You are on page 1of 31

1.

Biopsychosocial model was first proposed by:
A. Jay Forrester
B. Norbert Wiener
C. Callista Roy
D. George Engel
Answer Key
2. Which theory states that " phenotype results from an interaction between genotype and
environment " in the context of development of a mental disorder?
A. Biological theory
B. Neurochemical theory
C. Stress-diathesis model
D. Stress-adaptation model
Answer Key
3. The interdisciplinary science of the structure of regulatory systems:
A. Cybernetics
B. Quantum mechanics
C. Atom theory
D. Negentropy
Answer Key
4. All the following people are associated with cybernetics, EXCEPT:
A. Norbert Wiener
B. Warren McCulloch
C. Heinz von Foerster
D. Erwin Schrödinger
Answer Key
5. Which nursing theory defines person as "a developing organism that tries to reduce
anxiety caused by needs"?
A. Peplau's Interpersonal Theory
B. Ernestine Wiedenbach
C. Comfort Theory
D. Tidal Model of Mental Health
Answer Key
6. According to Peplau's interpersonal theory, following definition refers to:
"A word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human
processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal and community
living."
A. Person
B. Environment
C. Health
D. Nursing
Answer Key
7. Trophicognosis is a concept explained by:
A. Levin
B. Orem
C. Rogers
D. Watson
Answer Key
8. Health/wellness is “the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in
harmony with the whole of the client. This definition was given by:
A. Maslow
B. Neuman
C. Peplau
D. Newman
Answer Key
9. Which Thorndike’s laws (principles) on learning states that the S-R connection is
strengthened by use and weakened with disuse?
A. Law of effect
B. Law of readiness
C. Law of exercise
D. Law of primacy
Answer Key
10. A branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual
particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter:
A. Chaos theory
B. Quantum theory
C. String theory
D. General theory of relativity
Answer Key
A N S WE R K E Y
1. D 2. C 3. A 4. D 5. A
6. C 7. A 8. B 9. C 10. B
1. General Systems Theory was first proposed by:
A. Ludwig von Bertalanffy
B. Kurt Lewin
C. Melanie Klein
D. Margaret Mahler
Answer Key
2. Who is a proponent of object relations theory?
A. Abraham Maslaw
B. Jean Piaget
C. Erik Erikson
D. Melanie Klein
Answer Key
3. Which of the following concept is NOT related to Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
A. Phallic stage
B. Pleasure principle
C. Oedipus complex
D. Symbiosis and Separation
Answer Key
4. Kohlberg's theory of moral development includes following stages, except:
A. Obedience and Punishment Orientation
B. Individualism and Exchange
C. Good Interpersonal Relationships
D. Maintaining the Social Order
E. Primary circular reactions
Answer Key
5. The term used to describe the understanding of beliefs, desires, motivations, and
emotions as mental states that are ascribed to one’s self and others: (Tasman 3rd, P 139;
2008)
A. Theory of mind
B. Attribution theory
C. Self-verification theory
D. Self-evaluation maintenance theory
Answer Key
6. Which theory explains depression as a process of “turning aggression inward?”
A. Beck's cognitive model
B. Freud's Psychoanalyric model
C. Interpersonal model
D. Engel’s biopsychosocial theory
Answer Key
7. Which theory explains how exposure to trauma that is impossible to avoid may lead to
apathy, passivity, and a conviction that escaping future traumatic events is also
impossible?
A. Attribution theory
B. Bowlby's attachment theory
C. Information processing theory
D. Seligman’s theory of learned helplessness
Answer Key
8. Nursing is defined as “action which assist individuals, families and groups to maintain
a maximum level of wellness, and the primary aim is stability of the patient/client system,
through nursing interventions to reduce stressors.’’
This definition is given by:
A. Orem
B. Peplau
C. Neuman
D. Rogers
Answer Key
9. According to Piaget, the term used to describe the awareness that objects continue to
exist even when they are no longer visible:
A. Oedipal complex
B. Object permanence
C. Theory of mind
D. Inferior complex
Answer Key
10. During cognitive development, object permanenceis a characteristic feature of:
A. Sensory-motor stage
B. Preoperational stage
C. Concrete operational stage
D. Formal operational stage
Answer Key
A N S WE R K E Y
1. A 2. D 3. D 4. E 5. A
6. B 7. D 8. C 9. B 10. A
1. Which nursing theorist defines environment as "the totality of the internal and
external forces which surround a person and with which they interact at any given time"?
A. Dorothy Johnson
B. Martha Rogers
C. Dorothea Orem
D. Imogene King
E. Betty Neuman
Answer Key
2. The Sunrise Model of nursing was developed by:
A. Joyce Travelbee
B. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse
C. Madeleine Leininger
D. Ida Jean Orlando
Answer Key
3. Ethnonursing research method was developed by:
A. Madeleine Leininger
B. Florence Nightingale
C. Hildegard Peplau
D. Ida Jean Orlando
Answer Key
4. Attachment theory was originally proposed by:
A. Hildegard Peplau
B. John Bowlby
C. Sigmond Frued
D. Kurt Lewin
Answer Key
5. Human Becoming Theory was developed by:
A. Lydia E. Hall
B. Neuman
C. D. Orem
D. Rosemary Parse
Answer Key
6. Parse’s Three Principles include all the following, except
A. Helicy
B. Meaning
C. Rhythmicity
D. Cotranscendence
Answer Key
7. Who described 5 levels of nursing experience in her theory on nursing?
A. B. F. Skinner
B. Patricia Benner
C. Callista Roy
D. Leon Festinger
Answer Key
8. A paradigm refers to
A. A model that explains the linkages of science, philosophy, and theory accepted and
applied by the discipline
B. Ideas and mental images that help to describe phenomena
C. Statements that describe concepts
D. Aspect of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced
Answer Key
9. According to Behavour System Model, “predisposition to act with reference to the goal,
in certain ways rather than the other ways” refers to
A. Drive
B. Goal
C. Set
D. Scope of action
Answer Key
10. The study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in
living organisms, machines and organisations is termed as:
A. Cybernetics
B. Ontology
C. Epistemology
D. Philosophy
Answer Key
A N S WE R K E Y
1. E 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. D
6. A 7. B 8. A 9. C 10. A
1. “Each human being perceives the world as a total person in making transactions with
individuals and things in environment”.
This assumption is stated by:
A. Neuman's system model
B. Nightingale's theory
C. Peplau's Interpersonal Relations model
D. Imogene King’s conceptual framework
Answer Key
2. Notes on Nursing: What it is, What it is not was written by:
A. Virginia Henderson
B. Betty Neuman
C. Imogene King
D. Dorothea Orem
E. Florence Nightingale
Answer Key
3. Ernestine Wiedenbach's conceptual model of nursing is called:
A. The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing
B. Modeling and Role Modeling Theory
C. Health As Expanding Consciousness
D. Human-To-Human Relationship Model
Answer Key
4. A system of nursing care in which patients are placed in units on the basis of their
needs for care as determined by the degree of illness rather than on the basis of a medical
specialty is:
A. Primary nursing
B. Team nursing
C. Progressive patient care
D. Case method
Answer Key
5. Which of the following terms refers to the branch of philosophy that deals with
questions concerning the nature, scope, and sources of knowledge?
A. Epistemology
B. Epidemiology
C. Metaphysics
D. Ontology
E. Etymology
Answer Key
6. A theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially experience based
on perceptual observations by the senses is:
A. Constructivism
B. Empiricism
C. Rationalism
D. Infinitism
Answer Key
7. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals with :
A. The study of valid argument forms
B. Theory of knowledge
C. Moral philosophy
D. The study of the nature of reality
Answer Key
8. According to Peplau's interpersonal model, during which phase of nursing process,
the patient participates in goal setting and has a feeling of belonging and selectively
responds to those who can meet his or her needs?
A. Orientation
B. Identification
C. Exploitation
D. Resolution
Answer Key
9. Deliberative Nursing Process Theory was explained by:
A. Hildegard Peplau
B. Dorothea Orem
C. Ida Jean Orlando
D. Patricia Benner
Answer Key
10. Which of the following is NOT a concept related to Nightingale theory?
A. "Poor or difficult environments led to poor health and disease".
B. "Environment could be altered to improve conditions so that the natural laws would
allow healing to occur".
C. The goal of nursing is “to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon
him”.
D. "Human beings are open systems in constant interaction with the environment ".
Answer Key
A N S WE R K E Y
1. D 2. E 3. A 4. C 5. A
6. B 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. D
1. Cognator subsystem is a concept related to:
A. Jhonson's Behaviour System Model
B. Imogene King's Goal Attainment Theory
C. Roy's Adaptation Model
D. Neuman's System's Model
Answer Key
2. Cognator subsystem involves all the following cognitive-emotive channels, EXCEPT:
A. perceptual and information processing
B. self concept
C. learning
D. judgment
E. emotion
Answer Key
3. Each subsystem in Johnson's Behavioural System model is composed of four
structural characteristics, except:
A. Drives
B. Set
C. Choices
D. Observable behavior
E. Demands
Answer Key
4. "The practice of activities that individual initiates and perform on their own behalf in
maintaining life, health and well being" is:
A. Self care agency
B. Self care
C. Therapeutic self care demand
D. Nursing systems
Answer Key
5. Category of self care requisites according to Orem's theory of nursing includes all,
except:
A. Universal
B. Developmental
C. Health deviation
D. Fundamental
Answer Key
6.
Nursing is “an external regulatory force which acts to preserve the organization and
integration of the patients behaviors at an optimum level under those conditions in
which the behaviors constitutes a threat to the physical or social health, or in which
illness is found”
This definition of nursing was given by
A. Orem
B. Neuman
C. Imogene King
D. Johnson
E. Rogers
Answer Key
7.
"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the
performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful
death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or
knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as
possible"
This definition of nursing was given by:
A. Nightingale
B. Neuman
C. Imogene King
D. Henderson
E. Rogers
Answer Key
8. Which level of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy includes love, friendship, intimacy, and
family?
A. Self-actualization
B. Esteem
C. Belongingness
D. Safety
E. Physiological
Answer Key
9. In a theory, a statement of relationship between concepts is called
A. Conceptual model
B. Hypothesis
C. Proposition
D. Construct
Answer Key
10. Which nursing model was developed by Joyce Travelbee (1926-1973)?
A. Human-to-Human Relationship Model
B. Human becoming theory
C. The theory of health as expanding consciousness
D. From Novice to Expert
Answer Key
A N S WE R K E Y
1. C 2. B 3. E 4.B 5. D.
6. D 7. D 8. C 9. C 10. A
References
1. Which of the following nursing theory is based on the general systems framework?
A. Fay Abdellah- Topology of 21 Nursing Problems
B. Virginia Henderson -The Nature of Nursing
C. Hildegard Peplau -Interpersonal Relations Model
D. Imogene King's Theory of Nursing
Answer Key
2. Concept related to Betty Neuman’s System Model of Nursing is:
A. Pattern
B. Rhythmicity
C. Dependency
D. Open system
Answer Key
3. According to Roy's Adaptation Model, the adaptive modes includes all the following,
EXCEPT:
A. Physiologic Needs
B. Self Concept
C. Role Function
D. Interdependence
E. Achievement
Answer Key
4. Which theory states " Nursing is a helping profession"?
A. Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Theory
B. Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems
C. Theory of Goal Attainment
D. Roy's Adaptation Model
Answer Key
5. Which of the following in NOT a concept related to personal system in Imogene
King's Theory?
A. Perception
B. Self
C. Body image
D. Organization
Answer Key
6. Which nursing theory states that 'nursing is the interpersonal process of action,
reaction, interaction and transaction"?
A. Roy's adaptation model
B. Self-care deficit theory
C. Imogene King's theory
D. Roger's unitary human beings
Answer Key
7. All the following are concepts related to Levin's Conservation Principles, EXCEPT:
A. Historicity
B. Specificity
C. Helicy
D. Redundancy
Answer Key
8. Which of the following is an organismic response as per Levin's Four Conservation
Principles?
A. Flight or fight
B. Adaptation
C. Communication
D. Transaction
Answer Key
9. When applying Roy's Adaptation Model in caring a patient, the type of stimuli which
needs to be assessed as per are all the following, EXCEPT;
A. Focal Stimulus
B. Contextual Stimulus
C. Perceptual Stimulua
D. Residual Stimulus
Answer Key
10. Who described about 5 levels of nursing experience from novice to expert?
A. Patricia E. Benner
B. Ernestine Wiedenbach
C. Myra Estrine Levine
D. Faye Glenn Abdellah
Answer Key
ANSWER KEY
1.D 2. D 3. E 4. B
5.
D
6. C 7. C 8.A 9. C
10.
A
1. Which is NOT a concept related to Faye Abdellah's theory?
A. Susternal Care Needs
B. The twenty-one Nursing Problems
C. Restorative Care Needs
D. Therapeutic Self-care Demands
Answer Key
2. Statements that explain the relationship between the concepts in a theory:
A. Propositions
B. Assumptions
C. Predictions
D. Process
Answer Key
3. “Social inclusion, intimacy and the formation and attachment of a strong
social bond” are explained in which subsystem of Jhonson's model -
A. Dependency subsystem
B. Attachment or affiliative subsystem
C. Achievement subsystem
D. Aggressive subsystem
Answer Key
4. The major concepts of Health Belief Model includes all, EXCEPT;
A. Perceived Susceptibility
B. Perceived severity
C. Perceived benefits
D. Perceived interaction
Answer Key
5. The sequential phases of interpersonal relationship in Peplau's theory
includes all, EXCEPT:
A. Orientation
B. Identification
C. Restoration
D. Exploitation
Answer Key
6. The principles of concervation of energy, structural integrity, personal
integrity and social integrity were explained by:
A. Lydia Hall
B. Myra Estrine Levine
C. Betty Neuman
D. Hildegard Peplau
Answer Key
7. Who explained about "Care, Cure and Core as three independent but
interconnected circles of the nursing model"?
A. Patricia Benner
B. Rosemary Rizzo Parse
C. Lydia Hall
D. Jean Watson
Answer Key
8. Meaning, Rhythmicity, Cotranscendence are the three major concepts of:
A. Transcultural Nursing Theory
B. Unitary Human Being Theory
C. Self-care Deficit Theory
D. Human Becoming Theory
Answer Key
9. " Caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain
human needs". This explanation was stated by:
A. Sister Calista Roy,
B. Jean Watson
C. Dorothea Orem
D. Florence Nightingale
Answer Key
10. The term which refers the "irreducible, pan dimensional energy field
identified by pattern and integral with the human field" is:
A. Unitary Human Being
B. Environment
C. Health
D. Nursing
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C
6. B 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. B

1. A Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy developed by Motorola
company in 1986:
A. Plan-Do-Check -Act
B. MBO
C. Six Sigma
D. PERT
Answer Key
2. Part of a quality system covering the manufacture and testing of
pharmaceutical dosage forms or drugs and active pharmaceutical
ingredients, diagnostics, foods, pharmaceutical products, and medical
devices:
A. Good manufacturing practice (GMP)
B. Good regulatory practice (GRP)
C. Good Clinical Practice (GCP)
D. Good laboratory practice (GLP)
Answer Key
3. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) refers to:
A. An optimal balance between possibilities realized and a framework of
norms and values.
B. Doing the right thing right, right away, the first time
C. Detailed, written instructions to achieve uniformity of the
performance of a specific function.
D. A process of meeting the needs and expectations of the customers,both
internal and external.
Answer Key
4. Accreditation refers to one of the following:
A. Making assessment
B. Meeting predetermined standards
C. Making care cost effective
D. Ensuring Quality
Answer Key
5. Father father of management by objectives (MBO)
A. Peter Drucker
B. Frederick Taylor
C. Henri Fayol
D. Max Weber
Answer Key
6. Who is associated with the concept of Total Quality Management?
A. Rensis Likert
B. Kurt Lewin
C. Max Weber
D. W. Edwards Deming
Answer Key
7. Quality Council of India sponsored accreditation system for hospitals
and health care providers:
A. NABH
B. Joint Commission International
C. BIS
D. NABET
Answer Key
8. Which definition of quality of care represents the entire continuum
from structure to process and to outcome?
A. Deming's
B. WHO, 1988
C. Donabedian
D. Kurt Lewin
Answer Key
9. "Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment that uses cognitive tools such as
interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, and explanation of the
evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual
considerations on which judgment is based."
This definition refers to:
A. System Thinking
B. Critical Thinking
C. Clinical reasoning
D. Intuitive recognition
Answer Key
10. Plan-Do-Check -Act cycle is related to:
A. Donabedian
B. Deming
C. Henry Gantt
D. B.F. Skinner
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. C 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. A
6. D 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. B

1. Network analysis in management of health services
include,
A. Cost accounting
B. Cost benefit analysis
C. Cost efefctive analysis
D. PERT
Answer Key
2. WHO constitution was made in
A. 1947
B. 1950
C. 1952
D. 1956
Answer Key
3. The government of India anoounced the first
National Health Policy in the year:
A. 1951
B. 1982
C. 1977
D. 1991
Answer Key
4. The Bhore comittee was set up in:
A. 1943
B. 1948
C. 1949
D. 1952
Answer Key
5. PHCs under public health care system in India was
introduced as result of recoomendatinos by:
A. Bhore committee
B. Kartar Singh Committe
C. Mudaliyar Committee
D. Planning Commission
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. A

1. Components of a nursing diagnosis include all, EXCEPT
A. Problem Statement (diagnostic label)
B. Etiology (related factor)
C. Defining Characteristic
D. Outcome statement
Answer Key
2. The type of nursing diagnosis which is a judgment on client's
response to a present health problem
A. Actual Diagnosis=
B. High Risk Nursing Diagnosis
C. Possible Nursing Diagnosis
D. Wellness Diagnosis
Answer Key
3. As per the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) triage
system, green color code refers to
A. Injuries are life-threatening but survivable with minimal
intervention.
B. Injuries are significant and require medical care, but can wait
hours without threat to life or limb.
C. Injuries are minor and treatment can be delayed hours to days.
D. Injuries are extensive and chances of survival are unlikely even
with definitive care.
Answer Key
4. Nursing may be defined as “the diagnosis and treatment of human
responses to health and illness”. This definition of of nursing was
given by
A. Nightingale
B. American Nurses Association (ANA, 1995)
C. Henderson
D. World Health Organization (WHO)
Answer Key
5. Which of the following inventory control method is based on the
criteria of rate of consumption of the items?
A. ABC Analysis (Always Better Control)
B. VED Analysis (Vital, Essential, Desirable)
C. HML Analysis (High, Medium, Low)
D. FSN Analysis (Fast, Slow moving and Non-moving)
E. SDE Analysis (Scarce, Difficult, Easy)
Answer Key
6. The extent of resemblance between the purpose of healthcare and the
truly granted careis referred to
A. Standard
B. Audit
C. Quality
D. Outcome
Answer Key
7. "A clinical judgment about an individual, a family or a community’s
responses to actual and potential health problems/life processes" -
refers to
A. Nursing Diagnosis
B. Outcome Identification
C. Quality assurance
D. System analysis
Answer Key
8. Time taken for any project is estimated by
A. Work sampling
B. Input-output analysis
C. Network analysis
D. System analysis
Answer Key
9. In the critical path method of network analysis, the critical path is
the
A. Shortest
B. Longest
C. Cheapest
D. Costliest
Answer Key
10. Finding the most cost-effective way doing a project:
A. Network analysis
B. System analysis
C. Cost analysis
D. Field analysis
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. D 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. D
6. C 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. C

1. Hygiene factors and motivational factors are key concepts
in
A. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
B. Expectancy Theory
C. Goal Setting Theory
D. Herzberg’s two factor theory
Answer Key
2. Bhore Committee is also known as
A. Health Survey and Development Committee
B. Health Survey and Planning Committee
C. Hospital review committee
D. Mudaliar Committee
Answer Key
3. Which of the following is an Indian Health Care
Accrediting Agency?
A. Joint Commission International (JCI)
B. Joint Commission On Accreditation Of
Healthcare (JCAHO)
C. National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare
Providers (NABH)
D. QHA Trent Accreditation
E. International Society for Quality in Healthcare (ISQua)
Answer Key
4. The basis of ABC analysis in inventory control is
A. Annual consumption value
B. Criticality of items
C. Unit cost of item
D. Procurement difficulty, market availability
Answer Key
5. Which of the following is method of inventory control in
which the items are classified on the basis of rate/speed of
consumption?
A. ABC analysis
B. VED analysis
C. HML analysis
D. FSN analysis
Answer Key
6. In material management, the period in days that elapses
between placing an order and receiving the stores is termed
as
A. Lead time
B. Economic Order Quantity
C. Quantity survey
D. Reorder time
Answer Key
7. Theory of bureaucracy in management was proposed by
A. Henry Gantt
B. Max Weber
C. Henry Fayol
D. Peter Ducker
Answer Key
8. W. Edward Deming is known for his contribution in
modern management for introducing
A. Application of psychology in advertisement and
marketing
B. Time and motion studies
C. Quality control
D. PERT Technique
Answer Key
9. A broad statement by which the organization specifies
how it will achieve its goals is
A. Vision Statement
B. Mission Statement
C. Policy statement
D. Protocol
Answer Key
10. Management by objectives (MBO) as an organization
tool was first explained by
A. Robert Owen
B. Hugo Munsterberg
C. Henry Towne
D. Peter F. Ducker
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. D 2. B 3 .C 4. A 5. D
6. A 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. D

1. Theory X and theory Y was proposed by
A. William Ouchi
B. Frederick Taylor
C. Mary Follett
D. Douglas McGregor
Answer Key
2. The famous 14 Principles of Management was first defined by
A. Elton Mayo
B. Henri Fayol
C. Adam Smith
D. James Watt
Answer Key
3. "Management by objective works - if you know the objectives.
Ninety percent of the time you don't. " This was stated by
A. Peter Drucker
B. Frederick Taylor
C. Henri Fayol
D. Henry L. Gantt
Answer Key
4. Scientific Management Theory was developed by
A. Max Weber
B. Frederick Taylor
C. Adam Smith
D. Rensis Likert
Answer Key
5. Which management theory states " when managers make a
decision, they must take into account all aspects of the current
situation and act on those aspects that are key to the situation at
hand"?
A. Systems theory
B. Chaos Theory
C. Contingency Theory
D. Bureaucratic Management Theory
Answer Key
6. Motivation-Hygiene theory (two-factor theory) of management
was proposed by
A. Elton Mayo
B. W. Edwards Deming
C. Kurt Lewin
D. Frederick Herzberg
Answer Key
7. Which of the following concept is NOT related to Frederick
Taylor's theory of modern management
A. Management is a true science.
B. The selection of workers is a science.
C. Workers are to be developed and trained.
D. Scientific management is a collaboration of workers and
managers.
E. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to
avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security
above all.
Answer Key
8. The famous Hawthorne experiments were conducted by
A. Elton Mayo
B. Max Weber
C. Henry Ford
D. F.W Taylor
Answer Key
9. Which type of leadership theories consider people inherit
certain qualities that make them better suited to leadership?
A. Contingency Theories
B. Behavioral theories
C. Trait Theories
D. Situational theories
E. "Great Man" Theories
Answer Key
10. Which of the following characteristics is NOT related to
Laissez-faire leadership?
A. Very little guidance from leaders
B. Complete freedom for followers to make decisions
C. Leaders provide the tools and resources needed
D. There is little time for group decision-making
E. Group members are expected to solve problems on their own
Answer Key

ANSWER KEY
1. D 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C
6. D 7. E 8. A 9. C 10. D