2. J .J . DiStefano, A. R. Stubberud, I. J . Williams, Feeedback and Control Systems, Schaum's Outline
Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1990
3. N.S. Nise, Control Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition, J ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 2002.
4. R.T. Stefani, B. Shahian, C.J . Savant, J r., G.H. Hostetter, Design of Feedback Control Systems, Oxford
University Press, NY, Oxford, 2002.
5. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, PrenticeHall, 4th Edition, NJ , 2002.
6. ChiTsong Chen, Analog and Digital Control System Design, Saunders College Publishing, 2000.
References:
Digital Control
4th Class, Production Engineering
Department of Production Engineering and Metallurgy,
University of Technology, Baghdad
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
►Requirements and Grading:
First term Exam: 10%, Second term Exam: 10%
Final Exam: 60%
Homworks, Quizess and Class attendance: 10%
Laboratory (CNC Lab): 10%
►Software:
Maple
MATLAB & Simulink
Email: dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq
Control System:
What is a control system?
To answer this, we need to understand the “objectives” of the system to be controlled.
In Industry: the objectives of manufacturing processes are satisfy the precision and
cost requirements of the products.
In Transportation: control automobile and airplane to satisfy accurate and safe trans.
Then [The means of achieving these objectives involve the use of control
systems that implement certain control strategies].
Control systems found in all sectors of industry such as:
[Quality Control of manufactured products, automatic assembly line, machine tool
control, space technology, weapon systems, computer control, robotics,………].
Basic Components of a Control System:
Control System
Objectives
(Inputs, actuating signals)
Results
(Outputs,
controlled variables)
Basic Definitions:
Control System is a combination of components or subsystems connected in such a way to give a
desired/specified system performance.
Plant/System is the physical object that needs to be controlled, examples include power system, chemical
process, spacecraft, economic system etc.
Disturbance is an unwanted signal that affects the output of a system adversely.
Feedback Control System is a system where in the actual input to the system being controlled is the
difference between the reference input and the actual output.
Automatic Regulating System is a feedback system in which the reference input (or desired output) is a
constant value. Example: electric power system
Process Control System is an automatic regulating system in which the output variable or variables
include temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, etc.
Openloop Control System is a system in which the output has no effect on the input to the system.
Examples: washing machine, electric switch, Automatic Door Opening & Closing system.
Closedloop Control System is a feedback control system.
Examples: Human being, Home Heating system, Ship Stabilization system.
Mathematical Modeling: Finding a mathematical model of the system to be controlled is the first step in the
design of control systems. There are two types of mathematical models we study in control. They are:
Transfer Functions and StateSpace Equations.
Brain Hands
Eyes
Desired position
of the hands
Reference position
of Book
Input
Error
signal
Closed Loop Sytem for
A person wants to reach for a book on the table
Types of Control Systems:
1 Open Loop Control System:
Controlled
Process
Controller
Reference
Input (r)
Actuating
Signal (u)
Controlled
Variable (y)
Features: Less accurate, Simple, cheap.
Controller can be an amplifier, mechanical linkage, or other control element.
Examples: Electric Washing Machine, Spraying, Drilling, On/Off processes.
2 Closed Loop Control System (Feedback Control System)
Controller
Controlled
Process
Sensor
Error
Detector
Controlled
Variable (y)
Reference
Input (r)
Difference
Variable
Controller
Engine
Speed
Transducer
Error
Detector
Controlled
Variable (w)
w
e
w
r
+

T
L
+
+
Block Diagram of closed loop speed control system.
To obtain more accurate control, the controlled signal (y) should
be feedback and compared with the reference input (r), and an
actuating signal proportional to the difference of the input and
the output must be sent through the system to correct the error.
Reference input (w
r
) is desired speed, Engine speed (w) should
equal (w
r
) and any difference such as load torque (T
L
) is sensed
by the speed transducer and the error detector. The controller
will operate on the difference and provide a signal to correct
error.
Application of Load
Torque (T
L
)
Application of Load
Torque (T
L
)
Time
Time
Desired
Speed (w
r
)
Desired
Speed (w
r
)
Typical Response of the Open
Loop Speed Control System
Typical Response of the Closed
Loop Speed Control System
Regulator System
The effect of feedback on a control system:
1 reduction of system error.
2 stability.
3 sensitivity.
Dynamic systems:
Studying the time behavior of the physical system under investigation. Most
physical processes can be described by balance equations of the form,
Continuous systems: the rate of change component gives rise to a firstorder
differential equation.
Discrete systems: events occur at discrete time intervals and the balance
equation is written in terms of discrete difference equations.
Single inputsingle output (SISO) systems : a single differential equation is
used to describe the relationship between the input quantity, u(t), and the
output quantity, y(t). For Example: a position control system has only one input
(desired position) & one output (actual output position).
Multiple input and multiple outputs (MIMO) systems : described by a set of
differential equations. For such systems, the input and output quantities are
represented as vector quantities, and , respectively.
State Variable Approach : The formal matrix methods treatment of dynamic
system analysis.
Continuous Versus Discrete Modeling
First Order Continuous Time System
For continuous time systems that display exponential growth or decay, the
basic growth/decay law can be stated as " The rate of change is proportional
to the amount present." This can be written mathematically as
The solution for this system is given as,
All system variables are the functions of a
continuous time variable (t).
Example: the speed control of a D.C. Motor using
tachogenerator feedback.
First Order Discrete Time System
For discrete time systems that display geometric growth or decay, the basic
growth/decay law can be stated as " The value at interval k+1 is proportional
to the value at k." Mathematically, this can be written as
and k is the discrete time index. This discrete time variable is sometimes
written as , where T is the sampling period. The solution to this
difference equation can be obtained by assuming a solution of the
form , where c is some constant to be determined. In this case, it is
easy to show that and the solution becomes a simple geometric series,
In discrete time system one or more system varibles
are known only at certain discrete intervals of time.
Example: Microprocessor or computer based systems.
Digital & Sampled Data Control System:
In recent years, Microprocessors & microcomputers are used in the control systems to obtain necessary
controlling action. Such controllers use digital signals which exists only at finite instants, in the form of short
pulses (Digital controllers). Thus the digital control system is hybrid system using the combination of continuous
time signals & digital signals. To obtain analog signal from digital, Digital to Analog (DAC) converters are used
while to obtain digital signals from analog, Analog to Digital (ADC) converters are used. The input & output of a
digital controller are both in digital form. The digital signals exist in the form of coded digital data at discrete
intervals of time. Such signals are obtained from computers, microprocessors, ADC and digital sensing
elements.
Applications: radar tracking systems, Industrial robots, Modern Industrial control system,aircraft control
systems.
Digital Control System :
Digital Input
Signal
Controlled
output
Fig. Digital Control System
using Digital Controller
Sampled Data System :
Many times digital signals are obtained by sampling the continuous time signals at regular intervals. The switch
can be used as a sampler. When switch is closed for short duration of time, signal is available at the output and
otherwise it is zero. Such signal is called sampled signal which exists in a digital form.
The digital controllers accept such sampled error signals to produce controlled variable in digital form. This is
converted to analog signal using DAC and hold circuits. The hold circuits convert sampled signal back to analog
signal. This signal is used to control the process. The system using such sampler and hold circuits is called
sampled data control system. The input & feedback signals both are continuous in nature. The accuracy of
sampled signals is less than the digital signals. Hence digital control systems are more accurate than sampled
data systems.
Analog continuous
time signal
Controlled Output
Continuous time
feedback signal
Switch is closed for short duration
after regular time interval T
Use of sampler to obtain sampled signal
Sampled Data control system
Transform and Frequency Domain Methods
Laplace Transforms
Definition: The Laplace transform is defined by the linear transformation
where is an arbitrary complex number and f(t) is function of time (t)
In practice, one usually does not need to perform a contour integration in the complex
plane. Instead, a "dictionary" of Laplace transform pairs is generated and
some simple rules allow one convert between the time domain solution, f(t), and the
frequency or splane solution, F(s).
Some Laplace Transform Pairs
1 Unit Step Signal:
where:
2 Exponential Signal:
where:
ﺔﻳﻠﺿﺎﻔﺗﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﻝﻳﻭﺣﺗﻟ ﺱﻼﺑﻻ ﻝﻳﻭﺣﺗ ﺔﻐﻳﺻ ﻡﺩﺧﺗﺳﺗ ) ﻥﻣﺯﻠﻟ ﺔﻟﺍﺩ ﻲﻫﻭ t ( ﺔﻳﺭﺑﺟﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻐﻳﺻ ﻰﻟﺍ ) ﺔﻟﺍﺩ ﻲﻫﻭ
ﺏﻛﺭﻣﻟﺍ ﺭﻳﻐﺗﻣﻠﻟ s ( ﻱﺩﺩﺭﺗﻟﺍ ﻝﻘﺣﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺍ ﻲﻧﻣﺯﻟﺍ ﻝﻘﺣﻟﺍ ﻥﻣ ﻝﻳﻭﺣﺗﻠﻟ ﻙﻟﺫﻭ .
The Laplace Transform is one of the mathematical tools used to solve linear
ordinary differential equations.
s=σ+jω
σ: Real part of complex variable (s).
ω: Imaginary part of complex variable (s).
PierreSimon Laplace
(1749–1827).
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
For the 2
nd
derivative:
In general, the n
th
derivative is:
Differentiation:
Superposition (Sum and Difference):
 
Some Laplace Transforms
Note that Matlab has
builtin capability
within the Symbolic
Toolbox to generate
Laplace transforms
and inverse Laplace
transforms (see
commands LAPLACE
and ILAPLACE,
respectively).
Time Function f(t) Laplace Transform F(s) Function Plot
Step function f(t)=h
where:
h=constant
Pulse function
f(t)=h when 0<t<t
0
f(t)=0 when t>t
0
Exponential function
f(t)=e
at
f(t)=e
at
Sine wave function
f(t)=sin wt
f(t)
t, time
h
) 1 ( ) (
0
s t
e
s
h
s F
−
− =
s
h
s F = ) (
f(t)
t, time
h
t
0
a s
s F
a s
s F
−
=
+
=
1
) (
1
) (
f(t)
t, time
2 2
) (
w s
w
s F
+
=
f(t)
t
Time Function f(t) Laplace Transform F(s)
Polynomial function f(t)=t
n
(n=positive integer)
f(t)=t
n
e
at
f(t)=t
n
e
at
Multiplication by a Constant Kf(t)
(K= constant)
K F(s)
1
!
) (
+
=
n
s
n
s F
1
) (
!
) (
−
−
=
n
a s
n
s F
1
) (
!
) (
+
+
=
n
a s
n
s F
Z=X+jY
X, σ
Y, ω
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
P
a
r
t
Complex Plane (Z plane)
s=σ+jω
Laplace Transform Calculation using Matlab
Inverse Laplace Transform Calculation using Matlab
1 3
17 5
) (
17 5 ] 1 3 )[ (
0 ) ( 15 ) ( 3 2 ) 5 ( ) (
] 5 ) ( [ 3 )] 0 ( ) ( [ 3 3
2 ) 5 ( ) (
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
+ +
+
= ∴
+ = + +
= + − + − − ∴
− = = − →
− − =
=
− = − →
s s
s
s y
s s s s y
s y s sy s s y s
s sy t y s sy
dt
dy
s s y s
dt
t dy
t sy s y s
dt
y d
Laplace
Laplace
Example [1]: Given initial condition (y=5), (dy/dt=2) at t=0. Write Laplace
Transform of differential equation:
Solution:
0 3
2
2
= + + y
dt
dy
dt
y d
Example [2]: Given initial condition (y=3), (dy/dt=0) at (t=0). Write Laplace
Transform of differential equation, then find the solution of y as a function of
time:
Solution:
0 5 = + y
dt
dy
t Table
at
Laplace
Laplace
e t y
e t f
s
s y
s s y
s y s sy
s y y
s sy t y s sy
dt
dy
5
3 ) (
) (
5
3
) (
3 ] 5 )[ (
0 ) ( 5 3 ) (
) ( 5 5
] 3 ) ( [ )] 0 ( ) ( [
−
−
= → ∴
=
+
= ∴
= +
= + − ∴
→
− = = − →
Laplace Transform of differential equation calculation using Matlab
Laplace transform solutions to n
th
order parameter linear timeinvariant systems are
typically of the form:
where the are referred to as the zeros of F(s)
and the are the poles of F(s).
The main principal method for finding when F(s) is a ratio of
polynomials is Partial Fraction Expansion
Inverse Transforms:
NonRepeated Linear Factors
Lecture.3.
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
3
( )
( 1)( 2)
s
F s
s s
+
=
+ +
( )
1 2
F s
s
A B
s
= +
+ +
2
( ) 1( )
t t
f t e e A B t
− −
= +
3
( 1) ( 1)
( 1)( 2) 1 2
s A B
s s
s s s s
+
+ = + +
+ + + +
3
( 1)
( 2) 2
s B
A s
s s
+
= + +
+ +
2
3
( 1)
s
s
B
s
=−
+
=
+
2 A =
A:
3
( 2) ( 2)
( 1)( 2) 1 2
s A B
s s
s s s s
+
+ = + +
+ + + +
3
( 2)
( 1) 1
s A
s B
s s
+
= + +
+ +
1
3
( 2)
s
s
A
s
=−
+
=
+
1 B = −
B:
2
( ) ( ) 1( 1 2 )
t t
f t e e t
− −
− = +
Example: Solve the following using Partial Fraction Expansion:
Solution:
Block Diagram Representations
Large dynamic systems can usually be broken into several blocks that have relatively simple SISO relationships.
These blocks can be manipulated to obtain the overall transfer function.
Transfer Function TF is defined to be the relation of the Laplace transform of the input to the Laplace transform
of the output, With all initial conditions assumed to be Zero,
The TF represents the dynamics of the system. The TF allows to determine the response of the system to various
input signals.
Block diagram algebra is identical for the scalar and matrix cases except one must always be careful to maintain
the order of matrix operation. The goal is to generate an equivalent overall system transfer function matrix for
various common block diagram configurations.
Process G(s)
Input Signal U(s)
Output Signal Y(s)
Overall System Transfer Function = Y(s)/U(s) = G(s)
ﺔﻳﻠﺗﻛ ﺕﺎﻁﻁﺧﻣ ﻝﻛﺷﺑ ﺔﻳﺿﺎﻳﺭﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺭﻳﺑﻌﺗﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻥﻣ ﻡﺗﻳ ﺓﺭﻁﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻡﻅﻧ ﻝﻳﺛﻣﺗ Block Diagram .
ﺕﺎﻁﻁﺧﻣﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭﺻﺎﻧﻋ :
1  Summing Point : ﺎﻬﻟ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﺍ ﻥﻣ ﺭﺛﻛﺃ ﻝﺧﺩﺗ ﻥﺍ ﻥﻛﻣﻳ ﺙﻳﺣﺑ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﺷﻷﺍ ﺡﺭﻁ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻷ ﻡﺩﺧﺗﺳﺗ
ﻁﻘﻓ ﺓﺩﺣﺍﻭ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﺍ ﺝﺭﺧﺗﻭ . ﻩﺎﻧﺩﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺢﺿﻭﻣ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻣﻛ .
+
+
+

Z(s)=X(s)+W(s)Y(s) Z=X+Y X(s) X
Y(s)
Y
+
W(s)
2  Take off Point : ﻲﻓ ﻩﺭﻭﺭﻣ ﺩﻧﻋ ﺭﻳﻐﺗﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﻳﻗ ﺭﻳﻐﺗﺗﻻ ﺙﻳﺣ ﻥﺎﻛﻣ ﻥﻣ ﺭﺛﻛﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻳﻐﺗﻣﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺧﺗﺳﺎﺑ ﺢﻣﺳﺗ
ﺔﻁﻘﻧﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ) ﻉﺭﻔﺗﻟﺍ ﺔﻁﻘﻧ (
X X
X
3  Function Box : ﺓﺭﺎﺷﻷﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﺻﺣﻧ ﺙﻳﺣ ﺓﺭﻁﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﺧﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ءﺎﻧﺑ ﺩﻧﻋ ﺏﺭﺿﻟﺍ ﺯﻣﺭ
ﺔﺟﺭﺎﺧﻟﺍ (Y) ﺔﻠﺧﺍﺩﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﻷﺍ ﺏﺭﺿ ﻕﻳﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ (X) ﻕﻭﺩﻧﺻﻟﺍ ﻲﻗ ﺓﺩﻭﺟﻭﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺍﺩﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ (G(s)) .
G(s)
X Y=G(s)*X
Basic Operations in Block Diagram Algebra
1 Blocks in Series: TF connected in series are combined by multiplication.
2 Blocks in Parallel: TF connected in Parallel are combined by addition.
G H G*H =
= G+H
G
H
+
+
3 Closed Loop Function Formula:
G
H
+
±
x1
e
x2
x3
e=x1 ± x3
G=x2/e , H=x3/x2
x2=G*e=G*(x1 ± x3)=G*(x1 ± x2*H)
x2=G*x1 ± G*H*x2 ÷x1
x2/x1 = G ± G*(x2/x1)*H
(x2/x1) ± (x2/x1)*G*H=G ⇒ (x2/x1)*(1 ± GH)=G
GH
G
x
x
1 1
2
= ∴
=
GH
G
1
x2 x1
Equivalent Transfer Function
Definitions:
G(s): Forward Path Transfer Function.
H(s): Feedback Path Transfer Function.
G(s)H(s): OpenLoop Transfer Function or “loop gain”.
Summary of Block Diagram Reduction Rules:
Transformation Block Diagram Equivalent Block Diagram
Transformation Block Diagram Equivalent Block Diagram
Procedure to Solve Block Diagram reduction Problems:
Step 1 : Reduce the blocks connected in series.
Step 2 : Reduce the blocks connected in parallel.
Step 3 : Reduce the minor internal feedback loops.
Step 4 : As far as poosible try to shift take off points towards right and summing
points to the left.
Step 5 : Repeat steps 1 to 4 till simple form is obtained.
Step 6 : Using standard Transfer Function of simple closed loop system, obtain the
closed loop Transfer Function C(s)/R(s) of the overall system.
Example: Block Diagram Reduction:
The Goal is to reduce to a block diagram with fewer blocks.
Step 1
Moving a Takeoff Point beyond a Block
Cascaded Blocks
Eliminating a Feedback Loop
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Final Block Diagram
Eliminating a Feedback Loop
Home Work:
1 Rewrite the following equation using PartialFriction Expansion expanded
form:
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
3 5
) (
+ + +
+
=
s s s
s
s G
Answer:
3
6
2
7
1
1
) (
+
−
+
+
+
−
=
s s s
s G
2 Consider the differential equation, where u(t) is the unitstep function. The
initial conditions are y(0)=1, dy/dt =2 at t=0. solve the differential equation
using Laplace transform, then find the complete solution as y(t).
) ( 5 ) ( 2
) (
3
) (
2
2
t u t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
= + +
Answer:
t t
e e t y
2
2
3
5
2
5
) (
− −
+ − =
) 2 )( 1 (
5
) (
2
+ +
+ − −
=
s s s
s s
s y
The differential Equation of a Linear System is shown
below, find Transfer Function Y(s)/R(s) , assume all initial
conditions are zero.
) ( ) ( 10
) (
6
) (
5
) (
2
2
3
3
t r t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
dt
t y d
= + + +
10 6 5
1
) (
) (
2 3
+ + +
=
s s s s R
s Y
Answer
ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻁ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺎﺑ ﺔﻠﺧﺍﺪﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻣﻮﻈﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ (MASON)
∆
+ ∆ + ∆
=
........
2 2 1 1
T T
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
∆=1(L
1
+L
2
+L
3
+…………) +
(Sum of Product of any two nontouching loops) 
(Sum of Product of any three nontouching loops)+……..
where:
L = Loops.
T
1
,T
2
= Forward Transmission from Input Signal to Output Signal.
∆
1
= ∆+L
1
=value of ∆ after removing the loops that touch (T
1
).
∆
2
= ∆+L
2
=value of ∆ after removing the loops that touch (T
2
).
In block diagram represenattion, we have to apply reduction rules, one after the other to obtain
simple of the system and hence overall transfer function. We have to draw the reduction block
diagram after every step. This is time consuming. In signal flow graph (SFG) approach, once SFG
is obtained, direct use of one formula leads to the overall system transfer function C(s)/R(s). This
formula is stated by S.J.Mason (1953) and hence referred as Mason‘s Gain formula.
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
Example: Find the Response of the following control system at: D
2
=1, A=1,
K
1
=1, K
2
=2, K
H
=0.5, B=5, D
1
=1/6.
when:
1 v is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0)
2 u is step function with constant value. (i.e. v=0)
A
s D
K
1
1
1+ s D
K
2
2
1+
B
K
H
v
c
u
+

e
G
1
+
+
G
2
H
Input
Signal
Output
Signal
Solution:
1 v is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0).
Using MASON method:
L
1
= G
1
G
2
H
T
1
=G
1
G
2
A
∆=1L
1
=1(G
1
G
2
H)=1+G
1
G
2
H
∆
1
=∆+L
1
=1+G
1
G
2
HG
1
G
2
H=1
t t
e e t c
s s s s
C
s
C
s
C
s c
s Roots
s s s
s c
s
on StepFuncti v when
s s s s H G G
A G G T
v
c
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
4 3
3 2 1
2
2 1
2 1 1 1
3 4 1 ) (
) 4 (
3
) 3 (
4 1
) 4 ( ) 3 (
) (
4 , 3 , 0 :
) 4 )( 3 (
12
) (
1
:
) 4 )( 3 (
12
12 7
12
1
) )( 1 (
− −
+ − = ∴
+
+
+
− =
+
+
+
+ =
− − = ∴
+ +
= ∴
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
∆
∆
= =
v
A
G
1
G
2
c
L
1
T
1
B
u=0
H
e
2 when (u) is step function with constant value. (i.e. v=0).
Using MASON method:
L
1
= G
1
G
2
H
T
1
=BG
2
∆=1L
1
=1(G
1
G
2
H)=1+G
1
G
2
H
∆
1
=∆+L
1
=1+G
1
G
2
HG
1
G
2
H=1
t t
e e t c
s s s s
C
s
C
s
C
s c
s Roots
s s s
s
s c
s
on StepFuncti u when
s s
s
H G G
BG T
u
c
l InputSigna
al OutputSign
4 3
3 2 1
2 1
2 1 1
5 10 5 ) (
) 4 (
5
) 3 (
10 5
) 4 ( ) 3 (
) (
4 , 3 , 0 :
) 4 )( 3 (
) 6 ( 10
) (
1
:
) 4 )( 3 (
) 6 ( 10
1
) 1 )( (
− −
− + − = ∴
+
−
+
+
−
=
+
+
+
+ =
− − = ∴
+ +
+ −
= ∴
= =
+ +
+ −
=
+
=
∆
∆
= =
v=0
A
G
1
G
2
c
L
1
T
1
B
u
H
e
Example: Convert the block diagram representation of a system as shown below into a signal flow graph.
Hence find the transfer function C(s)/R(s) of the closed loop system from the signal flow graph.
Example: Find the overall Transfer Function by using Mason‘s gain formula for the single flow graph in the
figure below.
Home Work: Find the Response for the speed control system at: D=0.25,
K
1
=1, K
2
=0.75, u=Load Torque, n
o
=Output Speed, n
i
=Input Speed, and all
initial conditions are zero.
when:
1 n
i
is step function with constant value. (i.e. u=0)
2 u is step function with constant value. (i.e. n
i
=0)
s
K
1
Ds
K
+ 1
2
n
i
n
o
u
+

e
G
1
+

G
2
Input
Speed
Output
Speed
1. n
o
(t)=1+0.5e
3t
1.5e
t
Answer:
2. n
o
(t)=1.5e
t
+1.5e
3t
Mason's Rule MATLAB function
Description
Mason.m uses mason's rule to simplify signal flow graphs. It takes a file describing the network and
produces a symbolic equation relating a dependent output node to an independent input node.
The routine requires the user to create a ".txt" file describing a network's signal paths.
s11
s21
s22
s12
R2
This program generates these equations for a given network and pair of nodes.
Using the Program
It is important that the lines in the net file be ordered so that the coefficient numbers count from 1 up. Don't use 0 to number
the coefficients or nodes! Once you have made the net file, run 'mason.m' from Matlab, as described below:
USAGE:
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason(Netfile,StartNode,StopNode)
Netfile  is a string with the name of the netfile to load
StartNode  is the integer number describing the independent input node
StopNode  is the integer number describing the dependent output node
Numerator  is a string containing the equation for the Numerator
Denominator  is a string containing the equation for the Denominator
Try out the example network! To recreate the above examples use:
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason('example.net',1,3)
[Numerator,Denominator] = mason('example.net',1,2)
Presentation by students
Each student prepares a presentation on one of the following topics.
No. of Slides: Less than 10 (using Microsoft PowerPoint), Duration: 2 weeks.
[Draw the block diagram (The Control System) of the following systems showing the input variables,
the output variables, and inside the block (gain)]
1 Potentiometer 11 Automatic
Elevator
21 Suspension
system in the car
31 SelfGuided
Vehicle
41 Active Vibration
Absorber
2 Winders 12 Toaster 22 Actuator 32 Thermostat 42 Tachometer
3 Nuclear reactor 13 DVD Player 23 Hydraulic pump 33 Floppy Disk Drive 43 Antenna Azimuth
4 Control the fluid
level in a home
tank
14 Remote
controlled robot
arm
24 Automobile
Guidance
System
34 Electric
Ventricular Assist
Device (EVAD)
44 Position control
system in NC
machine
5 Dynamometer 15 Steam Boiler 25 Furnace 35 Wind turbines 45 Voltage stabilizer
6 Grinder system 16 Automatic ship
steering system
26 Walking Robots
(Hannibal)
36 Arc Welding
Robot
46 High speed rail
pantograph
7 High speed
proprtional
solenoid valve
17 Navigation
system of
missiles
27 Magnetic
Levitation
Transportation
System
37 Heat Exchanger
Process
47 Sunseeker solar
system
8 The pupil of
human eye
18 Guidance
system of
Space shuttle
28 Cutting forces
during machining
operation
38 Coordinate
Measuring
Machine (CMM)
48 Automatic controlled
Load tester
9 A Segway
Human
Transporter
19 Steel Plate
Finishing mill
29 Dynamic Voltage
Restorer (DVR)
39 ChargeCoupled
Device (CCD)
49 CameraMan
(Automatic
Presenter Camera
system)
10 Automatic Door
operating
system
20 Continuous
Casting
machine
30 3D Full body
Scanning
40 Antilock braking
(ABS)
50 conveyor system
Determine the Transfer Function C(s)/R(s) of the
system shown in the Fig. below.
Modeling of Physical Systems:
Modeling of Mechanical Systems Elements:
The motion of mechanical elements can be described as translational, rotational, or
combination of both.
Translational Motion:
The motion takes place along a straight or curved path. The variables that are used
to describe this motion are acceleration, velocity, displacement.
Newton’s Law of Motion states: Σ forces = Ma
where: M: mass (kg), a: acceleration (m/sec
2
), force: Newton (N)
1. Mass: it is a property of an element that stores the kinetic energy of translation
motion. It is analogous to the inductance of electric networks.
M= W/g
where: W: weight of a body,
g: acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
For Forcemass system, the force equation is:
where: v(t) : linear velocity (m/s).
dt
t dv
M
dt
t y d
M t Ma t f
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
= = =
M
y(t)
f(t)
Displacement
Force
) ( ) (
2
s y Ms s f = Taking laplace and neglecting initial conditions:
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
2 Linear Spring: it is an element that stores potential energy. It is analogous to a
capacitor in electric networks.
f(t) = K y(t)
where: K: spring constant (stiffness) (N/m)
y(t)
f(t)
K
ForceSpring System
If the spring is preloaded with a preload tension of T, then:
f(t) – T = K y(t)
K
M
2
M
1
f(t)
y
2
(t
)
y
1
(t
)
Consider the spring connected between the two moving
elements having masses M
1
and M
2
where force is
applied to mass M
1
.
Now mass M
1
will get displaced by y
1
(t) but mass M
2
will
get displaced by y
2
(t) as spring of constant (K) will store
some potential energy and will be the cause for change in
dispalcement. Consider free body diagram of spring as
shown in figure beside. Net dispacement in the spring is
y
1
(t)y
2
(t) and opposing force by the spring is proportional
to the net displacement i.e. y
1
(t)y
2
(t)
K
y
2
(t
)
y
1
(t
)
(y
1
y
2
)
F
spring
= K [ y
1
(t) – y
2
(t) ] F
spring
= K [ y
1
(s) – y
2
(s) ]
Taking Laplace
dt
t dy
B t f
) (
) ( =
y(t)
f(t)
B
dy/dt
f
B=slope
3 Friction for Translation Motion: three different types of friction are used in practical
systems, viscous friction, static friction, Coulomb friction.
A Viscous Friction (Dashpot/Damper): retarding force that is a linear relationship
between the applied force and velocity. B: viscous frictional coefficient (N/m/sec)
Frictional Force
Taking laplace and neglecting initial conditions, F
frictional
(s)= B s y(s)
y
1 B
y
2
M
2
M
1
Friction between two moving surfaces causes change in displacement.
In such case, opposing force is given by,
− =
dt
t dy
dt
t dy
B t F
frictional
) ( ) (
) (
2 1 Taking Laplace, [ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
s y s y Bs s F
frictional
− =
Rotational Motion:
Motion of a body about a fixed axis. The force gets replaced by a moment about fixed axis (force *
distance from fixed axis) which is called Torque. Using Newton’s Law of Motion:
Σ Torques = J α
where: J: inertia (kg . m
2
) , α: angular acceleration.
1.Inertia (J): property of an element that stores the kinetic energy of rotational motion.
(J) depends on the geometric composition about the axis of rotation and its density.
Example:
Inertia of a circular disk or shaft about its axis = J = (M r
2
)/2
For Torqueinertia system:
2
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
dt
t d
J
dt
t d
J t J t T
θ ω
α = = =
T(t) Ө(t)
J
Torqueinertia system
where: T: torque (N.m)
Ө(t) : angular displacement (radian).
ω(t) : angular velocity (rad/sec).
α(t) : angular acceleration.
M: mass (kg)
1 rad = 180/π = 57.3 deg
1 rpm = 2 π/60 = 0.1047 rad/sec = 6 deg/sec
) ( ) (
2
s Js s T θ =
Taking Laplace,
2 Torsional Spring:
For Torque torsional spring system: T(t) = K Ө(t)
where: K: torsional spring constant (N.m/rad)
T(t)
Ө(t)
K
If the torsional spring is preloaded by a preload torque of TP , the equation:
T(s) – TP = K Ө(s)
3 Friction for Rotational Motion:
The three types of friction (viscous, static, coulomb) carried over to the motion of
rotation.
For Viscous friction:
dt
t d
B t T
) (
) (
θ
=
) ( ) ( s K s T θ =
Taking Laplace,
Taking Laplace:
) ( ) ( s Bs s T θ =
B
T(t)
Ө(t)
Example 1: Find y1/y2 for the mechanical system shown.
Solution:
F
spring
= K (y1y2)
F
Damper
= B D y2
F
spring
= F
Damper
K (y1y2) = B D y2
Ky1 = Ky2 + B D y2
K
BD K
y
y +
=
2
1
K
B
y1
y2
Example 2: Find the Transfer Function for the mechanical system shown.
K
B
y
B
F
M
Solution:
K Bs Ms s F
s X
s G
yields functions transfer the for Solving
s F s Y K Bs Ms or
s F s KY s BsY s Y Ms
Conditions Initial Zero Assume Transform Laplace Taking
t Ky
dt
t dy
B
dt
t y d
M t F
NewtonLaw F F F F
Spring Damper Mass
+ +
= =
= + +
= + +
+ + =
+ + =
2
2
2
2
1
) (
) (
) (
:
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
F
Spring
Damper
Example 3: Find for the mechanical system shown.
Solution:
K
B
y1
y2
) (
) ( 1
) (
) ( 2
S F
S Y
and
S F
S Y
F
M
) ( ) (
) ( 1
) ( ) (
) ( 1
)
) (
1 ( 1
) (
1
) ( 1
2 1
. 1 3 .
) (
1
) (
) ( 2
) 3 ..( .......... .......... .......... ..........
) (
1
) (
) ( 2
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
. 1 2 .
) . 1 .........( .......... .......... .......... 2 1 : ) 1 (
) 2 .....( .......... .......... ..........
) ( 2
1
2 2 2 1
) 1 ....( .......... .......... 2 2 ) 2 1 (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
BS MS K
K BS MS
S F
S Y
BD MD K
K BD MD
t F
t y
BD MD
K
F Ky
BD MD
KF
F Ky
BD MD
F
K Ky F
Ky Ky F
a in Sub
BS MS S F
S Y
BD MD t F
t y
BD MD y F
Ky
K
K BD MD y
K F
a in Sub
a Ky Ky F From
K
K BD MD y
y
y MD BDy Ky Ky
BDy y MD y y K F
F F F F
D M s
+
+ +
=
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
+
+ =
+
− =
− =
+
= ∴
+
= ∴
+ =
−
+ +
=
− =
+ +
= ∴
+ + =
+ = − =
= + =
Mass
Damper
Spring
MassDampeningStiffness
Test m File:
The Results:
Mass Matrix
Dampening Matrix
Stiffness Matrix
Conversion between Translation and Rotational Motions:
W
X(t)
Rack Pinion
T(t)
Drive
Motor
r
θ(t)
Rack and Pinion
W
T(t)
Drive
Motor
r r
Pulley
Belt
X(t)
θ(t)
Belt and Pulley
Rotary – to – Linear motion control system:
r= radius of pulley (Belt and Pulley)
r= radius of pinion (Rack and Pinion)
M= mass (kg)
W= weight of the body (N).
g= acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
2 2
r
g
W
Mr ia MotorInert J = = =
Lecture [6]
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
W Motor
T(t), θ(t)
X(t)
Lead Screw
Rotary – to – Linear motion control system (Lead screw):
L: screw lead, distance that the mass travels per revolution of the screw (mm).
W: weight of the body (N).
g: acceleration of the body due to gravity (g=9.8066 m/sec
2
)
L
2
2

.

\

= =
π
L
g
W
Inertia J
Electrical Control Components Representation:
+ 
V
R
R
+ 
V
L
L
+ 
V
C
C
1/R 1/LD CD
V
R
I V
L
I V
C
I
I
V
R
R
=
dt dI
V
L
L
/
=
dt dV
I
C
c
/
=
ﺔﻣﻭﺎﻘﻣﻟﺍ ) ﻡﻭﺍ ( ﺔﺛﺎﺣﻣﻟﺍ ) ﻱﺭﻧﻫ ( ﺔﻌﺳﻟﺍ ) ﺩﺍﺭﺎﻓ (
Let: D= d /dt
Example: Find the transfer function for the following circuit.
+
V
R
R
V
L
L C

V
C
I
V
Similar to the mechanical systems, very commonly used systems are of electrical type.
The behavior of such systems is governed by Ohm’s Law. The dominate elements of an
electrical system are, Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.

.

\

+ + = ∴
= =
=
=
=
=
= =
+ + = ∴
+ + = + + =
+ + =
C
RD LD Q V
C
Q
CD
DQ
CD
I
RDQ RI
Q LD LDI
eq in DQ I sub by
dt
d
D
DQ
dt
dQ
I
CD
R LD I V
CD
I
RI LDI
CD
I
RI
dt
dI
L V
V V V V
C R L
1
) 1 ( .... ...... ... ...
) 1 ...( ).........
1
(
2
2
C
RD LD
1
1
2
+ +
V Q
Transfer function of the RC network
) / 1 /(
1
) 1 ) ( (
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( )
) (
1
( ) (
1
2
2
1
T s T s RC s v
s v
s G
s C
s i
s v
s i
s C
R s v
+
=
+
= =
=
+ =
Analogous Systems:
In between electrical & mechanical systems there exists a fixed analogy and their exists a similarity between their
equilibrium equations. Due to this, it is possible to draw an electrical system which will behave exactly similar to
the given mechanical system, this is called electrical analogous of given mechanical system and vice versa.
Consider simple mechanical system, shown in Fig. Due to the
applied force, mass M will displace by an amount x(t) in the
direction of force f(t). According to Newton’s law of motion,
applied force will cause displacement x(t) in spring, acceleration
to mass M against frictional force having constant B.
f(t)=Ma+Bv+Kx(t)
Where, a=acceleration, v=velocity
Tabular Form of ForceVoltage Analogy
Translational Rotational Electrical
Force F Torque T Voltage V
Mass M Inertia J Inductance L
Friction constant B Torsional friction
constant B
Resistance R
Spring constant K
(N/m)
Torsional spring
constant K (Nm/rad)
Reciprocal of capacitor
1/C
Displacement x θ Charge q
Velocity x
=dx/dt θ
=dθ/dt = ω Current I=dq/dt
Comparing equations for F(s) and V(s) it is clear that,
Inductance L is analogous to mass M.
Resistance R is analogous to friction B.
Reciprocal of capacitor i.e. 1/C is analogous to spring of constant K.
Thermal Control Component
Representation:
R
T
, T
Q
T
1
Q: Heat flow rate.
h: Heat transfer factor.
A: Surface area of body.
T: Body Temperature.
T
1
: Outer Temperature.
R
T
: Thermal Resistance.
C: Specific heat of body.
M: Mass of body.
C
T
: Thermal Capacitor
Body
 
{ }
  DT C Q
MC C also
MCDT Q
dt
d
D let
dt
dT
MC Q also
R
T T
Q
hA
R
T T hA Q
T
T
T
T
= ∴
=
= ∴

.

\

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(
¸
−
= ∴
=
− =
:
:
:
) (
1
) (
1
1
Electrical CDE I
R
E
I also
Thermal DT C Q
R
T T
Q
T
T
= =
=
−
= ∴
,
,
) (
1
For Electrical Circuit:
(
¸
(
¸
+
= ⇒
=
−
=
= =
RCD
E
E
CDE
R
E E
I
CDE
R
E
I
1
1
1
For Thermal Circuit:
(
¸
(
¸
+
= ⇒
=
−
=
D C R
T
T
DT C
R
T T
Q
T T
T
T
1
) (
1
1
This is known as direct analog between thermal and electrical circuits.
i.e. T α E , C α C
T
, R
T
α R , Q α I
Models of Thermal Systems
1. Heat Transfer System
Fig. shown a Thermal System
Electric heating element is provided in the tank to heat the water. The tank is insulated to reduce
heat to the surroundings.
The necessary simplifying assumptions are:
1. There is no heat storage in the insulations.
2. All the water in the tank is perfectly mixed and hence at a uniform temperature.
θ
I
= Inlet water temperature in °C
θ
o
= Outlet water temperature in °C.
θ = surrounding temperature.
q = Rate of heat flow from heating element in J/sec
q
i
= Rate of heat flow to the water.
q
t
= Rate of heat flow through tank insulation.
Transfer function is:
θ
o
(s)/Q(s)=R/(1+sCR)
The time constant of the system is RC
2. Thermometer:
Consider a thermometer placed in a water bath having temperature θ
i,
as shown.
θ
o
is the temperature indicated by the thermometer. The rate of heat flow into the thermometer
through its wall is,
dq/dt = (θ
i,
 θ
o
)/R
Where: R = Thermal resistance of the thermometer wall
The indicated temperature, rises at rate of
ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺟﻣ ﻝﻳﻠﺣﺗ : State – Space Analysis
ﺔﻳﻁﺧﻟﺍ ﺭﻳﻏﻭ ﺓﺩﻘﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﻁﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻡﻅﻧ ﻝﻳﻠﺣﺗ ﻡﺋﻼﻳ ﺙﻳﺣﺑ ﺓﺭﻁﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻡﻅﻧ ﺭﻳﺳﻔﺗﻟ ﻡﺎﻋ ﺏﻭﻠﺳﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻳﺭﻁﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻧﺩﻭﺯﺗ . ﺍﺫﻫ
ﻡﺍﺩﺧﺗﺳﺍ ﻥﻣ ﻻﺩﺑ ﺔﻳﻛﺭﺣﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﻅﻧﻷﺍ ﻡﻅﻌﻣ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻣﺍﺩﺧﺗﺳﺍ ﻥﻛﻣﻳ ﺏﻭﻠﺳﻷﺍ (Transfer Function) ﻥﻭﻛﻳ ﺙﻳﺣ
ﺔﻓﻭﻔﺻﻣ ﺔﻐﻳﺻﺑ ﻥﻭﻛﺗ ﻲﺗﻟﺍﻭ ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﺟﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﻥﻣ ﺔﻳﻠﺿﺎﻔﺗﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﻥﻣ ﺔﻠﺳﻠﺳ ﺔﻟﻻﺩﺑ . ءﺎﻧﺑ ﻝﻬﺳﺗ ﺔﻐﻳﺻﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ
ﺓﺩﻘﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﻅﻧﻷﺍ ﻡﻳﻣﺻﺗﻭ ﻝﻳﻠﺣﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﺭﺗﻭﻳﺑﻣﻭﻛ ﺞﻣﺍﺭﺑ .
ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻟﺍ ﻝﻳﺛﻣﺗ : ﻲﻫ ﺓﺭﻁﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻟ ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺟﻣ ﻝﻳﺛﻣﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﻭﺻﺣﻠﻟ ﺔﻌﺋﺎﺷﻟﺍ ﻕﺭﻁﻟﺍ : ﺓﺭﺷﺎﺑﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﻣﺭﺑﻟﺍ – ﺔﺟﻣﺭﺑﻟﺍ
ﺔﻳﺯﺍﻭﺗﻣﻟﺍ – ﺔﻳﻟﺍﻭﺗﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﻣﺭﺑﻟﺍ – ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﻣﺭﺑﻟﺍﻭ . ﺩﺍﺭﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﺔﻌﻳﺑﻁ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻣﺗﻌﻳ ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺟﻣ ﻝﻳﺛﻣﺗ ﺭﺎﻳﺗﺧﺍﻭ
ﺎﻬﻠﺣ .
Direct Programming:
Example: Write the state model for the system described by transfer function.
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
3
) ( t f
D D
D
t c
+ +
+
=
ﻝﺣﻟﺍ : 1  ﺔﻳﻠﺿﺎﻔﺗﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣﻠﻟ ﻁﺳﺑﻟﺍﻭ ﻡﺎﻘﻣﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺣﻧ ) D ﺔﻘﺗﺷﻣ ﻲﻧﻌﺗ ( ﺔﻳﻟﺎﺗﻟﺍ ﻎﻳﺻﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺍ :
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
1
) 3 ( ) (
1
1
t f
D D
x
x D t c
+ +
=
+ =
Statespace models are models that use state variables to describe a system by a set of firstorder differential
or difference equations, rather than by one or more nthorder differential or difference equations. State
variables x(t) can be reconstructed from the measured inputoutput data, but are not themselves measured
during an experiment.
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
) 3 .....( ..........
) 2 .......( )......... ( 3 2
) ( 2 3
:
) ( 2 3
) (
2 3
1
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
1
) 1 ......( .......... 3 ) (
:
3 ) (
2 1
2 1 2
1 2 2
2 1
1 1 1
2
1
1 2
2 1
1 1
x x
t f x x x
t f x x x
x x let
t f x x x
t f
D D
t f
D D
x
x x t c
x x let
x x t c
=
+ − − =
= + + ∴
=
= + + ∴
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ =
=
+ = ∴
2  ﻑﺭﻌﻳ ﺯﻣﺭﺑ ﺔﻘﺗﺷﻣ ﻝﻛﻟ ﺯﻣﺭﻧ ) ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﺯﻣﺭﺑ .( ﺕﻻﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﺭﺩ ﻱﻭﺎﺳﻳ ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻳﻐﺗﻣ ﺩﺩﻋ ﻥﺍ ﺔﻅﺣﻼﻣ ﻊﻣ
ﻪﻠﻳﻠﺣﺗ ﺏﻭﻠﻁﻣﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻠﻟ ﺔﻳﻠﺿﺎﻔﺗﻟﺍ .
3  ﺕﻻﺩﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﺎﺗﻛ ﺩﻳﻌﻧ 1،2،3 ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻳﻐﺗﻣﻟ ﺕﻼﻣﺎﻌﻣﻟﺍ ﺏﻳﺗﺭﺗ ﻊﻣ ﺕﺎﻓﻭﻔﺻﻣﻟﺍ ﺔﻐﻳﺻﺑ (state variables)
(x
1
,x
2
,x
3
,……) ﺝﺍﺭﺧﻷﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣﻭ ﺔﻟﺎﺣﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﻭﺻﺣﻠﻟ .
) (
1
0
3 2
1 0
2
1
2
1
t f
x
x
x
x
+
− −
=
System Matrix State
Vector
Control
Vector
x
1
x
2
State Equation
[ ]
=
2
1
1 3
x
x
c
Output Equation
Example: Write the state model for the system described by transfer function.
) (
3 9 6
5
) (
2 3
s f
s s s
s c
+ + +
=
} 3 )..{ ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 5 3 9 6
} 2 ......{ .......... .......... ..........
} 1 ....{ .......... .......... .......... ..........
: Assume
) ( 5 3 9 6
) (
3 9 6
5
) (
: Let
: Solution
3 2 1 3 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3 2 1
2 1
1 1 1 1
2 3
1
1
s f x x x x x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
x x x
x x
s f x x x x
s f
s s s
x
x s c
+ − − − = =
+ − − − =
+ − − − =
= =
=
= + + +
+ + +
=
=
[ ] [ ]
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3 2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 ) (
: Equation Output
) (
5
0
0
6 9 3
1 0 0
0 1 0
,
: Equation State
: form Matrix to equations above all Transform
) ( 5 6 9 3
) ( 0 1 0 0
) ( 0 0 1 0
: produce } 3 , 2 , 1 { Equations of ent Rearrangem
x
x
x
x
x s c
s f
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
s f x x x x
=
= =
+
− − −
=
=
=
+ − − − =
+ + + =
+ + + =
System Matrix Control
Vector
State
Vector
tf2ss:
Convert transfer function filter parameters to statespace form.
Syntax:
[A,B,C,D] = tf2ss(b,a)
Description:
tf2ss converts the parameters of a transfer function representation of a given system to those of an
equivalent statespace representation.
[A,B,C,D] = tf2ss(b,a) returns the A, B, C, and D matrices of a state space representation for the singleinput
transfer function
The input vector a contains the denominator coefficients in descending powers of s. The rows of the matrix b
contain the vectors of numerator coefficients (each row corresponds to an output).
) (
2 3
3
) (
2
t f
D D
D
t c
+ +
+
=
Example: Consider the following system
Using Matlab, convert this system to statespace, type,
Example:
Stability of Linear Control Systems: Routh’s Criterion:
For Design purposes, there will be unknown or variable parameters imbedded in the
characteristic equation, so it will not be feasible to use the root finding programs. The
Routh method is use for determining the stability of linear continuous data systems
without involving root solving. The Routh criterion is best limited to equations with at
least one unknown parameter. It gives the necessary and sufficient condition for all
roots of the characteristic equation of a linear timevariant SISO system to lie in the
left of the splane.
0 ........ ) (
0 1
1
1
= + + + + =
−
−
a s a s a s a s F
n
n
n
n
This method determine the location of zeros (roots) of a
polynomial with constant real coefficients. The form of linear
time SISO system is:
Unstable
Region
Unstable
Region
Stable
Region
Stable
Region
jw
σ
0
Splane
Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed
Step2 Routh’s Array.
Step3 Investigate the signs of the coefficients in the first column of the tabulation, which
contains information on the roots of the equation. The number of changes of the signs in the
elements of the first column equal to the number of roots.
0 ........ ) (
0 1
5
5
6
6
= + + + + = a s a s a s a s F
order equation.  the sixth Example:
......
......
7 5 3 1
6 4 2
− − − −
− − −
n n n n
n n n n
a a a a
a a a a
Step1 Arrange the coefficients of the above equation into two rows:
EXAMPLE 1: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system, check the stability of
the equation using Routh stability test.
[2s
4
+s
3
+3s
2
+5s+10=0]
Solution:
s
4
2 3 10
s
3
1 5 0
s
2
[(1)(3)(2)(5)]/1 = 7 10 0
s
1
[(7)(5)(1)(10)]/7=6.4 0 0
s
0
10 0 0
System is unstable because of changes (two changes) in first column sign.
Sign change
Sign change
Example 2:
Homework 1: Considering the characteristic equation of a closed loop control system.
s
3
+3Ks
2
+(K+2)s+4=0
Find the range of K so that the system is stable.
Answer:
Homework
Homework 2: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system, check the stability
of the equation using Routh stability test.
[s
4
+s
3
+2s
2
+2s+3=0]
s4 1 2 3
s3 1 2 0
s2 0.001 3 0
s1 2998 0
s0 3
Answer:
System is unstable because of changes (two changes) in first column sign.
RouthHurwitz stability criterion Calculation using Matlab
Example:
The Nyquist Stability Criterion ﺕﺳﻭﻛﻳﺎﻧﻟ ﺭﺍﺭﻘﺗﺳﻷﺍ ﺓﺩﻋﺎﻗ
ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻠﻟ ﻲﻛﺭﺣﻟﺍ ﻙﻭﻠﺳﻟﺍﻭ ﻲﺑﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﻲﻁﻳﻁﺧﺗﻟﺍ ﻡﺳﺭﻟﺍ ﻝﻛﺷ ﻥﻳﺑ ﻁﺑﺭﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻥﻣ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺭﺍﺭﻘﺗﺳﺃ ﺱﺎﻳﻘﻟ ﺔﻘﻳﺭﻁ ﻲﻫ .
ﻲﺑﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﻡﺳﺭﻟﺍ (Polar Plot) : ﺔﻣﻳﻘﻟﺍ ﻕﻠﻁﻣ ﻥﻳﺑ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﻡﺳﺭ ﻭﻫ Amplitude ﺭﻭﻁﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﻭﺍﺯﻭ (Phase Angle) .
ﺭﺍﺭﻘﺗﺳﻷﺍ ﺓﺩﻋﺎﻗ ﺕﺍﻭﻁﺧ :
1  ﻥﻣ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻟﺍ ﺔﻐﻳﺻ ﻝﻳﻭﺣﺗ (Laplace Transform) ﺔﻳﺭﺑﺟﻟﺍ ﺔﻐﻳﺻﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺍ (Sinsoidal Form) ﻥﺄﺑ ﻙﻟﺫﻭ
ﺽﺭﻔﻧ (s=wj) (w:rad/sec) ﺔﻳﺑﻳﺟ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﺃ ﻲﻫ ﻝﺎﺧﺩﻷﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﺃ ﻥﺍ ﺽﺭﻔﻧ ﻱﺍ (Sinsoidal Input Signal)

.

\

−

.

\

= = ∠
+
+
= =
∠ = =
− −
∑ ∑
Re
Im
tan
Re
Im
tan Angle Phase ) (
Re Im
Re Im
Amplitude ) (
:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
: Function Transfer Sinsoidal
1 1
2 2
2 2
ο
ο
wj G
wj G
where
wj G wj G wj G s G
ﻁﺳﺑﻟﺍ ﺎﻳﺍﻭﺯ ﻉﻭﻣﺟﻣ ﻡﺎﻘﻣﻟﺍ ﺎﻳﺍﻭﺯ ﻉﻭﻣﺟﻣ
ﻁﺳﺑﻠﻟ
ﻡﺎﻘﻣﻠﻟ
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq
Lec.9
2  ﻲﺑﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﻁﻁﺧﻣﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻁﺎﻘﻧﻟﺍ ﻡﺳﺭ (Polar Plot) :
Re(w)
Im(j)
3  ﺔﻳﺭﺍﺭﻘﺗﺳﻷﺍ ﻁﻭﺭﺷ ﻕﻳﻘﺣﺗ ) ﺍﺭﻘﺗﺳﻣ ﻡﺎﻅﻧﻟﺍ ﻥﻭﻛﻳﻟ ﺎﻌﻣ ﻥﻳﻁﺭﺷﻟﺍ ﻕﻘﺣﺗ ﺏﺟﻳ :(
1 Phase Margin = 180
°
Phase Angle = β
if β=+ , Phase Angle < 180° → Stable System
if β= , Phase Angle > 180° → Unstable System
2 Gain Margin = L = 1Amplitude
if L<1 → Stable System
if L>1 → Unstable System
Re(w)
Im(j)
Unit Circle
Nyquist Path
Polar Plot
[Stable System]
Phase
Angle
β
1
L
Amplitude
Example 1: Draw the Nyquist plot for the following system:
1 2
1
) (
+
=
s
s G
) 2 ( tan
1
2
tan
1
0
tan
Re
Im
tan
Re
Im
tan Angle Phase ) (
1 4
1
1 ) 2 (
1 0
Re Im
Re Im
) (
) ( ) (
1 2jw
1
G(jw) jw s
:
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
w
w
jw G
w w
Amplitude jw G
jw G jw G let
Solution
− − − − − °
°
− =

.

\

−

.

\

=

.

\

−

.

\

= = ∠
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
= =
∠ =
+
= ⇒ =
w (rad/sec) Amplitude Phase Angle
0 1 0
1 0.447 63.4
2 0.242 75.9
3 0.164 80.5
4 0.124 82.8
1 1 Re
Im
w
w=0
w=1
w=2
Polar Plot
(Stable System)
Example 2: Draw the Nyquist Diagram and check if the system is stable for
(w = 0,1,2,3,4,10):
) 1 1 . 0 )( 1 1 . 0 )( 1 (
5
) (
+ + +
=
s s s
s G
) 1 . 0 ( tan ) 1 . 0 ( tan ) ( tan
1
1 . 0
tan
1
1 . 0
tan
1
tan
5
0
tan ) ( Angle Phase
1 ) 1 . 0 ( 1 ) 1 . 0 ( 1
5 0
) (
) 1 1 . 0 )( 1 1 . 0 )( 1 (
5
) ( ) (
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
w w w
w w w
jw G
w w w
jw G Amplitude
jw jw jw
jw G s G
− − −
− − − − °
− − − =
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

−

.

\

= ∠ =
+ + +
+
= =
+ + +
= =
w
(rad/sec)
Amplitude Phase Angle
0 5 0
1 3.501 56.421
2 2.15 86.055
3 1.451 104.964
4 1.04 119.567
10 0.249 174.289
∞ 0 270
5
1
w=2
w=1
w=0
w=∞
Amplitude=0.206
w=10.95
Phase Angle=180°
L
Phase Angle
Polar Plot
[Stable System]
β
Unit Circle
w
Im
Re
Homework:
Draw the Nyquist Diagram for the following control systems and check the stability.
) 1 05 . 0 )( 1 2 . 0 (
10
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
5
) (
+ +
=
+ +
=
s s s
s G
s s s
s F
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq
dr.laith@uotechnology.edu.iq