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©ABB Group

September 24, 2009 | Slide 1
Dry type transformers-ideal for FPSO
- Transformers for electrical and drive
systems
Arild Furnes,ATPA OGP/Petrobras workshop, 22.09.09
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 2
Transformers for Ships and Offshore - Standards
IEC 60092-303 “ Electrical installations in ships, Part
303 equipment -
Transformers for power and lighting”
IEC 61892-3 “ Mobile and fixed offshore units, Part 3
equipment -
Clause 5 -Transformers for power and lighting”
Both refer to general transformer standards IEC 60076 (all
types) and IEC
60726 (Dry type transformers)
“Preferably air cooled dry type”
Liquid-immersed transformers “preferably hermetically
sealed type, no spilling of liquid”
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 3
Transformers for Ships and Offshore - Standards
Differences to be noticed to on shore applications
Environmental conditions
Air temperature higher (45 C or higher) = reduced temperature rise
Cooling water temperatures high = reduced temperature rise
Humidity and salt = degrees of enclosure
Inclinations, static and dynamic = mechanic requirements
Acceleration and vibrations = mechanic requirements, flexible
connections
EX-classified zones = specifically designed transformers
Materials to be used
Self extinguishing
High tracking index
Halogen free
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 4
Classification often required /ABS, DnV, Rina, Loyds etc)
Type testing and special tests often required. Routine tests
mandatory according to IEC.
Insulation between HV and LV systems
Normal practise to have earthed screen between HV and LV
windings
Reduces capacitively transferred overvoltages fro HV side to
LV ITsystems
Reduces transferred EMC disturbance from drive systems to
ship distribution system
Screen is technically clear requirement, “increased”or
“improved”insulation of HV systems is not
Drive supply transformers should have the screen for EMC
reduction, all high power drives make EMC-noise to supply
network
Screen inside transformer is economic way to block EMC
Transformers for Ships and Offshore - Standards
Differences to be noticed to on shore applications
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 5
Transformers for Ships and Offshore - Standards
Dry transformers-Technologies
Dry type transformers IEC 60726
Fire class F0,F1,F2
For ships only possibility F1 (self extinguishing), F2 should be able operate
under fire for limited time is not existing
Impulse voltage level according to list 2 (higher alternative)
Vacuum breakers create switching over voltages, more margin
3,6 kV = LI 40 kV
7,2 kV = LI 60 kV
12 kV = LI 75 kV
transformers at end of short cables (100-200 m) critical
If the LI level is not mentioned, you may be getting the lower one
ie list 1
Classification rules have no impulse voltage requirements
Area to be improved
Dry type transformers cannot be installed without extensive measures on
Explosion Hazard Zones at all, but must be installed on Safe Areas
Temperature hot spots on coils, Sparking and charging at switching on
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 6
Transformers for Ships and Offshore - Standards
Dry transformers-Technologies
Dry type transformers IEC 60726
Encapsulated type = resin encapsulated (cast resin or filament
wound inside resin)
Non-encapsulated types =open wound (traditional, with limitation)
Environmental class E0, E1,E2
For ships minimum E1 ,can be energised while having moisture on
the transformer coils, but note that in the standard no switching
overvoltage is considered (known to be a problem with vacum
breakers of certain designs in small offshore networks)
E2 recommended (can operate while humidity is being sprayed on
the transformer, has more margin compared to E1)
E1 and E2 can be reached only with encapsulated designs
Climatic class C1,C2
For ships minimum C1 (-5 C) is sufficient
For scandinavian Yards C2 (-25 C) is necessary while building
ships
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 7
Most common variants of dry type transformers
Other important considerations
Rectifier duty.
Derating approx. 20 % with
6 puls diode rectifier.
Primary phase shift
removes possibility for
tapping, no-load voltage
needs to be carefully
selected from system study
Several cooling alternatives
available for both dry type
AN, AN/AF, AF/AF, AF/WF
Ingress protection of enclosure
The higer number, bigger
unit not to exceed thermal
limits
Two dry type
transformers in
common enclosure
for 24 pulse rectifer
duty.
Petrobras requires
dedicated enclosure
as per today.
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 8
Most common variants of dry type transformers
Other important considerations
Both size and audible noise
can be reduced by material
selection and design.
High grade orientend core steel
High grade copper wire or foil
High impedance many turns,
lowimpedance fewer turns
Influences the physical
dimensions
Vacumcast coil
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 9
Most common variants of dry type transformers
Dry VPI open wound with paper
Recommendations for offshore applications
Only for LV distribution
Below 500 kVA AN
Indoor in controlled environment
Salt laden air will degrade
paper insulation over time
Up to approx 12 MVA
15 kV
Several cooling options available
Both Cu and Al windings available
Cost efficient
Petrobras
specifications in
general calls for resin
encapsulated types
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 10
Most common variants of dry type transformers
VacumCast Coil
Classes: E2, C2, F1
Partial discharges: <10 pC
Insulation : 155ºC (F), 180ºC (H)
Design Temperature: 40 ºC
Up to approx 30 MVA
50 kV
Several cooling options available
Both Cu and Al windings available
Manufactured by all major suppliers
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 11
Most common variants of dry type transformers
Resibloc
Classes: E2, C2, F1
Partial discharges close to zero
Insulation : 155ºC (F), 180ºC (H)
Design Temperature: 40 ºC
Design according to class up to 55 ºC
amb. or 38 ºC for cooling water.
Up to approx 40 MVA
45 kV
Several cooling options available
Both Cu and Al windings available
Glass-fiber reinforced, crack free
Wound resin impregnated coil
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 12
MTBF Resibloc Transformers
433 years !
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 13
Resibloc Transformers
Technology highlights
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 14
Why use dry type transformers on FPSO
Easy to install, simple foundation and enclosure
Very clean, no oil, pits etc.
Less fire load (energy) than oil filled
Epoxy has higher ignition temp than special synthetic ester
Can be assembled offshore by skilled service people
Easy to connect cables and/or bus-ducts
Easy access for inspection through bolted covers or hinged
doors
Easy to install fans later to increase power if provisions
(Space under coils) are made. Approx. 30 – 40 % increase
Practically maintenance free
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 15
Why use dry type transformers on FPSO
Areas to consider liquid filled transformers
Outdoor location in case of limited HVAC and indoor space
Highly corrosive offshore location. Tropical condition
worse than cold in this matter. Exposed parts of Liquid
filled are galvanized and painted.
Zone requirement
Dry type not suitable due to difficulties to ensure no
hotspots on coils and sparking during energizing.
Very high power
Due to weight and size.
Multi winding transformers for drives (more than 3
secondaries due to balance of impedance/flux) Liquid filled
are more flexible with respect to phase shift.
If OLTC (on load tap changer/AVR) is needed
Very large OLTC for dry types.
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 16
Why use dry type transformers on FPSO
Liquid filled application
Roof of FPSO E-house
Compact liquid filled
Corrugated tank design
Conservator type design
Zone 1 or 2 outdoor
FPSO outside West
Africa.
Multi Phase Pump
Power Control
Module with
drives inside
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 17
Why use dry type transformers on FPSO
Liquid filled execution
OF/WF transformer for
propuplsion
Seawatercooled
Syntetic ester,
biodegradeable
300 deg C flamepoint
Most compact design
available,
Very beneficial on large
compressor drives etc.
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 18
Why use dry type transformers on FPSO
Liquid filled on module outdoor
Single lift Power
Control Module for
subsea Multi Phase
Pump
Liquid filled
transformer installed
outdoor on frame to
reduce need for large
cooling units inside
module
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 19
Dry type transformer with water cooling AF/WF
Increasing interest in the offshore and ship market
Reduces need for HVAC and
ducts
Reduces audible noise
Approx. 5 % of losses to
ambient, rest to water
Min. IP 44 design enclosure
Cooler for seawater available
(double titanium tube)
Redundant blower and cooler
arrangement available
No liquid carrying
pipe allowed.
Clause 1.4 in
Petrobras
I-ET-3000.00-5140-
700-PCI-
001ELECTRICAL
BASIC DESIGN
GUIDELINES
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 20
Dry type transformers in a system
What can ABB do ?
Provide the best technologies available conforming with
Petrobras specifications and applicable regulations.
Take responsibility for the integrity of the complete
Drive systems
Electrical system
Load flow calculations and considerations( impedance,
no-load/nominal voltage of the transformer and voltage
drop during DOL motor starts)
Harmonic calculations (THD)
Provide transformers which offers the best possible
cancellation configuration with the VFD
Provide and dimension pre-magnetizing system for
reducing inrush current when energizing the transformers
Up to 1/18 reduction of inrush current !
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 21
Dry type transformers in a system
Configuration of converter duty transformers
Distortion with 6 pulse
Distortion with 12 pulse
Distortion with 24 pulse
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 22
Dry type transformers in a system
Simple pre-magnetizing system
T1
C2
C1
C3
T2
440 V
Simple and cost effective if
back up supply available
Integrated in transformer
enclosure
In Switchgear
Separate assembly
Figure of pre-magnetizing
system in a essential mode
drilling transformer to 690 V
drilling drive system from
weak 440V emergency
supply network
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 23
Dry type transformers in a system
Peregrino WHP’s
Total 10 units for water
injection, booster and
production pumps
ACS 1000i
24 pulse integrated dry type
transformer
©ABB Group
September 24, 2009 | Slide 24