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A

Research Project Report
On
“Job Satisfaction of of Employees – CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED”
SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT
OF PAPER CP-402 FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
SESSION (2011-2013)

Under the Supervision of - Submitted By -
MISS NITIMA UPPAL ANISHA SHARMA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ROLL NO. - 1208109
MMIM, MM UNIVERSITY,
MULLANA, AMBALA


MM Institute of Management
MM University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana-133203






DECLARATION

I ANISHA SHARMA hereby declare that the dissertation Project Report on
“JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES –CAPARO MARUTI
LIMITED” submitted for the degree of Masters of Business Administration is
my original work and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of
any Degree, Diploma, Associate ship, Fellowship or similar other titles. It has
not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any
Degree or Diploma.






Date - Name & Roll no.
Place - Anisha Sharma
1208109






CERTIFICATE
Certified that the research project entitled Project Report on“JOB
SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES –CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED”
done by Miss Anisha Sharma, Roll no. 1208109 during the period of her study
under my guidance.








Date - Research Guide
Place - Miss Nitima uppal








ACKNOWLEDGMENT
A Project usually falls short of its expectation unless guided by the right
person at the right time. Success of a project is an outcome of sincere efforts,
channeled in the right direction, efficient supervision and the most valuable
professional guidance.
This project would not have been completed without the direct and indirect
help and guidance of such luminaries. They provide me with the necessary
recourses and atmosphere conductive for healthy learning and training.
At the outset I would like to take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge
the very kind and patient guidance I have received from my project guide
Miss. Nitima Uppal . Without her critical evaluation and suggestion at every
stage of the project, this report could not have reached its present form. In
addition, my internal guide Prof., Faculty has critically evaluated my each step
in developing this project report.
I would like to extend my gratitude towards, Director, for his moral support
required for the realization of this project report.
Lastly, I would like to thank all my colleagues who gave me fruitful
information to finish my project.








































CAPARO, founded in 1968 by Indian born British Industrialist, Lord Paul of
Marylebone, is a fast growing UK based group with a 1bn Euro turnover. With
business interests predominantly in the manufacture of steel, automotive and
general engineering products, the group has a grown as a global entity.
CAPARO group is now a collection of over 40 companies operating from over
60 sites worldwide.
CAPARO India, the Indian business arm of CAPARO Group, began its
operations in 1994, as a joint venture with India’s largest car manufacturer—
Maruti Udyog . Today, through its two strategic business entities, Caparo
Engineering India Pvt. Ltd. and Caparo Maruti Ltd, the group offers end-to-end
solutions in designing, developing and
manufacturing automotive systems, assemblies, advanced composites, modules
and components to Indian Automotive OEMs and Engineering Industry.
CAPARO India leverages its exhaustive capabilities in metal Stamping,
Fastening, Tubing, Forging and Aluminums Foundry businesses, coupled with
its state-of-the-art Tool Room and R&D Centre, to service top-notch clients
such as GM, Ford, Maruti, Honda, Tata Motors and JCB. The company’s ability
to offer complete lifecycle solutions backed by a global support system,
technological superiority and customer orientation, make it a force to reckon
with in its areas of expertise.
" CAPARO India currently employs 5000 direct and indirect employees across
25 world-class functional and upcoming facilities.


COMPANY DESCRIPTION


CAPARO Maruti Limited (CML) is a world-class Tier1 sheet metal stamping,
weld assemblies and closures supplier to Maruti Suzuki (India) and General
Motors (India). Formed in 1994 as a joint venture with the major car
manufacturer, Maruti Udyog Ltd, production began in 1996 and today Caparo
Maruti operates from 3 sites; Gurgaon, Halol and Bawal.
CML is making auto chassis for OMNI model for Maruti Udyog Limited. This
part is critical for spot strength as the body of the vehicle is welded to it.

Chassis
CML is making auto chassis for OMNI model for Maruti Udyog Limited. This
part is critical for spot strength as the body of the vehicle is welded to it.

Dash
CML is the manufacturer of Dash assys parts for following models for Maruti
Udyog Limited (India) -
• 800cc car
• Zen
• Esteem
• Wagon-r
• Alto
• Versa
This part is critical for the mounting of air-conditioner units and engines and
for the prevention of water entering into the vehicle. These parts are
commonly called the firewall and they separate the engine chamber from the
driver chamber.
Quarter Inner Assembly
CML is the manufacturer and supplier of this assy for following models of
Maruti Limited (India) -
• 800 CC car
• Alto
Cowl Upper Assembly
CML is the manufacturer for Maruti of Cowl upper assays parts for the Zen
model. This part is critical for mounting of steering wheel and for prevention
of water into the vehicle.
Door Assembly Parts
CAPARO MARUTI manufactures complete doors for General Motor India’s
MUV. Aesthetically, functionally and from the safety standpoint, this is
probably the most important element in an automobile. Facilities at the plant
include a press shop, hemming shop, die spotting press, weld shop and a
quality control laboratory.


INTRODUCTION OF JOB SATISFACTION
Jobs Satisfaction is regard to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding the nature
of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as
kind of supervision, organization policies &administration, salary & quality of
life etc. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of training,
developing, maintaining and retaining them In their organization. Therefore,
managers at all costs must minimize employee’s turnover. The industrial and
business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including
Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job
dissatisfaction among the employees and high rate of turnover. Employers have
a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work for other
organizations. The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job
satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers.―The good hope is hard to
find, is even truer these days than ever before because the job market in
becoming increasingly tight‖. This section examines the literature regarding
theories and models used to explain the determinants of job satisfaction. There
are two broad categories to classify job satisfaction theories, that is, process and
content theories. Content theories are predominantly concerned with the
identification of specific needs or motives most conducive to job satisfaction.
The Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory are examples
of content theories. Process theories go further than identifying basic needs that
motivate people. They focus on the individual’s dynamic thought processes and
how they produce certain types of behavior/attitudes. Equity Theory, Need-
Fulfillment Theory, Social Comparison Theory, Facet-Satisfaction Model, Job
Characteristics Model. To better understand employee attitudes and motivation,
Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an
employee’s work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies
included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and
displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job
satisfaction were different from that causing job3 Mayo & Hawthorne study
dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these
results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfied hygiene factors,
using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance
factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not
provide satisfaction. He describes that factors leads to job satisfaction are
Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility, Advancement and
Growth and the factors which leads to dissatisfaction are Company policy,
Supervision, Relationship with Boss, Work conditions, Salary, Relationship
with co workers Herzberg argued that management not only must provide
hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors
intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs.
The two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit
for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Furthermore,
job satisfaction does not necessarily create a high level of motivation or
productivity. Herzberg’s theory has been broadly read and despite its
weaknesses. True motivation comes from within a person and not from KITA
factors (Kicks in the Pants).Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of
human needs, commencing with physiological needs then safety, social, esteem
and at last self actualization need. He says that these needs must be satisfied in
the order listed. Maslow's theory says, there are some important implications for
management. There are opportunities to motivate employees and provide them
job satisfaction through management style, job design, company events, and
compensation packages. Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks,
and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs
provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security.
Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and social
events. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel
appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the
position. Self-Actualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity
to reach their full career potential.
Job satisfaction is the positive attitude that a person has for his job. Many
research studies have been done on this area all over the world.
The employees’ attitude toward his job simply means his feelings about
job, boss, peers, perks, contesters, work place, work schedule, etc. A positive
feeling about these leads to job satisfaction and negative feeling leads to job
dissatisfaction.
Job satisfaction is defined as an individual’s general attitude toward his or
her job. This means that an employees’ assessment of how satisfied or
dissatisfied he or she is with his or her job is a complex summation of a number
of discrete job elements.







FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION

Fitting the right man on the right job is the primary function of an organization
for its success. Then only all the resources can be managed effectively. Without
human efforts an organization cannot accomplish its objectives. Reni’s Likert
rightly observes ―All the activities of any enterprise initiated and determined by
the persons, who make up that institution, plants, offices, computers, automated
equipment and all else that make a modern firm uses, are unproductive except for
human effort and direction of all the tasks of management, manager the human
component, is the central and the most important task, because all else depends
on how well it is done‖.

The important factors conducive to job satisfaction are mentally
challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, etc.,
1. Mentally Challenging work
Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their
skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback how well
they are doing. These characteristics make work mentally challenging.
This is approached by two ways.

(a) Designing Jobs:


“Whatever level of job you are designing, it must be of interest and give
satisfaction to the worker”












The Job exists to fill roles. The jobs and their occupants both need regular
modification and sometimes radical change, over course of time.
(b) Defining performance:
Arriving at a single measure of performance is difficult. To measure
quality rather than quantity, include staff morale, customer satisfaction, inter
team collaboration and specific project results as measures of performance.

Employees
Variation
Multi skill
Interest
Prospects
Ownership
Accountability
Targets
Hence the rule is “ENSURE that jobs offer a wide range of stimulation and
variation”
Including the factors above mentioned will help to make any post more
appealing in the long term and motivate the job holder to perform more
effectively.

2. Equitable rewards
“Get the money right or every thing else could easily go wrong”
Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being
just, unambiguous and inline with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair
based on job demands, individual skill level and community pay standards
satisfaction is likely to result. Individuals, who perceive that promotion decisions
are made in a fair and just manner, therefore are likely to experience satisfaction
from their jobs.
A pay package is not just about salary, though that is how most people tend to
think of it. Other elements come in to play, not all of them directly cash related.











3. Supportive working conditions
Incentives
Pay
Packages
Flexi time
Paid holidays
Car
Insurance
Health care
Pensions
Shares
Salary
Employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal
comfort and facilitating doing a good job. Studies demonstrate that employees
prefer physical surroundings that are not dangerous or uncomfortable.
Temperature, light noise and other environment factors should not be at either
extreme.

4. Supportive colleagues
People get more out of work than mere money or tangible achievements.
For most employees, work also fills the need for social interaction. Not
surprisingly therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers leads to
increased job satisfaction.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Psychological aspects of job satisfaction are first considered. Dispositional
stands, situational factors and cognitive dissonance influence job satisfaction.
Dispositional stands refer to certain tendencies that individuals show toward
certain things. They may like something and dislike something. There may be no
apparent reasons for such likes and dislikes.
The situational factors of job satisfaction say that a person’s attitude to
job influenced not by pre-disposition they have towards the job, but by the
situations like peers, work environment etc.,. They are open with no prior
dispositions. Attitude got formed from the work place encounters.
Cognitive dissonance is the mental anxiety a person undergoes when two
sets of information or perceptions are contradictory. A new worker while
contributing to his work also has to participate in union activities. Cognitive
dissonance arises here. Later the dissonance is resolved by balancing. If no such
resolution is possible, satisfaction from job is affected. He becomes the troubled
person and develops a dislike for job.

There are different factors for job satisfaction. They are
 Job itself
 Rewards
 Challenge
 Work Status
 Opportunity for growth
 Fairness of competition
 Healthy working conditions
 Company status
 Management style.
 Social relevance of work life
 Flexibility in enrichment
 Scope for participation in management
 The style of Leadership
 Dignity of job
 Market standing of the company
 The extent of transparency in communication.
AIMS OF JOB SATISFCTION
1. Economic aim
2. Humanistic aim
3. Theoretical aim
1. Economic aim: The workers who are all satisfied more will be more
productive than dissatisfied workers. Because those who have fulfilled
their needs in respect to their status may give full involvement and
imitativeness to work and this will definitely lead that organization
towards the achievement of their goal in an effective way.
2. Humanistic aim: Humanistic aim of the job attitude research will make
the work hours as pleasurable and as meaningful as possible.
3. Theoretical aim: This aim will increase the understanding power,
knowledge and skills of employee to know the factors which are
responsible for job satisfaction and will contribute to personality theory
in particular and to psychological theory in general.

Theoretical Foundation
Many theories support The Topic Job satisfaction and Employee Turnover and
define the characteristics of satisfaction and to some extent dissatisfaction.
Some of the theories are discussed in detail here.
Job Characteristics Model
Hack man & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model which is widely
used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job
outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core
job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and
feedback). These impact three critical psychological states (experienced
meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the
actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism,
work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to
form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an
index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors.
Maslow Hierarchy of Need
Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs, commencing
with physiological needs then safety, social, esteem and at last self actualization
need. Maslow says that these needs must be satisfied in the order listed.
According to theory, there are some important implications for management.
There are opportunities to motivate employees and provide them job satisfaction
through management style, job design, company events, and compensation
packages. Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that
are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs provide a safe
working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social needs create
a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem needs
recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer
job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization provides
employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory
(Two Factor Theory)
Self-
Actualization
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
To better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg
performed studies to determine which factors in an employee’s work
environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies included
interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them
about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were
different from that causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-
hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and
the dissatisfies hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they
are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction
but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. The following table presents
the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing
satisfaction, listed in the order of higher to lower importance.
Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Leading to Dissatisfaction Leading to
Satisfaction
· Company policy
· Supervision
· Relationship with Boss
· Work conditions
· Salary
· Relationship with Peers
· Achievement
· Recognition
· Work itself
· Responsibility
· Advancement
· Growth






Determinants of Job satisfaction: -
According to ABRAHAM there is two types of variables that determine the
job satisfaction of an individual,
They are: 1.organization variables and
2. Personal variables.
1. Organization Variable:
(a) Occupational level: The higher the level of the work, the greater the
satisfaction of the individual this is because higher level work carry greater
prestige and self control. People at higher level work find most of their needs
satisfied than when they are in lower level ones.
(b) Work Content: the extent to which work provides the individual with
interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept
responsibility will increase work satisfaction.
(c) Considerable Leadership: people like to be treated with consideration.
Hence considerable leadership results in higher work satisfaction than
inconsiderable leadership.
(d) Pay and promotional opportunities: all the other things being equal this
variable are positively related to work satisfaction.
(e) Interaction in the work group: work satisfaction will result if interaction is
most satisfying i.e., when
1. It results in recognition that other person’s attitudes are similar to one’s own.
2. It facilitates the achievement of goals.
2. Personal Variables : - for some people, it appears most jobs will be
dissatisfying irrespective of the organizational conditions involved, whereas for
others, most work will satisfying, personal variables like age, educational level,
sex etc., are responsible for this difference.
(a) Age: Generally there is positive relation between the two variables up to the
pre-retirement years and there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. An individual
aspire for better and more prestigious work in later years of his life. Finding
high advancement blocked his satisfaction declines.
(b) Educational level: the higher the education, the higher the reference group
which the individual look for guidance to educate the job rewards.
(c) Role Perception: Different individuals hold different perceptions about their
roles that are the kind of activities and behavior. They should engage in
performing their job successfully. The more accurate the role perception of an
individual the greater is satisfaction.
(d) Gender: it is considered that the women are less occupational aspirations in
compare to women. Thus, this factor also affects the satisfaction level of the
employees.

The Importance of Job Satisfaction
As mentioned in the overview, job satisfaction has been linked to many
variables, including performance, absenteeism, and turnover, which will be
discussed further in this section.
Job satisfaction is significant because a person's attitude and beliefs may affect
his or her behavior. Attitudes and beliefs may cause a person to work harder, or,
the opposite may occur, and he or she may work less. Job satisfaction also
affects a person's general well-being for the reason that people spend a good
part of the day at work. Consequently, if a person is dissatisfied with their work,
this could lead to dissatisfaction in other areas of their life.

Employee performance
The link between job satisfaction and job performance has a long and
controversial history. Researchers were first made aware of the link between
satisfaction and performance through the 1924-1933 Hawthorne studies (Naidu,
1996).Since the Hawthorne studies, numerous researchers have critically
examined the idea that "a happy worker is a productive worker". Research
results of Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) have found a weak connection,
approximately .17, between job satisfaction and job performance. On the other
hand, research conducted by Organ (1988) discovered that a stronger connection
between performance and satisfaction was not found because of the narrow
definition of job performance. Organ (1988) believes that when the definition of
job performance includes behaviors such as organizational citizenship (the
extent to which one's voluntary support contributes to the success of an
organization) the relationship between satisfaction and performance will
improve. Judge, Thoreson, Bono, and Patton (2001) discovered that after
correcting the sampling and measurement errors of 301 studies, the correlation
between job satisfaction and job performance increased to .30. It is important to
note that the connection between job satisfaction and job performance is higher
for difficult jobs than for less difficult jobs (Saari& Judge, 2004).
A link does exist between job satisfaction and job performance; however, it is
not as strong as one would initially believe. The weak link may be attributed to
factors such as job structure or economic conditions. For example, some jobs
are designed so that a minimum level of performance is required which does not
allow for high satisfaction. Additionally, in times of high unemployment,
dissatisfied employees will perform well, choosing unsatisfying work over
unemployment.
"In 2006, researcher Michelle Jones analyzed three studies pulling together 74
separate investigations of job satisfaction and job performance in 12,000
workers. She wrote: 'The conclusions drawn by these researchers, and many
others, indicate the presence of a positive, but very weak, relationship between
job satisfaction and job performance.' Jones argues we have been measuring the
wrong kind of satisfaction. Instead of job satisfaction, we should be looking at
the link between overall satisfaction with life and output at work" (Bright,
2008). In this study, Jones implies that the more satisfied someone is with their
life in general, the more productive we will be in our jobs.
Employee absenteeism
It seems natural to assume that if individuals dislike their jobs then they will
often call in sick, or simply look for a new opportunity. Yet again, the link
between these factors and job satisfaction is weak. The correlation between job
satisfaction and absenteeism is .25 (Johns, 1997). It is likely that a satisfied
worker may miss work due to illness or personal matters, while an unsatisfied
worker may not miss work because he or she does not have any sick time and
cannot afford the loss of income. When people are satisfied with their job they
may be more likely to attend work even if they have a cold; however, if they are
not satisfied with their job, they will be more likely to call in sick even when
they are well enough to work.


Employee turnover
According to a meta-analysis of 42 studies, the correlation between job
satisfaction and turnover is .24 (Carsten& Spector, 1987). One obvious factor-
affecting turnover would be an economic downturn, in which unsatisfied
workers may not have other employment opportunities. On the other hand, a
satisfied worker may be forced to resign his or her position for personal reasons
such as illness or relocation. This holds true for our men and women of the US
Armed Forces, who might fit well in a job but are often made to relocate
regardless. In this case, it would be next to impossible to measure any
correlation of job satisfaction. Furthermore, a person is more likely to be
actively searching for another job if they have low satisfaction; whereas, a
person who is satisfied with their job is less likely to be job se
Application of Job Satisfaction in the Workplace
The application of job satisfaction in the workplace is a tough concept to grasp
due to its individualistic and circumstantial nature. What one employee desires
from their work, another may not. For instance, one employee may put their
salary in high regard, while another may find autonomy most important.
Unfortunately, one aspect alone will most likely not affect an employee's job
satisfaction. According to Syptak, Marsland, and Ulmer (1999), there are
numerous aspects of a job that an organization can manage to increase
satisfaction in the workplace, such as:
 Company Policies- Policies that are clear, fair and applied equally to all
employees will decrease dissatisfaction. Therefore, fairness and clarity are
important and can go a long way in improving employee attitude. For example,
if a company has a policy for lunch breaks that are the same length and time for
everyone, employees will see this as the norm and it will help cut down on
wasted time and low productivity.
 Salary/Benefits - Making sure employee salaries and benefits are comparable
to other organization salaries and benefits will help raise satisfaction. If a
company wishes to produce a competitive product they must also offer
competitive wages. In addition, this can help reduce turnover, as employees are
more satisfied when paid competitive wages than if they are being underpaid.
 Interpersonal/Social Relations - Allowing employees to develop a social
aspect to their job may increase satisfaction as well as develop a sense of
teamwork. Co-worker relationships may also benefit the organization as a
whole; given that, teamwork is a very important aspect of organization
productivity and success. Moreover, when people are allowed to develop work
relationships they care more about pulling their own weight and not letting co-
workers down.
 Working Conditions - Keeping up to date facilities and equipment and making
sure employees have adequate personal workspace may decrease dissatisfaction.
A cramped employee is a frustrated employee plus faulty equipment provides
frustration in trying to get work done.
 Achievement - Making sure employees are in the proper positions to utilize
their talents may enhance satisfaction. When employees are in the proper role
and feel a sense of achievement and challenge, their talents will be in line with
the goals best suited for them.
 Recognition - Taking the time to acknowledge a job well done may allow for
satisfaction. Positive and constructive feedback boosts an employee's morale
and keeps them working in the right direction.
 Autonomy - Giving employees the freedom of ownership of their work may
help raise satisfaction. Job satisfaction may result when an individual knows
they are responsible for the outcome of their work.
 Advancement - Allowing employees, who show high performance and loyalty,
room to advance will help ensure satisfaction. A new title and sense of
responsibility can often increase job satisfaction in an employee.
 Job Security - Especially in times of economic uncertainty, job security is a
very high factor in determining an employee's job satisfaction. Giving an
employee the assurance that their job is secure will most likely increase job
satisfaction.
 Work-life Balance Practices- In times where the average household is
changing it is becoming more important for an employer to recognize the
delicate balancing act that its employees perform between their personal life and
work life. Policies that respond to common personal and family needs can be
essential to maintaining job satisfaction.
A study published by The Families and Work Institute shows that, despite the
numerous aspects of a job, there are a few that specifically allow for greater
improvement of satisfaction. According to their study, workplace support and
job quality collectively account for 70 percent of the factors influencing job
satisfaction. Surprisingly, earnings and benefits only account for 2 percent
(Employee Retention Headquarters.)

Measures of Job Satisfaction
The following are measures of job satisfaction as outlined by Fields (2002):
 Overall Job Satisfaction - Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins, and Klesh (1983)
developed this measure as part of the Michigan Organizational Assessment
Questionnaire (OAQ). In this measure three items are used to describe an
employee’s subjective response to working in the specific job and organization
(Fields, 2002, p. 20).
 Job Descriptive Index (JDI) - This was originally developed by Smith,
Kendall, and Hulin (1969). There are 72 items on this index which assess five
facets of job satisfaction which includes: the work, pay, promotions,
supervision, and coworkers. Through the combination of ratings of satisfaction
with the faces, a composite measure of job satisfaction is determined.
Roznowski (1989) updated the JDI to include work atmosphere, job content and
work technology. A shorter, 30-item version, was developed by Greg son
(1990) based on 6 items which included work, pay, promotions, supervision and
co-workers (Fields, 2002, p. 23).
 Global Job Satisfaction - Warr, Cook, and Wall (1979) developed this measure
which includes 15 items to determine overall job satisfaction. Two subscales are
used for extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of the job. The extrinsic section has eight
items and the intrinsic has seven items (Fields, 2002, p. 27).
 Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectations - Bacharach, Bamberger, and
Conley (1991) developed this measure. It assesses the degree ―of agreement
between the perceived quality of broad aspects of a job and employee
expectations‖ (Fields, 2002, p. 6). It is most effective to determine how job
stresses, role conflicts, or role ambiguities can hinder an employee from
meeting job expectations (Fields, 2002, p. 6).
 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire - The long form of this survey is made
up of 100 questions based on 20 sub scales which measure satisfaction with
―ability, utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company
policies and practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence,
moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status,
supervision-human relations, supervision-technical variety, and working
conditions‖ (Fields, 2002, p.7). There is a short version of the MSQ which
consists of 20 items. This can also be separated into two subscales for intrinsic
and extrinsic satisfaction.
 Job in General Scale - This measure was developed by Ironson, Smith,
Brannick, Gibson, and Paul (1989). It consists of 18 items which describe
global job satisfaction and can be used in conjunction with the JDI, which
assesses satisfaction with five job facets. This was developed to ―assess global
satisfaction independent from satisfaction with facets‖ (Fields, 2002, p.9).
 Job Satisfaction Survey - This was developed by Spector (1985) and contains
36 items based on nine job facets. The job facets include pay, promotion,
supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers,
nature of work and communication. When it was initially developed, it was
specific to job satisfaction in human service, nonprofit and public organizations
(Fields, 2002, p.14).
 Job Satisfaction Index - Schriescheim and Tsue, (1980) developed this
measure. It consists of six items that form and index which determines overall
job satisfaction. The items are the work, supervision, co-workers, pay,
promotion opportunities, and the job in general (Fields, 2002, p. 16).
 Job Diagnostic Survey - Hackman and Oldham (1974) developed this survey
which measures both overall and specific facets of job satisfaction. There are
three dimensions of overall job satisfaction which includes general satisfaction,
internal work motivation, and growth satisfaction, which are combined into a
single measure. The facets which are measured on the survey include security,
compensation, co-workers, and supervision (Fields, 2002, p. 20).
 Career Satisfaction - Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley (1990)
developed this measure. This is a measure of career success, as opposed to job
satisfaction. It assesses general satisfaction with career outcome, but also
satisfaction with career progress (Fields, 2002, p. 29).
Fields outlines specific types of employee satisfaction measures which describe
an employee’s satisfaction with one or more aspects of their job. These include
the following (Fields, 2002):
 Employee Satisfaction with Influence and Ownership developed by Rosen,
Klein, and Young (1986).
 Satisfaction with Work Schedule Flexibility developed by Rothausen (1994).


















Davis et al.,1985 Job satisfaction represents a combination of positive or
negative feelings that workers have towards their work. Meanwhile, when a
worker employed in a business organization, brings with it the needs, desires
and experiences which determinates expectations that he has dismissed. Job
satisfaction represents the extent to which expectations are and match the real
awards. Job satisfaction is closely linked to that individual's behavior in the
work place
Kaliski, 2007 Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and success
on the job. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well
as to personal well-being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing
it well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies
enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient
that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals
that lead to a feeling of fulfillment.
Stat , 2004 Job satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker
is content with the rewards he or she gets out of his ore her job, particularly in
terms of intrinsic motivation.
Armstrong, 2006 the term job satisfactions refer to the attitude and feelings
people have about their work. Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job
indicate job satisfaction. Negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job
indicate job dissatisfaction.
George petal , 2008 Job satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that
people have about their current job. People’s levels of degrees of job
satisfaction can range from extreme satisfaction to extreme dissatisfaction. In
addition to having attitudes about their jobs as a whole. People also can have
attitudes about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of work they do,
their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates and their pay.
Vroom, 1964 Vroom in his definition on job satisfaction focuses on the role of
the employee in the workplace. Thus he defines job satisfaction as affective
orientations on the part of individuals toward work roles wich they are presently
occupying
Hop pock, 1935Hoppock defined job satisfaction as any combination of
psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a
person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job. According to this approach
although job satisfaction is under the influence of many external factors, it
remains something internal that has to do with the way how the employee feels.
That is job satisfaction presents a set of factors that cause a feeling of
satisfaction.

Specter 1997 The importance of job satisfaction specially emerges to surface if
had in mind the many negative consequences of job dissatisfaction such a lack
of loyalty, increased absenteeism, increase number of accidents etc. Specter
(1997) lists three important features of job satisfaction. First, organizations
should be guided by human values. Such organizations will be oriented towards
treating workers fairly and with respect. In such cases the assessment of job
satisfaction may serve as a good indicator of employee effectiveness. High
levels of job satisfaction may be sign of a good emotional and mental state of
employees. Second, the behaviour of workers depending on their level of job
satisfaction will affect the functioning and activities of the organization's
business. From this it can be concluded that job satisfaction will result in
positive behavior and vice versa, dissatisfaction from the work will result in
negative behaviors of employees. Third, job satisfaction may serve as indicators
of organizational activities. Through job satisfaction evaluation different levels
of satisfaction in different organizational units can be defined, but in turn can
serve as a good indication regarding in which organizational unit changes that
would boost performance should be made.

Locke and Latham 1990 He provide a somewhat different model of job
satisfaction. They proceed from the assumption that the objectives set at the
highest level and high expectations for success in work provides achievement
and success in performing tasks. Success is analyzed as a factor that creates job
satisfaction.


Veldhoven 2009 These long work hours may be indicative of a strong
commitment by clergy to their congregations and community. Personal
dedication, investment in one’s job, and commitment increase job satisfaction in
clergy and religious order workers. Anecdotal accounts can certainly verify this
commitment, and it is something clergy have in common with firefighters.

McDuff 2001 It may be assumed that female clergy have lower satisfaction than
do male clergy due to lower pay and respect and more family stress. A gender
paradox is found within work satisfaction and clergy, however, and female
clergy are generally as satisfied or more satisfied than are their male
counterparts despite perceiving the system as unjust, receiving less pay, having
fewer opportunities for advancement, and having smaller churches with smaller
budgets.

Zondag 2004 While research on emotional exhaustion and burnout among
clergy may seem to abound, other reports suggest that job satisfaction and
desirability of the profession remains high. One study shows clergy are
generally satisfied with their profession and that the perception of ―result
awareness‖ and a feeling of performing significant work contribute to this
satisfaction.

Morris, M. L., Blandton, P. W.1995The availability and importance of
denominational support services as perceived by clergy husbands and their
wives
[Electronic version].

Windhaven, T., Mueller, C. W. & Wang, M. 2005Factors leading to clergy job
search in two protestant denominations. Job Satisfaction among lay, clergy and
religious order workers for the Catholic Church:

T. M., Sanders, K., Veldhoven, M. J. P. M. 2009Emotional exhaustion and
mental health problems among employees doing ―people work‖: The impact of
job demands, job resources and family-to-work conflict [Electronic Version].

Frame, M. W., Sheehan, C. L. 1994Work and well-being in the two-person
career: Relocation stress and coping among clergy husbands and wife.

Lee, S., Olshfski, D.2002 Employee commitment and firefighters: It’s my job
Clergy work-related psychological health, stress, and burnout: Relationships
between psychological job demands, job control and burnout among firefighters
.


McDuffie, E. M. 2001The gender paradox in work satisfaction and the
protestant clergy
While research on emotional exhaustion and burnout among clergy may seem to
abound, other reports suggest that job satisfaction and desirability of the
profession remains high. One study shows clergy are generally satisfied with
their profession and that the perception of ―result awareness‖ and a feeling of
performing significant work contribute to this satisfaction

Csiernik & Adams 2002Clergy were even among those considering their
organizations to produce the least amount of stress, along with hospice workers
and pastoral care providers

Doolittle 2007 discusses coping strategies and finds that planning, acceptance
and positive reframing relate to increased personal accomplishment while self-
blame, disengagement, distraction and denial relate to increased emotional
exhaustion. A higher spirituality score, however, is also correlated with higher
emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, suggesting that clergy
satisfaction is complicated and that emotional exhaustion may not mean
dissatisfaction. Doolittle also finds evidence to support the need for clergy to
maintain healthy boundaries. A study by Randall (2007) suggests that younger
clergy experience more burnout.

Hang-yue et al. 2005 Family stress certainly contributes to job satisfaction
.Marital discord and more children are related to decreased job satisfaction
.Relocation, which is particularly relevant to United Methodist clergy, may
contribute to marital discord, especially when there are children involved.
Wives feel more stress than their clergy husbands when relocating, dealing
especially with their own and their children’s sense of loss and loneliness when
leaving their social network.

Carl J. May 2001A qualitative and quantitative review of the relationship
between job satisfaction and job performance is provided. The qualitative
review is organized around 7 models that characterize past research on the
relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Although some
models have received more support than have others, research has not provided
conclusive confirmation or discontinuation of any model, partly because of a
lack of assimilation and integration in the literature. Research devoted to testing
these models waned following 2 meta-analyses of the job satisfaction–job
performance relationship. Because of limitations in these prior analyses and the
misinterpretation of their findings, a new meta-analysis was conducted on 312
samples with a combined N of 54,417. The mean true correlation between
overall job satisfaction and job performance was estimated to be .30. In light of
these results and the qualitative review, an agenda for future research on the
satisfaction–performance relationship is provided.

Jeong-Yeon Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the
behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential
sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore,
the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases
influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method
biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence
responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical
techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide
recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical
remedies for different types of research settings.

William H 1997the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is
significant and consistent, but not particularly strong. A more complete
understanding of the psychology of the withdrawal decision process requires
investigation beyond the replication of the satisfaction–turnover relationship.
Toward this end, a heuristic model of the employee withdrawal decision
process, which identifies possible intermediate linkages in the satisfaction–
turnover relationship, is presented. Previous studies relevant to the hypothesized
linkages are cited, and possible avenues of research are suggested. (psycinfo
Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

G S and Jayamma, H.R.2011The literature review on variables of any study
places an important role in carrying out the quality research. It identifies the
road taken by other researchers in using the variables and enlightens the
scholars with respect to method, tool, statistical techniques used etc on the
particular variable. The author had come up with this article with a view of
helping researchers in using job satisfaction variable, which otherwise consume
a lot of time and energy. The article identifies the studies related to job
satisfaction in India, at primary, secondary and college level. Keywords: Job
satisfaction, review, findings, methodology. Introduction: Review of related
literature plays a vital role or major step in research. It must precede any well
planned research study. One of the early steps in planning a research work is to
review the studies done in the relevant area of interest. It gives the researcher an
indication of the direction to proceed; it provides an understanding of the status
of research in the field. The review of literature provides the rationale or basis
for formulating hypotheses providing explanations and suggesting further
researches. It provides dues of methodology and instrumentation. It helps the
investigator to proceed on his work in the light of previous work or similar work
and minimizes wrong move. In this article the author had collected an
exhaustive review on job satisfaction with intent of supporting research scholar
for their work.



















Chapter-3
Research Design
Research Methodology
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It
may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically.
We can say that research methodology has many dimensions and research
methods do constitute a part of the research methodology is wider. The study of
research methodology gives the student the necessary training in gathering
materials and arranging or card-indexing them, participation in field work when
required, and also training in techniques for the collection of data appropriate to
particular problems, in the use of statistics, questionnaire and controlled
experimentation and in recording evidence, sorting it out and interpreting it.
Knowledge of research methodology is helpful in various fields. Research
methodology plays a key role in project work. It consists of series of action or
steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of
these steps.

3.1. Research study: -
The researcher has used the Empirical research design for studying the job
satisfaction level of the employees in – CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED.
Research on the job satisfaction is chosen because of the following reasons: -
1. Job satisfaction is the important output that employees work for the
organization.
2. It comprises of extrinsic and extrinsic factors that helps in maintaining
able and willing work force.
3. It is a interesting and significant area for conducting research.
4. The study made on the topic of job satisfaction will consider the factors
which are related with the feelings of the employees at the work place.
5. This report also is useful for the management students for reading, and
may be useful for the business concern (in both public as well as in
private concern).

3.2.Sample size-
The researcher took the sample of 100employees for doing such research study.
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
There are two basic methods for data collection of data:
a) Primary method and
b) Secondary method.
Primary data
A structured questionnaire, which is given by ―Mahta and Jain ‖.The author had
included 23 questions in this questionnaire. All of which are related to the
different perspective of the job and all of which can be used for any level of
employees in an organization.
Secondary data
Secondary data has been collected from different research work, books,
different websites and project abstracts. The researcher has used the same in this
research study in order to obtain data for studying the satisfaction level of
employees at their current job and employees will be asked to give the answers
of23 statements all which are related with the different perspectives of the job.
- Apart from the primary data collected, the data collected through the records
of – CAPARO MARUTILIMITED and internet is used for the study.

The information was collected from 4 different department of the – CAPARO
MARUTI LIMITED. Those 4 departments were: -
1. Cane department
2. General department.
3. Production house.
4. Purchase department

Secondary data: -Apart from the primary data collected, the data collected
through the records of – CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED and internet is used
for the study.
3.4. Area /scope of study-
The study was confined to the CAPARO MARUTI ltd and the data was
collected only from the one unit of Haryana which is Shahabad co-operative
sugar mill, located in the Shahabad. All the statements which are related with
the job satisfaction of the employees and the scores to all the 23 statements were
individually given by the permanent employees of – CAPARO MARUTI
LIMITED.

3.6. Research Objective
1. To measure the employees job satisfaction level on A, B, C - point scale with
respect to the various aspects of the job, – in CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED.
2. To analyze the job satisfaction in a particular sector and reasoning of
dissatisfaction among the employees.
3. To give suggestions for the growth and perspective of the company.
4. To study the effects of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on individual
and organizational effectiveness.









































Q1: At the place of work we may have opportunity to learn something new, for
example, skills of management. In some companies, the organization helps
people to learn new jobs and skills. What is the position in your company?
Table no.1
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1 8 13.6 13.6 13.6
2 9 15.3 15.3 28.8
3 42 71.2 71.2 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0

Interpretation : Table 1 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 71.2%
have considered their organization as a work place which provides them
opportunities to learn new things i.e. skills of management. However, 13.6 % of
the total sample do not compliment the same results shown by table 1 also
presented with the help of pie chart no.1.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
8
13.6 13.6 13.6
9
15.3 15.3
28.8
42
71.2 71.2
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q2: People working together develop friendship with each other. In some
places, however, such a thing may not be possible. What is the situation in your
organization? Are people generally friendly?
Table no. 2
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 11 18.6 18.6 18.6
2 25 42.4 42.4 61.0
3 23 39.0 39.0 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table 2 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 42.4% have
considered People working together develop friendship with each other.
However, 18.6 % of the total sample do not compliment the same results shown
by table 2 also presented with the help of pie chart no.2.
0
20
40
60
80
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
8
13.6 13.6 13.6
9
15.3 15.3
28.8
42
71.2 71.2
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q3: Employees like to have good fringe benefits from the company, for
example, education of their children; medical facilities for their families, etc. on
the whole how are such benefits in your organization?
Table no. 3
Frequenc
y
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1 11 18.6 18.6 18.6
2 19 32.2 32.2 50.8
3 29 49.2 49.2 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Table 3 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 49.2% believe
that such facilities our fringe benefits are quite good which shows that
Employees like to have good fringe benefits from the company. However
18.6% people believe that such facilities are quite here so they contribute less to
the statement.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
11
18.6 18.6 18.6 19
32.2 32.2
50.8
29
49.2 49.2
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q4 in all organization people there are people who supervise subordinates work.
How are the people who supervise your work? Are people happy with them?
Table no.4
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 6 10.2 10.2 10.2
2 18 30.5 30.5 40.7
3 35 59.3 59.3 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation: Table 4 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 59.3% of the
sample depicts that People here are generally happy with their supervisors so
subordinates feel happy with them. However, 10.2%depicts that People here
are not at all happy with their supervisors.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
6
10.2 10.2 10.2
18
30.5 30.5
40.7
35
59.3 59.3
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q5: in industry fresh drinking water is provided at the work place by the
company. How are the facilities for drinking water in your company?
Table no.5
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 13 22.0 22.0 22.0
2 14 23.7 23.7 45.8
3 32 54.2 54.2 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation : Table 5 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 54.2 %
have considered that Facilities for drinking water are satisfactory. However,
22.0 % of the total sample reveals that The Facilities for drinking water are
poor.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
13
22 22 22
14
23.7 23.7
45.8
32
54.2 54.2
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q6: It is natural to have curiosity about whatever is happening in the
organization. You may sometimes be curious to know about the events in your
company. How far you ate able to get such information?
Table no.6
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 6 10.2 10.2 10.2
2 27 45.8 45.8 55.9
3 26 44.1 44.1 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table 6 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 45.8% have
considered that We get enough information about whatever is happening in the
organization. However, 10.2 % of the total sample does not get adequate
information about the affairs of the company.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
13
22 22 22
14
23.7 23.7
45.8
32
54.2 54.2
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q7: If any of your colleagues express opinions and give suggestions to senior
officers, do they care for your suggestions?
Table no. 7
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 7 11.9 11.9 11.9
2 26 44.1 44.1 55.9
3 26 44.1 44.1 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table7 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 44.1% have
considered that they do care and listen to our suggestions. There is no pattern,
sometimes they take note of our suggestions, sometimes, and they don’t care
However, 11.9 % of the total sample represents that they never care for our
suggestions.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
7
11.9 11.9 11.9
26
44.1 44.1
55.9
26
44.1 44.1
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q8: We do want appreciation for good work. Do you receive appreciation for
good work in your company?
Table no. 8
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 4 6.8 6.8 6.8
2 29 49.2 49.2 55.9
3 26 44.1 44.1 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation: Table 8 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 49.2% have
considered their organization Good work is appreciated only times. However,
6.8 % of the total sample no one here cares to appreciates good work.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
4
6.8 6.8 6.8
29
49.2 49.2
55.9
26
44.1 44.1
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q9: Very few people like to do the same thing again and again. How is the
situation in your company? Do you get variety in your work?
Table no 9.
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 8 13.6 13.6 13.6
2 29 49.2 49.2 62.7
3 22 37.3 37.3 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation: Table 9 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 49.2% have
considered that Sometimes we get some novelty in our work here. However,
13.6 % of the total sample answers that they frequently get new an interesting
thing to do.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
8
13.6 13.6 13.6
29
49.2 49.2
62.7
22
37.3 37.3
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q10: In work organizations canteen facilities are provided to the employees.
How is your canteen?
Table no. 10
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 15 25.4 25.4 25.4
2 16 27.1 27.1 52.5
3 28 47.5 47.5 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation: Table 10 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 47.5% have
considered that Our canteen is quite good. . However, 25.4 % of the total
sample answers that there is hardly any canteen here.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
15
25.4 25.4 25.4
16
27.1 27.1
52.5
28
47.5 47.5
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q11: people wish to have a job in which there is maximum scope for using
one’s skills and abilities. How do you feel about your job?
Table no. 11




Interpretation :Table 11 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 52.5% have
considered that My job is very much Up to my skills and attributes. However,
13.6 % of the total sample do believe that their job is below my skills and
abilities.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
31
52.5 52.5 52.5
20
33.9 33.9
86.4
8
13.6 13.6
100
59
100 100
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 31 52.5 52.5 52.5
2 20 33.9 33.9 86.4
3 8 13.6 13.6 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0
Q12: companies provide medical facilities to employees. How are these
facilities provided by your company?
Table no. 12
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1 9 15.3 15.3 15.3
2 24 40.7 40.7 55.9
3 26 44.1 44.1 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table12 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 44.1% have
considered that Medical facilities are good here. However, 15.3 % of the total
sample answers that Medical facilities are not adequate.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
9
15.3 15.3 15.3
24
40.7 40.7
55.9
26
44.1 44.1
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q13: Normally, people who work together develop trust in each; but it does not
happen all the time. In your experience how much trust people in your or
generation have of each others?
Table no. 13
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 11 18.6 18.6 18.6
2 25 42.4 42.4 61.0
3 23 39.0 39.0 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 13 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 42.4% have
considered that People here have very little trust in each others. However, 18.6
% of the total sample answers that they do not much trust in each others.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
11
18.6 18.6 18.6
25
42.4 42.4
61
23
39 39
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q14: work organization provides facilities for recreation. How are the facilities
for recreation provided by your company?
Table no. 14
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 9 15.3 15.3 15.3
2 23 39.0 39.0 54.2
3 27 45.8 45.8 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 14 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 45.8% have
considered that There are good facilities for recreation available here to the
employees, after work. However, 15.3% of the total sample answers that there
are some facilities for recreation available here.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
9
15.3 15.3 15.3
23
39 39
54.2
27
45.8 45.8
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q15: when decisions concerning you and your colleagues are taken by the
management, in what measure are you able to influence these decisions?
Table no.15
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 10 16.9 16.9 16.9
2 16 27.1 27.1 44.1
3 33 55.9 55.9 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 15 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 55.9% have
considered that We have considerable influence over the decisions. However,
16.9 % of the total sample answers that they have almost no influence on the
decisions.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
10
16.9 16.9 16.9 16
27.1 27.1
44.1
33
55.9 55.9
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q16: There is a general tendency to be on one’s own while doing his job. How
much freedom do you have in doing your job without interference from your
supervisors?
Table no. 16
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 5 8.5 8.5 8.5
2 13 22.0 22.0 30.5
3 41 69.5 69.5 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table 16 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 69.5% have
considered that they have full freedom to do their work. However, 8.5 % of the
total sample answers that they always carried out the wishes of supervisor and
do work according to his instructions.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
5
8.5 8.5 8.5
13
22 22
30.5
41
69.5 69.5
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q17: It is expected of each employee to put in his best. In your company, do
your supervisors expect you to do your best?
Table no. 17
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1 4 6.8 6.8 6.8
2 26 44.1 44.1 50.8
3 29 49.2 49.2 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 17 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 49.2% have
considered that they always expect good work from us. However, 6.8 % of the
total samples do answers that good work is not particularly expected from us
here.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
4
6.8 6.8 6.8
26
44.1 44.1
50.8
29
49.2 49.2
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q18 Sometimes you might feel that injustice is being done to you by the
management. Is there any forum where such grievances can be redressed?
Table no. 18
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 11 18.6 18.6 18.6
2 23 39.0 39.0 57.6
3 25 42.4 42.4 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 18 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 42.4% have
considered that there is proper arrangement for redressed of such grievances.
However, 18.6 % of the total sample do compliment that no attention
whatsoever is paid to such grievances.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
11
18.6 18.6 18.6
23
39 39
57.6
25
42.4 42.4
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q19 When decisions about work and workers are taken, the employees are
involved is such decision making. Is it done in your company?
Table no. 19
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 5 8.5 8.5 8.5
2 19 32.2 32.2 40.7
3 35 59.3 59.3 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 19 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 59.3% have
considered that before taking any decision everyone is ask for his/her opinion. .
However, 8.5 % of the total sample answers that nobody is ever asked to give
his opinion.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
5
8.5 8.5 8.5
19
32.2 32.2
40.7
35
59.3 59.3
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q20 In your job there must be certain things which you could do by using your
own judgment. In some companies, the management encourages people to use
their own judgment about their job. How is the situation in your company?
Table no. 20
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 6 10.2 10.2 10.2
2 10 16.9 16.9 27.1
3 43 72.9 72.9 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table 20 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 72.9% have
considered that we are encouraged to take up your own decisions in day- today
work. However, 10.2 % of the total sample do answers that for each and every
thing one has to look to the orders of the higher ups.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
6
10.2 10.2 10.2 10
16.9 16.9
27.1
43
72.9 72.9
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q21 How are the interpersonal relations among the officers here? Do people
quarrel with each other?
Table no.21
Frequen
cy
Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Vali
d
1 12 20.3 20.3 20.3
2 25 42.4 42.4 62.7
3 22 37.3 37.3 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0



Interpretation :Table 21 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 37.3% have
considered that people cooperate with each other and there are no quarrels. .
However, 20.3 % of the total samples do answers that people here tend to down
grade each other.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
12
20.3 20.3 20.3
25
42.4 42.4
62.7
22
37.3 37.3
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Q22 It is sometimes felt that the higher ups do not plan things properly and
changes in plans etc. have to be made frequently. How is your experience in
your company?
Table no.22
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1 14 23.7 23.7 23.7
2 15 25.4 25.4 49.2
3 30 50.8 50.8 100.0
Total 59 100.0 100.0


Interpretation :Table 22 reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 50.8% have
considered that things are properly planned here. . However, 23.7 % of the total
sample does answers that things are not at all planned and frequent changes in
instructions and plans are done.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
14
23.7 23.7 23.7
15
25.4 25.4
49.2
30
50.8 50.8
100
59
100 100
Chart Title
Valid 1 Valid 2 Valid 3 Valid Total
Findings
1. 71.2% have considered their organization as a work place which provides
them opportunities to learn new things i.e. skills of management.
2. From the study 42.4% have considered People working together develop
friendship with each other.
3. 49.2% believe that such facilities Our fringe for example, education of
their children; medical facilities for their families, etc. benefits are quite
good which shows that Employees like to have good fringe benefits from
the company.
4. 11.9 % of the total sample believe that Scales are poor and inadequate.
Which defines the thinking level of the people about their salary structure
. Rest 52.5% Salary scales are good. defines the thinking level of the
people about their salary structure
5. The study of 59.3% of the sample depicts that People here are generally
happy with their supervisors so subordinates feel happy with them.
6. Only 22.0 % of the total sample reveals that The Facilities for drinking
water are poor.
7. The studies of 45.8% have considered that we get enough information
about whatever is happening in the organization.
8. 11.9 % of the total sample represents that they never care for our
suggestions.
9. The study reveals that, 6.8 % of the total sample no one here cares to
appreciates good work.
10. The study of 49.2% has considered that sometimes we get some novelty
in our work here. On the contrary, 13.6 % of the total sample answers that
they frequently get new an interesting thing to do.
11. The study reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 47.5% have considered
that our canteen is quite good. but, 25.4 % of the total sample answers
that There is hardly any canteen here.
12. The study of reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 52.5% have
considered that my job is very much Up to my skills and attributes.
13. The reveals of that majority of respondents i.e. 42.4% have considered
that People here have very little trust in each others. On the contrary, 18.6
% of the total sample answers that they do not much trust in each others.
14. The study of reveals that majority of respondents i.e. 45.8% have
considered that there are good facilities for recreation available here to
the employees, after work.
15. Only 16.9 % of the total sample answers that they have almost no
influence on the decisions.

16. The reveals of study that majority of respondents i.e. 69.5% have
considered that they have full freedom to do their work.

17. Only 6.8 % of the total sample does answers that good work is not
particularly expected from us here.

18. Only 18.6 % of the total sample do compliment that no attention
whatsoever is paid to such grievances.

19. The reveals of study that majority of respondents i.e. 72.9% have
considered that we are encouraged to take up your own decisions in day-
today work. On the contrary, 10.2 % of the total sample does answers that
for each and every thing one has to look to the orders of the higher ups.
20. Only 23.7 % of the total sample does answers that things are not at all
planned and frequent changes in instructions and plans are done.


































Limitation of Study
1. Lack of time:-while doing the research researcher feel lack of time to
somewhat extent.
2. Lack of experience:-It was my first time experience of doing any kind of
research in any CAPARO MARUTILTD. That’s why researcher feels lack of
experience in him while doing such kind of research.
3. Less response from respondent side:-Some of respondent were not
cooperative as desired.
4. Lack of time from customer side:-Some respondentswere interested but due
to lack of time they can’t spent time for filling the questionnaire of job
satisfaction scale.
5. Lack of personal contact:-there is no personal contact between the persons
who is filling the questionnaire and who is taking the responses.









SUGGESSTION
1. Create the chance for the promotion :-there is a very few or we can say
that no promotion is given to the employees .The top management must give
attention towards the promotional need of the employees, so that all will get
satisfaction out of their employment. every employee wants to get advancement
in their job so that their job profile can be increased but there is no promotion or
advancement was given and if it is given then not on the basis of efficiency
level of employees. The potential of the employees is not considered while
given any promotion.
2. To reduce the political influence:-the recruitment is occurs on the approach
basis. The potential of the employees is not considered because of the political
influence.
3. Innovation:-There is need of giving the adequate opportunity of doing
something new to those who will not feel boredom from there job due to doing
same type of work everyday. The employer can make provision of job rotation
for these employees who wanted to do new task.
4. To increase the status of those employees: - who wanted to be somebody in
the community. So that they can recognize by their job profile in their
community.
5. Performance appraisal:-There is need to make performance appraisal of
both the employees as well as the employer in order to check the competency of
both .The performance of the supervisor must also be measured in order to
know the capability of taking the effective decision by the supervisor can be
measured.
6. Giving adequate opportunity:-employees should give the adequate
opportunities on the basis of which they can be promoted or get advancement
on their job.
7. Improve working condition:-there is need of giving healthy working
condition in the entire department instead of considering one particular
department. It is suggested that the general management must provide the
healthy working environment in the cane department as well.
8. Equality: - All the employees must be treated equally. There must be no
partiality on any case so that employee always remains satisfied from the
organization as a whole.
9. Improve Your Co-worker Relationships: - If you work with difficult
people, you probably think that your job is a drag. Forget and forgive any past
office pettiness and move on toward bigger and better relationships. Get to
know the people you work with in a more personal manner by inviting them out
to lunch, sharing a joke or funny story with them, or asking about their day,
their family or their hobbies. Forming healthy friendships at work makes it that
much easer to enjoy your day spent in the office, as well as to resolve work
conflicts that may arise later on.
10. Take a Break, You deserve it:-One of the worst things you can do is refuse
to give yourself breaks, thinking that you’ll accomplish more if only you keep
plugging ahead. Take a break now and then – you deserve it. If you have a sit-
down job, get up and walk around every hour. You’d be amazed at how much
this can clear your mind and refresh you for the next couple of hours. If you
have a high-energy job and are always on the go, take the time to sit down,
close your eyes and just relax. Taking breaks centers your mind and makes you
more productive.

11. Make Work Second in Your Life:-To achieve satisfaction in both life and
work, keep your job off for 1 spot on your priority list. Maintaining your job
satisfaction means knowing that your job is just one part of the equation, and it
shouldn’t be the most important. Self-identity, family, hobbies, and the little
everyday stuff that makes life enjoyable should always fill up for 1 spot on your
list of priorities. Having a happy home life reflects on the quality of work you
do. This is especially true for those times when something at work goes badly;
if you’re home life is in order, you’ll be better equipped to deal with problems
at work. Knowing that you get to go home to something you enjoy at the end of
the day will prepare you to handle work problems better, since you know it’s
not the end of the world.

12. Stop Snacking on Processed Foods:-You may think that what you eat has
nothing to do with maintaining your job satisfaction, but you really are what
you eat. If you eat junk, you’ll perform like junk. All those refined carbs you’re
snacking on are doing diddly squat for your brain power and productivity. Not
only do they rob you of concentration, but they contribute to those few extra
pounds you’ve been putting on.
13. Understand the link between work approach and job satisfaction:-the
employees while doing there job with in the organization must understand that
how to do that particular work so that he can get the maximum satisfaction out
of their work. He must be adjusting himself according to the changing situation
with in that particular organization.
content_0_

 C
14. Find reward and recognition:- We all need to feel recognized and
rewarded for what we do. If your job doesn’t have built-in opportunities for
recognition, or if rewards are infrequent, you may need to add rewards and
recognition to your own life.
15. Employees should make the organizational goal as their own goal:-
sometimes due to the difference between the organizational goal and the
employees personal goal do not matched and due to that reason they feel
dissatisfaction from their job.So, the employees must treat the organizational
goal as their own goal in order to get the satisfaction out of theirjob. He must
understand that if he achieves the organizational goal then only his personal
goal can be achieved.
16. Feeling of co-operation:-when the employees cooperate each other while
doing the job then he will also get help from those to him he always cooperate.
Thus making harmonious relationship at the workplace always benefited to the
employees, the employees who have the feeling of maintaining co-operation and
those who are ready to make the harmonious relationship with each and every
employee will always be satisfied with their job.
17. Think the organization as their home:-when you are doing work in the
organization you must feel that you are not away from the home. If you are
reminding your home time to time while doing the work you may not
concentrate on your work well and you may feel dissatisfied by their work.



CONCLUSION
Job satisfaction can contribute to multiple organizational problems and has been
associated with increased levels of turnover and absenteeism, which ultimately
cost the organization in terms of low performance and decreased productivity.
The factors that affect job satisfaction are varied and dynamic in nature, making
it difficult for HR professionals to pinpoint what aspects are most important and
make employees happy. It is important for HR professionals to be aware of the
needs and composition of their workforce as well as the impact of
environmental factors when developing their programs and policies. As the job
market expands, it will be particularly important for HR professionals to pay
close attention to aspects that are important to employee job satisfaction in
general and by employee age, gender and other workforce characteristics.
The feedback from these surveys will help the university to continue to improve
on the way it
Manages staff and work environment issues. This could be regarded as a wealth
of information for the university on how to improve programs and meet the
needs of the staff who are a great asset in the success of the institution.
The importance of an employee should be fully incorporated in the budgeting,
planning, organizational structure; corporate strategies and other aspects of the
organization that would help actualize the concept and thereby emphasize the
importance of placing staff needs at the core of corporate objectives. Develop an
overall understanding of who the employees are to the organization. Highlight
the importance and methods of determining employees’ needs. Improve
management of human resources such as feedback monitoring and management,
as it has been observed that it was ranked poorly by the survey. Instill positive
attitudes and beliefs towards management of the human resources in the
institution, and realize a broad spectrum of positive ―corporate culture‖ that
should be inclined to quick response to the ever growing needs and wants in
human resource management.






ANEXXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondent,
I approach to your esteem good self in relation to my dissertation on the topic
―Job Satisfaction of Employees in – CAPARO MARUTI LIMITED‖ I
would be extremely thankful, if you could spare few minutes for filling all the
questions in this questionnaire.
NAME ……………
DEPARTMENT……………………….
AGE………………………….
SEX…………………………………
EXPERIENCE……………...............
Please tick mark the relevant answer as provided against each question:
Q1: At the place of work we may have opportunity to learn something new, for
example, skills of management. In some companies, the organization helps
people to learn new jobs and skills. What is the position in your company?
(a) We have opportunities for learning new jobs and skills.
(b) Sometimes there is some opportunity.
(c) We do not have any opportunity here.


Q2: People working together develop friendship with each other. In some
places, however, such a thing may not be possible. What is the situation in your
organization? Are people generally friendly?
(a) People here are very friendly.
(b) People here are sometimes friendly.
(c) People are generally indifferent here.

Q3: Employees like to have good fringe benefits from the company, for
example, education of their children; medical facilities for their families, etc. on
the whole how are such benefits in your organization?
(a) Our fringe benefits are quite good.
(b) There are only few such benefits available here.
(c) Such facilities are quite here.

Q4: looking to the nature of work and the organization. What do you think
about your salary?
(a) Salary scales are good.
(b) They are not so good.
(c) Scales are poor and inadequate.
Q5: in all organization people there are people who supervise subordinates
work. How are the people who supervise your work? Are people happy with
them?
(a) People here are generally happy with their supervisors.
(b) People here are not very happy with their supervisors.
(c) People here are not at all happy with their supervisors.
Q6: in industry fresh drinking water is provided at the work place by the
company. How are the facilities for drinking water in your company?
(a) Facilities for drinking water are satisfactory.
(b) Facilities for drinking water are not so good.
(c) The Facilities for drinking water are poor.
Q7: It is natural to have curiosity about whatever is happening in the
organization. You may sometimes be curious to know about the events in your
company. How far you ate able to get such information?
(a) We get all the information about the events in the company.
(b) We get enough information.
(c) We do not get adequate information about the affairs of the company.
Q8: If any of your colleagues express opinions and give suggestions to senior
officers, do they care for your suggestions?
(a) Yes, they do care and listen to our suggestions.
(b) There is no pattern, sometimes they take note of our suggestions,
sometimes, and they don’t care.
(c) They never care for our suggestions.
Q9: We do want appreciation for good work. Do you receive appreciation for
good work in your company?
(a)Good work is always appreciated here.
(b)Good work is appreciated only times.
(c)No one here cares to appreciate good work.
Q10: Very few people like to do the same thing again and again. How is the
situation in your company? Do you get variety in your work?
(a)Here people have to do the same kind of routine over again.
(b)Sometimes we get some novelty in our work here.
(c) Here, we frequently get new an interesting thing to do.
Q11: In work organizations canteen facilities are provided to the employees.
How is your canteen?
(a) Our canteen is quite good.
(b) Our canteen is not good.
(c) There is hardly any canteen here.
Q12: people wish to have a job in which there is maximum scope for using
one’s skills and abilities. How do you feel about your job?
(a) My job is below my skills and abilities.
(b) My job is matched with my skills and abilities.
(c) My job is very much Up to my skills and attributes.
Q13: companies provide medical facilities to employees. How are these
facilities provided by your company?
(a) Medical facilities are good here.
(b) There is hardly any medical facility available.
(c) Medical facilities are not adequate.
Q14: Normally, people who work together develop trust in each; but it does not
happen all the time. In your experience how much trust people in your or
generation have of each others?
(a) People have trust each other very much.
(b) People here have very little trust in each others.
(c) They do not much trust in each others.
Q15: work organization provides facilities for recreation. How are the facilities
for recreation provided by your company?
(a) There are good facilities for recreation available here to the employees,
after work.
(b) There are hardly any facilities available for reaction.
(c) There are some facilities for recreation available here.
Q16: when decisions concerning you and your colleagues are taken by the
management, in what measure are you able to influence these decisions?
(a) We have considerable influence over the decisions.
(b) We can influence the decisions only something’s.
(c) We have almost no influence on the decisions.
Q17: There is a general tendency to be on one’s own while doing his job. How
much freedom do you have in doing your job without interference from your
supervisors?
(a) We have full freedom to do our own work.
(b) Sometimes we have freedom to do our own work.
(c) We have always carried out the wishes of our supervisor and do work
according to his instructions.
Q18: It is expected of each employee to put in his best. In your company, do
your supervisors expect you to do your best?
(a) They always expect good work from us.
(b) Good or bad whatever we do is alright with them.
(c) Good work is not particularly expected from us here.
Q19 Sometimes you might feel that injustice is being done to you by the
management. Is there any forum where such grievances can be redressed?
(a) There is proper arrangement for redressed of such grievances.
(b) Only sometimes attention is paid to such grievances.
(c) No attention whatsoever is paid to such grievances.

Q20 When decisions about work and workers are taken, the employees are
involved is such decision making. Is it done in your company?

(a) Before taking any decision everyone is ask for his opinion.
(b) Only sometimes opinions are asked for.
(c) Nobody is ever asked to give his opinion.

Q21 In your job there must be certain things which you could do by using
your own judgment. In some companies, the management encourages
people to use their own judgment about their job. How is the situation in
your company?

(a) Here we are encouraged to take up your own decisions in day- today
work.
(b) Such encouragement is sometimes available here for taking initiative in
day-today work.
(c) For each and every thing one has to look to the orders of the higher ups.

Q22 How is the interpersonal relations among the officers here? Do people
Quarrel with each other?

(a) People cooperate with each other and there are no quarrels.
(b) People do not have very good relations with each other.
(c) People here tend to down grade each other.

Q23 It is sometimes felt that the higher ups do not plan things properly and
changes in plans etc. have to be made frequently. How is your
experience in your company?

(a) Things are properly planned here.
(b) Planning is weal and sometimes we get contradictory messages.
(c) Things are not at all planned and frequent changes in instructions and
plans are done.





Bibliography
www.projectsformba.co.cc/p
www.projectsformba.co.cc/p/feedback.html
www.google.com
www.Gogoindia.com
Essentials of human resources management- P.SubbaRao
Human resources management – ashwathappa
Organisational theory and practice – VSP Rao