internal and external influences

well as a critical discourse of the CBPR approach (for example, see La Salle 2010).
Together, these trends call both archaeologists and communities to further define
community-based research and to formulate guideposts for the best practices of a
CBPR methodology.
“red power” and archaeology
As I’ve already noted, Native American activism in the United States in the late
1960s and early 1970s was one of the earliest and most influential factors responsible
for the movement toward collaborative approaches to archaeology. First published
in 1969, Vine Deloria Jr.’s often-cited book, Custer Died for Your Sins, certainly
played an important role. But neither Deloria nor any other scholar warrants sole
credit for the rise of collaborative partnerships in archaeology and anthropology,
or for raising the ethical and human rights concerns that led to community-based
approaches to research. Elders, activists, and traditional spiritual leadership within
Native American communities first voiced these concerns (Hammil and Cruz
1989). Colwell-Chanthaphonh provides extensive examples, dating back as early
as 1632, of “Native peoples resisting archaeological inquiry” (2009, 180). Elders,
spiritual leaders, and community members hold the traditional knowledge of how
to care for sacred sites, traditional landscapes, and ancestral remains. They also
maintain the traditional responsibilities of what archaeologists refer to as “steward-
ship.” Traditional stewardship requires caring for and protecting the knowledge
held in such places and materials, so that they are properly passed on to coming
When these traditional caretakers, many of whom view themselves as the most
appropriate cultural stewards, spoke out about how archaeological research and
excavation were violating their rights and knowledge systems, Native activists and
scholars took up the cause (for example, see Hammil and Cruz 1989). They took
action within the wider social and political climate of the late 1960s and early 1970s,
and their efforts formed an important aspect of the Red Power movement (Fine-
Dare 2002; Josephy, Nagel, and Johnson 1999).
Archaeologist Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh discusses the long history of objec-
tions that Native peoples have voiced regarding archaeology and the pivotal role
that Deloria and the public protests of the 1970s played within the archaeologi-
cal world: “Archaeologists in the 1970s and 1980s may have felt as if their work
was being threatened for the first time, but the ethical crisis of this period already
existed at the very beginning of archaeology’s formation as a profession, science,
and moral community. The difference was not that earlier Indians failed to protest
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