su su passwd login logout logname useradd userdel usermod groupadd groupdel groupmod who whois hostid hostname finger

exit reboot shutdown shutdown -r minutes poweroff/halt sleep date settime cal time clear echo printf df uname whereis env set setenv ftp telnet ping netstat mount/umount jobs fg bg

switch user switch to root change user's password sign into a new system log out of a system retun users login name create a new user or update default new user information remove a user account modify a user account create a new group account enable a super user or root to remove a group enable a super user or root to modify a group display who is on the system internet user name directory service print the numeric identifier for the current host set or print the name of the currnet host system list information about the user exit shell reboot the system shutdown the system shutdown the system after the specified number of minutes stop the computer wait for x seconds to sleep set/display date and time change file access and modificaiton time calendar used to time a simple command clear screen display message on screen write formatted output display free disk space show system information locate a binary, source, and manual page files for a command display environment variables set the value of an environment variable set the value of an environment variable enable ftp access to another terminal open a login session on the specified host send an echo request via TCP/IP to the specified host show network status mount or unmount file systems and remote resources list the jobs currently running in the background continue a stopped job by running it in the foreground continue a stopped job in the background

stop ps ps -ef kill which . .. ~ $HOME pwd ls ls -l cd/chdir mkdir mv rmdir rm rm -r rm -rf cp cp -r chmod chown diff cmp grep find . -print | sort sort cat more less head tail wc tar tar -cvvf file.tar myfile.txt tar -cvvf home.tar home/ tar -xvvf myfile.tar tar -xvzf myfile.tar.gz -C destdir gzip/gunzip/gzcat

cancel a process execution report the process status display full information about each of the processes now running cancel a job, a process locate a command current directory father directory home directory home directory print working directory display directory contents display directory contents in details

change directory make directory change directory or file's name from src to tar or move the src into the remove an existing directory (directory must not be empty) remove files remove directories (even not be empty) remove all files and subdirectories (dangerous command) copy file copy directory change the permission of a file change the owner of a file display two files and print the lines that are different compare two files search for file(s) with given string, find text within a file print the current directory's structure sort files view and/or modify a file display file contents to screen (1 page at a time) opposite of more display the first part of the file display the last part of the file display a count of lines, words, and characters in a file compress or expand files achieve a tar file extract the file from a tar file compress or expand files

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