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Project Name : Time Operated College Bell Using GSM

Domain : Embedded System

Microcontroller : AVR
IEEE INSPEC Accessing Number :

In colleges the time schedule is changing according to the exams and extra
classes. Then we have to change the timing of bell in our college. For this we
introduce this system. In this system there is a microcontroller, GSM, RTC,
keypad, buzzer & LCD. The purpose of this system is according to time changing
the bell will automatically ring. Time will be set only by head of the department or
by principle. He / she can message the time to the system the will reset and change
the time. Time can change only if message received from head of the department
or principle. There is also an alternate solution for time changing there is a keypad
with password protection. With the permission of the head anyone can change the
timing using password.RTC is used for time setting.

The main objectives of the project are:
1. No confusion in the college timing
2. Easy to implement
Outcome of the project:
1. Embedded system
2. Microcontroller Atmega32
3. Embedded C
4. Problem analysis
5. Circuit design
6. PCB layout design
7. RTC
8. Soldering
9. Integration
10. Testing
11. Trouble shooting

Block diagram










Block Diagram Explanation
1. AVR Microcontroller
AVR is the microcontroller used in this project. The major heart of this project
is AVR microcontroller, it has more features like 16bit timer, 10-bit ADC,
USART, SPI, I2C, 256 bytes of EEPROM memory, and 32kbytes of flash
program memory, then at last its speed of program execution is about to 1
microsecond or 10 MIPS (10 Million Instructions per second), etc. However,
compare to other microcontroller it is fast and very ease to program in C
language because of huge support can gain from the manufacturer for
programming. The special IDE offered by the manufacture, it is named as AVR
Studio IDE for it code generation purpose.

2. LCD Module
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual
display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals
do not emit light directly. The most common application of liquid crystal
technology is in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). A liquid crystal display consists of
an array of tiny segments (called pixels) that can be manipulated to present
information. The LCD screen is more energy efficient and can be disposed of more
safely than a CRT. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used
in battery-powered electronic equipment.
3. MAX232 (Voltage Level Converter)
The MAX232 is an IC that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to
signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a
dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals. The
drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. 7.5 V) from a single + 5 V
supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors. The receivers reduce RS-
232 inputs (which may be as high as 25 V), to standard 5 V TTL levels.
4. GSM Modem
A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and
operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From
the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.
When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer to use
the GSM modem to communicate over the mobile network.

A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or it can
be a mobile phone that provides GSM modem capabilities.
A GSM modem exposes an interface that allows applications such as SMS to
send and receive messages over the modem interface. The mobile operator charges
for this message sending and receiving as if it was performed directly on a mobile
phone. To perform these tasks, a GSM modem must support an extended AT
command set for sending/receiving SMS messages.

5. Crystal Oscillator
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the
mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an
electrical signal with a very precise frequency.
This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, to provide a
stable clock signal for microcontrollers. The most common type of piezoelectric
resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them
became known as crystal oscillators.
6. Buzzer
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical,
electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include
alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or
7. Reset Function
Reset is used for putting the microcontroller into a 'known' condition. That
practically means that microcontroller can behave rather inaccurately under certain
undesirable conditions. In order to continue its proper functioning it has to be reset,
meaning all registers would be placed in a starting position. Reset is not only used
when microcontroller doesn't behave the way we want it to, but can also be used
when trying out a device as an interrupt in program execution, or to get a
microcontroller ready when loading a program.
8. Keypad
A keypad is a set of buttons arranged in a block or "pad" which usually bear
digits, symbols and usually a complete set of alphabetical letters. If it mostly
contains numbers then it can also be called a numeric keypad. Keypads are found
on many alphanumeric keyboards and on other devices such as calculators, push-
button telephones, combination locks, and digital door locks, which require mainly
numeric input. The keypad we are using is 4*4 matrix keypad in which 16 number
of push button switches are there. It is used in this particular project for entering
the number.
9. Power Supply
A power supply is a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.
The term is most commonly applied to electric power converters that convert one
form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that
convert another form of energy (mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy.
A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a
specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in
either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.
10. Step down Transformers
Step down transformers are designed to reduce electrical voltage. Their
primary voltage is greater than their secondary voltage. This kind of transformer
"steps down" the voltage applied to it. Step down transformers convert electrical
voltage from one level or phase configuration usually down to a lower level.
11. Rectifier
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC),
which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only
one direction. The process is known as rectification. Physically, rectifiers take a
number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and
selenium oxide rectifiers, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and
other silicon-based semiconductor switches.
12. Filters
Electronic filters are analog circuits which perform signal processing
functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal,
to enhance wanted ones, or both. The most common types of electronic filters are
linear filters, regardless of other aspects of their design.
13. Regulator
A regulator is a device which has the function of maintaining a designated
characteristic. It performs the activity of managing or maintaining a range of
values in a machine. The measurable property of a device is managed closely by
specified conditions or an advance set value; or it can be a variable according to a
predetermined arrangement scheme. We are using LM7812 & lm7805 regulators.