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THE MEASUREMENT OF LIGHT 5-27

row wavelength bands is determined. The reflectance or transmittance


for light of known spectral distribution may then be calculated by use of
the luminosity factors for the "average eye" (standard I.C.I, observer).
The factor is computed from the relation
r>
_
2 U\ K\ R\
~
2 UxKx
where R is the desired luminous reflectance, and U\ is the energy of wave-
length region X, incident on the sample K\ is the standard luminosity
factor for wavelength X, and R\ is the reflectance as determined by a spec-
trophotometer for wavelength X. The summation is usually carried out
in every 0.01 -micron band from 0.380 to 0.760 micron.
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Electrical Measurements
It is often necessary to determine certain electrical characteristics of
light sources and accessories in connection with photometric measurements.
The following are the measurements most commonly encountered. If
additional information is required the reader is referred to one of the many
texts or handbooks on electrical engineering.
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Power:
(1)
Direct-current circuits. Power is the product of the voltage
and the current. It may be measured by using a voltmeter and ammeter
or by using a wattmeter.
The ammeter or current circuit of the wattmeter is connected as shown
in Fig. 5-13a at A and the voltmeter or voltage circuit of the wattmeter
is connected as shown at V. With the switch S open the reading of the
ammeter or wattmeter is taken. With the switch S closed readings of
both ammeter and voltmeter or of the wattmeter are taken. The readings
with $ open give the current taken by the voltmeter (when using ammeter
and voltmeter) or the power taken by the wattmeter voltage circuit.
The readings with S closed give the current taken by the voltmeter plus
the load current (when using ammeter and voltmeter) or the power taken
by the wattmeter voltage circuit plus the load power.
The power taken by the load is then
(I

I
v )
E
=
Wl for ammeter-voltmeter method, or
W

W
v

W
L
for wattmeter method,
where / is the ammeter reading with S closed (the current through the
voltmeter plus the load current) ; I
v
is the ammeter reading with S open
(the current through the voltmeter) ; E is the voltmeter reading; W is the
wattmeter reading with S closed (the power taken by the wattmeter volt-
age circuit plus the power taken by the load
)
; W
v
is the wattmeter reading
with S open (the power taken by the voltage circuit of the wattmeter)
;
and W
L
is the power taken by the load.
A compensated wattmeter is one that is so designed that the current
through the compensating coil produces a torque equal and opposite to
that produced by the power taken by the wattmeter. The current and