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Introduction
Morning : Seeing message
Mails : 300 billions per day
Energy : electricity
Human Protocol : Formate and rules
Pre-historic : smoke signal
Smoke signal information : Inclination of the mountain
Communication in BCE : Pigeon
hostel in the postal system : Computer
postman in the postal system : Router
write an extremely complex program : Object oriented programming
following is a layer in the Internet Protocol Stack : Stack
reliability handled in postal system : Use return receipt
facilitate communication across peers : Piggyback the required information on the message itself.
ensure a message gets passed : We need to specify this explicitly via field in the headers
Physical Layer
role of the physical layer : Provide means to transfer bits
Yipeee! What am I : Computer
I am thin, yet strong. I have a jacket, not for cold : Cable, Wire, Link
components that make up PHY layer : Node, Link,Host, Link,Node, Wire,Host, Wire
more efficient in terms of speed of transfer : DMA
attenuation mentioned as a range : Function of frequency
NOT the function of a node : To carry signals
signal propagating through a link experiences the following : Distortion
frequency domain representation of a periodic and aperiodic signal differ : Discrete,Continuous
How would you convey bits over a wire : Convert bits to voltage levels,Bits to voltages
The NRZ signal is : aperiodic signal
the bandwidth (width of the spectrum) of the NRZ signal : infinity
NRZ signal, what is First Null Bandiwth equal to : Data rate
NRZ signal being sent at 2000 bits per second, whats the first-null bandwidth : 2000 hz
How come telephone modems provide 56 kbps : Use of digital equipment increased SNR
more energy per bit affect SNR : Increases SNR
If the bits are sent at a data rate of 1Mbps : 1 MHz
To decode a NRZ waveform : Comparison with a threshold and clock
potential problems with NRZ encoding : Consecutive 0's, consecutive 1's
Does NRZI solve baseline wander? : Yes
Does NRZI help recover clock? : NO
problem with Manchester Encoding? : High bandwidth, inefficient
Does Manchester encoding solve baseline wander? : Yes
Does Manchester encoding help recover the clock? : Yes
What is the problem with Manchester Encoding? : Needs much higher bandwidth
randomly generated at a data rate R : 2R Hz
What is the maximum number of zeros you will see in a 4B/5B encoded data stream? : 3
Data Link Layer
What is the role of the data link layer? : Next hop delivery
What does multiplexing do? : It delivers packets to the right process/protocol
Why is Media Access Control (MAC) needed? : To prevent collision of packets
How do you distinguish beginning and end of a frame from a bit stream? : Use a time gap between
the frames
Why cannot a time gap be used to seperate two frames? : PHY dependency
identify the beginning and end of a frame? : Special Flag,Special Pattern
problem with Sentinel approach to Framing? : Sentinel appearing in the body
prevent the sentinel from appearing in the payload? : Escape it
the DLE character itself be escaped? : DLE appears at end of frame
receiver do when it receives the following bit stream? 01111111 : Conclude frame in error
What causes bit errors? : Noise
For a data rate of 1Mbps, how many bits can be in error? : 1
1 us and causes errors during the spike. For a data rate of 100Mbps, how many bits would be in
error? : 100
data fidelity, give another reason to detect errors : Save resources