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Solving Nonlinear Time Delay Control Systems by Fourier series
Mohammad Hadi Farahi
1
and Mahmood Dadkhah
2
1
Department of Applied Mathematics, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2
Department of Mathematics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran,
Abstract: In this paper we present a method to find the solution of timedelay optimal control systems using
Fourier series. The method is based upon expanding various time functions in the system as their truncated
Fourier series. Operational matrices of integration and delay are presented and are utilized to reduce the
solution of timedelay control systems to the solution of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are included
to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.
Keywords: Fourier series, Time delay system, Operational matrix, Nonlinear systems.
I. Introduction
The control of systems with time delay has been of considerable concern. Delays occur frequently in
biological, chemical, transportation, electronic, communication, manufacturing and power systems [5]. Time
delay and multidelay control systems are therefore very important classes of systems whose control and
optimization have been of interest to many investigators [26]. Orthogonal functions (OFs) and polynomial series
have received considerable attentions in dealing with various problems of dynamic systems. Much progress has
been made towards the solution of delay systems. The approach is that of converting the delaydifferential
equation govering the dynamical systems to an algebraic form through the use of an operational matrix of
integration . The matrix can be uniquely determined based on the particular OFs. Special attentions has been
given to applications of Walsh functions [3], blockpulse functions[12], Laguerre polynomials [6], Legendre
polynomials [7], Chebyshev polynomials[4] and Fourier series [9]. The available sets of OFs can be divided into
three classes. The first includes a set of piecewise constant basis functions (PCBFs) (e.g. Walsh, blockpulse,
etc.). The second consists of a set of orthogonal polynomials (OPs) (e.g. Laguerre, Legendre, Chebyshev, etc).
The third is the widely used set of sinecosine functions (SCFs) in the form of Fourier series. In this paper we use
Fourier series method to solve time delay control systems. The method consists of reducing the delay problem to
a set of algebraic equations by first expanding the candidate function as a Fourier series with unknown
coefficients. These Fourier series are first introduced. The operational matrices of integration, delay and product
are given. These matrices are then used to evaluate the coefficients of the Fourier series for the solution of time
delay control systems.
II. Fourier series and their properties:
2.1. Expansion by Fourier series:
A function ) (t f belongs to the apace ] [0,
2
L L may be expanded by Fourier series as follows[11]:
},
2 2
{ = ) (
*
1 =
0
L
t n
sin a
L
t n
cos a a t f
n n
n
t t
+ +
¿
·
(1)
where
, ) (
1
=
0
0
dt t f
L
a
L
}
, 1,2,3, = ,
2
) (
2
=
0
n dt
L
t n
cos t f
L
a
L
n
t
}
. 1,2,3, = ,
2
) (
2
=
0
*
n dt
L
t n
sin t f
L
a
L
n
t
}
By truncating the series (1) up to 1) (2 + r th term we can abtain an approximation for ) (t f as follows:
RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
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ISSN : 22489622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 5), June 2014, pp.217226
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) ( = )} ( ) ( { ) (
* *
1 =
0
t A t a t a a t f
T
n n n n
r
n
   + + ~
¿
(2)
where
, ] , , , , , , , , [ =
* *
2
*
1 2 1 0
T
r r
a a a a a a a A
, )] ( , ), ( ), ( ), ( , ), ( ), ( ), ( [ = ) (
* *
2
*
1 2 1 0
T
r r
t t t t t t t t         (3)
and
, , 0,1,2, = ,
2
= ) ( r n
L
t n
cos t
n
t

. , 1,2, = ,
2
= ) (
*
r n
L
t n
sin t
n
t

It can be easily seen that the elements of ) (t  in interval ) (0, L are orthogonal.
2.2. Operational matrices of integration, product and delay:
The integration of ) (t  in (3) can be approximated by ) (t  as follows:
) ( ) (
0
t P ds s
t
  ~
}
where P is the operational matrix of integration of order 1) (2 1) (2 + × + r r and is given by[8,10]:
.
0 0 0 0
2
1
0 0 0
2
1
0 0 0 0 0 0
4
1
0
4
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
1) 2(
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
2
1
0 0 0 0 0
1
1) (
1
2
1 1
0 0 0 0
2
1
=




















.

\

÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
t t
t t
t t
t
t
t
t t t t
r r
r
r
r r
L P
Furthermore we have:
, = ) ( ) (
2
* *
1
* *
1
*
0
*
* *
1
2
*
1
*
1 1
*
1 0
*
1
* *
1
2
1 0
*
1
*
1 1 1
2
1 0 1
*
0
*
1 0 0 1 0
2
0










.

\

r r r r r r
r r
r r r r r r
r r
r r
T
t t
        
        
        
        
        
 
(4)
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one can esealy show that ) (
~
= ) ( ) ( t A A t t
T
   where A
~
is called the product operational matrix for the so
called vector A in (3) and is given:
.
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
=
~
1) (2 1) (2
0 2 1
*
2
*
1
*
2 4 0 3 1
*
2
*
4
*
1
*
3
*
2
1 3 1 2 0
*
1
*
1
*
3
*
2
*
1
*
2
*
1 0 2 1
*
2
*
4
*
1
*
3 2 4 0 3 1 2
*
1
*
3
*
1
*
2 1 3 1 2 0 1
* *
2
*
1 2 1 0
+ × +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

















.

\

÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ + +
+ + +
r r
r r r r r
r r
r r
r r r r r
r r
r r
r r
a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a
A
By integrating of (4) and considering the orthogonality components of ) (t  we have:
, ) ( ) ( =
0
dt t t E
T
L
 
}
(5)
where
.
1/2
0
1/2
0 1/2
1
=
1) (2 1) (2 + × +






.

\

r r
L E
(6)
Now we are going to derive operational delay matrix. From calculus we know that:
, = ) (  o  o  o sin cos cos sin sin ± ±
, = ) (  o  o  o sin sin cos cos cos ±
so if t is any delay(or lag) for the functions ) (t  and ) (
*
t  then we have:
), ( )
2
( ) ( )
2
( = ) (
*
t
L
t n
sin t
L
t n
cos t
n n n

t

t
t  + ÷
). ( )
2
( ) ( )
2
( = ) (
* *
t
L
t n
sin t
L
t n
cos t
n n n

t

t
t  ÷ ÷
Now it is esealy to show that ), ( = ) ( t D t  t 
t
÷ where
t
D is delay operational matrix and have the
following form:
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.
)
2
( 0 0 )
2
( 0 0 0
0 )
4
( 0 0 )
4
( 0 0
0 0 )
2
( 0 0 )
2
( 0
)
2
( 0 0 )
2
( 0 0 0
0 )
4
( 0 0 )
4
( 0 0
0 0 )
2
( 0 0 )
2
( 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
=


















.

\

÷
÷
÷
L
r
cos
L
r
sin
L
cos
L
sin
L
cos
L
sin
L
r
sin
L
r
cos
L
sin
L
cos
L
sin
L
cos
D
tt tt
tt tt
tt tt
tt tt
tt tt
tt tt
t
III. Problem statement
Consider the following quadratic timeindependent delay control system:
dt t Ru t u t Qx t x t Sx t x J
T T f
t
f f
T
)} ( ) ( ) ( ) ( {
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
= min
0
+ +
}
(7)
, 0 ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ) ( . L t t Du t Cu t Bx t Ax t x t s s s ÷ + + ÷ + t t (8)
, = (0)
0
x x (9)
0, < ), ( = ) ( t t t x s ÷t u (10)
0, < ), ( = ) ( t t t u s ÷t ¢ (11)
(For the time being, assume that the matrices D C B A , , , are constant but the result can be extended to time
varying systems by appropriate changes) where R is symmetric positive definite and S Q, are positive
semidefinite matrices,
l
R t x e ) ( ,
q
R t u e ) ( are state and control vectores respectively and D C B A , , , are
matrices of appropriate dimensions,
0
x is a constant specified vector, and ) ( ), ( t t ¢ u are arbitrary known
functions. The problem is to find ) (t x and ) (t u , L t s s 0 , satisfying (8)(11) while minimizing (7).
Assume that
, ] , , , , , , , , [ = ), ( = ) (
* *
2
*
1 2 1 0
T
r r
T
x x x x x x x X where t X t x 
, ] , , , , , , , , [ = ), ( = ) (
* *
2
*
1 2 1 0
T
r r
T
u u u u u u u U where t U t u 
. ,0] ,0,0, (0),0,0, [ = ), ( = (0)
0 0
T T
x X where t X x 
Due to (10), in 0 s s ÷ t t we have ) ( = ) ( t t x u so for t s s t 0 and consequently for 0 s ÷ s ÷ t t t it
is true to have ), ( = ) ( = ) ( t G t t x
T
 t u t ÷ ÷ where
T
G is the Fourier series coefficient of ) ( t u ÷ t . Now
we have
¹
´
¦
s s ÷
s s ÷
÷
L t t D X t X
t t G t
t x
T T
T
t  t 
t  t u
t
t
), ( = ) (
0 ), ( = ) (
= ) ( (12)
and by the same approach with respect to (11)
¹
´
¦
s s ÷
s s ÷
÷
L t t D U t U
t t H t
t u
T T
T
t  t 
t  t ¢
t
t
), ( = ) (
0 ), ( = ) (
= ) ( (13)
The integration of (8) from 0 to t and using of (9) gives
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, ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ) (
0 0 0 0 0
ds s u D ds s u C ds s x B ds s x A ds s x
t t t t t
t t ÷ + + ÷ +
} } } } }
(14)
or equivalently
ds s x B ds s x B ds s x A x t x
t t
) ( ) ( ) ( = (0) ) (
0 0
t t
t
t
÷ + ÷ + ÷
} } }
. ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0
ds s u D ds s u D ds s u C
t t
t t
t
t
÷ + ÷ + +
} } }
(15)
Now, from (12) and (13) we have:
ds s D X ds s D X ds s D X ds s x
T T
t
T
t t
) ( ) ( = ) ( = ) (
0 0
   t
t
t
t t
t t
} } } }
÷ ÷
) ( ) ( = t Z D X t P D X
T T
 t 
t
÷
ds s D U ds s D U ds s D U ds s u
T T
t
T
t t
) ( ) ( = ) ( = ) (
0 0
   t
t
t
t t
t t
} } } }
÷ ÷
) ( ) ( = t Z D U t P D U
T T
 
t t
÷
) ( = ) (
0
t Z dt t  
t
}
(16)
where
.
0 0 0 0 ))
2
( (1
2
0 0 0 0 ))
2
( (1
2
0 0 0 0 )
2
(
2
0 0 0 0 )
2
(
2
0 0 0 0
=












.

\

÷
÷
L
r
cos
r
L
L
cos
L
L
r
sin
r
L
L
sin
L
Z
tt
t
tt
t
tt
t
tt
t
t
(17)
Thus (15) reduces to
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ) ( ) (
0
t Z D BX t P D BX t Z BG t P AX t X t X
T T T T T T
     
t t
÷ + + ÷
). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t Z D DU t P D DU t Z DH t P CU
T T T T
   
t t
÷ + + + (18)
By deleting ) (t  from both sides of (18) and ordering we conclude that:
Z D BX P D BX Z BG P AX X X C
T T T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
0
*
=
0 = Z D DU P D DU Z DH P CU
T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ (19)
By substituting the Fourier series in ( J ) we have
dt t URU t t XQX t t XSX t J
T T T T f
t
f
T
f
T
)} ( ) ( ) ( ) ( {
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
=
0
      + +
}
(20)
The optimal control problem has now been reduced to a parameter optimization problem which can be stated as
follows. Find X and U so that ) , ( U X J is minimized subject to the constraints in Eq. (19).
Let
* *
) , ( = ) , , ( C U X J U X J
T
ì ì + (21)
where the vector ì represents the unknown Lagrange multipliers, then the necessary conditions for stationary
are given by
0 = ) , , (
*
ì U X J
X c
c
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0 = ) , , (
*
ì U X J
U c
c
0 = ) , , (
*
ì
ì
U X J
c
c
(22)
Remark1. Note that if delays in state and control vectors aren’t the same, then solving the system is the same as
previous but we have two or more delay operational matrices.
IV. Illustrative Examples:
In this section two examples are given to demonstrate the applicability, efficiency and accuracy of our
proposed method.
4.1. Example 1:
Consider the following system [13]
dt t u t x J )} ( ) ( {
2
1
= min
2 2
2
0
+
}
(23)
2, 0 ), ( 1) ( = ) ( . s s + ÷ t t u t x t x t s (24)
0. 1 1, = ) ( s s ÷ t t x
Here, we solve the same problem by using of Fourier series. Note that in third example delay is applied on state
only, and 1 = t . Suppose that
), ( = (0) ), ( = ) ( ), ( = ) (
0
t X x t U t u t X t x
T T T
  
where
0
), ( , , X t U X
T T
 are defined previously. If we integrate (24) from 0 to t and use (12)(13)we have
ds s u ds s x ds s x
t t t
) ( 1) ( = ) (
0 0 0
} } }
+ ÷
, ) ( 1) ( 1) ( =
0 1
1
0
ds s u ds s x ds s x
t t
} } }
+ ÷ + ÷
and we have
, 1) ( 1) ( = 1) (
1
0 0 1
ds s x ds s x ds s x
t t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
} } }
so we obtain
). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ) ( ) (
0
t P U t Z D X t P D X t Z G t X t X
T T T T T T
     
t t
+ ÷ + ÷
By deleting ) (t  from both sides and ordering we conclude that:
0 = =
0
*
P U Z D X P D X Z G X X C
T T T T T T
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
t t
By substitution the Fourier series in (23) for J we have
dt U t t U X t t X J
T T T T
} ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( { =
1
0
    +
}
, = EU U EX X
T T
+
where E is defined in (6). Thus we have redused the system as follows
EU U EX X J
T T
+ = min
0 = = .
0
*
P U Z D X P D X Z G X X C to S
T T T T T T
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
t t
Approximate solutions of ) ( ), ( t u t x with 25 = r are shown in Fig.1. The value of J is 1.62421313.
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Figure 1: State vector x(t) and control u(t) for r=25 in Example 1
4.2. Example 2:
Consider the following system [8,13]
dt t u t x J )} (
2
1
) ( {
2
1
= min
2 2
1
0
+
}
(25)
1, 0 2/3), (
2
1
) ( 1/3) ( ) ( = ) ( . s s ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ t t u t u t x t x t x t s (26)
0, 1 1, = ) ( s s ÷ t t x
0. < 2/3 0, = ) ( t t u s ÷
Here we have different delays in state( 1/3 =
1
t ) and control( 2/3 =
2
t ). Suppose that
), ( = (0) ), ( = ) ( ), ( = ) (
0
t X x t U t u t X t x
T T T
  
where
0
), ( , , X t U X
T T
 are defined previously. If we integrate (26) from 0 to t and use (12)(13) we have
ds s u ds s u ds s x ds s x ds s x
t t t t t
)
3
2
(
2
1
) ( )
3
1
( ) ( = ) (
0 0 0 0 0
÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
} } } } }
ds s u ds s x ds s x ds s x x t x
t t t
) ( )
3
1
( )
3
1
( ) ( = (0) ) (
0
3
1
3
1
0 0
} } } }
+ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
, )
3
2
(
2
1
)
3
2
(
2
1
3
2
3
2
0
ds s u ds s u
t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
} }
so we obtain
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ) ( ) (
1
1 1
1 0 0
t Z D X t P D X t Z X t P X t X t X
T T T T T T
     
t t
÷ + + ÷ ÷
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
2 2
t Z D U t P D U t P U
T T T
  
t t
+ ÷ +
By deleting ) (t  from both sides and ordering we conclude that:
1
1 1
1 0 0
*
= Z D X P D X Z X P X X X C
T T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷
0, =
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
Z D U P D U P U
T T T
t t
÷ + ÷
By substitution the Fourier series in (23) for
J
we have
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dt U t t U X t t X J
T T T T
} ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) ( {
2
1
=
1
0
    +
}
),
2
1
(
2
1
= EU U EX X
T T
+
where E was defined in (6). now we have redused system as follows
)
2
1
(
2
1
= min EU U EX X J
T T
+
1
1 1
1 0 0
*
= . Z D X P D X Z X P X X X C t s
T T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷
0 =
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
Z D U P D U P U
T T T
t t
÷ + ÷
Approximate solutions of ) ( ), ( t u t x with 25 = r are shown in Fig.2. the value of J is 0.35944042 (In [3],
the value of J is 0.3731).
Figure 2: State vector x(t) and control u(t) for r=25 in Example 2
4.3. Example 3:
Consider the following system[1,3]
dt t u t x J )} ( ) ( { = min
2 2
3
0
+
}
(27)
2), ( 1) ( = ) ( . ÷ ÷ t u t x t x t s (28)
0, 1 1, = ) ( s s ÷ t t x
0, 2 0, = ) ( s s ÷ t t u
Here, the delays are 1 =
1
t for state and 2 =
2
t for control vectors, respectively. Suppose that
), ( = (0) ), ( = ) ( ), ( = ) (
0
t X x t U t u t X t x
T T T
  
where
0
), ( , , X t U X
T T
 are defined previously. With respect to (12) and (13) we have
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s s ÷
s s ÷
÷
3 1 ), ( = 1) (
1 0 ), ( = ) ( = 1) (
= 1) (
1
0
t t D X t X
t t X t G t
t x
T T
T
 
  u
t
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s s ÷
s s ÷
÷
3 2 ), ( = 2) (
2 0 0, = 2) (
= 2) (
2
t t D U t U
t t
t u
T T
 
¢
t
If we integrate (28) from 0 to t then
ds s u s x ds s x
t t
2) ( 1) ( = ) (
0 0
÷ ÷
} }
ds s u s x ds s u s x ds s u s x
t
2) ( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( =
2
2
1
1
0
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
} } }
By substitution the Fourier series and simplifying, we obtain
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, )] ( ) ( [ )0] ( [ )0] ( [ = ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
2
1
0
1
0
0
ds s D U s D X ds s D X ds s X t X t X
T T
t
T T T T
     
t t t
} } }
+ + ÷
since we have 2 0 0, = 2) ( s s ÷ t t u . Now we have
ds s D U s D X t X t X
T T
t
T T
)] ( ) ( [ = ) ( ) (
2 1 2
0
   
t t
}
÷
ds s D U s D X ds s D U s D X
T T T T
t
)] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [ =
2 1
2
0 2 1 0
   
t t t t
} }
÷
ds U D s s D X ds U D s s D X
T T T T T
t
T
] ) ( ) ( [ ] ) ( ) ( [ =
2
2
0 1 2 0 1
t t t t
   
} }
÷ (29)
Assume that
1
2
=U U D
T
t
, thus (29) reduces to
0 =
~ ~
=
1
1
1
1
0
*
Z U D X P U D X X X C
T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷ (30)
By substitution the Fourier series for J we have
dt U t t U X t t X J
T T T T
} ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( { =
1
0
    +
}
, = EU U EX X
T T
+ (31)
where
E
is defined in (6). So the delay optimal control (2728) now is reduced to the following optimazation
problem
EU U EX X J
T T
+ = min
0 =
~ ~
= .
1
1
1
1
0
*
Z U D X P U D X X X C t s
T T T T
t t
+ ÷ ÷
Approximate solutions of ) ( ), ( t u t x with 30 = r are shown in Fig.3. the value of J is 2.3496 while the
exact value is
1
1 3
2
2
+
+
e
e
.
Figure 3: State vector x(t) and control u(t) for r=30 in Example 3
V. Conclusions
Using Fourier series, a simple and computational method for solving time delay optimal problems is
considered. The method is based upon reducing a nonlinear time delay optimal control problem to an nonlinear
programming problem. The unity of the function of orthogonality for Fourier series and the simplicity of
applying delays in Fouries series are great merits that make the approach very attractive and easy to use.
Although the method is simple, by solving various examples, accuracy in comparison of the other methods can
be found.
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ISSN : 22489622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 5), June 2014, pp.217226
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