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In the structural elements of buildings, internal stresses occur due to various reasons.
Sometimes the magnitude of such stresses increases too much to be ignored.
The reasons for internal stresses: Thermal expansion or contraction,different ground
settlements, movements due to earthquake , wind load, warming and cooling throughout the
In order to prevent these redundant internal stresses, it can be a solution to divide the
building into blocks. Therefore, each single block operates with its own internal stress and weight.
The purpose of using expansion joint in the building, is to absorb heatinduced
expansions allowing vibrations during earthquakes, differences in ground settlement and jointing
the different construction materials.
!xpansion joint gap must be determined according to the static design loading and
d"namic anal"sis b" a structural engineer. Taking all these calculations into consideration, the
engineer determines the expected load bearing capacit" and can calculates the gap which is
necessar" to absorb the movement.
#n the other hand, there exist man" fundamental rules about application of expansion
joints. $or instance, if the attached building is different height, blocks must be separated from each
other b" expansion joint. This application ensures that blocks will settle as a standalone and will
not affect the structural stresses of each other. This simplifies the structural calculation. In a similar
wa", another main rule concerning expansion joints, is that if total length of a structure is longer
than a certain value, that is specified in the codes then expansion joints must be used for dividing
long building into smaller parts.
Where do we apply expansion join pro!iles"
Shopping malls, hospitals, schools, car parks, business complexes, factor" buildings etc...
Wha is an expansion join pro!ile "
%n expansion joint profile is made of metal &aluminum, steel, stainless steel and others', is used to
cover expansion gaps allowing movement of blocks without an" damage to concrete or coating. It is
usuall" assembled together with (inserts) or (gaskets) in rubber.
I#poran$e o! %sin& expansion join pro!iles '
*ot using or using an inappropriate t"pe of profile will lead to crack forming and break awa"s
around the edges of the gap. +iss using or inadequate application of profile will rise the
maintenance cost and bring loss of time.
Types o! expansion join pro!iles a$$ordin& o he applied s%r!a$es(
!xpansion joint profiles can be grouped in man" wa"s related to man" different specifications.
,owever, the" are categori-ed in accordance with the applied surfaces in buildings.
a) Floor Pro!iles * Selecting the correct profile t"pe pla"s an outstanding role. If the floor is bearing
other loads apart from pedestrians, it is necessar" to know which kind of load affects the t"pe of
profile directl". ."namic load can be pedestrian or vehicle, lorr" and forklift. /oads are specified in
.I* 0122 and .I* 0134.
Perspective View over-coating floor profile
+) Wall-,eilin& Pro!iles* Similar to floor profiles, these profiles are not under subject to heav"
loading compared to floor profiles. ,owever, inappropriate profile selection will cause unwanted
results later on. It is preferred to choose matching profiles for use on walls and floor at one and the
same area.
Perspective View Heat Insulation Wall Profile sub-coating wall profile
$) Terra$e Roo! Pro!iles* The most important propert" of terrace roof profiles is water tightness.
0. 5rofiles connected to water insulation membrane must be used without together for
appropriate application results. The same profile could be used in purpose of joint insulation
at curtain walls of substructure.
-e$isi.e $rieria when sele$in& an expansion join pro!ile(
Some important specifications are needed to be defined for selecting right profile t"pe. These are
listed below and the answers for following the steps lead us to select the suitable profile.
0. Join Openin& /&ap0/+0 * It is needed to define some important specifications for selecting
the right t"pe of profile. %nswering step b" step the below listed questions will lead us to
the right selection.
1) ,oain&
S%+ $oain& 5rofiles are installed either before or after surface coating . If surface coating
has not been completed "et, and expansion joint profile is required to be fixed just in this
stage, then sub coating t"pe of profiles need to be chosen. $or these t"pes visible area of the
profile is less than overcoating t"pes.

2S%+ $oain& Floor Pro!ile3 2S%+ $oain& Wall Pro!ile3$oain&* These t"pes are offered when all the surface coating is completed and
expansion joint profiles are required to be installed. 6isibilit" of the profile is larger in
comparison with sub coating t"pe.$oain& Wall Pro!iles3$oain& Floor Pro!ile3
4),oain& hi$5ness /60 * The coating thickness must be specified for sub coating profile
7)Load +earin& $apa$iy * It should be defined if the floor profiles are required to sustain load
other than pedestrian. The code defines two t"pes of loads: static and d"namic. ."namic load is
additionall" categori-ed to pedestrian, light and heav" traffic. The profile is being chosen according
the magnitude of the conve"ed calculated load.
8)6ori9onal #o.e#en $apa$iy* ,aving the estimated hori-ontal movement between the two
blocks of a structure and using appropriate profiles prevent profile edges to get damaged. This is
strictl" important for buildings that are constructed on loose ground.
:);eri$al #o.e#en $apa$iy* The structure deadload, the foundation t"pe ans especiall" the soil
properties affect the building settlement. If an insulation membrane exists then the wings of the
profile are glued toward the membrane with hot bitumen glue. %fter that the wing is overlapped b"
a piece of insulation wider than the wing, again with hot bitumen glue.
<),he#i$al e!!e$s * If the profile is exposed to an" chemicals, selection should be done
=)Waeri&hness* 5laces like multistore" car parks and underground car parks or wet areas need
watertight expansion joint profiles to be emplo"ed.
I#poran poins in appli$aions'
>) The same joint width must continue from the bottom of slab up to coating finish surface.
1) The joint edges where the profiles will be installed must be well prepared, uneven inner edge
surfaces must be leveled.
4) The profile is fixed in a firml" in a stead" wa": ,igh strength &2,21*7mm8' read"mix mortar can
be applied above the profile, if necessar".
7) The distances between plugs along the profile and between plug and gap edge must be arranged
according to the application instructions.
A) Floor Pro!iles* $irst fixing point of plugs starts at 02cm from the end of profile and continue in
ever" 91cm. %nchors should be fixed in a manner not to allow loosening. :mm steel anchors are
used for the profiles that traffic load passed over, profiles that are exposed onl" to pedestrian load
are fixed b" either :mm plastic plugs, anchors or ;mm wooden screws.
?) Wall-,eilin& Pro!iles* <all profiles are fixed to wall from up to down. Insert is put in rail and
for the first 04 m, it is squee-ed b" pincers in ever" 41cm. This prevents the insert to slide down.
,) Terra$e Roo! Pro!iles* The middle of the two wing thermoplastic rubber profile is pressed into
the joint. If no insulation membrane had been applied on the roof surface, wings are sticked on roof
floor b" hot bitumen glue. If insulation membrane exists then it is heated b" flame and the wings of
profile are sticked on this heated area. %fter that, some insulation membrane which is wider than
wings in terms of width is cut as a strip, heated and pressed on wings.
>) 5rofiles are produced according to the IS# =110 and .I* norms and resistant to frictions and
pressures. The compounds are %/>+SI 1.27$44 &!tial ;1'
1) Sections of the profiles are designed according to the static and d"namic calculations depending
on the load conditions.
4) The inserts used in floor profiles are made of !5.+. The" are resistant to friction, various
chemicals and do not tear awa". The inserts used in wall profiles are made of weatherproof !5.+.
7) #ur profiles are easil" installed to both floor and wall, fixed to the surface b" anchors, with
plastic plugs or screw. ,igh load applicable places are fixed b" steel plugs. 5rofiles with high load
capacit" are fixed with steel anchors and plugs.
8) 5rofiles bridge wide joints from 01mm up to ?11mm with more than 411 t"pes. $or corners,
ever" t"pe of our profiles have their corner t"pe.
:) @esides profiles designed for truck and forklift load seismic profiles are also available for
earthquake -ones.
Fire ?arriers*
$ire barriers are used inside the gaps of expansion joints in order to prevent the passage of smoke
and flame in case of fire. The" are produced of mainl" mineral fibers or rock wool and are in %0
class &non combustible' according to .I* ?014, 5art 0.
There are three t"pes of fire barriers we can offer:
>)Rope ype * +ade of rock wool fiber and over braided with glass fiber "arn, it is used in gaps
from 01 to 22mm. .epending on the joint width rope diameter differs from 04mm to ;1mm.
$or instance if joint gap is 4393mm rope diameter is ?1mm.
1)Foldin& ype * #ne single la"er of fiber containing mineral foam, it is used for the gaps from 01
to 21mm, applied b" folding the plate. Thickness of the plate varies from 01 to 92mm.
$or an example: $or a joint gap of 21mmA for walls, plate dimensions is 92mm x 411mm x
0111mm and for ceiling are chosen 92mm x 421mm x 0111mm.
4) ?lo$5 ype * /a"ers of fiber containing mineral fibers are connected each other via a special
glue and form block t"pe of fire barriers. It is offered between 21mm and 411mm.
<all and ceiling applications require different thickness of the block. $or instance for a 041mm gap
on wall 0;2mm x 0?1mm x 0111mm is offered whereas on ceiling 0;2mm x 0=1mm x 0111mm
block is offered.
<e should consider the fire resistance degree and the application area &wall, ceiling or floor'. To
select the suitable t"pe of fire barriers.