncw ternple," suggcststhxt it was painting traditions presumably derived from thc
built aftcr at ieast thc original buildings at thc n o r r l r ! \ c ( t e r tnr l d i r i o n . .l n c o n t r a stto p a i n t i t t g .
site rverc already in place. Yet, tl.rcstrong favor strictly of thc Kaimiri mode, howcvcr, Iike the
of the Pala idioln in thc paintings suggcstsdrat examples in thc Sur.n-tsek,the shacling of the
it might have beeq creatcd not long aftcr the skin, particularly seen in tl.rc two standing
great castern lndian patlrlita, Atisa, had come to boclhisattvas, does not crcatc the sense of a
KASMiRAND RrrATrD scHoors jid5

glow or sheenbut rather appearsmonled, which wele once produced in Bihar and Bengal, for
"-ieht large-scale wall pajntingshave vani'hed almost
,uqg.rt that arrists of the easrernschool
h"J .o.i to Ladakh and had added some wiihout a trace from the casternregions and
misunderstood "touches" of the KaSmrri idiom the extant miniatures on palm leafdo not display
to their works. Such hybridization could, of the intricate arangements of forms seen here.
course,be the rerult of many factors;it is also However, later Tibetan and Nepali paintings,
Dossible,for example.that artiststrained in the which are clearly bascd on Pala prototypes,
kaimiri srylehad modified their works bccause offer some documentation of the earlier Indic
of a desire to emulate the paintings in manu- compositions, and from surviving texts and the
scriptsbrought to this region from the east' known teachings of great religious masters, it
A second-composition from the Lha-kharg- may be inferred that such iconographic arrange-
so-ma shows Kalacakra, a tutelary deity of the -"nt, -"r" in use during the Pala pcriod. The
Vairayana/Tantric Buddhist pantheon whose paintinqs of the tha-khang-so-ma. tlren. are
name literally means "time-wheel" (Pl. zo)' erp.ciaiiyimportant. for they provide a glirnpsc
iron southeast. He is shown as blue in color, multiarmed, and of th. i"rtein rradition. tfiough modi6cd by
3:- third quarter in tlre pose of sexual union (yugaxaddha) with Ka{miri form, at an early datc and testify to the
his female cowterpatt (yajfi6) while surrounded imponanceof the Ladaklrrcgion in transmining
by a na4dalicarrangement of subsidiaryfigures. the beliefs and art of the Buddhist religion from
Tiough the style of the painting clearly shows the Indic regions to those of the Himalayan
ties to the easternIndic traditions, we can only realms.
xened his in-
ound ro5o-54. infer thar such complex painred compositions
lia paintings,
bout the third
C o Nc t u s l o u

buildingis ex-
The Buddhist and Hindu art of Kaimir came several sites in Inner Asia, especially Qizil
ot Valrocana/
to an abrupt end when the Muslims bccame and Tun-huang, the paintings from the cache
re north wall
the dominant political force in the region at Tun-huang, and some iconographic manu-
much grander
around 1339, when Shah Mirza, a Muslim scripts from Japan. for cxamplc. should bc
lost a metef In
adventurer,overthrew the Lohara dynasryend evaiuaredwith Ka6mir in mind as a possible
-' compared to
maior patronage was no longer avail:rble. source. Kaimir's position relative to the rest
iod palm leaf
ffo*.u"., rhe traditions of Kaimiri art lived of South Asia and its geographic isolation
rng the distinc-
on in other regions, most notably Gu-ge in allowed the Ka6n.rrristo maintail a kind of
d knees of the
western Tibet, wbere it remained the dominant independence.Yet its role as a trade and cul-
. their arched
style for some time. There is still much to be tural center berwccn ancient India, Gandhara
!- lne use or a
learned about the movements within and in- and related regions, western Tibet, and Jnner
rurs and forms
fluences uDon Kairniri artistic traditions, as Asia left it subject to intcrcoune with a vast
n is alsotypical
well as the impacr of Kainttri art on orhcr variety of artistic and cultural sources.A full
iie the Buddha
oarts ofAsia. Clearly, Kaimir served asa source understanding of the transmission of Buddl.rist
: suongly based
of i*"g"ry and influence for the northern and art through Asia is dependent on dcveloping a
modeled" in a
eastem movements of Buddhist art. The Yun- greater knowledge of Kaimlri art.
ngal paintings.
rv and shading kang caves in China, the wall paintings from
i sr,vleand the
erived ftom the
ast ro paintings
's'ever, like the
shading of the
ts'o standing
the sense of a
rn r'\
uzF N
F {rn
a <t;
F --'!O .", i
'7 <-= -L Y.'', 9 r
ao-fii:= sE
r,. = j.) ! Y
x+< )\F 1s
Y-z Yz 3 e
; a
= LLul = t!
Z, /''\ rti'
- \_) \t t \_,, \J




Detail oI 18.r3-


Bihar and Bengal

Under The Ptla and SenaKinss

From the eishth to the twelfth centuries, the of the religious, cultural, and artistic heritage
.asternresioi of the South Asian subcontinent, of this region. Indeed, the art of the so-called
roughly equivalent to the modem states of Pala-Senaperiod is as notable for its influence
Bihar and West Bengal in hdia and the nation abroad as it is for its rolc as a major art school
of Bangladesh (East Bengal), was host to a in the Indic sphere. Hinduism, particularly
florescenceof artistic activity.l Under the Pala Vai5r.ravism,also reached a peak during this
dvnasw. which ruled large portions of this period and became especiallyprominent in the
,Jeion'for nearly the entiri Four-hundred-year cuhural region of Bengal (West Bengal and
sp""n,as well oth.t -or" limited ruling fami- Bangladesh) during the eleventh and twelfth
", centuries.
lLs, such a, the Senas,and, to a lesserextent, the
Candrasand Varmans, vital centersofBuddhism The Pala dynasty came to Power around 75o,
and Hinduism fourished. In Bihar, which derives when the first king, Gopala, is said to have
its name from the many Buddlist viharas that ended the "reign of fishes,"zthat is, the Practice
once dotted the land, and particularly in the of the larger principalities swallowing up
region of Magadha, the homeland of Sakyamuni the smaller ones that had characterized the
Buddha, Buddhism reachedan apogee.During politics of Bengal after thc collapseof Sa6airka's
this period, Buddhist monks and pilgrims from empire in the seventh century. Taranatha, the
near and distant parts of Asia, including China, Tibetan historian writing in the seventeenth
Southeast Asia, Nepal, and Tibet, came to century, claimed that the school of Pala art,
Bihar and Bengal to study Buddhism and however, was not founded until the reigns of
ultimately to transmit to their homelands.much Dharmapala and Devapala, the second and



*r11 t;.,.'ru'lr*"''*
w#'*ffi :; **:l'::11"u"'l"lillii'l"iiill'*3";
:r;{:''#tiiirq :i#
if;:"3h:";:pliTiii"a# c,irna,e
;**1:n;u.;r ""a
r-r'xlit:**i -i*t exampres'
i# T"l'"yllfi orarchi'lcc'lurar
"'':"iT't t =
f#*a*lt$, **l*ijtrffi
l*,t+ur *i+Lt1[l*:tfi$i
,#"",r*,- s
"ial,,u'r,, i',.,.,*,
this cxodus causcdthe Buddh

crion ascribed and many exanples made of bronze had gilded tended period was toward increasedelaboration
he practiced surfaces. In general, metal images fiom this of detail and complexity oficonography, greater
urndred years region are hollow cast, except in the case of stylization of forrn, stiffening of body postures
Llmost to the the smaller works, which are usually solid. and facial features,as well as increasedemphasis
lgin, although Mctal sculpturesserved alone or in groups as on the detailing of the back-slabor surrounding
e religion in objects of meditation and devotion and many elements at the exoense
-of of the orominence of
rt and culture must have formed part of three-dimensional the central figure the composition. These
m incursions, flal!{alas.'fhe varieties of wood sculpture in featuressuggestthat the developmentsin Bihar
rially under- this region can only be imagined,but surviving and Bengal were part ofthe overgll cultural and
rital force in examplcs suggest that wood carvings were artistic pattems of South Asia during the post-
used as part of architectural decoration, and for Gupta periods.s
rcriviry of the the creation of objects of veneration as well. As i-po.t"ttt th" regional and chronological
mlctureswere Although works of art from Bihar and distinctions of Pala-period art is the fact that
rese buildings Bengal of the eighth through twelfth centuries this corpus of images displays a tremendous rich-
g alrnost no sharea number of features,many distinct work- nessof iconograpbic types. Some of the fonns
d and making shops wcre responsiblefor the vast artisric preserved in this artistic tradition may refect
Et a systenatic output. Some atelier., Iike thosc at major religious concepts that had been formulated in
:lopments.6In religious centers such as Nalande or Bodh earlier periods. Others undoubtedly indicate the
may be ex- Gayt, wcre sustained over the centuries and vitality of the Buddhist and Hindu religions in
ot stone, was their lengthy histories r.nay be traced for the Bihar and Bengal from the eighth through the
I other fragile full four-hundred-year span of this period. twelfth centuries and are innovations resulting
r. and thatch, These rnajor centersserved as sourcesof stylistic from the keen insight and advanced religious
rhe continual and iconographic inspiration for smaller, less understanding of spiritual masters who lived
moist clirnate prominent establishmcnts. Thus, within the at that time. The present discussion, while
,hich organic broad geographical range of Bihar and Bengal, touching on some of the stylistic developments
built of these regional subschools,largely based on the styles of the period, primarily focuseson the religious
ive over the of the main centers,may be discemed. and iconographic developments.The Buddhist
Along with regional developn.rents, very icons demonstrate the vigor of the Buddhist
ural examples, precise cLronological distinctions may be made religion at this time and comprisc a point of
ferv paintings for thc arr of this period. Such refinemenrsare departure for studying the Buddhist art of
rhe sculptures possible bccause several dozen sculptures, in- many other regions of Asia. The Hindu sculp-
a ferv wooden cluding cxanples in both stone and rnetal, with tures document the intensity of Hindu belief in
n the case of inscribed dates, survivc fiorn this period. Thc the eastcrnregions, in spite of a rathcr delayed
naterials were basictendencyofthe sculpturalstyleover tlis ex- advent of Brahmanism there.
irere generally
itic stone local
allr: created in Buoonrsr Arr
t itould h"ve
a, part of the During the Pala pcriod, a number ofmonasteries in Bengal, for cxample, measuresmore than
r might have and relieious sites that had been founded in one hundred meters fiom north to south (Fig.
s of devotion. earlier periods grew into prominence. At the r8.r). It is set within a vast quadrangularcourt-
aqes from this
-specific sarne time, the intense religious activity and yard that containsa number ofsmalier structures,
: alloy apparent wealth of the region fostered the suggestingthat the main conpound may have
r ro rvorkshoP establishmentof many new centers throughout been a product of more than one building phase
a high copper the regions of Bihar and Bengal. In spite ofthe (Fig. r8.z). It is believed to have been founded
e\ls, the alloy paucity of architecturalmonuments surviving during the reign of Dharmapala, the second
\a:tadhntu),1 ^ll frorn this period, it is evident that ambitious Pala king, around the latc eighth or early rrinth
r rirual correct- and impressive structureswere built. The large century, though other objects from thc site
: gold or silver, cu,clform stula at Pahelpur (ancient Somapura) ciating fiom later periods suggest that xrtistic


lhe PlrltPerioJ' Thc rvrils of thc plinth and lorv"r
. r c r r v i r vc o n r i n u ( di l t r o t r g l t o r r t -""ti-tt' *"t" decorated rvitlr
i,..".''''y"jtont'in r,77 irrdi\idtrrl.,h"';;t1t;;;, r8 3) aod :r rorv of
ii" of ;"-.;;;i' ;kr*'
j i ' i r"trri.i
'rit.t '. .".,1 at 'lrritrc' ln tlre certtcr
sirrr-rlrrce ,rone in'^get on tlre llinrh firrrlrcr
,;"'";;,i' :ll:,i::iliTi';: .";iJ ;;, rlrc 'crrlpi'rr"l <rnbclli'ltr'cnr' An
(ntr.rDce. ind cnl'Irged ccll bLocKs thecc dccnr'rttotts n1'
5lde\'sllg- rcor,-,tr.rplticprogr"rn for
. - . , " , o- .i a .t "h"c' ' 's' toyt r t l t ' c J ' t r n L l \ \ e \ l rhotrgh drc
i", ft*tt .itrbliJrcd' .terr,n
g ' t e \ \' l ) s l l l i ' J r r ' r l ) g c l r l ( n l "", q f t c n c l r ' L r r n t l l gl'r c c t y
O.5,** r v t t l t p c c ir l l l
c o t r . r . r . '*-ft
i " r , , t . l ' L r ' . , t " t l i ' " i - d i " t c n ' i o n ' l ' r r a ' r f/ oa r/ r' rt 'r r t .-"."*.f shorving ninor clivinities' rni-
r . t i ' p t "c c t l t e r c udi t l t i r t s r t c l tr
, t r "t , t . , t , t , r r do tl r e n t r b j et' ' '
u i t l r t l t en ' ' r r r l ' : r ' ' t t ' r n . r l s .
, , , . , tf r " a i , , t t t 1 c o t r t p r r e d o tlrc prrrcityof rrcllltcctllr'rl
l r r o r t t r " ' t t',lti'
' t r r v i v c , f r o r Nr c p ' r lr r r d
i ; ", , 1 , , , r t ' a r i i ,
t' r. ,i b l t r r p""td' ihe thousirnds of
, , . i n w h r c l t l r ' c c t r r r ' t' le n t p l e -"-,"t"^i..- llllLo\t ov(r-
ir' ' u r . i u i n q ' c t r l p t ' r r c 'P r e \ c 1 l J! n
rvirh 're''
i " " t ' ; t . ,"l.t,' r. ti it."'a, 1' a b 1 " c o r r r p ' - ' t r n d 3rvith ;i ;i";i; .',",1or fo""' A bl'|(|
ii-'pir*ro* temPlcis cruciforn plan' in r84) irrrPortrnt
pd4(aratna , , u . i r o n i N i l . , n d a 1 li 3 -an
e.c1r'it1c bci"goff'ersur\'rr t,ris ol rltc Bucldhist nionastcry and onc
of the prtncrpu
t*t"p' the north' u'hich is fr"rn 'pproxt-
0"" t"tltrl ui'itty ."-"r. oi Pal.'-pcriod'rrt d rrcs
cl' 'rrly dcrllon-
"til:if l;..IlJJ"ill,",..,''.,,,onun,e'r. t".r"n, ,f,. 5cvcntllcenrlrr) 'rld
elrboralcol tltc
:;;,;.1 ,1'. p,"-Pil "n'l caril
n.ob"lriv on" ofthe rrlo't 'crrlPttrrJl
o f " r r c i r c dJ s ' t J c p c n , l c n c <o r l c r r l i c r B r ' d ( l l r l s t
Lr"..i..r'ut''"t"'* 'n'l ir ^ :;ti:'. ;'.1,.t' trt't [ronr \''rnaLlr'
lhe 'lcttder'
:::;;;;; ior the tcrr"ced edirrccsor 'vho m"v
rhc Prlrrpur ;j:;;.';;..1 fiq"'e or r)'i' bodhiutrvJ' e
{ ' i " , " , " a t . " t f t ' r ' r A s ir ' Y c t il' .';il
or \''11r'rnt
i r r B i l r r r''rrdli'"rgJl
" < l 't t i q r r <
, t l l ' 1 , , ' t " ' ' ' "'.t"ttr.'r.t ;, .;;;tit.""t of lete'
plan.orlp'et the sitcof of the
iit'"' ,t-ti"t
(thought to bc--t}.rc iJ trt*rt,ro rclxxeclPostttrc'trcatmcnt
^"ri.f*t- ttt easternBiirar i"tt, 'i"tplitity in particularrecall
rt encient Vikranairla n-ronestcryl "tT""tJt crl\Pncqs
,,,-, rhc ..,rlrcr rdolt. Horvcver. .l ErcAte-r
',,-0"'L',t''""f " 'rrchbrril'lings 'l'I ol the lotrl\
lril:,i:,1::; rn tltc crrvinq rnd rhe dcr'Liling
,.it-"d . popui"' rnd cl.r'rr:iclerts anci jeweiry indicate a dcParturc

o c
Stupa Stupa

n-er tgrracesof
lecorated with
md a row of
plinth further t JJ
F-:i i

llishment. An ;=-l -'--.{
lecorations has
gh the terra
Lrming, fieely
dirinities, ani-

f architectural
M an y
thousands of
almost over- S u b s l d i ar y
:k stone sculp-
an important
rhe principal
&orn approxi-
:learly demon-
-period stylistic
rist sculptural
. lne slenoer,
n'a. who may
0 32 6' 4 9' 6 1'2, 4 1 '6, A 1'9 2 2'2, 1
riod carvings. F', ',

2rment of the
ardcular recall
:eater crlsPness
1 of the lotus r8.2. Plan of Great Sr[pa. Paharpur,Bangladesh.pala period, prob-
leparture from ably reign of Dharmepela. Ca. late eighth<arly ninth century.

r8.3. Tena-cotta plaqucson Great StaPa Pahalpur, Bangladcsh.

Ptla period, probably rcig11 of Dhrrmap:la. Ca. late eighth-
early nirth ceiltury.

the early style. Accompanying thc bodhisatrva than naturalistic,effect to the figurcs. In contrast
are two femalc figures. Tl.rcc iila Buddhas to the earlier inage frorn Nalanda, thc back-slab
appear on his l.ralo and a fourth, perhaps the is now pointed at the top, rathcr than rolrndecl,
spiritual progenitor of the bodlrisattva, aPPcxrs and it has been grcatly elaboratcd upon in
in his headdress. its dccoration as well as in thc iconographic
Another inage from Nalanda, this tirne identi- additions of the various attendants and other
fiable as the Bodhisattvlt Khasarpana Avaloki- figurcs. Even the clothing of thc bodhisattva is
te6vara,was probabiy carvcd in the late elevcnth more detailed than that of thc earlier fignrc.
centLrryand sl-rowsluauy of the charactcristicsof Also typical of this later plnse of Pala art, the
the fully dcvelopcd Pala-Sena tradition (Fig. lotus pedestal upon which the ccntral figurc
i8.5). Tl.reccntral {igure and his attendantsstand stards is l.righly ciaborate xnd is carvcd in a
in the accentedtribhaiga, or thdce-bcnt Posture. scries of thrcc-dimensionally conccivcd layers.
Not only is this positiolr collllr1only seen in Khasarpaqa Avalokite6vara is attcndcd by his
imagcsfrom this datc, but the anguler transitions usual con-rpanions,Tara and Sudhanakun-rara
between thc sectionsof the body are typical of (Very Rich Princc) to his right and Bh;kurr and
this pcriod as well and imPart a stylizcd, rather Hayagriva (Horse-Ncck) to his lcft, while above,

r8.4. Bodhisatwa.From Nelanda,Bihar, India. Pre-P,la r8.J. Khasarpa4a Avalokiteivara. Frour Nalanda, Bi-
period. Ca. seventhcentury. Black stone. H: 2oo cm. har, India. Pela pcriod. Ca. late eleventh century. Black
Nelanda Site Muscum, Ntlandl. stone. H: r2J cnl. Ndlarde Site Museum, Nalandt.

ures.In contrast all five of thejinc Buddhas are represented.Like dhologically, this is an exarnple of the compas-
la. the back-dab many other Pala-period sculptures, the image sion exhibited by the bodhisattvaof conpassion.
r rhan rounded, may have been painted in its original state, ac- This specificaspectof Khasarpa4aAvalokiteivara
rrared upon in cording to the iconographic precepts of the is known as Prctasarhtarpita Lokeivara, the
r iconographic sadhanas, theBrddhist textual ritual guide. Thus, pr et a-satlsfying Loke6vara.
hnrs and other Khasarpap might bave been white; Tara, green Numerous other bodhisattvas and forms of
e bodhisattva is or white; Sudhanakumera and Bhgkuti, gold; bodhisattvas are also represented within the
: :arlier figure. and Hayagriva, red. The {ivejiza Buddhas might span of Pala-period art. A repres6ntation of
o: Pala art, thc also have been painted their respective colors. SadakgariAvalokite6vara found at Colgong, in
' ;cntral figure The arimal-headed,skeletalfigure at the extreme eastemBihar, was probably carved in the latc
i. carved in a bottom left of the stele is the preta Socimukha. eleventh or twelfth century as indicatcd by thc
::r;cived layers. Pretas are a form into which beings who have elaboration of the various elernents in the
---- r.t L., h;. been lustful and greedy are born. This preta, composirion(Fig. r8.o). Ir is inrererringto note
S:ihanakumara whose destiny it is to be insatiably hungry, is that the foliate motifs are suggestive of the
nj Bhrkuli and being saved by the bodhisattva, who lets him Nepali painted designs of the thirteenth and
r-. rvhile above, suck the nectar that falls from his hand. Bud- fourteenth centuries tlut are based upon Pala

r8.6. $adaktari Av:lokitelvara. From Colgong, Bihar' Bi-

r8.7. Sirihan,daAv.lokitc(varr'FrourSultangafrj,
Indie. Palapcriod. Ca. lxle elevcnth or trl'clfih centurt. har, lndiA. Pala pcriod. Ca. late elcvclth or early
Blacksrone.H: t43.3cm. PatnaMuseunr,Pxtrla. rwelfih ccntury.Blackstone.H: ca.r8o cDl.Birming_
hamMuseumandArt Gallery,Birrningham.

prototypcs. Iconographically, this figure is yet being propitiated, and this sculpnrre therefore
anothcr nanifestation of the ubiquitous bod- reprcsents a personification o{ the maxtra of
hisattva Avalokiteivara. Thc two principal Avalokitc(vara. padna or lotus held in his
hands, now lost, would have bccn in aiTjali hand signifiesthe lamily (Arrla)of this figure and
tndra, d:'e second right hand should have is his principal emblcm. The rosary (rriala)is thc
carried a rosary, and the sccond left, a lotus. ritual tool used in reciting rhe ruanha the
The central figure is accor.npaniedby Mani- ncccssarynumber of times (usually one hundrcd
dhara, the n.ralcon the figurc's proper right, and eight) in thc propitiation of Avalokite(vara.
by $adaksari Mahavidya, the Gn.rale to his Thc trvo principal hands were rt aiijali nudrd to
left. These two attcndants exhibit the same signify the deep respcct and devotion that the
attributes as thc central figure, that rs, thc anjali practitioner is supposedto feel whilc performing
wdra, the losary, and the lotus. five jin tl:'e fidt1trq. In csoteric teachings, $adaksari
Buddhas are representedalong the top of the holds between his two hands drc gem of en-
stele and the irnagc of Amitabha probably aP- lightcnment that, while concealed from the
peared in the headdressof SadaksariLoke(vara. casual viewer, is promised to tlle devotee who
Sadaksari(Six Syllables)reGrs to tl.'e tdtitra of visualizeshimsclf as $adaksari.
Avalokiteivara, Oth naqi padne hutir, ',vhtch A figure of Sirirhanada AvalokitcSvara, also
consistsof six syllables.A trarr,"a is a phonetic found in eastcrnBihar, at Sultangaiij,and prob-
syrnbol that both evokesand vivifies thc diviniry ably of the san.rc approximate date, further
to its roar, or his teachings.Thus, Avalokite6-
vara-of-the-lion's-roar leiterates the complete
body of dharna that the Buddha Promulgated.
The analogue of the lion's roar stemsfrom the
fact that the Buddha was considered a lion
among people aswell asa menb.r ofthe Sakya
clan, which had the lion as its totem. The voice
ofthe lion is, ofcourse, a roar, asbefits one of the
mightiest animalsLnown in India. The Buddha's
teachingsamong people are thus likened to the
roar of the lion among animals. There is a
trident with a serpent entwined about it to the
right of the bodhisattva and the remains of a
lotus bearing a flaming sword aloft may be seen
to his left. The sword is equated with ptajna , the
Buddhist concept of transcendentalknowledge.
An unusual Gature of this stele is the Posture
o{ the jixa Buddhas above the central figure,
with their legs akimbo in the manner of flying
gaxdhoruasor uidyadharcsrather than their usual
The full richnessof the srylistic develoPments
of Buddhist art under the Palasor Senasmay be
seenin a figure ofthe BodhisattvaAvalokite6vara
r8.8. Avalokitelvara. Frorn Tapandighi, West Bengal, of about the late eleventh or early twelfth
India. Pale period. Ca. late eleventh-early twelfth century from Tapandighi in West Bengal
century. Black stone.H: ro5 cnr. StateArchaeological (Fig. I8.8). While clearly deriving from the
Museum of Beugal, Calcutta. same stylistic milieu as the Colgong $adak-
sari, this sculpture is more elaborate and three
dimensional. The fowers and jewels are not
exemplifies the great iconographic variety of simply incised, but have become deeply carved
this school (Fig. r8.7). This stele was found in forms rising out of the surfaceof the stcle.The
:tr :i1 his associationwith the famous, larger than human- main figure occupies only a relatively small
a :::a and sizemetal image of a Buddha (Fig. rr.6) and two portion of the total spaceof the stele and the
--:;the elaborately carvcd black stone pillars that were viewer's attention is captured by the variety of
unearthedin r87z during the courseofconstruc- other features. In contrast to thc KhasarPalp
tion of a railroad, The nearby ruins suggest Avalokite(vara image from Nalande (Fig. r8.5),
that these sculptures belonged to a monastqry this bodhisattva is attended only by Hayagriva
and might have been hidden when the establish- and Sudhanakumara; Tare and BhJkuti are
ment was attacked by Muslim invaders. The absent.
carving is again highly refined and the figure Buddha images also abound from the Pala
and back-slabare detailedwith the precision and and Senaperiods.Typically, Pala-Senadepictions
care found in the finest of theseworks. The ac- show seated Buddhas displaying bhanisparla
cented posture, sharply outlined Gatures of the ruu&a.lrst as tlte prevalenceof dharnacakramudrd
face,and detailing ofthe back-slabindicate a date and the prominence of Samath (where Sakya-
of the late eleventh or early twelfth century for muni Buddha first preached)during the Gupta
h:.'r':ra. also this sculpture. The name Sirhhanadais a direct period are undoubtedly correlated, a rclation-
lc- . =ad prob- reference to the teachings of the Buddha, the ship seemsto exist between thc PoPuladty ofthe
;::. further Buddha being the lion or sithhaandnadarefetritg bhunisporla mudra ar.d the importance of Bodh
moment of calling thc eath to witncss depicted
by thc bhamispaiamilra and the prcsenceof the
bodhileavesabove the head of thc central Bud-
dha, but also,immediately surrounding him, the
armics of Mdra arc shown in the act of attacking
him with stones and other weapons in thcir
attemDt to swav him from his resolve.
Io iddition to this event in the life of Sakya-
muni Buddha, sevenother ircidents are depicted
in the stele. From thc botton left, along the
perimetcr. the sceuesare: tl)e offering of rhe
monkcy: the 6rsr sermott;tlte dcsccnrfrom t]re
hcavenof the thirty-rhreegods:rft pariniruana;
rhe taming of rhe wild elcplratrr;the miracleof
Sravavi; and the birth of Salyrmrrni Buddha.
Each of thesescenesbearsat least one distinctive
featurc that identifics it as a specilic event in the
lifc of Sakyamuni Buddha. Thus, in the offering
of tlre nonley, the Buddha rs tn dhyana tuudta
holding a bowl and is ofi-eredanother bowl by a
mork.y. Th" first sernon is indicated by the
two small dccr ilanking the wheel of the law
bencath thc Buddha's scat and the Buddha is
showrr in dharnacakranudra.'flrc descentGom
Trayastrirh6a, the heaven of the thirty-three
r8.9. Victory over Mara, ard other Lifc Eventsof
SakyanuniBuddha.At Jagdilpur(Neland.),Bih.r' gods, is also easily idcntified because of the
India.Pelaperiod.Ca. late tenthcentury. Black stone ores.oce of the Brahmanical deities, Indra and
H: over3oocm. b."hme, -ho accompanied thc Buddha on his
rctnrn to eartl.I,and by the un.rbrella being hcld
aloft ovcr Buddha's head. The reclining
Gaya (the site of the Sekyamuni Buddha's en- Buddha at the top ofthe stelc, with the mourning
and the pair of
lightenment) in Magadha during the Pala-Sena attcndants, thc strtpa in the sky,
hands beating hcavenly drums is a standard
periods. The Pala-period image within the
Mahabodhi Bodir Gaya shows a Bud- reprcsentationof the grcat deccase(pariniruatla)
dha, trndoubtedly Sakyamuni, ln tbe bhimispario The gcsture of the standing Buddhe in the next
mudrdin contrnernorationof the Buddha's defeat sceneand the rcprescntationof the clephant are
of Mdra at that very site. This image must llave asain spccific referenccsto a well-known subject
scrvedasa model for nruch of the imagery of the iti luailirt literaturc, that is, thc taming of thc
art of this period, not only in India but in other wild clcphant, Nelegiri, who had becn releascd
Buddhist lands where Bodh Gaya was looked to by thc Budclha'sevil cousin Dcvadatta with the
asa spiritual center. Often, a represcntation of intcntion of killing the Buddha. The second
liaky"-"ni Buddha in bhrtntispaia mudra served representation of a prcaching episodc may be
asthe central image in a stele, around which wcre identifred asthe n.riracleofsravasti becauseofthe
depicted sevcn morc events from his life. A secondary Buddha figurcs occurring to cither
paiticularly fine and cxplicit cxaurple of such side of the n.rainfigurc, indicating the occasion
an "eight scencs"stele is enshrined JagdiiPur when the Buddha muitiplied himself in order
(a modern village at thc ancient sitc of the to confound tl-rc schisr-natics.Thc scene at the
around lower right rcpresents Sakyanuni's birdr, with
Nalanda monastery), which dates fiorn
the late tcnth century (Fig. r8.9). Not only is the Qr-reen Maya grasping the branchcs of the jal
tree while the child is bom fiom her risht
Numerous other versionsof theseeigf,t scenes
togethe.r appear in stelae of the pa[ period.
A small devotional image from Nalanda
about rhe renrh century offers an abbreviated,
but more typical version rhan the
Tasdiipur I
relief(Fig. r The order o[ rhe,..n"id;fi..,
a: ,.-
trom the previousexample and the weahh
::cted of
specificderailhas nor been included.The army
: rhe of Mera attacking the central figure is impliej,
r j rl'"
not shown, and in each of the o-th., ,.""o, ,t
fc= the identifying characteristics have been limited to"
b-. ana; only the barest necessities. In this version. the
i::,e of presenceof rhe drree Buddhas benearhthe main
k:dha. image adds a new dimension to the alreadv
n:--:tive complicated iconography. Indeed, the nu-.ror',
r :r the stela-eshowing rhe eighr scenesof the Buddha,s
of:ring lile trequentlyhave addirionsand variations
a':,{lfa amplify their iconographic meaning. These
s. bya -
suddhas.togerherwith the centralfigure.
t,.' the may
represent four of the five Buddhas of-the aaAri_
[e ]aw jitta na4dala. The three figures alone
lciu is depicrrhe threesragesoIBuddhahood: the or.i-
lt from present,and furure. Speci6cally.rhe Buddha
r-tlree on
the lett. who5f uaradamudrd offers the gift
of r8-ro. Vicrory over Mera and orher
of the enlighrenmenr.might represenrrhe prediclon Life fvenr of
of 'r*IrIr], r,uddha.From Nai.lnda.Biher, India.pala
ra and enjrghrenmenr;rhe centralBuddha. medirating
on his
t:. dh!*! nudrd wirh a serpent. p.csurnrbly ffiiff ""iiil'.|,lT,K,i:::" stone
Mrrcaiinda.who prorectcdSaiyanrrrniBucldha
clining lrom rhe rains during his post_enJighten ment
urrung medrratlons.could indicatethe achievemenr
of example, for it does not depict Sakya_
oair of enlightenment; and the Buddha at the dghr,
utdard muni. bur.rather Aksobhya. recognizedby
whose a[haya mudra grants rhe abscnccofiear ihe
atla). bhumispariamudraas well as the elephantuihana
rhroughlnowledge oIBuddhahoodmay indicatc
e next beneath his lotus seat. A lotus vrne emerges
the teaching o{ thc dharna and therefore the
fiom the point of the halo and issues lo"tus
postenlightenmentactivities of a fullv enlisht_
ubject flowe-rsupon which the five jina Buddhas
cned Buddha. As has been seen in other .1n_ are
of the seared.. The. cenrrrl figLrrc is again Ak.,qbhys.
terts. mulriple lcvelsof meaningare ch.rracteris_
leased tndrcatlngthat he is in thi. cascrhc centcr
ric oI Btrddhistinragery.end during this pcrio<1 of
th the the matllala and as such is sfibhauikqkaya-
or Increasedrconographiccomplexiry rhey are
-'cond Vajrasdepictedalong the siderofthe srele,
rnvanably present. about
rt be halfway up. are further references ro Aksobhya
While' ernphasis on Sakyanrunr Buc{dha
oithe sincc his is known as irc vojra hmtiy aid,
(and rhereby the nirnnnakayajrenraincclgreat .[ala
:irher as such.rhl\ eJemcnrsyrnbolizesborh his
rhroLrgirour Pala-.rndSena-pciiodBrrddhisiart, own
exrstenceas well as that of thc bcings who are
growrng cxplicitnessand anenrion ro rhe jiaa
order his progeny.
BuddL,.s(anbhogaAaya)is also apparenr.An
r rhe Another stele of about the eleventh century
approxlmatety elevcnI h_centr try representarion shows -
s'ith rhc jira. Rarna.ambhava.recognizedby
of a seatedBrrddlra.again in bhunisparianudra,
re J4t
tus characteristic uaruda nudrd and lLis horsc
tron Bareya, in West Bengal (Fig. rS.rr),
is uahana d,eptcted beneath his lotus seat (Fig.

r8.rr. Akgobhya. Frorn Bareya, Nadia distlict, West r8.r2. Rahasanbhava.From Bhegalpur district, Bihar,
Bengal, India. Pala period. Ca. eleventh century. Indie. Pala period. Ca. eleventh century. Black stone.
Black stone.H: 70 cln. Siate ArchaeologicalMuseum H: 67.4cm. Bangiya SahityaParisad,Calcutta.
ofBengal, Calcutta.

r8.rz). Iconographically. the. format is quite except for a few features that clearly assignit
similar to representationsof Sakyamuni found to its own time.
tluoughout Bihar and Bengal and, stylistically, More typically Tantric in nature are a number
it rellecrsfeaturesboth of central Bihar (mainly of images that show angry forrns of deities
Magadha) and of Bengal, as miglrt be expected, (krodhahaya). Heruka, a name given to a specific
sinceit was found in the Bhagalpur district that deity as well as to a classof angry deities that
is situarcd between Bengal and central Bihar. are euunations of Aksobhya, was undoubtedly
The arrangement of the stele with its centrally known in Buddhist theory long before his
placed Buddha, the coniguration of the throne, images became cornmon in art. One example
the treatment of the halo, and the position of fiom Subhapur, in Bangladesh, of about the
the vidyadharascan be rraced to the earliest early eleventh century shows a specific form
examples of the Pala school in Magadha, al- of Heruka that stands in the irdhaparyaika
though the elongation of the head and buoyant -
(half-squatting, that is, one-leg-folded) pose
featuresof the face impart a speciallivelineis to a t o p a - l o r u sp e d e s r a1l F i g .r 8 . r 3 ) . H i s b u l g i n g
the image. While the fo.,n"t of the stelefollows eyes. bared langs. and ornamenral details,
ninth-century examples rather closely, the including the garland of severed heads, all
pointed top suggestsan eleventh-century date suggest his krodha natrlre. While frightening
and indicatcs that this sculpture is an intentional perhr.psro rhe uninitiared. worship of rhe deiry
copy of an earlier mode of representauon, by advancedpracuirioners is intendedto destroy

r8. r3.. Heruka. From Subhapur, Bangladesh.pala

I8.r4., HevJjra,-_FroDrprhirpur, Bangladesh.pila
penod. Cr. e.rrly elevenLhcenrurl. Black stone.
H: pcnoo..La.t\ elirh cenrury.Blackstone.H: ca.
I65.2cm. DaccaMuscum,Dacca. 7.5crn.

all Maras and confer Buddhahooo on oevorees. (upaya). When the rwo are combined,
In his left hand, Heruka holds a now damaged differen_
tirtion-ceasesto exisr. By meansof the rcaliza_
khatvaigawnh a bejl and srreamers;rt ls nor
tron ot rlusnondifcrentiationthrough a
known what the right hand held as it has been Jcngthy
ritual, the Buddhist practitioner hopes to
desrroyed.A khatuitipais a typc of staff or achleve
lanyata, wlu,ch is somctimes defined as neither
clut. rhar symbolizesvictory iou.. d"mons).
being nor nonbeing. In this state,hc has
While surviving representationsof Heruka and ceased
to have desiresof any kind and
Heruka-class deities are relatively rare in the defini_
uon. carurolbc concernedwirh rhe erotic aspccts
Indic.sphere, images such as thi; undoubtedly
of the representation.
servedas-thebasisfor rhe nrany dcpicions o[
A very small imagc of Hevajrawas found
the god found in Nepali and Tibetan art of a ^ at
P,aharRur..rndicaring thar advancedTantric Bud_
slightly later date.
Heruka+ype deities sometimes appear alone, _rheorywas known and apparenrJy
praciced therc,(Fig. r8.r4). probabiy daring
as in, the case of the example from^subhapur,
rrom,thc rwelfth cenrury. as suggeved
but they uray also be shown with a female in by the
comPlcxlry,ol the rrnage,and rhus represenring
yuganaddha union). In this case.rhc dciry rhe lare5rphaseof Buddhistarr in rhe
,(ssxLt .r,te.i
rs oJten callcd Hcv;rjr.r.I he femalc represents
portion of the subcontinent, the deity is
P:aiia or, knowledge_andthe malc symbolizes with a profusion of arms and heads, in
rne methods of achieving rhi. knowledge inter_
coursewith his female companion. The standing
posture shown hcrc is most commonly found
in Ncpali and Tibetan paintings and sculptures
o f . r l - r e r J r t e . r l t h o u g h a g a i n .i r i s a p p a r e n t
rirat (]rc source[or t]rosctradlrionswas.rncicnt
India. Lnagcs such as this were reservcd for
thosc initiated to the highest level of Anut-
tarcyogifti-tatra, The proponents of Anuttara
yoga recognized that the initiations and their
prictices should be kept secretin order to avoid a';
misreprc.cntation.mi'underscrnding.and per- ::i
secrtion. Indeed, such images have often been
misread in modem timcs by those who ascribe
an crotic aspcct to them and who viewcd the
sexualsyrnbolisn.runderlying many of thc basic
concepts as degcnerate. Rather than being
intcnded as erotic works, such images express
the basic principle of the duality within the
unity of the universal that is a basic themc of
much religious symbolism in India. Sexually
explicit images and the rituals associatedwith
them were kept secret to Protect from danger
thosc individuals who might bc ill-prepared to
runder takcthesepracticcswil]rolrl ProPertrrinilrg
and initiation. The incorrect uscofthese practices
held thc very real possibility of severepsycho- rs.rj. Parnaiaben. From Vikramapura, Bangladesh.
logical or rnoral damage and many would Pala period. Ca. eleventh ccntury. Black stone H: rrz
crn. DaccaMuseum, Dacca.
ersily lose thcir wry .rlongthr' Prtlr if not
An itrage suchasthis would have beenhanded
down from mastcr to disciple, fiom generation
ro cach tcacher[c]t -r ncw initiate Vikramapura, an ancient capital city and rnajor
was ready to acccptthc teachings.It is ofinterest art center near present-day Dacca (Dhaka) in
that in the Buddhist context, an imagc that had Bangladesh,closely follows the textual descrip-
belongcd to a series of iilustrious teachers is tion of thc goddessgiven in the Sadhanamala in
consicicrcdto bc of tntrcll grcrter importance her six arms, three faces,garment rnade of leavcs
than one that has only aesthctic appeai. This and the attributes held in her hands, including
vicwpoint does not dcny an interest in the 'ajra, clusterof leaves,and bow (Fig. r8.r5).
visual n.reritsof a work, for it is known that She tramples on personifications of uighnas
artists were sought out arrd praised for thc (obstacles)and holds her front left hand in
quality of their creations.Yet it can be inferred tarjanT nu&a, a threatening gesture, as if ad-
fiorn the traditional histories associatedrvith monishing other t'ighnas.In spite of her own
devotional objectsin countries whcre Buddhisn.r terrifying appearance,suggestedby her bulging
is still practiced today that the illrportance of a eyes,bared fangs, and flan.relikel.nir, worship
rcligious image cven at an early dete in ancient of Parna6abariis said to remove the Gar of the
Lndia was bascdprimarily on its sPiritual $'orth. terror stricken.
Parqa(abari,t fcnale ktodhdkayadeity, is also Judging frorn the abundant remains of metal
an enunation of Aksobhya. Gencraily, she is ilnages dating from the Pala and Sena periods,
depicted as a stout, dwerflikc figtte. An in.rage the Bihar and Bengal regions rnust have been
of Parnaiabari of the eleventh century from important centers of metal image production.

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