=
+
=
1
) (
1
) (
f(t)
t, time
2 2
) (
w s
w
s F
+
=
f(t)
t
Time Function f(t) Laplace Transform F(s)
Polynomial function f(t)=t
n
(n=positive integer)
f(t)=t
n
e
at
f(t)=t
n
e
at
Multiplication by a Constant Kf(t)
(K= constant)
K F(s)
1
!
) (
+
=
n
s
n
s F
1
) (
!
) (
=
n
a s
n
s F
1
) (
!
) (
+
+
=
n
a s
n
s F
Z=X+jY
X,
Y,
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
P
a
r
t
Complex Plane (Z plane)
s=+j
Laplace Transform Calculation using Matlab
Inverse Laplace Transform Calculation using Matlab
1 3
17 5
) (
17 5 ] 1 3 )[ (
0 ) ( 15 ) ( 3 2 ) 5 ( ) (
] 5 ) ( [ 3 )] 0 ( ) ( [ 3 3
2 ) 5 ( ) (
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
+ +
+
=
+ = + +
= + +
= =
=
=
=
s s
s
s y
s s s s y
s y s sy s s y s
s sy t y s sy
dt
dy
s s y s
dt
t dy
t sy s y s
dt
y d
Laplace
Laplace
Example [1]: Given initial condition (y=5), (dy/dt=2) at t=0. Write Laplace
Transform of differential equation:
Solution:
0 3
2
2
= + + y
dt
dy
dt
y d
Example [2]: Given initial condition (y=3), (dy/dt=0) at (t=0). Write Laplace
Transform of differential equation, then find the solution of y as a function of
time:
Solution:
0 5 = + y
dt
dy
t Table
at
Laplace
Laplace
e t y
e t f
s
s y
s s y
s y s sy
s y y
s sy t y s sy
dt
dy
5
3 ) (
) (
5
3
) (
3 ] 5 )[ (
0 ) ( 5 3 ) (
) ( 5 5
] 3 ) ( [ )] 0 ( ) ( [
=
=
+
=
= +
= +
= =
x1
e
x2
x3
e=x1 x3
G=x2/e , H=x3/x2
x2=G*e=G*(x1 x3)=G*(x1 x2*H)
x2=G*x1 G*H*x2 x1
x2/x1 = G G*(x2/x1)*H
(x2/x1) (x2/x1)*G*H=G (x2/x1)*(1 GH)=G
GH
G
x
x
1 1
2
=
=
GH
G
1
x2 x1
Equivalent Transfer Function
Definitions:
G(s): Forward Path Transfer Function.
H(s): Feedback Path Transfer Function.
G(s)H(s): OpenLoop Transfer Function or loop gain.
Summary of Block Diagram Reduction Rules:
Transformation Block Diagram Equivalent Block Diagram
Transformation Block Diagram Equivalent Block Diagram
Procedure to Solve Block Diagram reduction Problems:
Step 1 : Reduce the blocks connected in series.
Step 2 : Reduce the blocks connected in parallel.
Step 3 : Reduce the minor internal feedback loops.
Step 4 : As far as poosible try to shift take off points towards right and summing
points to the left.
Step 5 : Repeat steps 1 to 4 till simple form is obtained.
Step 6 : Using standard Transfer Function of simple closed loop system, obtain the
closed loop Transfer Function C(s)/R(s) of the overall system.
Example: Block Diagram Reduction:
The Goal is to reduce to a block diagram with fewer blocks.
Step 1
Moving a Takeoff Point beyond a Block
Cascaded Blocks
Eliminating a Feedback Loop
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Final Block Diagram
Eliminating a Feedback Loop
Home Work:
1 Rewrite the following equation using PartialFriction Expansion expanded
form:
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
3 5
) (
+ + +
+
=
s s s
s
s G
Answer:
3
6
2
7
1
1
) (
+
+
+
+
=
s s s
s G
2 Consider the differential equation, where u(t) is the unitstep function. The
initial conditions are y(0)=1, dy/dt =2 at t=0. solve the differential equation
using Laplace transform, then find the complete solution as y(t).
) ( 5 ) ( 2
) (
3
) (
2
2
t u t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
= + +
Answer:
t t
e e t y
2
2
3
5
2
5
) (
+ =
) 2 )( 1 (
5
) (
2
+ +
+
=
s s s
s s
s y
The differential Equation of a Linear System is shown
below, find Transfer Function Y(s)/R(s) , assume all initial
conditions are zero.
) ( ) ( 10
) (
6
) (
5
) (
2
2
3
3
t r t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
dt
t y d
= + + +
10 6 5
1
) (
) (
2 3
+ + +
=
s s s s R
s Y
Answer
(MASON)
+ +
=
........
2 2 1 1
T T
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
=1(L
1
+L
2
+L
3
+) +
(Sum of Product of any two nontouching loops) 
(Sum of Product of any three nontouching loops)+..
where:
L = Loops.
T
1
,T
2
= Forward Transmission from Input Signal to Output Signal.
1
= +L
1
=value of after removing the loops that touch (T
1
).
2
= +L
2
=value of after removing the loops that touch (T
2
).
In block diagram represenattion, we have to apply reduction rules, one after the other to obtain
simple of the system and hence overall transfer function. We have to draw the reduction block
diagram after every step. This is time consuming. In signal flow graph (SFG) approach, once SFG
is obtained, direct use of one formula leads to the overall system transfer function C(s)/R(s). This
formula is stated by S.J.Mason (1953) and hence referred as Masons Gain formula.
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
Example: Find the Response of the following control system at: D
2
=1, A=1,
K
1
=1, K
2
=2, K
H
=0.5, B=5, D
1
=1/6.
when:
1 v is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0)
2 u is step function with constant value. (i.e. v=0)
A
s D
K
1
1
1+ s D
K
2
2
1+
B
K
H
v
c
u
+

e
G
1
+
+
G
2
H
Input
Signal
Output
Signal
Solution:
1 v is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0).
Using MASON method:
L
1
= G
1
G
2
H
T
1
=G
1
G
2
A
=1L
1
=1(G
1
G
2
H)=1+G
1
G
2
H
1
=+L
1
=1+G
1
G
2
HG
1
G
2
H=1
t t
e e t c
s s s s
C
s
C
s
C
s c
s Roots
s s s
s c
s
on StepFuncti v when
s s s s H G G
A G G T
v
c
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
4 3
3 2 1
2
2 1
2 1 1 1
3 4 1 ) (
) 4 (
3
) 3 (
4 1
) 4 ( ) 3 (
) (
4 , 3 , 0 :
) 4 )( 3 (
12
) (
1
:
) 4 )( 3 (
12
12 7
12
1
) )( 1 (
+ =
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+ =
=
+ +
=
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
= =
v
A
G
1
G
2
c
L
1
T
1
B
u=0
H
e
2 when (u) is step function with constant value. (i.e. v=0).
Using MASON method:
L
1
= G
1
G
2
H
T
1
=BG
2
=1L
1
=1(G
1
G
2
H)=1+G
1
G
2
H
1
=+L
1
=1+G
1
G
2
HG
1
G
2
H=1
t t
e e t c
s s s s
C
s
C
s
C
s c
s Roots
s s s
s
s c
s
on StepFuncti u when
s s
s
H G G
BG T
u
c
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
4 3
3 2 1
2 1
2 1 1
5 10 5 ) (
) 4 (
5
) 3 (
10 5
) 4 ( ) 3 (
) (
4 , 3 , 0 :
) 4 )( 3 (
) 6 ( 10
) (
1
:
) 4 )( 3 (
) 6 ( 10
1
) 1 )( (
+ =
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+ =
=
+ +
+
=
= =
+ +
+
=
+
=
= =
v=0
A
G
1
G
2
c
L
1
T
1
B
u
H
e
Example: Convert the block diagram representation of a system as shown below into a signal flow graph.
Hence find the transfer function C(s)/R(s) of the closed loop system from the signal flow graph.
Example: Find the overall Transfer Function by using Masons gain formula for the single flow graph in the
figure below.
Home Work: Find the Response for the speed control system at: D=0.25,
K
1
=1, K
2
=0.75, u=Load Torque, n
o
=Output Speed, n
i
=Input Speed, and all
initial conditions are zero.
when:
1 n
i
is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0)
2 u is step function with constant value. (i.e. n
i
=0)
s
K
1
Ds
K
+ 1
2
n
i
n
o
u
+

e
G
1
+

G
2
Input
Speed
Output
Speed
1. n
o
(t)=1+0.5e
3t
1.5e
t
Answer:
2. n
o
(t)=1.5e
t
+1.5e
3t
Mason's Rule MATLAB function
Description
Mason.m uses mason's rule to simplify signal flow graphs. It takes a file describing the network and
produces a symbolic equation relating a dependent output node to an independent input node.
The routine requires the user to create a ".txt" file describing a network's signal paths.
s11
s21
s22
s12
R2
This program generates these equations for a given network and pair of nodes.
Using the Program
It is important that the lines in the net file be ordered so that the coefficient numbers count from 1 up. Don't use 0 to number
the coefficients or nodes! Once you have made the net file, run 'mason.m' from Matlab, as described below:
USAGE:
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason(Netfile,StartNode,StopNode)
Netfile  is a string with the name of the netfile to load
StartNode  is the integer number describing the independent input node
StopNode  is the integer number describing the dependent output node
Numerator  is a string containing the equation for the Numerator
Denominator  is a string containing the equation for the Denominator
Try out the example network! To recreate the above examples use:
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason('example.net',1,3)
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason('example.net',1,2)
Presentation by students
Each student prepares a presentation on one of the following topics.
No. of Slides: Less than 10 (using Microsoft PowerPoint), Duration: 2 weeks.
[Draw the block diagram (The Control System) of the following systems showing the input variables,
the output variables, and inside the block (gain)]
1 Potentiometer 11 Automatic
Elevator
21 Suspension
system in the car
31 SelfGuided
Vehicle
41 Active Vibration
Absorber
2 Winders 12 Toaster 22 Actuator 32 Thermostat 42 Tachometer
3 Nuclear reactor 13 DVD Player 23 Hydraulic pump 33 Floppy Disk Drive 43 Antenna Azimuth
4 Control the fluid
level in a home
tank
14 Remote
controlled robot
arm
24 Automobile
Guidance
System
34 Electric
Ventricular Assist
Device (EVAD)
44 Position control
system in NC
machine
5 Dynamometer 15 Steam Boiler 25 Furnace 35 Wind turbines 45 Voltage stabilizer
6 Grinder system 16 Automatic ship
steering system
26 Walking Robots
(Hannibal)
36 Arc Welding
Robot
46 High speed rail
pantograph
7 High speed
proprtional
solenoid valve
17 Navigation
system of
missiles
27 Magnetic
Levitation
Transportation
System
37 Heat Exchanger
Process
47 Sunseeker solar
system
8 The pupil of
human eye
18 Guidance
system of
Space shuttle
28 Cutting forces
during machining
operation
38 Coordinate
Measuring
Machine (CMM)
48 Automatic controlled
Load tester
9 A Segway
Human
Transporter
19 Steel Plate
Finishing mill
29 Dynamic Voltage
Restorer (DVR)
39 ChargeCoupled
Device (CCD)
49 CameraMan
(Automatic
Presenter Camera
system)
10 Automatic Door
operating
system
20 Continuous
Casting
machine
30 3D Full body
Scanning
40 Antilock braking
(ABS)
50 conveyor system
Determine the Transfer Function C(s)/R(s) of the
system shown in the Fig. below.
Modeling of Physical Systems:
Modeling of Mechanical Systems Elements:
The motion of mechanical elements can be described as translational, rotational, or
combination of both.
Translational Motion:
The motion takes place along a straight or curved path. The variables that are used
to describe this motion are acceleration, velocity, displacement.
Newtons Law of Motion states: forces = Ma
where: M: mass (kg), a: acceleration (m/sec
2
), force: Newton (N)
1. Mass: it is a property of an element that stores the kinetic energy of translation
motion. It is analogous to the inductance of electric networks.
M= W/g
where: W: weight of a body,
g: acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
For Forcemass system, the force equation is:
where: v(t) : linear velocity (m/s).
dt
t dv
M
dt
t y d
M t Ma t f
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
= = =
M
y(t)
f(t)
Displacement
Force
) ( ) (
2
s y Ms s f = Taking laplace and neglecting initial conditions:
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
2 Linear Spring: it is an element that stores potential energy. It is analogous to a
capacitor in electric networks.
f(t) = K y(t)
where: K: spring constant (stiffness) (N/m)
y(t)
f(t)
K
ForceSpring System
If the spring is preloaded with a preload tension of T, then:
f(t) T = K y(t)
K
M
2
M
1
f(t)
y
2
(t
)
y
1
(t
)
Consider the spring connected between the two moving
elements having masses M
1
and M
2
where force is
applied to mass M
1
.
Now mass M
1
will get displaced by y
1
(t) but mass M
2
will
get displaced by y
2
(t) as spring of constant (K) will store
some potential energy and will be the cause for change in
dispalcement. Consider free body diagram of spring as
shown in figure beside. Net dispacement in the spring is
y
1
(t)y
2
(t) and opposing force by the spring is proportional
to the net displacement i.e. y
1
(t)y
2
(t)
K
y
2
(t
)
y
1
(t
)
(y
1
y
2
)
F
spring
= K [ y
1
(t) y
2
(t) ] F
spring
= K [ y
1
(s) y
2
(s) ]
Taking Laplace
dt
t dy
B t f
) (
) ( =
y(t)
f(t)
B
dy/dt
f
B=slope
3 Friction for Translation Motion: three different types of friction are used in practical
systems, viscous friction, static friction, Coulomb friction.
A Viscous Friction (Dashpot/Damper): retarding force that is a linear relationship
between the applied force and velocity. B: viscous frictional coefficient (N/m/sec)
Frictional Force
Taking laplace and neglecting initial conditions, F
frictional
(s)= B s y(s)
y
1 B
y
2
M
2
M
1
Friction between two moving surfaces causes change in displacement.
In such case, opposing force is given by,
=
dt
t dy
dt
t dy
B t F
frictional
) ( ) (
) (
2 1 Taking Laplace, [ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
s y s y Bs s F
frictional
=
Rotational Motion:
Motion of a body about a fixed axis. The force gets replaced by a moment about fixed axis (force *
distance from fixed axis) which is called Torque. Using Newtons Law of Motion:
Torques = J
where: J: inertia (kg . m
2
) , : angular acceleration.
1.Inertia (J): property of an element that stores the kinetic energy of rotational motion.
(J) depends on the geometric composition about the axis of rotation and its density.
Example:
Inertia of a circular disk or shaft about its axis = J = (M r
2
)/2
For Torqueinertia system:
2
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
dt
t d
J
dt
t d
J t J t T
= = =
T(t) (t)
J
Torqueinertia system
where: T: torque (N.m)
(t) : angular displacement (radian).
(t) : angular velocity (rad/sec).
(t) : angular acceleration.
M: mass (kg)
1 rad = 180/ = 57.3 deg
1 rpm = 2 /60 = 0.1047 rad/sec = 6 deg/sec
) ( ) (
2
s Js s T =
Taking Laplace,
2 Torsional Spring:
For Torque torsional spring system: T(t) = K (t)
where: K: torsional spring constant (N.m/rad)
T(t)
(t)
K
If the torsional spring is preloaded by a preload torque of TP , the equation:
T(s) TP = K (s)
3 Friction for Rotational Motion:
The three types of friction (viscous, static, coulomb) carried over to the motion of
rotation.
For Viscous friction:
dt
t d
B t T
) (
) (
=
) ( ) ( s K s T =
Taking Laplace,
Taking Laplace:
) ( ) ( s Bs s T =
B
T(t)
(t)
Example 1: Find y1/y2 for the mechanical system shown.
Solution:
F
spring
= K (y1y2)
F
Damper
= B D y2
F
spring
= F
Damper
K (y1y2) = B D y2
Ky1 = Ky2 + B D y2
K
BD K
y
y +
=
2
1
K
B
y1
y2
Example 2: Find the Transfer Function for the mechanical system shown.
K
B
y
B
F
M
Solution:
K Bs Ms s F
s X
s G
yields functions transfer the for Solving
s F s Y K Bs Ms or
s F s KY s BsY s Y Ms
Conditions Initial Zero Assume Transform Laplace Taking
t Ky
dt
t dy
B
dt
t y d
M t F
NewtonLaw F F F F
Spring Damper Mass
+ +
= =
= + +
= + +
+ + =
+ + =
2
2
2
2
1
) (
) (
) (
:
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
F
Spring
Damper
Example 3: Find for the mechanical system shown.
Solution:
K
B
y1
y2
) (
) ( 1
) (
) ( 2
S F
S Y
and
S F
S Y
F
M
) ( ) (
) ( 1
) ( ) (
) ( 1
)
) (
1 ( 1
) (
1
) ( 1
2 1
. 1 3 .
) (
1
) (
) ( 2
) 3 ..( .......... .......... .......... ..........
) (
1
) (
) ( 2
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
. 1 2 .
) . 1 .........( .......... .......... .......... 2 1 : ) 1 (
) 2 .....( .......... .......... ..........
) ( 2
1
2 2 2 1
) 1 ....( .......... .......... 2 2 ) 2 1 (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
BS MS K
K BS MS
S F
S Y
BD MD K
K BD MD
t F
t y
BD MD
K
F Ky
BD MD
KF
F Ky
BD MD
F
K Ky F
Ky Ky F
a in Sub
BS MS S F
S Y
BD MD t F
t y
BD MD y F
Ky
K
K BD MD y
K F
a in Sub
a Ky Ky F From
K
K BD MD y
y
y MD BDy Ky Ky
BDy y MD y y K F
F F F F
D M s
+
+ +
=
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
+
+ =
+
=
=
+
=
+
=
+ =
+ +
=
=
+ +
=
+ + =
+ = =
= + =
Mass
Damper
Spring
MassDampeningStiffness
Test m File:
The Results:
Mass Matrix
Dampening Matrix
Stiffness Matrix
Conversion between Translation and Rotational Motions:
W
X(t)
Rack Pinion
T(t)
Drive
Motor
r
(t)
Rack and Pinion
W
T(t)
Drive
Motor
r r
Pulley
Belt
X(t)
(t)
Belt and Pulley
Rotary to Linear motion control system:
r= radius of pulley (Belt and Pulley)
r= radius of pinion (Rack and Pinion)
M= mass (kg)
W= weight of the body (N).
g= acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
2 2
r
g
W
Mr ia MotorInert J = = =
Lecture [6]
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
W Motor
T(t), (t)
X(t)
Lead Screw
Rotary to Linear motion control system (Lead screw):
L: screw lead, distance that the mass travels per revolution of the screw (mm).
W: weight of the body (N).
g: acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
L
2
2

.

\

= =
L
g
W
Inertia J
Electrical Control Components Representation:
+ 
V
R
R
+ 
V
L
L
+ 
V
C
C
1/R 1/LD CD
V
R
I V
L
I V
C
I
I
V
R
R
=
dt dI
V
L
L
/
=
dt dV
I
C
c
/
=
) ( ) ( ) (
Let: D= d /dt
Example: Find the transfer function for the following circuit.
+
V
R
R
V
L
L C

V
C
I
V
Similar to the mechanical systems, very commonly used systems are of electrical type.
The behavior of such systems is governed by Ohms Law. The dominate elements of an
electrical system are, Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.

.

\

+ + =
= =
=
=
=
=
= =
+ + =
+ + = + + =
+ + =
C
RD LD Q V
C
Q
CD
DQ
CD
I
RDQ RI
Q LD LDI
eq in DQ I sub by
dt
d
D
DQ
dt
dQ
I
CD
R LD I V
CD
I
RI LDI
CD
I
RI
dt
dI
L V
V V V V
C R L
1
) 1 ( .... ...... ... ...
) 1 ...( ).........
1
(
2
2
C
RD LD
1
1
2
+ +
V Q
Transfer function of the RC network
) / 1 /(
1
) 1 ) ( (
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( )
) (
1
( ) (
1
2
2
1
T s T s RC s v
s v
s G
s C
s i
s v
s i
s C
R s v
+
=
+
= =
=
+ =
Analogous Systems:
In between electrical & mechanical systems there exists a fixed analogy and their exists a similarity between their
equilibrium equations. Due to this, it is possible to draw an electrical system which will behave exactly similar to
the given mechanical system, this is called electrical analogous of given mechanical system and vice versa.
Consider simple mechanical system, shown in Fig. Due to the
applied force, mass M will displace by an amount x(t) in the
direction of force f(t). According to Newtons law of motion,
applied force will cause displacement x(t) in spring, acceleration
to mass M against frictional force having constant B.
f(t)=Ma+Bv+Kx(t)
Where, a=acceleration, v=velocity
Tabular Form of ForceVoltage Analogy
Translational Rotational Electrical
Force F Torque T Voltage V
Mass M Inertia J Inductance L
Friction constant B Torsional friction
constant B
Resistance R
Spring constant K
(N/m)
Torsional spring
constant K (Nm/rad)
Reciprocal of capacitor
1/C
Displacement x Charge q
Velocity x
=dx/dt
\

=
)
`
=
(
=
=
=
:
:
:
) (
1
) (
1
1
Electrical CDE I
R
E
I also
Thermal DT C Q
R
T T
Q
T
T
= =
=
=
,
,
) (
1
For Electrical Circuit:
(
+
=
=
=
= =
RCD
E
E
CDE
R
E E
I
CDE
R
E
I
1
1
1
For Thermal Circuit:
(
+
=
=
=
D C R
T
T
DT C
R
T T
Q
T T
T
T
1
) (
1
1
This is known as direct analog between thermal and electrical circuits.
i.e. T E , C C
T
, R
T
R , Q I
Models of Thermal Systems
1. Heat Transfer System
Fig. shown a Thermal System
Electric heating element is provided in the tank to heat the water. The tank is insulated to reduce
heat to the surroundings.
The necessary simplifying assumptions are:
1. There is no heat storage in the insulations.
2. All the water in the tank is perfectly mixed and hence at a uniform temperature.
I
= Inlet water temperature in C
o
= Outlet water temperature in C.
= surrounding temperature.
q = Rate of heat flow from heating element in J/sec
q
i
= Rate of heat flow to the water.
q
t
= Rate of heat flow through tank insulation.
Transfer function is:
o
(s)/Q(s)=R/(1+sCR)
The time constant of the system is RC
2. Thermometer:
Consider a thermometer placed in a water bath having temperature
i,
as shown.
o
is the temperature indicated by the thermometer. The rate of heat flow into the thermometer
through its wall is,
dq/dt = (
i,

o
)/R
Where: R = Thermal resistance of the thermometer wall
The indicated temperature, rises at rate of
: State Space Analysis
.
(Transfer Function)
.
.
: :
.
.
Direct Programming:
Example: Write the state model for the system described by transfer function.
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
3
) ( t f
D D
D
t c
+ +
+
=
: 1  ) D ( :
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
1
) 3 ( ) (
1
1
t f
D D
x
x D t c
+ +
=
+ =
Statespace models are models that use state variables to describe a system by a set of firstorder differential
or difference equations, rather than by one or more nthorder differential or difference equations. State
variables x(t) can be reconstructed from the measured inputoutput data, but are not themselves measured
during an experiment.
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
) 3 .....( ..........
) 2 .......( )......... ( 3 2
) ( 2 3
:
) ( 2 3
) (
2 3
1
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
1
) 1 ......( .......... 3 ) (
:
3 ) (
2 1
2 1 2
1 2 2
2 1
1 1 1
2
1
1 2
2 1
1 1
x x
t f x x x
t f x x x
x x let
t f x x x
t f
D D
t f
D D
x
x x t c
x x let
x x t c
=
+ =
= + +
=
= + +
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ =
=
+ =
2  ) .(
.
3  123 (state variables)
(x
1
,x
2
,x
3
,) .
) (
1
0
3 2
1 0
2
1
2
1
t f
x
x
x
x
=
2
1
1 3
x
x
c
Output Equation
Example: Write the state model for the system described by transfer function.
) (
3 9 6
5
) (
2 3
s f
s s s
s c
+ + +
=
} 3 )..{ ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 5 3 9 6
} 2 ......{ .......... .......... ..........
} 1 ....{ .......... .......... .......... ..........
: Assume
) ( 5 3 9 6
) (
3 9 6
5
) (
: Let
: Solution
3 2 1 3 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3 2 1
2 1
1 1 1 1
2 3
1
1
s f x x x x x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
x x x
x x
s f x x x x
s f
s s s
x
x s c
+ = =
+ =
+ =
= =
=
= + + +
+ + +
=
=
[ ] [ ]
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3 2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 ) (
: Equation Output
) (
5
0
0
6 9 3
1 0 0
0 1 0
,
: Equation State
: form Matrix to equations above all Transform
) ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 0 1 0 0
) ( 0 0 1 0
: produce } 3 , 2 , 1 { Equations of ent Rearrangem
x
x
x
x
x s c
s f
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
=
= =
=
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
a s a s a s a s F
n
n
n
n
This method determine the location of zeros (roots) of a
polynomial with constant real coefficients. The form of linear
time SISO system is:
Unstable
Region
Unstable
Region
Stable
Region
Stable
Region
jw
0
Splane
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
Step2 Rouths Array.
Step3 Investigate the signs of the coefficients in the first column of the tabulation, which
contains information on the roots of the equation. The number of changes of the signs in the
elements of the first column equal to the number of roots.
0 ........ ) (
0 1
5
5
6
6
= + + + + = a s a s a s a s F
order equation.  the sixth Example:
......
......
7 5 3 1
6 4 2
n n n n
n n n n
a a a a
a a a a
Step1 Arrange the coefficients of the above equation into two rows:
EXAMPLE 1: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system, check the stability of
the equation using Routh stability test.
[2s
4
+s
3
+3s
2
+5s+10=0]
Solution:
s
4
2 3 10
s
3
1 5 0
s
2
[(1)(3)(2)(5)]/1 = 7 10 0
s
1
[(7)(5)(1)(10)]/7=6.4 0 0
s
0
10 0 0
System is unstable because of changes (two changes) in first column sign.
Sign change
Sign change
Example 2:
Homework 1: Considering the characteristic equation of a closed loop control system.
s
3
+3Ks
2
+(K+2)s+4=0
Find the range of K so that the system is stable.
Answer:
Homework
Homework 2: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system, check the stability
of the equation using Routh stability test.
[s
4
+s
3
+2s
2
+2s+3=0]
s4 1 2 3
s3 1 2 0
s2 0.001 3 0
s1 2998 0
s0 3
Answer:
System is unstable because of changes (two changes) in first column sign.
RouthHurwitz stability criterion Calculation using Matlab
Example:
The Nyquist Stability Criterion
.
(Polar Plot) : Amplitude (Phase Angle) .
:
1  (Laplace Transform) (Sinsoidal Form)
(s=wj) (w:rad/sec) (Sinsoidal Input Signal)

.

\


.

\

= =
+
+
= =
= =
Re
Im
tan
Re
Im
tan Angle Phase ) (
Re Im
Re Im
Amplitude ) (
:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
: Function Transfer Sinsoidal
1 1
2 2
2 2
wj G
wj G
where
wj G wj G wj G s G
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq
Lec.9
2  (Polar Plot) :
Re(w)
Im(j)
3  ) :(
1 Phase Margin = 180
Phase Angle =
if =+ , Phase Angle < 180 Stable System
if = , Phase Angle > 180 Unstable System
2 Gain Margin = L = 1Amplitude
if L<1 Stable System
if L>1 Unstable System
Re(w)
Im(j)
Unit Circle
Nyquist Path
Polar Plot
[Stable System]
Phase
Angle
1
L
Amplitude
Example 1: Draw the Nyquist plot for the following system:
1 2
1
) (
+
=
s
s G
) 2 ( tan
1
2
tan
1
0
tan
Re
Im
tan
Re
Im
tan Angle Phase ) (
1 4
1
1 ) 2 (
1 0
Re Im
Re Im
) (
) ( ) (
1 2jw
1
G(jw) jw s
:
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
w
w
jw G
w w
Amplitude jw G
jw G jw G let
Solution
=

.

\


.

\

=

.

\


.

\

= =
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
= =
=
+
= =
w (rad/sec) Amplitude Phase Angle
0 1 0
1 0.447 63.4
2 0.242 75.9
3 0.164 80.5
4 0.124 82.8
1 1 Re
Im
w
w=0
w=1
w=2
Polar Plot
(Stable System)
Example 2: Draw the Nyquist Diagram and check if the system is stable for
(w = 0,1,2,3,4,10):
) 1 1 . 0 )( 1 1 . 0 )( 1 (
5
) (
+ + +
=
s s s
s G
) 1 . 0 ( tan ) 1 . 0 ( tan ) ( tan
1
1 . 0
tan
1
1 . 0
tan
1
tan
5
0
tan ) ( Angle Phase
1 ) 1 . 0 ( 1 ) 1 . 0 ( 1
5 0
) (
) 1 1 . 0 )( 1 1 . 0 )( 1 (
5
) ( ) (
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
w w w
w w w
jw G
w w w
jw G Amplitude
jw jw jw
jw G s G
=
(

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\


.

\

= =
+ + +
+
= =
+ + +
= =
w
(rad/sec)
Amplitude Phase Angle
0 5 0
1 3.501 56.421
2 2.15 86.055
3 1.451 104.964
4 1.04 119.567
10 0.249 174.289
0 270
5
1
w=2
w=1
w=0
w=
Amplitude=0.206
w=10.95
Phase Angle=180
L
Phase Angle
Polar Plot
[Stable System]
Unit Circle
w
Im
Re
Homework:
Draw the Nyquist Diagram for the following control systems and check the stability.
) 1 05 . 0 )( 1 2 . 0 (
10
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
5
) (
+ +
=
+ +
=
s s s
s G
s s s
s F
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq