You are on page 1of 8

CONSCIOUSNESS & SLEEP

• States of Consciousness
o Consciousness—awareness of ourselves and the environment.
 Awareness reuires our attention.
 !a"in# consciousness is where our thou#hts are clear
o Alternative states of consciousness ha$$en naturall% &slee$' or (e artificiall%
induced &h%$nosis & dru#s'
o !e s$end )*+ of our lives aslee$, (ut there-s no real reason wh% we slee$ or
dream.
• .iolo#ical /h%thms
o Circadian rh%thms—&rou#hl%' 01 hour c%cle
 includes sleep & wa"efulness
• controlled (% h%$othalamus
 a"a 2.iolo#ical cloc"3
 can (e altered with artificial li#ht
 Circadian rh%thms are li"e neurotransmitters &the% are released in the
(lood'
• 4elatonin is released in the (lood and ma"es a $erson slee$%—
melatonin sto$s secretin# when someone wa"es
• Slee$
o Sta#es of Slee$
 !e move from awa"e & alert awa"e (ut rela5ed aslee$
 6he five sta#es are (ased on the amount of (rain activit%
• Com$osed of theta, al$ha, (eta, and delta waves
 A(out ever% 78 minutes, we $ass throu#h a c%cle of 9 sta#es of slee$.
• Sta#e )
• Sta#e 0
• Sta#e +
• Sta#e 1
• /E4
o Awa"e & Alert
 !hen mentall% en#a#es, the (rain #ives off low am$litude, fast and
irre#ular .E6A !A:ES
 Awa"e $eo$le involved in conversation show (eta activit%
 .eta waves are small, fast, and are inconsistent $atterned.
o Awa"e (ut /ela5ed
 !hen an individual closes his e%es (ut remains awa"e, their (rain activit%
slows to a lar#e am$litude and slow, re#ular ALP;A !A:ES.
 4editators e5hi(it al$ha (rain activit%
o Sta#e ) & 0—earl% li#ht slee$
 .rain enters hi#h<am$litude, slow, re#ular wave &6;E6A !A:ES'
• =a% dreamers show theta activit%
 Sta#e )—a #radual sta#e. If awo"en, $eo$le don-t even "now the% were
aslee$
• A"a 26wili#ht time3—usuall% lasts )8 minutes
• =urin# sta#e ), $eo$le sometimes e5$erience ;>PNO?O?IC
SENSA6IONS or ;>PNIC @E/AS—these are ima#es resem(lin#
hallucinations, ha$$enin# without a sensor% stimulus
o No one "nows wh% this ha$$ens, (ut $eo$le thin" %our
muscles rela5 and %our (rain thin"s %ou-re fallin#.
o 6his ha$$ens more often to $eo$le with fati#ue and an5iet%
 Sta#e 0—harder slee$ that usuall% lasts a(out 08 minutes
o Sta#e + & 1—dee$est slee$
 .rain activit% slows down
 Lar#e<am$litude, slow =EL6A !A:ES
 Sta#e +—(e#innin# of dee$ slee$B +8<19 minutes after %ou fall aslee$
 Sta#e 1—(od% is at lowest level of functionin#.
• If awo"en, %ou will (e in a sta#e of o(livion, #ro##iness, and
disorientation
o Sta#e 9C /E4 Slee$
 /E4D /a$id E%e 4ovement
 EEEAfter sta#e 1, slee$ #oes (ac" to +, 0, and )EEE
 Our minds (ecome more active—78F of our dreams ta"e $lace in /E4
slee$. 6he% seem more vivid & seem to last lon#er.
 Our muscles are more rela5ed
 .rain en#a#es in low<am$litude, fast and re#ular .E6A !A:ES—much
li"e an awa"e<aroused state
• 78<minute C%cles durin# slee$
o !ith each 78<minute c%cle, sta#e 1 decreases & the duration of /E4 slee$
increases
• !h% do we slee$G
o 6heories for slee$C
 ). Slee$ Protects—slee$in# in the dar" when $redators were out
$rotected our ancestors from harm.
 0. Slee$ /ecu$erates—slee$ hel$s restore and re$air (rain tissue
&chemicals that are used u$ durin# the da% are re$lenished and re$aired'
 +. Slee$ hel$s remem(erin#—slee$ restores and re(uilds our fadin#
memories
 1. Slee$ & ?rowth—while %ou-re aslee$, the $ituitar% #land releases a
#rowth hormone. 6his ha$$ens more in children &which is wh% the% need
more slee$' than in older $eo$le &who tend to slee$ less—that-s wh% %our
#rand$arents are alwa%s u$ so earl%'.
• If we don-t slee$...
o /esults of slee$ de$rivationC
 Hati#ue and su(seuent death.
 Im$aired concentration.
 Emotional Irrita(ilit%
 =e$ressed Immune S%stem
 ?reater chance to (e o(ese.
 Increase in driver* eui$ment error
• Slee$ =isorders
o Insomnia—$ro(lems fallin# & sta%in# aslee$
 Peo$le sufferin# from insomnia tend to slee$ less.
 Slee$in# $ills & alcohol do not hel$
• 6he% reduce /E4
• & re(ound insomnia
o Narcole$s%—$eriodic & overwhelmin# slee$iness
 Peo$le tend to fall strai#ht into /E4 slee$ and not the other sta#es
 It-s ver% dan#erous for narcole$tics to drive (ecause the% can easil% fall
aslee$ at the wheel
o Slee$ A$nea—freuent $eriods where $eo$le sto$ (reathin# in their slee$
 Accom$anied (% snorin#
 4ore common in o(ese $eo$le
 Can lead to heart $ro(lems
o Ni#ht 6errors
 4ostl% children
 Occurs in sta#e 1 slee$
• 6he%-re not ni#htmares &(ecause the%-re not durin# /E4 slee$'
 Peo$le ma% sit u$, wal" around, or tal" incoherentl%.
 Ni#ht terrors dou(le %our heart rate & (reathin#, Iust li"e %ou do when
%ou-re terrified
 Not man% $eo$le remem(er what ha$$ened, (ut the% "now it was scar%
o Slee$wal"in# &Somnam(ulism' & Slee$<tal"in#
 Occurs in sta#e 1
 08F of $eo$le do this—most commonl% %oun# (o%s
• ;%$nosis
o HactsC
 Almost an%one can (e h%$notiJed to some e5tent.
• Peo$le can onl% (e h%$notiJed if the%-re alert, wa"e, and willin#.
 ;%$notiJed $eo$le are NO6 actin# a#ainst their will.
 ;%$nosis is NO6 useful for remem(erin# for#otten memories
• .ut it can (e thera$eutic &hel$s some $eo$le rela5 &* alleviate
$ain'
o 6heoriesC
 =ivided Consciousness 6heor%
• ;%$nosis mi#ht (e a s$ecial case of dissociated &divided'
consciousness
• ;%$nosis onl% ta"es over one $art of the mindB the other $art is
aware. &E5C li"e when %ou-re thin"in# a(out other thin#s while
drivin#—%ou Jone out (ut %ou still #et to where %ou-re #oin#
(ecause of %our conscious mind'
 Social Influence 6heor%
• ;%$notiJed $eo$le Iust #o alon# with it and act li"e the% are
h%$notiJed
• Ps%choactive =ru#s
o =ru#s can affect us (ecause of their structure and sha$e allows them to attach to
rece$tors in our (rains that are meant for su(stances that the (od% $roduces
naturall%
 6hese dru#s enter our s%stems, #et filtered into our (lood, and are
eventuall% (rou#ht to the (rain where the% act on our rece$tors
 A#onists & anta#onists
o Ps%choactive su(stances—su(stance that alters mood or (ehavior
 Can ran#e from alcohol, to cocaine, to even chocolate
o Su(stance use—moderate use of su(stance that does not interfere with normal
functionin#
o Su(stance into5ication—$h%siolo#ical reaction to su(stance in#estion &the
feelin# one #ets when Kmessed u$-'
o =ru# =e$endence
 Ph%sical de$endence—condition where the (od% (ecomes una(le to
function without a $articular dru#
• 6he $erson starts to crave the dru#
• =ru# 6olerance—when %ou need more of a dru# to feel the same
amount as %ou did with a little (it. 6his ha$$ens when $eo$le do
dru#s more often and the% (uild a tolerance for it.
• !ithdrawal—de$rivation of a dru# causes headaches, nausea,
cram$s, and an5iet%
 Ps%cholo#ical de$endence—(elief that a dru# is needed to continue %our
emotional*$s%cholo#ical well<(ein#
• >ou thin" %ou need this dru#
o Su(stance cate#ories
 =e$ressants—decrease functionin# of nervous s%stem
• /esult in (ehavioral sedation
• IncludesC
o Alcohol
 0+F Americans re$ort (in#e drin"in# &1<9 drin"s' in
the $ast month
 10.1F colle#e students re$ort (in#e drin"in# in the
$ast month
 )9 million US adults are alcohol de$endent
• 6he% drin" alone, drin" and re#ret, (lac"
out, etc.
 =rin"in# at an earl% a#e &))<)1' can later cause
alcohol use disorders
 6he rate of which %our stomach a(sor(s the alcohol
de$ends on man% factors &food in %our stomach,
wei#ht, hei#ht, alcohol-s concentration'
 Alcohol is meta(oliJed in liverB the liver can
meta(oliJe ) drin" $er hour
• One drin"D
o )0 oJ. (eer &1<9F alcohol'
o 1 oJ. wine
o ) oJ. liuor
• Short term effects include rela5ation, slurred
s$eech, lac" of coordination, and an
unstead% #ait
 .lood Alcohol Content &.AC'D F of total alcohol in
(lood
• .8+<.8L—%ou feel eu$horic &ma% have
$ro(lems with Iud#ment, motor s"ills, and
$a%in# attention'
• .87<.09—%ou have sensor% $ro(lems &vision
#ets (lurr%', $oor Iud#ment, motor s"ills,
and can-t $a% attention
• .)L<.+8—confusion, diJJiness, a#itation
• .09<.18—state of stu$or, %our movement is
severel% im$aired, and %ou ma% la$se in &
out of consciousness
• .+9<.98—unconsciousness and $ossi(l%
death
 Alcohol is commonl% mista"en as a stimulant
 ;ealth $ro(lems*lon# term effectsC
• Liver disease
• Pancreatitis
• Cardiovascular disorders
• .rain dama#e
• =ementia
• Aorsa"off-s s%ndrome
• Hetal Alcohol S%ndrome &HAS'—$re#nant
women who drin"
 !ithdrawal s%m$toms are ver% severe and
$otentiall% lethal
o Sedatives, ;%$notics, & An5iol%tics
 ?ive calmin# effects
 Prescri(ed for slee$in# & an5iet% $ro(lems
 Common t%$esC
• .ar(iturates—maIor tranuiliJer—slee$in#
$ills, addictive
• .enJodiaJe$ines—minor tranuiliJer—
common include 5ana5
 Stimulants
• Cause $eo$le to (e more active, alert, and ha$$ier
• S$eeds u$ %our nervous s%stem, & %our heart rate increases
• 4ost commonl% used class of $s%choactive dru#s in US
• IncludesC
o Am$hetamines
 4ade in la(s, do not occur naturall%
 Often hel$ $eo$le to lose wei#ht or sta% awa"e for
a lon# time
 6a"en for various reasons
 =ru#s includeC
• /italin
• Ecstas%
• Cr%stal 4eth
• 2S$eed3
• =iet $ills
 6hese lift %our mood, (ut then %ou Kcrash- and
(ecome de$ressed or tired
 S%m$tomsC Pu$il dilation, chills, nausea, confusion,
im$aired Iud#ment & functionin#, eu$horia,
seiJures
 6olerances (uild uic"l%
o Cocaine
 Effects & s%m$toms similar to am$hetamines
 Additional s%m$tomsC
• Paranoia in 0*+ users
• Irre#ular heart (eat
 Short lived effects
 !ithdrawal
• Swin# into de$ression
• E5treme a$ath% & (oredom
 Cocaine was ori#inall% an in#redient in Coca<Cola
and was used for medication
o Nicotine
 4OS6 A==IC6I:E
 09F all Americans smo"e dail%
• +L.9F adults a#es )L<01
 Inhaled into the lun#s, enters (loodstream
• M<)7 seconds later, nicotine enters the (rain
 !ithdrawalC de$ression, insomnia, irrita(ilit%,
an5iet%, concentration $ro(lems, hun#er
 )0)9 deaths dail% in US
• ED to + M1M Iets crashin# a da%
 )1,888 deaths dail% worldwide
• ED to +8 M1M Iets crashin# dail%
 /ela$se
• N8<7LF of $eo$le who uit smo"in#
eventuall% smo"e a#ain
• 6he ur#e increases around $eo$le and
social functions
 Nicotine is considered the easiest su(stance to #et
hoo"ed on and the hardest to uit
 It-s more $owerful than heroin and more difficult to
uit
o Caffeine
 Hound in coffee (eans, soda, tea, etc.
 78F Americans use caffeine
 4ost commonl% used stimulant
 Elevates mood, $revents fati#ue
 !ithdrawalsC headache, drowsiness, #rum$%
 Narcotics &o$iates'
• =erived from o$ium &$lant'
• Su$$resses $ain (% (indin# to and stimulatin# our endor$hins
• Usuall% are inIected, (ut can (e smo"ed, snorted, or ta"en
throu#h the mouth
• E5C 4or$hine, heroin
• Immediate effectsC dreamli"e eu$horia
o =u$licates the actions of endor$hins
• Lon#<term chan#es in mood & slee$
o 6he (od% sto$s $roducin# natural endor$hins
• ;i#h dosa#e can lead to comas &* convulsions
• Increased ris" of AI=S, violence, and suicide
 ;allucino#ens—cause hallucinations
• Ps%chedelic &mind<manifestin#' dru#s that distort $erce$tions and
evo"e sensor% ima#es in the a(sence of sensor% in$ut
&hallucinations'
• Stron# chemical resem(lance to serotonin, achieves effects (%
interactin# with serotonin rece$tors
• /es$onses to dru# ran#e from eu$horia to an5iet%*$anic
• 4a"e it hard to distin#uish (etween realit% and fiction
• 4anufactured hallucino#ensC
o LS=
o PCP
• 4ariIuana
o 4ost commonl% used ille#al dru#
o 6;C—active in#redient
o Immediate effectsC rela5ation, ha$$iness, some feel
an5ious or $anic"%—can cause short term memor%
$ro(lems
o Can create $owerful $s%cholo#ical de$endence
o +
rd
most common de$endenc% in US
o Currentl% ille#al in almost ever% countr% in world, (ut
sometimes decriminaliJed