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com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 1 | P a g e

Crop Yield Analysis of the Irrigated Areas of All Spatial

Locations in Guntur District of AP.

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao

1

, Dr A. Ananda Rao

2

(Department of computer science and Engineering, Asso. Prof GRIET)

(Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Professor, JNTUA)

ABSTRACT

Spatial data mining is a process to discover interesting and potentially useful spatial patterns embedded in

spatial databases, which are voluminous in their sizes. Efficient techniques for extracting information from geo-

spatial data sets can be of importance to various sectors like research, defense and private organizations for

generating and managing large geo-spatial data sets. The current approach towards solving spatial data mining

problems is to use classical data mining techniques. Effective analysis was done using the hybrid data mining

techniques by mixing both clustering and classification techniques. In this paper crop yield of spatial locations

of Guntur district were taken and studied using the hybrid technique.

Keywords: geo-spatial data sets, hybrid data mining technique, clustering, classification, spatial locations

I. Introduction

Indian agriculture is known for more

fluctuations in terms of crop yield, crop output and

crop intensity. Despite growth in Technology and

irrigation the production and income are highly

instable [11]. Guntur district is located in the state of

Andhra Pradesh. It is situated along the east coast of

the Bay of Bengal. Its coastline is approximately 100

kilometers. It is the largest city and is the

administrative center of the District. It has 57

mandals starting from Guntur, Pedakakani,

Prathipadu, etc..to ending with Nizampatnam. Major

crops are Cotton and Chillies. Analysis need to be

done on the agriculture data sets which requires

classical data mining techniques apart from statistical

techniques. The data mining techniques[12] like

classification, clustering and association are required

to apply on the realistic data sets for analysis and

conclusions on the agriculture crop yields [8, 9, and

10] of various seasons like Kharif and rubby. The

following existing techniques are discussed along

with proposed hybrid approach.

II. Literature Survey

K-Means clustering Algorithm:The k-means

algorithm [3] [Hartigan& Wong 1979] is the well

known clustering technique used in scientific and

industrial applications. Its name comes from centroid

which is the mean of c of k clusters C. This technique

is not suitable for categorical attributes. It is more

suitable for numerical attributes. K-means[1]

algorithm uses squared error criteria and is

extensively used algorithm. The data is partitioned

into K clusters (C

1

;C

2

; : : : ;C

K

), using this algorithm

which are represented by their centers or means. The

mean of all the instances belonging to that cluster

gives the center of each cluster.

The pseudo-code of the K-means algorithm

is given by Fig.1. The algorithm begins with

randomly selected initial set of cluster centers. Each

instance is assigned to its closest cluster center for

every iteration based on Euclidean distance

calculated between the two. After thatre-calculate the

cluster centers.

the instances number belonging to cluster k is

denoted byN

k

and the mean of the cluster kis

represented by µ

k

.

There is a possibility for a number of

convergence conditions. If the partitioning error is

not reduced by the relocation of the centers the search

will be stopped as it concludes that the present

partition is locally optimal. Another stopping

criteriais that if it exceeds a pre-defined number of

iterations.

Input: S (instance set), K (no. of clusters)

Output: clusters

1: Initialize K cluster centers.

2: while termination condition is not satisfied do

3: Assign instances to the nearest cluster center.

4: Update cluster centers based on the assignment.

5: end while

Figure1. K-means Algorithm

This algorithm may be viewed as a gradient-

decent procedure. In which it begins with random

selection of an initial set number of K cluster-centers

and iteratively updates by which error function will

decrease. A rigorous proof of the finite convergence

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 2 | P a g e

of the K-means type algorithms is given in [4]. The

complexity of T iterations of the K-means algorithm

performed on a sample size of m instances, each

characterized by N attributes, is: O(T * K * m * N).

This linear complexity is one of the reasons for the

popularity of the K- means algorithms. Even if the

number of instances is substantially large (which

often is the case nowadays), this algorithm is

computationally attractive. Thus, the K-means

algorithm has an advantage in comparison to other

clustering methods (e.g. hierarchical clustering

methods), which have non-linear complexity. Other

reasons for the algorithm’s popularity are its ease of

interpretation, simplicity of implementation, speed of

convergence and adaptability to sparse data [5]. The

Achilles heel of the K-means algorithm involves the

selection of the initial partition. The algorithm is very

sensitive to this selection, which may make the

difference between global and local minimum. Being

a typical partitioning algorithm, the K-means

algorithm works well only on data sets having

isotropic clusters, and is not as versatile as single link

algorithms, for instance.

In addition, this algorithm is sensitive to

noisy data and outliers (a single outlier can increase

the squared error dramatically); it is applicable only

when mean is defined (namely, for numeric

attributes); and it requires the number of clusters in

advance, which is not trivial when no prior

knowledge is available. The use of the K-means

algorithm is often limited to numeric attributes.

The similarity measure for numeric attributes and

categorical attributes differ in the first case take the

square Euclidean distance; where as in second case

take the number of mismatches between objects and

the cluster prototypes.

Another partitioning algorithm, which

attempts to minimize the SSE is the K-medoids or

PAM (partition around medoids[2]). It is similar to

the K-means algorithm. It differs with k-means

mainly in representation of the different clusters.

Each cluster is represented by the most centric object

in the cluster, rather than by the implicit mean that

may not belong to the cluster. This method is more

robust than K-means algorithm even if there is noise

and outliers. The influence of outliers is less. The

processing of K-means is less costlierwhen compared

to this. It is required to declare the number of clusters

K for both the methods.It is not mandatory to use

only SSE. Estivill-Castro (2000) analyzed the total

absolute error criterion. He stated that it is better to

summing up the absolute error instead of summing

up the squared error. This method is superior in terms

of robustness, but it requires more computational

effort. The objective function is defined as the sum of

discrepancies between a point and its centroid which

is expressed through an appropriate distance. The

total intra-cluster variance is the norm based

objective function, and is defined as the sum of

squares of errors between the points and the

corresponding centroids,

E( C ) =

−

2

=1

∈

**It can be rationalized as log-likelihood for
**

normally distributed mixture model. In Statistic it is

extensively used. Therefore, it is derived from

general framework of probability. Its iterative

optimization has two versions. The first technique is

similar to EM algorithm one of the Data mining

technique. It has two-stepsof major iterations in

which first time reassigns all the points to their

nearest centroids, and second timerecompute

centroids of newly formed groups. Iterations continue

until a stopping criterion is achieved (for example, no

reassignments happen). This version is known as

Forgy.s algorithm [6] and has many advantages:

It easily works with any -norm p L

It allows straightforward parallelization[5]

It is insensitive with respect to data ordering.

If a move has a positive effect, the point is

relocated and the two centroids are recomputed.

J48 algorithm:J48 [7]is the optimization of C4.5

algorithm and also animprovised versions of it.Its

output result is a Decision tree which is of a tree

structure. It has a root node, along with intermediate

nodes apart from leaf nodes. Except Root node and

leaf nodes every other node in the tree consistsof

decision and which leads to our result. This tree

divides the given space of a data set into areas of

mutually exclusive. In this its data points are

described by every area will have a label, a value or

an action.The criterion of splitting is used to find

which attribute makes the best split on the portion of

tree of the training data set which in turn reaches to a

particular node. Decision tree is formed by using the

children attribute of the data set.

III. Proposed Approach

The raw data set was converted to the required format

and then apply the data mining technique namely k-

means clustering algorithm and then we get the new

data set namely clustered data set. The classification

technique J48 was applied on that clustered data set

which results in hybrid model.

IV. Implementation of proposed

approach

A data set on Irrigation for the Year 2007-

08& 2011-12 of Guntur district were considered for

analysis with k-means (or simple k-means) clustering

data [8,9] mining technique having 15 attributes

namely Mandal, latitude, latitude1, longitude,

longitude1, crop, area_irrigated, area_unirrigated, etc.

Clustering is an Unsupervised one and here Missing

values are replaced with mean and mode apart from

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 3 | P a g e

Discretization with 10 bins. Here full training set as

the clustering model. The cluster table was

represented by Table 1 and Cluster proximities were

given by Table2. The cluster graph was shown below

in Fig.2. The 5 clusters are shown in 4 different

colors with instances on x-axis and mandals on y-

axis. A hybrid model was developed and applied after

applying K-means clustering.We took the J48

classification technique on the obtained clustered

data set. The result was summarized as follows. It is

with Minimum confidence is 0.25 and binary tree

classifier. It also has same number of instances

i.e.114 with 19 attributes. The attributes are

Instance_number, mandal, latitude, latitude1,

longitude, longitude1, crop, area_irrigated,

area_unirrigated, area_total, etc. attributes. The J48

pruned tree is given below.

crop = Cotton

| latitude<= 16.37184

| | area_unirrigated<= 3947: cluster4 (34.0/2.0)

| | area_unirrigated> 3947: cluster3 (6.0)

| latitude> 16.37184: cluster3 (17.0/1.0)

crop = Chillies

| pr

oductivity_unirrigated<= 3.239

| | latitude <= 16.340198

| | | production_irrigated<= 11367.5: cluster2

(35.0/1.0)

| | | production_irrigated> 11367.5: cluster1

(2.0)

| | latitude > 16.340198: cluster1 (15.0)

| productivity_unirrigated> 3.239: cluster0 (5.0)

The pruned tree in tree structure was shown in Fig.3

with crop as root node and clusters as leaf nodes.

Correctly Classified Instances are 103 (90.351%) and

Incorrectly Classified Instances are 11 (9.649%).

Kappa statistic value is 0.8716.Kappa is a chance-

corrected measure of agreement between the

classifications and the true classes. It's calculated by

taking the agreement expected by chance away from

the observed agreement and dividing by the

maximum possible agreement. A value greater than 0

means that your classifier is doing better than chance.

The Kappa statistic is near to 1 so it is near to perfect

agreement. Confusion Matrix: In the confusion

matrix each column represents instances in the

predicted class and each row indicates instances in

actual class. These mining techniques were applied

on various data sets.

V. Results & Analysis:

Initially k-means clustering technique was

applied on Guntur Irrigation data set for analysis.

Cluster 0: It was found that for the

PedanandipaduMandal centroids of the latitude is

16.4542 N, Longitude is 80.0421 E with crop Chillies

and area irrigated is 1531 area un-irrigated is 710

with area total is 1946 with highest productivity

_irrigated 5.5 and productivity_unirrigated is 5. It

also has highest production_irrigated and lowest

Production_unirrigated with Productivity _total and

Production_total as 0.

Cluster1 and 2 are also chillies as crop and

production-irrigated is highest in cluster1with

mandalsMangalagiri and chebrolu. Cluster 3 and 4

are with Mandals Guntur and nagaram and cotton is

their crop. Cluster 3 is with highest area-irrigated and

area_unirrigated. It also has highest area_total and

production-unirrigated among the clusters. Confusion

matrix shows that cluster 0 was classified accurately

next to that was cluster 2. In cluster 1 out of 18

instances 23 were classified under cluster 2 and 1 was

classified under cluster 3. Cluster3 and4 are not

classified correctly. The values of TP rate and F-

measure for cluster 0 are 1 indicates they are

classified accurately. Cluster2 and 4 are also has TP

rate and F-measure are almost 1,so classified almost

accurately.

Fig.4 and Fig.5 are showing that the

irrigated areas of major crops cotton and chillis

across mandals are increasing from the years 2007-08

to the years 2011-12. In these graphs number of

mandals were taken along x-axis and Irrigated area

along y-axis. Cotton area in Hectors is higher than

Chillis area in Hectors shown in Fig.6. in this graph

name of the mandalswere taken along x-axis and

Area in Hectors is taken along y-axis. Interesting

measures were found when Association rule Apriori

was applied on the clustered spatial data set and the

rules were shown in fig.7 and fig.8. Initially

discretization was done on the clustered data set as a

hybrid technique later apriori association rule was

applied. It was found that as we increase min support

from 0.1to 0.4 and to 0.6 and then to 0.8 keeping

minimum support to 0.9 constant the Latitude 1 = N,

Longitude 1 = E, and Productivity_total are

associated with 114 instances and along with the

other attribute productivity_irrigated are together

formed association rules with 99 instances. When

minimum support and minimum confidence attains

values both 0.9 or either of them takes the values 0.9

or 1.0 vice versa or both takes values as 1.0 the

attributes longitude1(E), latitude 1(N) and

Productivity_total are only associated together.

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 4 | P a g e

Cluster centroids:

Cluster#

Attribute Full Data 0 1 2 3 4

(114) (5) (18) (35) (23) (33)

mandal Guntur Pedanandipadu Mangalagiri Chebrolu Guntur Nagaram

latitude 16.2535 16.4542 16.4478 16.1354 16.4331 16.1173

latitude1 N N N N N N

longitude 80.2683 80.0421 80.0966 80.3918 80.0998 80.3826

longitude1 E E E E E E

crop Cotton ChilliesChilliesChillies Cotton Cotton

area_irrigated 1476.8222 1531.7644 1737.3037 1108.6413 1901.1014 1421.202

area_unirrigated 1995.4521 710.4 970.7976 1391.1284 4536.2805

1619.1283

area_total 2566.5663 1946.8 2179.3889 1485.2265 5499.0681 1974.6685

productivity_irrigated 5.186 5.531 5.4436 5.4042 4.7033 5.0984

productivity_unirrigated 2.7223 5.0448 2.7092 2.7223 2.2873 2.6809

productivity_total 0 0 0 0 0 0

production_irrigated 11367.5 11772.9 13594.4167 10537.5143 11100.7391 11157.6061

production_unirrigated 9012.8438 3560 8729.3524 9012.8438 11117.8492 8526.5388

production_total 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 1: Cluster table on Irrigation data set

Fig.2: Cluster graph

Fig.3: Pruned tree

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 5 | P a g e

Cluster-I Cluster-II Cluster-III Cluster-IV Cluster - V

5 1.682367 1 1.682367 1 1.682367 1 1.682367 1 1.682367

4 1.682367 3 2.236069 2 2.236069 3 2.236069 3 2.236069

2 1.682367 4 2.236069 4 2.236069 2 2.236069 4 2.236069

3 1.682367 5 2.236069 5 2.236069 5 2.236069 2 2.236069

Table2. Clusters along with their Proximities

The Confusion Matrix is given as below

a bc d e <-- classified as

5 0 0 0 0 | a = cluster0

0 14 3 1 0 | b = cluster1

0 0 34 0 1 | c = cluster2

0 2 0 20 1 | d = cluster3

0 0 1 2 30 | e = cluster4

Fig4: Cotton irrigated area across years and mandals

Fig.5: Chillis irrigated area across years and mandals

-1000

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57

I

r

r

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t

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d

A

r

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a

Numbeer of Mandals

Cotton Irrigated area across years

Irrigated 2007-08

Irrigated 2011-12

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57

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r

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Number of Mandals

Chillies Irrigated area across years

Irrigated 2007-08

Irrigated 2011-12

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 6 | P a g e

Fig.6: Cotton and Chilli area in Hectors across Mandals of Guntur

Best rules found:

1. longitude1=E 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

2. latitude1=N 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

3. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

4. latitude1=N 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

5. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

6. longitude1=E 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

7. longitude1=E productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

8. latitude1=N productivity_total='All' 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

9. latitude1=N longitude1=E 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

10. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

11. longitude1=E 114 ==> latitude1=N productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

12. latitude1=N 114 ==> longitude1=E productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

13. productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==> latitude1=N 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

14. productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==> longitude1=E 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

15. productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==>productivity_total='All' 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0]

conv:(0)

16. longitude1=E productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==> latitude1=N 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0)

[0] conv:(0)

17. latitude1=N productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==> longitude1=E 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0)

[0] conv:(0)

18. productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==> latitude1=N longitude1=E 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0)

[0] conv:(0)

19. productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' productivity_total='All' 99 ==> latitude1=N 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1)

lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

20. latitude1=N productivity_irrigated='(4.967-5.5112]' 99 ==>productivity_total='All' 99 <conf:(1)> lift:(1)

lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

Fig.7 Association rules when minimum support = 0.85 and minimum confidence =0.9

Best rules found:

1. longitude1=E 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

2. latitude1=N 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

3. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

4. latitude1=N 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

5. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

6. longitude1=E 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

7. longitude1=E productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

8. latitude1=N productivity_total='All' 114 ==> longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

9. latitude1=N longitude1=E 114 ==>productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

10. productivity_total='All' 114 ==> latitude1=N longitude1=E 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

11. longitude1=E 114 ==> latitude1=N productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

12. latitude1=N 114 ==> longitude1=E productivity_total='All' 114 <conf:(1)> lift:(1) lev:(0) [0] conv:(0)

Fig.7 Association rules when minimum support = 1.0 and minimum confidence =1.0

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Names of the Mandals

Cotton & Chilli area in Hec. across mandals Total cotton area

Total Chillies area

Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.01-07

www.ijera.com 7 | P a g e

VI. Conclusion

There is a correlation between the cotton

irrigated area of Irrigation 2007-08 and

Irrigation2011-12 data and its value is 0.753871.

There is a higher correlation between chillies

irrigated area of Irrigation 2007-08 and

Irrigation2011-12 data and its value is

0.869333.These analysis are specified in the results

and analysis. Future scope of this hybrid approach

can be extended to various agricultural spatial

locations and also to various agricultural yields for

effective analysis .

References

[1] PavelBerkhin, Survey of Clustering Data

Mining Techniques, Accrue Software, Inc.

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Clustering by Means of Medoids, In Y.

Dodge, editor, Statistical Data Analysis,

based on the L1 Norm, pp. 405- 416,

Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

[3] Hartigan, J. A. Clustering algorithms. John

Wiley and Sons., 1975.

[4] Selim, S.Z., and Ismail, M.A. K-means-type

algorithms: a generalized convergence

theorem and characterization of local

optimality. In IEEE transactions on pattern

analysis and machine learning, vol. PAMI-6,

no. 1, January, 1984.

[5] Dhillon I. and Modha D., Concept

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Using Clustering.Machine Learning.42,

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multivariate data: Efficiency versus

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[9] Dr.T. V. RajiniKanth, Ananthoju Vijay

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AUTHORS

Ch.MallikarjunaRao

Received his B.Tech degree in computer

Science and engineering from Dr.Baba sahib

AmbedkarMarathwada University, Aurangabad,

Maharastra in 1998,and M.Tech Degree in Computer

Science and Engineering from J.N.T.U Anantapur

,Andhrapradesh in 2007. He is currently pursuing his

Ph.D degree from JNTU Ananthapur University,

Andhra Pradesh. Currently he is working as

Associate Professor in the department of Computer

Science and Engineering of GokarajuRangaraju

Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad,

India.His research interest includes Data bases and

data mining.

Dr. AnandaRaoAkepogureceived his B.

TechdegreeinComputerScience&Engineerin

g from University of Hyderabad, Andhra

Pradesh, India and M.Tech degree in A.I &

Robotics from University of Hyderabad,

Andhra Pradesh, India. He received Ph.D degree from

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

He is Professor of ComputerScience& Engineering

Department and currently working as Principal of

JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapur, Jawaharlal

Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Dr. Rao published more than 100 publications in various

National and International Journals/ Conferences. He

received Best Research Paper award for the paper

titled “An Approach to Test Case Design for Cost

Effective Software Testing” in an International

Conference on Software Engineering held at Hong

Kong, 18-20 March 2009. He also received Best

Educationist Award for outstanding achievements in

the field of education by International Institute of

Education & Management, New Delhi on 21st Jan.

2012. He bagged Bharat VidyaShiromani Award

from Indian Solidarity Council and

RashtriyaVidyaGaurav Gold Medal Award from

International Institute of Education & Management,

New Delhi on 19th March, 2012. Dr.Rao got Best

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty award from

ISTE for the Year 2013. His main research interest

includes software engineering and data mining.

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