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17

summed with the wind opposing the forward velocity of the airfoil. This combined

velocity is known as the relative wind.

Fig 7.1 Force vectors for a darrieus blade

Department of ME, GEC, Thrissur

18

Fig 7.2 Effects of angle of attack on lift

Lift and drag forces can be broken down into components that are perpendicular

(thrust) and parallel (torque) to their path of travel at any instant. The torque is

available to do useful work, while the thrust is the force that must be supported by

the turbine’s structure.

3. Turbine size as a function of power required

The power of the wind is proportional to air density, area of the segment of wind

being considered, and the natural wind speed. The relationships between the above

variables are provided in equation below

Pw = ½ MAu

3

Where

Pw: power of the wind (W)

M: air density (kg/m3)

A: area of a segment of the wind being considered (m2)

u: undisturbed wind speed (m/s)

At standard temperature and pressure (STP = 273K and 101.3 KPa), equation

reduces to:

Department of ME, GEC, Thrissur

19

Pw= 0.647Au

3

A turbine cannot extract 100% of the winds energy because some of the winds

energy is used in pressure changes occurring across the turbine blades. This pressure

change causes a decrease in velocity and therefore usable energy. The mechanical

power that can be obtained from the wind with an ideal turbine is given as:

Pm= ½ M (16/27 Au

3

)

Where

Pm: mechanical power (W)

In the above equation the area, A, is referred to as the swept area of a turbine. For a

VAWT, this area depends on both the turbine diameter and turbine blade length.

For an H-type VAWT the equation for swept area is:

As= Dt lb

Where

As: swept area (m

2

)

Dt: diameter of the turbine (m)

lb: length of the turbine Blades (m)

The constant 16/27 = 0.593 from the above equation is referred to as the Betz

coefficient. The Betz coefficient tells us that 59.3% of the power in the wind can be

extracted in the case of an ideal turbine. However, an ideal turbine is a theoretical

case. Turbine efficiencies in the range of 35-40% are very good, and this is the case

for most large-scale turbines. It should also be noted that the pressure drop across

the turbine blades is very small, around 0.02% of the ambient air pressure.

Above Equation can be re-written as

Pm= Cp Pw

Where

Cp: coefficient of performance.

The coefficient of performance depends on wind speed, rotational speed of the

turbine and blade parameters such as pitch angle and angle of attack. The pitch

Department of ME, GEC, Thrissur

20

angle for a HAWT is the angle between the blades motion and the chord line of the

blade, whereas for a VAWT the pitch angle is between the line perpendicular to the

blades motion and the chord line of the blade. The angle of attack is the angle

between the relative wind velocity and the centerline of the blade. For fixed pitch

turbines, these angles do not change and the Cp is directly related to the TSR. See

table 1 for typical Cp values for various types of wind turbines.

4. Turbine Solidity as a Function of TSR

The operating tip–speed ratio (TSR) for a Darrieus rotor lies between 4 and 6. This

design TSR then determines the solidity, gear ratios, generator speeds, and

structural design of the rotor. Using this TSR and the graph in figure 7.3, a value of

the solidity is selected. As with the prop–type rotor, the solidity allows for the

calculation of blade area. Solidity times the rotor frontal area gives the total blade

area. Dividing the total blade area by the number of blades (usually 2 or 3) gives

the individual blade area. The individual blade area divided by the rotor height gives

the chord length

Department of ME, GEC, Thrissur

21

Fig 7.3 Rotor solidity as a function of TSR

Department of ME, GEC, Thrissur

22

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