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Proto Historic Period : Harappan Script was ideographic, but has not deciphered.
On the fortification wall of the recently excavated city Dholavira depiction of Harappan pictographs
have been found which the oldest sinage of the world is.
Vedic iterature:
• Veda !eans "nowledge
• Vedic literature includes all the four Vedas, #rah!nas, $ryan"as and %panishadas.
• &igveda is the earliest Veda
• &ig !eans hy!ns.
• &igveda is divided into '( !andalas.
• )andalas are further divided in to $sta"as and Su"tas.
• &igvedas co!prises '(*+ hy!ns.
• ,otal hy!ns is all vedas are *(,(((.
• ,he last '' hy!ns are "nown #ala"hilya -second to seventh !andala are "nown as .a!ily
,ext/ which are considered as the oldest part of &igveda.
• ,hird !andala of &igveda co!prises 0aytri )antra, co!posed by Viswa!itra.
• 0aytri )antra is dedicated to savitur who was deity of Sun fa!ily.
• .ourth )andala consists of references of agricultural wor".
• Sixth !andala depicts the word Haryupia which has been related with Harappa.
• 1inth !andala is dedicated to so!a.
• .irst type 2rishna3s description has been found in 4handogya %pnishad.
• ,enth !andala -Purusha Su"ta/ describes
$bout the four varnas "nown as #rah!an, 2shatriya, Vaishya and sudra.
• Sa!anean 5to Sing6.
• 7xcept 8+ hy!ns all the other hy!ns of this Veda have been ta"en fro! &igveda.
• 9a:urveda is an elaborate elucidation of rituals.
• 2rishan;ya:urveda co!prises description in prose.
• $tharvveda is related with so!e non;$ryan traditions li"e !agical char! and spell.
• #rah!an literature is descriptive detail about Sacra!ent, sacrifices and different rites and
• $itreya and 2ausita"i #rah!an are related with &igveda.
• Satpath #rah!n related with 9a:urveda describes about $ryans extention in the 0anget c
• &ituals related with agriculture have; been also described in it.
• $ryan"as are philosophical in content.
• Philosophy about the unity of $t!a and Parniat!a has been described in %panishadas.
• %panishadas are called Vedanta.
• ,otal nu!ber of %panishadas is '(+. #ut $ccording to San"aracharya nu!ber of
%panishadas is '<.
• 2atha upnishad describes the story ya!a and 1achi"eta.
• %panisbadas !ainly revolves around South and #rah!a.
• )andu"opanished of $tharva Veda depicts satya!ev =ayte.
• &igveda, Sa!veda and 9ayurveda are collectively called ,rayee.
Vedang iterature:
'. Si"ha -Phonetics/ ; 9as"a is the first "nown writer on Si"ha.
*. 2alpa ; -&ituals/ ; ,here are three Sutras Dhar!a, Sraut and 0rihya.
• Sulva Sutra describes about geometry
• Nirukta (Elymology)
• !!a"da (#etre) $ %i"gal &as t!e greatest aut!or o" !!a"da S!astra'
• (yakara" ()rammer) $ %a"i"i &rote Astad!yayi* +atyaya" (artika a"d %ata",ali$
• -yotis!a (Astrology) $ No .articular book o" (eda"ga -yotit!a is available
0reat 7pics:
'. &a!ayan : 7lucidation of social ideals of ancient >ndian Society.
• *?(((, Salo"as
• Poet ; Val!i"i -He is called $di"avi/
• Val!i"i for first ti!e used the world Sans"rit as no!enclature of the literary language
which was earlier "nown as #hasa.
*. )ababharta: Political thought of ancient >ndia can be understood on the basis of this epic.
• '(,(((( slo"as ->t is called Satsahasri Sainhita and also Pancharu Veda.
• 0eeta is a part of #his!a Parva.
• Harivanshapuran of )ahabharat co!prises genealogy of the rulers.
S!irti iterature:
'. )anu S!riti is the earliest s!riti.
• >t was co!piled during the period of 2anava ruler.
• >t calls foreign rulers $dha! "ula 2shatriya.
• >t criticises violation of varnashar!a order.
• $ccording to it 1iyog is 2alivai:ya !eans strictly restricted in "ali era.
*. 9a:nal"ya s!riti ; first described about the origin of 2aysthas.
@. 1arad s!riti ; describes about rituals related with !anu!ission of seth.
?. Parasar s!riti ; describes about a nu!ber or classes of #rah!anas especially rich class of land
owning #rah!anas who were against accepting al!s.
Puranas have five i!portant features.
'. Sarg
*. Pratisarg
@. Vansa
?. )anvantar
A. Varsanucharit
• (a"sa"uc!arit mea"s ge"eology
• (ayu .ura" me"tio"s about geogra.!y o/ I"dia" culture a"d about .romi"e"t I"dia"
dy"asties like Na"da* #aurya* Su"ga* Satva!a"a a"d )u.ta'
• Srimad b!agvat .ura"a is t!e' greatest .ura" i" res.ect to 0!akti cult'
• (ayu a"d (is!"u %ura" me"tio" I"dia1s geogra.!y'
• (is!"u d!armottara .ura" de.icts about &all .ai"ti"gs a"d ico"ometry'
,echnical and Scientific iterature
• $shwini 2u!ars. were physicians of the celestial world who got the "nowledge of $yurveda
fro! #rah!a.
• Dhanvantri is considered as father of $yurveda syste!.
• $thraveda gives first hand infor!ation about $yurveda.
• 4hara"a who belonged to "ushana period wrote chara" sa!ihta.
• Shshurut wrote Shrshrut Sa!hita which also !entions about surgical operation.
• Vagbhata wrote $stang thidya which !entions about eight !a:or organs of hu!an body.
Veterinary Science:
• Salihanna wrote on $sva 4hi"itsa.
• Pal"appya wrote on 0a:a chi"itsa
Vri"sha parasar describes about nu!erous !edicinal herbs and plants.
• Vedang =yotisha is considered as the earliest text on astrology as on well as astrono!y but it
is not available.
• $ryabhatta wrote Surya Sidhanti"a.
• Varaha!ihir wrote Pancha Sidhanti"a, Vrihat:ata", .aghu =ata" and Vrihat Sa!hita on
• #rah! 0upta wrote #rah!sphuta Sidhanta.
• Sulva Sutra describes about vedic alters.
• ,his is the earliest text which co!prises infor!ation on geo!etry.
• $ryabhatta wrote $rybhattiya! which describes about deci!al syste! and about Cero.
• #has"aracharya wrote ilavati
• )anual of $rchitecture is "nown as Silpa Sastra.
• 7arliest infor!ation about painting and icono!etry is given in Visnudhar!ottara Purana.
• )aya!atta, >shan Visva gurudeo Padhati and $para:itpn"sha are so!e of the best "nown
texts on >ndian $rchitecture.
#iographical iterature:
• #anabhatta ; 7larsha 4hant -Pushyabhuti ruler of 2anau:/.
• Vilhan ; Vi"ra!ana"devcharita! -4halu"yan ruler of 2alyani/
• $nand bhatta ; #allal charita
• Sandhya"arnandi ; &a!palcharit
• =ayana" ; Prithavi &a: 4hant
• He! chandra ; 2u!ar Pal 4hant
• Pan!al 0upta ; 1avshashsan"a 4hant
• =ayagondar ; 2alingatupani
• Ota"uttan ; 2ulatinga!
4lassical Sans"rit:
#hasa wrote '? plays -Swapanvasha;dutta! and Pratirna 9angandhanaiyan are his !ost fa!ous
'. #uddha 4harita! D -#uddha3s biography/
*. Saudarananda -Story of SuEdani and $nand/
@. Sutralan"ar -Philosophical text/
Sudra"a )richcha 2ati"a! -.irst realistic play in Sans"rit/
'. )udsara"shasa; ->t is related with 2autilyals diplo!atic strife with )aha!atya of
*. Devi 4handragupta! ->t is related with 4handra 0upta Vi"ra!aditya/
@. 2alidas 7pic F &aguvansha!

• )eghaduta!
• 2u!ar Sa!bhva!
'. Vi"ra!o varsiya
*. )alvi"agni !itra!
@. $bhi:ayana Sha"untala!
• 0!arvi $ +iratai,u"iyam
• #ag! 2 (ad!ar"'

2autilya ; $rthasastra
• #oo" was written on polity.
• ,his boo" was discovered by Sha! =i Sastri
• >t has 'A $dhi"aranas
• >t describes about Saptang theory of state and enlightened despotis! of )aurya period with
descriptive detail about ad!inistration.
2a!anda"a ; 1itisar
• >t is a co!!entary on $rthasastra.
• >t was written during 0upta period
Vrihaspati ; $rthasastra
• Duties of an ideal rulers have been described in this text.
'. 2aihan ; &a:tarangini >
*. =on &a: ; &a:tarangini >>
@. Srivar and Su"a ; &a:tarangin >>>
#uddhist iterature:
'. Sutta Pita" ; ,eachings and preaching of ord #uddha
*. Vinay Pita" ; )onastical rules and regulationsBdiscipline and order.
@. $bhidha!! Pita" ; )etaphysical and esoteric ideas
Sutta Pita"
'. Diggha 1i"aya
*. )a::i! 1i"aya
@. Sa!yu"ta 1i"aya
?. $nguttara 1i"aya
A. 2hudda" 1i"aya
2hudda" Path
'. Dhani!a Pad ; -,his is 2nown as #hagvat 0eeta of #uddhis!/
*. 7tivethh"a ; #uddha teachings Vi!an Vethu, Peta Vethu, ,herigatha and ,herigatha are also
part of it.
Vinay Pita"a:
Suta Vibhang
• )aha Vibhang
• #hi"shunivibhanga
• )ahavagg
• 4hulla Vagg
1ote ; )ilindapanho, written in Paliby 1agsena describes 1agasena6s discourses with )enader.
'. )ahayan Sradhotpad Sastra
*. Su!angal vilasini.
@. Va:rayana
a' #a",u Sri mul +al.a
b' )u!ya Sama,ta"tra
=ain iterature:
• l* $ngas
• '* %panga
• '( Pra"irna"a
• < 4hhedli Sutra
• ? )ula Sutra
$charang Sutra ; )onastical discipline
#hagvatti Suta ; ife and teaching of )ahavira .
1ayadhani 2ahasutra ; 0ospel of )ahavira
,attvarthadiga! sutra ; ,his accepted !y both Diga!bura and Sveta!bara.
4hurni"a ; co!!entary on $ngas and %pangas.
7pigraphical Sources:
'. ,he earliest written records have been found fro! Harappa, but the script has not been
*. =a!es Princep deciphered $sho"an >nscription in '+@8.
@. $sho"an inscription6s were written in Pra"rit language and. !ainly in #rah!i script.
?. Only two of his inscription found fro! )ansehra and Sahba:agarhi are written in 2harosthi
A. 2andhar inscription of $sho"a has been written in 0ree" and $rabic a scripts.
<. )ahasthan and Sahgaura inscripiion describe about great fa!ine and help given by the
ruler to his starved citiCens. Sahgaura >nscription is depicted on copper plate.
8. )as"i, 0ur:ara, Odegola! and 1ittur inscriptions of $sho"a describe his na!e.
+. Only in #habru inscription $sho"a has called hi! self )agadh &a: and a ruler dedicated
hi!self to #udha, Dha!!a and Sangha.
G. Dhandeva3s inscription of Pusya!itra describe about $sva!egha 9a:an perfor!ed by hi!.
'(. Helioderus pillar inscription also called #esanagar 0arudadhwa: describes about the cult of
Panchvrishtii Veera.
''. 0hosuandi inscription describes about #hagvat cult.
'*. 0irnar inscription was first inscription of Sans"rit language about Sa"a ruler &udrada!an >.
'@. 1anaghat inscription of 1agani"a describes about Sat"ar!i >.
'?. 7ran inscription of #hanugupta provides the first evidence of Sati.
'A. $llahabad inscription of Sa!udra 0upta describes about his conEuests.
'<. %daigiri inscription belongs to the period of 4handra 0upta Vi"ra!aditya.
'8. Da!odar pur, 0arhva and 2ara!danda inscriptions describe about rules and regulations
related with land grant.
'+. #hitari inscription, depicts Sa"anda 0uptas victory over Hunas.
'G. )adhuvan and Vans"hera inscriptions belong to the period of Harsha and have signature of
*(. $ihole inscription written by &avi"irti depicts the na!e of 2alidasa.
*'. %tter!erur inscription depicts local self govern!ent of 4hola period.
**. 2ud!iya!alaya Polu"ottai inscription depicts about >ndian !usic and &agas.
1u!is!atical Sources:
'. Harappans did not use coin.
*. &igveda !entions 1is"a griva.
@. ater Vedic literature !ention about Sat!an and 2rishanal.
?. 4oinage syste! evolved in <th cent. #.4.
A. ,he earliest coins belong to )agadha and 2osala.
<. ,he early coins are punch !ar"ed.
8. Our earliest coin was !ade of silver.
+. ,hey have been called 2asarpan.
G. $rthashastra !entions about Pan, !asa"a and 2a"ini.
'(. >ndo;#acterians introduced in >ndia, gold coins. On their coin the figure of 2ing H Iueen and
date were found.
''. 4oins of Vi! 2edphises depict trident sy!bol of ord Siva.
'*. 2anis"a6s coins depicts #uddha6s figure.
'@. 2ushanas issued purest gold coins in >ndia. ,hose coin were called Dinaras.
'?. 2ushans and 2unindas never issued Silver coin.
'A. 9audheyas depicted figure of war lord 2arti"eya.
'<. .irst of all on sa"a coin >ndian 0od ord 2rishna were shown.
'8. Sa!udra 0upta issued $sva!egha type of coins.
'+. 4handra -0upta Vi"rarnaditya was the first 0upta ruler who issued silver coin.
'G. 2u!argupta also issued $svaniegha type of coins.
*(. Sa!udra 0upta had issued Veenavada", Vyaghra lanta and $svarohi types of coins.
*'. Satvahana6s never issued gold coin. ,hey issued Silyer, 4opper, lead and potin.
**. Only one gold coin of Harsha period has been found.
*@. >n south >ndia gold coins were "nown as Pon.
*?. >n pre;!edieval period 0adhaiya coins were in circulation in western >ndia.
*A. Huen ,sang !entions that conch and shells were used as !eans of sale and purchase.
*<. Paper &upees were first issued by ord 4anning -'+<( $D/.
anguage in inscriptions:
'. #rah!i Script -Pra"rit anguage/ eft to right which were found all over $sho"a6s e!pire.
*. 2harosti Script Jhich were written right to left found in 1orth;west )ansera and
@. #ilingual -0ree" and $r!ait 2andhar and $fganistan.
?. #ustrofedan ; were written first right to left then left to write. .ound in -9eragudi/
$ncient >ndia
,he Harappan 4iviliCation
Salient .eatures:
'. %rban 4ivilisation
*. #ronCe $ge 4ivilisation -.lourished during 4irca *A((;*((( #.4./
@. ,he largest 4ivilisation in geographical area of the ancient world.
?. ,own;planning and well developed drainage syste!.
A. 0ridiron layout and fortification.
'. Origin lies in various indigenous Pre;Harappan cultures.
*. >ndus 4ivilisation was cul!ination of a long series of cultural evolution.
@. 7!erged out of the far!ing co!!unities of Sind and #aluchistan, Haryana Ou:arat and
?. 4ontinuous cultural evolution fro! <((( #4 onwards in 1orth Jest >ndia which finally
cul!inated in the rise of >ndus 4ivilisation.
Phases of Develop!ent:
'. $rchaeological excavation H research have revealed phases of cultural develop!ent
bursting up in the e!ergence of a full;fledged civiliCation at 2alibangan, #anavali and
*. #egan in #aluchistan H Sind are then extended into the plains.
@. ,hese phases are Pre;Harappan, 7arly Harappan, )ature Harappan and ate Harappan
?. 7xtent of Harrappa:; .ro! in 1orth )anda -= H 2/ to '<(( ".! Dai!abad -)aharastra./ in
7ast $la!girpur -%.P./ to ''(( 2.! Sut"angedor -#luchistan/. ,otal $rea was '*,GG,<(( SE.
A. ,hese phases of cultural evolution are represented by )ehargarh, $!ri, 2alibangan and
othal respectively.
Different Phases and ,ransfor!ation:
• Pre;Harappan ; )ehargarh ; no!adic herdsrnen to settled agriculture
• 7arly Harappan ; $!ri ; growth of large villages and towns
• )ature Harappan ; 2alibangan ; rise of great cities
• ate Harappan ; othal !ature as well as decling phase.
,own planning:
.acts on ,own Planning
'. .eatures of ,own Planning
• $ great unifor!ity in town planning, the funda!ental lay;out of pro!inent urban
settle!ents exhibits apparent si!ilarities.
• #ased on 50rid Pattern6: streets and lanes cutting across one another at right angles dividing
the city into a nu!ber of rectangular bloc"s. )ain streets ran fro! north to south and were
as wide as @( feet.Streets and lanses were not paved.
*. 7ntire city co!plex was bifurcated into two distinct parts: the 54>,$D76 a fortified area which
housed i!portant civic and religious public buildings including granaries and residences of the
ruling class and the 5OJ7& ,OJ16, so!ewhat bigger in area and invariably located east to the
for!er, !eant. for co!!oners. 7vidence of fortification of the lower towns as well fro! a few
urban centres li"e Sur"otada and 2alibangan and evidence of division of the city into three parts
instead of two fro! Dhaulvira.
@. %se of standardiCed burnt bric"s on !assive scale in al!ost all types of constructions -an
extraordinary feature of the conte!porary civiliCations/, circular stones were used at Dholavira.

?. 7laborate andplanned underground drainage syste!. Houses were connected to the !ain drain
eEuipped with !anholes. )ostly !ade up of bric"s with !ud !ortar.%se of gypsu! and li!e to
!a"e it watertight. 4esspits were there inside the houses to deposit solid waste. #ric"s culverts
!eant for carrying rain and stor! water have also been found. #ric"s were !ade in ratio of > * ?.
SiCe of #ric"s ; 8 4.! in ,hic",
• ; '? 4.! Jidth
• ; *+ 4.! ong.
A. .eatures of Houses
• Houses were plain and did not exhibit, any refine!ent and beauty. So far as the decorative
value of the houses was concerned, they lac"ed it. >n general they gave plain and un;
decorative loo".
• $n average house co!prised a courtyard and four to six roo!s, a bedroo!s, a "itchen, and a
well presence of staircase gives indication of the second storey. Houses had side;entrances
and windows were conspicuously absent. 7xcept othal, where enterance were on !ain
road and windows were found.
• Houses varied fro! a single;roo!ed tene!ents to houses with a nu!ber of roo!s and
having even a second storey. .loors were generally of beaten earth coated with cowdung.
.ire;places were co!!on in roo!s. Jalls were thic" and sEuare holes in the! suggest of
use of wooden bea!s. 7very house was separated by another by a narrow space of 5no;
!an6s land6. Staircases were usually wooden but so!e !ade up of burnt bric"s have been
found too. &oofs were flat. Doors were set in wooden fra!es and the average width of a
door was one !etre. SEuare and rectangular pillars of burnt bric"s were used in larger
roo!s, round pillars were absent. 2itchen was s!all in siCe. $ round oven !eant for ba"ing
chappatis has been found.

$rt and 4raft:
'. )ainly two types Plain pottery and &ed and #lac" Pottery with decoration, the !a:ority
being the for!er.
*. Jidespread use of potter6s wheel !ade up of wood, use of firing techniEue, use of "iln.
@. Variety of Pleasing Design D HoriContal strips, 4hec", 4hess;#oard Pattern, >nteresecting
4ircles -Pattern exclusively found/, eaves H Petals, 1atural )otif D #irds, .ish, $ni!als,
Plants, Hu!an .igure D &are -$ )an H $ 4hild found fro! Harappa/, ,riangles.
?. Pottery had plain bases. .ew ring bases have been found.
A. )ainly fa!ous colour of pot was pin". 0eneral design was on the red base horiContally
blac" line on pots.
'. Seals are the greatest artistic creation of the Harappan people D cutting Hpolishing
craft!anship is excellent.
*. 1o of seals discovered is approx. *(((
@. )ade of steatite -Soft stone/, So!eti!es of 4opper, Shell, $gate, >vory, .aience, ,erracotta.
?. SiCeD ? inch to *9* inch.
A. Shape D SEuare, &ectangular, #utton, 4ubical, 4ylinder, &ound
<. ,wo !ain types:;
SEuare D carved ani!al H inscription, s!all boss at the bac".
&ectangularD inscription only, hold on the bac" to ta"e a cord.
8. 4olour D Jhite appearance. .a!ous colour of seal was green.
+. Displays sy!bols ; 4ircles, 4rosses, Dots, Swasti"s, eaves of the Pipal tree.
G. )ost freEuently depicted ani!al ; %nicorn
'(. Other ani!als : 7lephant, ,iger, &hino, $ntelope, 4rocodile.
''. 1o bird were depicted on Harappan seal.
'*. Purpose: )ar"ed ownership of property. %sed in applying to bales of !erchandise.
-Discovery of such seals beside the doc"yard of othal/.
'@. Pashupati Seal has been found fro! )ohan:odaro. >t depicts Siva seated on a stool flan"ed
by an elephant, a tiger, a. rhinocerous, a buffalo and two antelopes B goats. )arshall
identified it with Proto D Siva.
'?. 5Persian 0ulf Seals6 have been discovered fro! othal.
,echnical $chieve!ents:
• ost;Jax techniEue, used for !a"ing bronCe i!ages.
• 7nglish #ond !ethod;#onding syste! for bric"s.
• .le!ish #ond !ethod;used for !a"ing staircases.
• 2iln #ric"s D 7vidence of 2iln has been found at &a"higarhi
• Jater Harvesting Syste!DDholaveera
• .or s!all !easure!ent binary syste! and for big !easure!ent deci!al syste! were used
in Harappa.
.indings and 7vidences
'. 4e!eteries 5H6 H 5& @86 Harappa
*. .urrow !ar" 2alibangan
@. 4ity divided into three parts Dholvira
?. .rag!ent of Joven cloth )ohan:odaro
A.4ity without a citadal 4hanhudaro
<.S!all pot -Probably an in";pot/ 4hanhudaro
8. 4ities where lower towns were fortified 2alibangan H Sur"otada
+. 4ities having both protoDHarappan and !ature
Harappan evidences and
Harappan 4ultural Phases 2alibangan H #anwali
G. Doc"yard othal
'(.7vidence of &ice &angpur H othal
''.7vidence of 4offin #urial othal
'*.&e!ains of #ones of Horse Sur"otada
'@..ire altars 2alibangan, #anarvali, othal and &a"higarhi
'?. ,erracotta )odels of shipsB boats othal
'A. ,e!pleD li"e structure )ohan:odaro
'<. Hu!an s"eletons huddled together indicating
violent deathB!assacre )ohan:odaro
'8. Houses having front entrances othal
'+. #ronCe rodBstic" with !easure !ar"s othal
'G. Single D roo!ed barrac"s Harappa
*(. #ronCe !odels of6i""as6 Harappa, 4handudaro
and 5bulloc";carts6
*'. Pasupati )ahadev seal
-$s said by =ohn )arshall/ )ohan:odaro
**. )edical #eliefs, surgery of othal H s"ull 2alibangan
*@.Seal depicting )other )ohan:odaro
0oddess with a plant growing fro! her wo!b
*?. Painting on a :ar rese!bling the story of the
cunning fox of panchtantra othal
*A. Harappan ga!e si!ilar to chess othal
*<.4opper rhinocerous Dai!abad
*8. 4opper chariot Dai!abad
*+. 4opper 7lephant Dai!abad
*G.Devastation by flood Dhanhudaro, )ohan:odaro H othal
@(. 4ollegiate building )ohan:odaro
@'. $sse!bly Hall )ohan:odaro
@*.0ranaries )ohan:odaro H Harappa
@@. Steatite figure of a bearded !an )ohan:odaro
@?. #ronCe dancing girl -''.A c!/ )ohan:odaro
@A. 4ylindrical seals of 0iga!esh and
7"indu )esopota!ian type, three in nu!ber )ohan:odaro
@<. Jarehouse othal
@8.0ranary outside citadel Harappa
@+.Jor"ing platcfor! Harappa
@G.Sandstone !ale dancer Harappa
?(.,erracotta figurine of a horse )ohan:odaro
?'.$bsence of !other goddess figurines &angpur
?*.#ead;!a"ing factory 4hanhudaro H othal
?@.$bsence of seals $la!girpur
??. Shell;orna!ent !a"ers factory 4hanhudaro, #ala"ot and othal
?A. )etal wor"ers factory 4hanhudaro H othal
?<. Persian 0ulf seals othal
?8. 4ity having a !iddle town apart fro! the citadel
and the lower town Dholvira
?+. $ !erchant house othal
?G. >!pressions of cloth on sealing othal
A(.Six types of pottery 2alibangan
A'.7vidence of double burial othal
A*.7vidence of pot;burial Sur"otada
A@..urnace &a"higarhi
A?. 2iln &a"higarhi
AA. #oustro phedon 2alibangan
A<. 4a!el bones 2alibangan
A8. Horse s"eleton Sur"otada
A+.Horse teeth &ana 0hundai
AG.&egalia 2unal
<(. Stone cut water reservoir Dholavira
>ndus 4ivilisatlon;0eneral $spects
4usto!s and $!use!ents:
• $ good nu!ber of toys D 4lay 4art, &attles, #ulls with !obile heads, )on"ey with !ovable
ar!s, Dices, 4hessboard.
• Hunting, .ishing, 4oc";.ighting.
,weeCers, 7ar;scoop, Piercer, $nti!ony rods, >vory co!b, )irrors, Hair pins, &ound buttons, )inor
raCors, 2ohl pots and stic"s
Dress and Orna!ents:
'. .e!ales were scantily dressed, they wore a short s"irt especially figurines of !other
*. ,he !ale wore a robe, so!eti!es e!broidered.
@. 4otton was used, no evidence of inen and Sil".
?. 1o evidence of footwear.
A. Special care of hair, reference of pony;tail, bun and braided hair.
<. 4urley hair -clay figure fro! )ohan:odaro/.
8. #eards -not very long/, shaven upper lips in the figure of 9ogi.
+. 1ec"laces, #eads, 0irdle, #racelet, .illets, .inger rings, #angles, 1ose Orna!ents, $n"lets.
'. Predo!inance of )other 0oddess, denotes people6s faith in fertility cult.
*. )ale deity D Pasupati Shiva.
@. $ni!al worship -*((l atry/D %nicorn bull and hu!ped bull.
?. ,ree worship D Pipal.
A. .ertility 4ult D Phallus worship.
<. 1ature worship.
8. $!ulets and ,alis!an -)ohan:odaro/
+. Sacred bath D Jater 4os!ology
'. #odies were extended in north;South direction.
*. 4e!eteries of Harappa, )ohan:odaro, othal, 2alibangan, &a"higarhi and &opar located
around the outs"irts.
@. ,hree for!s of burials D co!plete burial, .ractional burial and post;cre!ation burial.
?. 0eneral practice was body lying on its bac" and head to the north.
A. 4offin burial fro! Harappa.
<. Pot burial fro! Sur"otada -Sacrophagus tradition/.
8. Double burial fro! othal.
+. Pit burial fro! 2a>ibangan.
G. 4e!etety D&;@8 -Harappa/.
'(. 4e!etery D -Post Harappan/
Jeights H )easure:
'. Standard weights and !easures, unifor!ity and accuracy of deno!inations.
*. Jeights were !ade of a variety of !aterial D state, :asper, chert, alabaster, li!estone and
EuartCile, but !ain' polished chert.
@. .or larger weights deci!al syste! was used and for s!aller ones binary syste! was
?. ,he unit weight had the calculated value of (.+ 8A( g!s, the largest weights was '(G8( g!s.
A. $ few speci!ens of scales used with the weights appear to be a very ordinary patterns
co!prising a bronCe bar with suspended copper pens.
<. #ro"en >vory were used as a scale in 4hanhudaro.
8. #ronCe scale was used in othal.
'. )ainly offensive weapons were found in Harrappa.
*. Spears, $xes, $rrow;heads.
@. 1o defensive weapons were found in Harrappa.
'. )ain crops: Jheat H #arley.
*. Others Peas, &ai, inseed, )ustard, 4otton, Dates.
@. 1o evidence of sugarcane.
?. &ice was produced region -&ice hus" has been found fro! othal H &angpur/.
$ni!als H #irds:
7lephants, 4ats, Dogs, 4a!els, $sses, #uffalo, Dear, &hino, 0oat, %nicorn, Pigs, ,ortoise, .owls, OxK
.ish, Stag, $ntelope, Patridge.
4opper, Silver, 0old, =ade, apis aCulli, ead. ,in, >ngot -eadLSilver/, 7lectru! -Silver H 0old/
1eedles, &aCors, Sic"les, .ish;hoo"s, Saws, 4happers, Spades, 2noves, 4hisels, Spoons
Potters, 4opper and #ronCe wor"ers, Stone wor"ers, #uilders, #ric";!a"ers, Priests, .aience
wor"ers, .ar!ers, ,raders.
&ice, Horse, &ound 4ylindrical seals, Plough, Jhetstones.
>ron, Jinows, ,p'e, .or", Hair dyes, &ound colu!ns, Sil" fabrics, Swords, Sheilds, )etalic )oney,
Jater closets #ric";a!ps, .ootwares, inen, Jool, 0olden finger rings, >ndigenous, 0radual
anguage H Script:
9et not deciphered, pictographic or ideographic approxi!ately ?A( signs have been listed, written
fro! right fro! left and left to in alternate lines style "nown as #oustrophedan, inscriptions are
• Su!erian text !a"e a !ention of )eluha which is identified with >ndus 4iviliCation and two
inter!ediate trading stations Dil!un -#ahrain/ and )a"an -)a"aran 4oast/.
• $ppearance of >ndus seals in the )esopota!ian cities of %r, 2ish,Susa, ,ell $s!ar, agash.
• 4ylindrical seals of )esopota!ian type have been found in >ndus valley -)ohan:odaro/.
• MPersian 0ulf SealsN of inter!ediate trading stations have been discovered fro! >ndus
region -othal/.
• Discovery ofN&eserved slip wareN of )esopota!ian type fro! Harappa H othal.
>nternal ,rade: Jith Saurashtra, )aharastra, South >ndia, &a:asthan, ports of western %P.
Ports: Port was found in othal. ,his is the first !an!ade port in the world.
7xternal ,rade: Jith )esopota!ia -)odern >raE/, Persian 0ulf region and probably 7gypt.
>te! of >!ports: 0old, Silver, 4opper, ,in, apis aCuli,;$!ethyst, $gate, =ade, Shells.
>te!s of 7xports
• $gricultural products Jheat, #arley, Peas, Oil Seeds
• .inished Products 4otton goods, Pottery' #eads, Shells, ,errocotta Products, >vory
,he Vedic -Part ;'/
&igvedic Period ; lA((;l(((#.4
ater Vedic Period ; '(((;<((#.4
V7D>4 P7&>OD ->)PO&,$1, ,7&)S/
• $"ratuh D People who had no faith in rituals.
• $nas D People who didn6t have pro!inent nose
• $pah D Jater
• #rah!in D &ituals
• Da! ; House
• Dunitri D daughter
• 0ana ; ,ribal !ilitia
• 0avisti D war
• 0odhara D guest
• 0odhuliDevening
• 0o!at D a wealthy person
• 0opa -=anasya/ D the ruler
• 0orasa;!il"
• 0osthi D !eeting
• 0otra; 4ow pen
• 0vayuti D !easure!ent of distance
• )ridhva"a D who were not adept in Vedic language
• Panch 4har Sanyah D .ive wandering tribes.
• PaniDpeople having cattle wealth -traders/
• Par:anya D cloud
• Purodasa D )aterials used in 9a:ana
• &ayi D 4attle wealth
• Sada! ; House
• Sala D House
• Sardha D ,ribal !ilitia
• SisandevaDJroshippers of phallus sy!bol.
• Vayadh D 4ostu!es of a bride.
• Ves!in D House
• Vrata D people who hadnot a well established !arriage syste! or who had incestuous
• Vrata ; ,ribal !ilitia
Vedic 0eography:
$dhavaryn 9a:urveda
$nanda"a Sadania
#rah!a $tharva Veda
4ha!paran 4ha!pararanya
4henab $s"ini
Delhi >ndraprastha
Deobanda Dritvan
0haghar Drisdvasti
Ha"ra Sarswati
Haryn Saryn
Hi!alaya Hi!vanta
Hota &igveda
>ndus Sindhu
=helu! Vilasta
2abul 2ubha
)agadha 2i"atvan
)ithila Videh
&avi, Parusani
&itual Priests Vedas
Saran 1airnisheranya
Sutle: Satudri
5%dgata Sarnveda
Vyas Vipasa
Vedas and their branches:
Vedas #ranches
Sa"al, Vas"al,
$savala, 9an,
Sa"hayan and
2authu! and
9a:urveda )adhyandin and
$thar Veda Paiplad and Sauna"
)andalas D PoetsBDrasta
'. )andla ; 0ritsa!ada
*. )andla D Viswa!iitra -)andalas fro!, >> to V>> are called .a!ily ,ext./
@. )andla ; Va!deo
?. )andla D $tri
A. )andlaD #haradva:
<. )andla D. Vasistha
8. )andla D 2and H $ngirasa
,he Jord $rya !eans civiliCed one.
' H '( )andalas were added later on.
&eferences H 7vidences,
' Origin of >ndian !usic Sa! Veda
* )ention of the word 5Sudra3 &ig Veda -'(th )andala/
@ 50ayatri )antra6 &ig Veda
? )ention of the word 50otra6 $tharva Veda
A Origin of "ingship $itareya #rahain!a
5So!a6, the intoxicating drin" and the god who lends his na!e to the
&ig Veda -Gth )andala/
8 )ention of the word 5Varna6 &ig Veda
+ .our;fold division of society &ig Veda -'(th )andala/
G Purusa Shu"ta Hy!n &ig Veda
'( .irst three 5ashra!as6 -#rah!acharin, 0rihastha, Vanaprastha/ 4handogya %panishad
'' .our ashra!s -#rah!a; charin, 0rihastha, Vanaprastha, Sa!yasin/ =abla %panishad
'* Doctrine of6,ri!urti6 )aitrayani %panishad
'@ Origin of the %niverse &ig Veda -'(th )andala/
'? )ention of the 50reat .lood6 Satpatha #raha!ana
'A Sa!sara -,rans!igration of soul/
'< 2shatriyas Precedence over #raha!anas $treya #raha!ana
'8 0a!ester6s a!ent &ig Veda
'+ Vratyasto!a ,andya;)aha; #rah!ana
'G Division of >ndia into five parts $itreya #iah!ana
*( )ention of the Divine Horse 5Dadhi"ara6 &ig Veda
*' Sabha H Sa!iti as the twin daughters of Pra:apati $tharva Veda
** #affle often "ings between Sudan and #hed for the water of Parnsni &ig Veda -V>> )andala/
*@ )ention of the easten and western seas Satpatha #rah!ana
Surdas as the servant of another to be expelled at will and to be slain
at will
$treya #rah!ana
*A 0anga &ig Veda -O, )andala/
*< Sabha as 1arishta $tharvaveda
*8 Satya )eva =ayate )unda"a %panishad
Vedic iterature:
,he Vedas
'. Veda !eans Mto "nowN.
*. 4alled MapaurusheyaN !eaning not created by hu!an beings that !eans divine.
@. 2nown as MShrutiN !eaning to hear. ,hese have been passed on fro! one generation to
another through verbal transission.
?. ,hey are four in nu!ber, -&ig, Sa! 9a:ur and $harva/
A. ,hey are collection of hy!ns, prayers, char!s and sacrificial for!ulae.
<. ,he MrishisN to who! these boo"s are ascribed are "nown as M)antradrashtaN !eaning
enlightened saints who received the hy!ns directly fro! the supre!e creator.
.actual $spects:
&ig Veda
'. 4ollection of Hy!ns
*. Oldest of all the vedas
@. 4ontains '('8 Su"tas
?. 4ontains '' #ala"hilya, that !a"es the total no. of Su"tas '(*+.
A. 4ontains '( 5)andals6
<. ,he oldest )andalas are >>, >>>, >V, V, V> and V>> "nown as fa!ily boo"s on acount of their
co!position being described to various fa!ilies of sages.
8. ,he !andalas >> to V>> are ascribed to 0ritsa!ada Viswa!itr.a, Va!adeva, $rti, #hardwa:a
and Vasistha.
+. ,he latest !andalas are >, V>>>, >O and O.
G. ,he >O !andala is co!pletely devoted to the vedic 0od so!a,
'(. #rahrnanasof&igveda
$iterya #ralvnana
San"bayana #rah!ana
''. %panishads of &igveda
$itareya %panishads
2aushitaa"i %panishad
Priest related to &igveda D 2otri or )otri %pveda of &igveda is ; $yurveda.
9a:ur Veda:
'. 4ollection of rituals for perfor!ing different sacrifices.
*. &ecited by the priests "nown as $dhavar!
@. 4onsists of ?( chapters.
?. ,he only veda party in prose.
A. Divided into two parts 2rishnaB#lac" 9a:urveda -co!!entary in prose/ and Su"lal Jhite
9a:urved -sacrificial for!ulae and rituals/.
<. #rah!anas of 9a:urveda
8. ,attiriya #rah!ana D &elated with 2rishna 9ayurveda.
+. Satpatha #rah!ana D &elated with Su"ta 9a:urveda.
G. ,he lengthiest of all the #rah!anas.
'(. ,he !ost i!portant of all the #rah!anas.
''. %panishads of 9a:urveda
• ,attiriya %pnishad
• #rihadaranya"a %panishad is the largest one
• 2athad %panishad; describes story of 1achi"eta.
• >sa %panishads
• Sveiasvatara %panishad
• %pveda of 9ayurveda ; Dhanurveda.
• &elated priest;. $dhwariyu.
Sa! Veda:
'. 4ollections of hy!ns ta"en fro! the &ig Veda and set to tunes for the purpose of singing.
*. Only 8A hy!ns are original.
@. 2nown as the 5#oo" of chants6.
?. Hy!ns are !eant for singing at So!a sacrifices
A. Sung by a particular type of priests "nown as %dgatari.
<. 4onsists of '+'( -'A?G, o!itting the repetitions/
8. #rah!anas
P =ai!iniya #rah!ana
+. %panlshads
P 4handdogya %panishad describes about ord 2rishana
G. 2ena upanishadB,alava"ara %panishad.
'(. %pveda of Sa!veda is 0andhaveda.
,he $tharva Veda:
'. 4ollection of char!s, !agic and spells.
*. Preserves !any popular cults and superstitions, contains non;$ryan ele!ents -fol"
@. #elongs to Sauna"iya H Paipalado schools.
?. 4ontains 8''B8@'B8<( hy!ns.
A. 4ontains *( 2andas or boo"s.
<. ,he 2nadas '+, 'G and *( are later additions.
8. ,he hy!ns are !eant for warding off evils H de!ons, winning over friends aid gain
!aterial success. 1o #rah!anan belongs to $tharvaveda.
+. %panishads of $tharvaveda
P )unda"a %panishad;!entions 5Stya )ev =ayate6.
P Prasana %panishad
P )andt"ya %panishad
P %pveda of $tharvaveda D Shilpveda.
,he #rah!anas:
'. 7laborate prose texts.
*. 4ontain explanation of the hy!ns, prayers, char!s and sacrificial, for!ulae.
@. $ "ind of theology and philosophy of the #rah!anas -the priestly class/.
?. Satapath #rah!an is the !ost fa!ous #rah!an. >t describes the story of videh !adhau and
agricultural rituals.
,he $ranya"a
'. iteral !eaning is forest.
*. 2nown as forest boo"s.
@. Deal with !ysticis!, !oral values and philosophical doctrines.
?. )eant for the ascetics and her!its living in the forests.
A. 0ive e!phasis on !editation.
<. Opposed to sacrifices, for!ulae and rituas.6
8. ,he !ost fa!ous $ranya"a is vrihadaranya"a.
,he %panishads
'. iteral !eaning to sect under the fact of the teacher !ean to learn.
*. Deal with philosophy, !etaphysics
@. 2nown as MvedantaN !eaning the end of the vedasN for they denote the last phase of the
vedic period and reveal the ulti!ate ai! of the vedas.
?. ,hey are '(+ in nu!ber
A. %panishadas !ainly describe about the $tina and Par!at!a and about Salvation.
<. ,he earliest upanishads are M#rihadaranya"aN and M4handdogyaN written in prose.
8. ,he later upanishads li"e M2athaN and MSvetasvataraN are written in verse, for!.
+. ,he pivot of their philosophy is realiCation of M#rah!anN, as the ulti!ate reality of the
universe and the recognition that the individual soul is identical with that and attain!ent of
salvation in this recognition.
G. $dvocates salvation through "nowledge -=ayan )arga/ B realisation rather than wor"s or
S$)S2$&$S $1D &>,7S D%&>10 ,H7 V7D>4 P7&>OD
Pancha;)ahaya:anas -.ive great daily sacrifices/
'. Dev ya:an -to the 0od/
*. #hut -to ani!als/
@. 1riya:an -to !en/
?. &isi ya:an -to Saifls/
A. Pitri 9a:an -.ore fathers/
$gnihotra Daily oblation in sacred fire
$gnyadheya &itual for the establish!ent of the scared fire in house
0arbhadhana 4ere!ony to cause conception
Pu!savana ,o secure the birth of a !ale child.
Si!antonnayana 4ere!ony to ensure the safety of the child in wo!b.
=ata"ar!an 4ere!ony for the newborn child
1is"ra!ana 4ere!ony of ta"ing the child out of the house and showing of the sun.
1a!a"arana 4ere!ony of na!ing the child
$nnaprasana 4ere!ony of the first feeding of the child with solid food in the sixth !onth
4uda"ar!a ,onsure of the child, saving his scalp, leaving only a top "not.
%panayana 4ere!ony of invitation, the child enters life of a student.
Di"shara!ban earning of $lphabet
2esant ,he second tonsuring after the age '@;'?
-2orrarn/, 2ubha -2abul/ and Suvastu -Svat/ and eastern tributaries the five rivers of Pun:ab
besides the valleys of Saraswati and Drishadvati corresponding to 7astern $fghanistan and Jest H
7ast Pun:ab.
• 1o 2nowledge of sea:
• 2nowledge of the Hi!alayas. -Hl!vant/
• 1inth )andal describes about )u:avant
ater Vedic Period
• Satpatha #rah!n describes the story of Videh
• )adhav who reached to the ban" of Sadanira -0anda"/.
• 7xpansion to parts of eastern &a:asthan, eastern %P and #ihar
• 2nowledge of 0angetic Valleys
• 2nowledge of so!e !ore rivers li"e 1ar!ada, 0anga, 0anda", 4ha!ba.
• )ention of Seas.
• )ention of the Vindhyas.
SO)7 OD 1$)7S O. ,H7 &>V7&S
• $s"iniD4henab
• Parusani D &avi
• SatudnDSatlu:
• SindhuDndus
• VipasaDVyas
• VitastaD=helu!
Six Vedangas:
,he Vedangas were considered i!portant for understanding Vedas but they are not included in
vedic literature.
$. Si"sha ; PhoneticsBPronunciation, 9as"a wrote Si"sha Sastra.
#. 4hhandas ; )etre -Pingal wrote 4hhanda Sastra/
4. Vya"arana ; 0ra!!er, Panini wrote $stadhyayi
D. 1iru"ta ; 7ty!ology -7xplanation of words/.
7. =yotisha ; $stron!y, 1o text is available on vedanga =yotisa.
.. 2alpa ; Sacrificial rituals ; Dhar! Sutra, Sraut Sutra, 0rihya Sutra, -Sutra depicts about
,he first two were reEuired for reading the vedas, the third and fourth for understanding the vedas
and the fifth and the sixth for the i!ple!entation of the sacrifice.
.our %pavedas
a. Dhanurveda ; $rcheryBJarfare
b. 0andharvaveda ; )usic
c. Shilpaveda ; sculptureB$rchitecture
d. $yurveda ; )edicineBife
>!portant ,er!s >n Vedic Period
'. $"ratuh D People who had no faith in rituals.
*. $nasDPeople who didnt have pro!inent nose
@. $pah D Jater
?. $s"ini D 4henab
A. #rah!an D &ituals,
<. 4ha!pararanya D 4ha!paran
8. Da! ; House
+. Drisdvasti D 0haghghar
G. Duaitvan D Deobanda
'(. Duhitri Ddaughter
''. 0ana ; ,ribal !ilitia
'*. 0avisti D war for 4ow.
'@. 0odhana D guest
'?. 0o!at D a wealthy person
'A. 0opa -=anasya/ D the ruler
'<. 0orasaD!il"
'8. 0osthi D !eeting
'+. 0otra; 4ow pen
'G. 0avayuti D !easure!ent of distance
*(. Hi!vanta D Hi!alaya
*'. 0odhuli D evening
**. >ndraprastha D Delhi
*@. 2i"atvan D )agadha
*?. 2ubha 2abul
*A. )ridhva"a D who were not adept in Vedic language
*<. 1ai!isharanya D Saran
*8. Panch 4har Sanyah D .ive wandering tribes.
*+. Pani D people having cattle wealth -traders/
*G. Par:anyaDcloud
@(. Parusani D &avi
@'. Purodasa D )aterials used in 9a:ana
@*. &ayi D 4attle wealth
@@. Sada! D House
@?. Sadanira ; 0anda"
@A. SalaDHouse
@<. Sardha D ,ribal !ilitia
@8. Sarswati;Halcra
@+. Saiyu;Haiyu
@G. Satudri D Sutle:
?(. Sifldhu>ndus
?'. Sisandeva D Jroshippers of phallus sy!bol.
?*. Vayudh D 4ostu!es of a bride.
?@. Ves!in D House
??. Videh D )ithila
?A. Vipasa D Vyas
?<. Vitasta ; =helurn
?8. Vrata D people who hadnot a well established !athage syste! or who had incestuous
?+. Vrata ; ,ribal !ilitia
Vedas D &itual Priests
'. &igveda D Hota
*. Sa!veda D udgata
@. 9:urveda D $dhavaryn
?. $tharva Veda D #rah!a
V7D$S $1D ,H7>& #&$14H7S
Vedas #ranches
&igveda Sa"al, Vas"al, $savalayan, Sa"hayan and !andu"eya
Sa!veda 2authu! and &.anayaniaya
9a:urveda )adhyandin and2anva
$thar Veda Paiplad and Sauna"
&igvedic Pantheon
$diti )other of gods
$gni =atvedasa
$psara 4elestial da!sls.
$pah Jater god
$rya!an 0od of !arriage and contact
#rah!aspati Power inherent in vedic !antra
Diti )other of de!ons
0o:at Devata 0ods of ani!al orign
>ndra Purandbar -*8( Su"la/
)anyu )ind -god related with !indB conscience/ -$bstract deity/
)aruta Jind 0od
Par:anya Jater god
Pushan 0od of cattle;wealth
&ibhu Dwarfs -4raftinen/
&udra Srestha #hisag Pasupa
Sarswati ,errestial goddess river Sarswati/
So!a Potent herb -Gth !andal/
Sradha Dedication -$bstract deity/
$ditya -7ight $ditya 0ane/
• Savitur 0od of down and dus"
• SuryaDDaughter of surya
• $shwini 2u!ar. D Physicians of the heavenly world.
• %sha D Daughter of Surya
,avastra Vedic vu"an god
Vidyadhar 4elestial dancers
>. )$1D$$S ; PO7,SBD&$S,$
>>. )andla ; 0ritsa!ada 1ote ; * to 8th -)andalas arc called .a!ily ,ext./
>>>. )andla D Visva!itra
>V. )andla D Va!deo
V. )andla ; $tri
V>. )andlaD #haradva:
V>>. )andla D Vasistha
$ryan Priests
'. Hotri ; >nvo"er, priest well;versed in the &igveda.
*. %dgatri ; 4hantor, priest well;versed in the Sa!veda.
@. $dhavaryu ; Perfor!er of 9a:na, priest wellversed in 9a:urveda.
?. #rah!a ; $tharva Veda.
A. &itvi" ; Supervised the whole sacrifice.
Deities belonging to various planes
'. ,errestrial deities ; $gni, So!a, Prithvi, Saraswati.
*. $t!ospheric deities ; >ndra, &undra, Vayu, )arut, Par:anya
@. 4elestial deities ; Surya, %sha, Vishnu, Varuna, Savitr, Dyaus, $svins, )itra, Pushan.
P$>1,7D 0&79 J$&7 -'((( #.4. ,O <(( #.4./
'. Jheel !ade Sturdy pottery related with ater Vedic $ge,
*. Out of well lavigated clay with thin core.
@. S!ooth surface.
?. 0rey to ash;grey in colour.
A. Painted in blac" and so!eti!es in a deepchocolate colour on the outet as well as inner
<. >t has nearly ?* designs and the !ost co!!on types are bowls and dishes.
8. >!portant sites D $hichhatra, &upar, #hagwanpur, 1oh, $la!girpur, HastinapQr,
$fran:i"hera, =a"hera, )athura, Panipat, Purana, Iua, #airat, Sonepat, =odhpura, Sravasti
Original ho!e of the $ryans: Viewpoints
'. Sapta Sindhu &egion ; $.4.Das
*. Sapta Sindhu &egion ; Sa!pu!anand
@. 4entral $sia ; )ax )ullar
?. $rctic &egion ; #.0.,ila"
A. ,ibet ; Dayanand Saraswati
<. #acteria ; &hode
8. )adhya Pradesh ; &a: #ali Pandey
+. &ussian steppes, north of #lac" Sea ; #enfey
G. 4entral and Jestern 0er!any ; 0eiger
'(. #raha!harshi Desh ; 0anga 1ath ,ha
''. $ustria, Hungary P.0iles and and #one!ia ; )acdonald
'*. .oot of Hi!alayas ; Pandit ax!idhar Shastri
'@. 0er!an Plains ; Prof. Pen"a
,erritorial Divisions
'. #rah!avarta &egion between Sutle: and ya!una -the area of earliest $ryan settle!ent/.
*. Dhruv!adhya!andis &egion between the saraswati and the ganga literally !eans Mfir!
!iddle countryR -area of settle!ent in the later Vedic age/.
@. $ryavarta 1orthern >ndia.
?. )adhyadesa 4entral >ndia.
A. Da"shinapatha Southern >ndia.
<. #rah!arshi Desa ,he western part of the central >ndia.
8. ittarapatha -%dichya/ 1orth;Jest >ndia
+. $paranta -Pratichya/ Jestern >ndia
G. Purvadesa -Prachya/ 7astern >ndia
'(. ,a!ila"a! ,he ,a!il country
,welve &atnins political functionaries who for!ed a "ing of "ings council in the ater Vedic Period.
So!e of the! were recruited fro! the non;$ryans also. Out of a twelve ratnins, three happened to
be wo!en. ,he following is the list of ratnin:
Purohita, &a:nya, )ahisi, Paritya"tiri, Senani, Suta, 0ra!ini, 2shta, Sa!grahitr, #hagadugha,
$"savapa, 0ovi"arta.
,he Vedic -Part ;*/
&7>0>O1 $1D PH>OSOPH9
Philosophical schools
1asti" ; $thestic
$sti" D ,hestic
1asti" ; -a/ 4arva" ;
-b/ =ainis! ;
-c/ #uddhis! ;
$sti" ;
-a/ San"hya ; 2apil
-b/ 9oga ; Patan:ali
-c/ 1yayay ; 0auta!
-d/ Vaisesi"a ; 2annad
-e/ )i!ansa ; =ai!ini
-f/ Vedant ; #hadrayan and Shan"aracharya
%1O&,HODOO &7>0>O%S )OV7)71,S
7arly #uddhist texts spea" of six fore!ost opponents of ord #uddha who were
-'/ $:it 2esh 2a!blin ; -#elieved in )aterials!/
-*/ )as"ari 0osal ; -.ounder of $:iva"a sect/
-@/ Puran 2asyap ; $to!ist/
-?/ Pa"udh 2atyaya! ; -#elieved in fatalis!/
-A/ San:ay Vethaliputta ; -#elieved in !aterialis!synicis!/
-</ 1iggantha 1athputta ; -He was #hagvan )ahavir
,his school of philosophy is also "nown as o"ayat. $ccording to this philosophy there is no aw of
2ar!an and no rebirth. ,here is no conscious entity li"e soul. >t also pro!ulgated that death is the
only end.
,his school of philosophy is based on the teachings of Parsvanath and )ahavira. ,he doctrine of
=ainis! is "nown as $ne"antvad. =aina doctrine is also called Syadvad. ,his school of thought
recognises five sources and "inds of "nowledge. ,hese are )ati -sense;perception/, Sruti
-intelligible sy!bols/, $wadhi -"nowledge acEuired through supernor!al !eans/, )anahprayay
-telepathy/ and 2evalya -O!niscience/. =ainas also believe that =ivas are infinite in nu!ber.
4handogya upanishad depicts about ord 2rishna.
• Sutra of Panini spea"s of ord 2rishna and 2rishna was disciple of 0hora $ngirasa.
• #hagvatisrn is "nown as Satvat, 7"nati"a Dhar!aK
• ,his believes in the worship of Panchavrishni Veers na!ed #aira!a, 2rishan, Pradya!an,
Sa!b and $nirudha.
• Sa!b introduced Sun worship in >ndia.
• 1agri, 0hosundi and #esa nagar inscriptions depict about this cult.
• ater on it was "nown as Vaishnavis!.
• ,he philosophy of this cult is called #ha"ti that !eans co!plete surrenderence to 0od.
• .ollower of 2rishna were "nown as #hagwat.
• .ollower of 1arayan were " Vaishnav his cult.
>n South >ndia this cult was pro!ulgated by Vaishnav saints called $lvars. ,here were eleven great
$lvars. ,here devotional anthologies are of great fa!e. ,he best one is "nown as Halaroya! Jhich
was co!posed by Ja!alvar.
#uddha6s four noble truths are called $ryasatya. ,hese are
-'/ Du"ha ; -Jorld is full of !iseries/.
-*/ Su"ha S!udya ; -4auses of !iseries/.
-@/ Du"h 1irodh ; -)iseries can be chec"ed/.
-?/ Du"h 1irodha 0a!ini Pratipada ; -7ight fold path/.
7ight .old Path -$stangi" )arg/
&ight .aith -Sa!ya" Dristi/
&ight &esolve -Sa!ya" San"alp/
&ight Speech -Sa!ya" Va"/
7V71, S9)#O
#irth otus and #ull
0reat renunciation Horse
.irst Ser!on Dhar!acha"ra or wheel
1irvana #odhi tree
Pararinivana or Death Stupa.
,hree &atna #udha Dhaxn!a, Sangha.
&ight $ction -Sa!ya" $ction/
&ight iving -Sa!ya" $:iv/
&ight 7ffort -Sa!ya" Vyaya!/
&ight ,hought -Sa!ya" S!riti/
&ight 4oncentration -Sa!ya" 4oncentration/
#uddhis! believes in aw of 2ar!an operating in this life and next. >n this regard #uddha also
tal"ed about twelve;lin"ed chain of causation. -Dvadas 1idan/.
Other schools of #uddhist ,hought
'. Vaibhasi" of Vi:anvada D 7ntire world is !ental in structure. >deas of the !ind are the stuff of
the world and the entire world originates fro! $lyavi:ana -4os!ic;consciousness/ $svaghosh was
the !ost renowned leader of this school.
*. )adhya!i"a -Sunyavad/ D ,here is nothing real in this world 1gaup was the chief exponent of
this school.
'. San"hya: >t is a "ind of dualistic ontology. >t believes in two ulti!ate realities Pra"rit and Purusa.
Pra"rit is !ade of a triad of funda!ental attributes -0unas/ called Sattva, &ayas and ,a!as. Purusa
is pure consciousness.
*. 9oga Syste! : >t is applied Sa!"hya. >t has devised a syste!atic !ethod of bringing about the
release of Purusa fro! Pra"riti through !ental !echanis!.
@. 1yaya : >t considers 0od as the creator who is free fro! aw of 2ar!an. 0od is a soul and his
wisdo!, desire and effort are unbounded. 1yaya !a"es a detailed study of the sources of
"nowledge -Pra!an/
?. Valsesi"a : Jhen the ato!s of five basic ele!ents begin to co!bine the creation of the world
begins. 4reation and dissolution of the world go on in cycles.
A. )i!ansa : >t is a philosophy of interpretation, application, and use of truths of Sa!hita and
#rah!anas portions of the vedas. >t has devised certain principles according to which the vedic
!antras and their application in the field of sacrifies could be understood.
<. Vedant : $ccording to this philosophy $t!an and Par!at!an are sa!e. Part!at!an is the
ulti!ate reality and the whole world is an illusion -)aya/. ,he whole philosophical thin"ing of this
school is based on %pthiisahd, #hagwatgeeta and #raha!sastra of #hadrayan, called Prasthantrayi.
• #uddha was born at u!banivan in A<@ #.4.
• His father was the "ing of 2apilvastu.
• He belonged to the clan of Sa"yas, so he is called Sa"ya!uni and also Sirnha Sa"ya.
• 9asodhara was his wife and &ahul was his son.
• #uddha renunciated the wordly life when he was *G years old.
• He !editated at %ruvela. ,here he got 1irvan. ,his place was later on "nown as #odh 0aya.
• #uddha gave his first ser!on at lsipatan, i.e. !odern Sarnath.
• #i!bisar and $:atsatru were his conte!porary ruler of )agadh.
• Prasen:it of 2hosla was also his conte!porary.
• #i!bisar donated hi! Venuvan at &a:griha.
• $nath Pinda" donated hi! :etvan at Sravasti.
• 0auta!i was the first wo!an who :oined the Sangha.
• $nand and %pali were his two!ost e!inent disciples.
• #uddha got his )ahaparinirvan at 2usinara.
>!portant Seats of #uddhis!
'. Sthavirvadi D Only ten people can get #uddhahood.
*. )ahasanghi"a D 7very one can get #uddhahood.
@. Sautantri" D ,hey wrote their texts in Sans"rit language.
?. Sa!!itiyas D ,hey believed in $t!a -Soul/
A. Hinyana D #uddha was only a great saint.
<. )ahayanaD #uddha was a great incarnation.
8. 9ogachar -Vi:anvad/ D,hey believed in 9oga and called it vi:an.
+. Sunyavad D ,here is nothing real in this world. >t was also "nown as )adhya!i"a sect.
G. Va:rayan D >t believed in ,antra.
'. ,heravada ; )aha"atyaya!
*. )ahasanghi"a ; )aha"ashyapa
@. Sarvastivadin ; &ahul bhadra
?. )ahayan ; Vasu!itra
A. 9ogachar ; $sang B Varusandhu
<. Sunyavad ; 1agar:una
#%DDH>S, ,7O,S
-'/ Sut ,eachings of #uddha
-*/ Vinay Discipline and order
-@/ $bhidha!!a 7soteric Philosophy
-'/ 2hudda" 1i"aya of Sut Pi"a" has 'A tents.
a. Dha!!apad >t is "nown as #hagvatgita of #uddhis!.
b. =ata" ,his is collection of AA( stories of the previous births of #uddha.
-*/ Vinay Pita" has three parts "nown as Parivar, 2handa" and Vibhanga.
-@/ )ahavibhasa sutra was written by Va!!itra.
-?/ 0uhya Sa!a: ,antra and )an:u Sn )iii 2alpa are the texts of Va:rayan.
• $ccording to =ainis! there were *? ,rithan"aras -7nlightened )on"s/.
• *@ ,rithan"ar was Parsavanath. He was the son of the "ing of 2asi. He was a historical
• )ahavira was born in the fa!ily of =antri"a.
• 9asodawas his wife and Priyadarsa was his daughter.
• Herennounced the fa!ily life when he was @( years old.
• He got 2aivalya at =ri!bha"gra!.
• His disciples were called 0anadhara.
• Sudhar!an beca!e the head of the =a! sangha after hi!.
=$>1 ,7O,S
• '* $ngas
• '* %panga
• '( Pra"rina"a
• < #hedsutra
• ?Sutra
• 4hurni"a was co!!entary
• Jay to 1irvana -,hree &atna/
• &ight faith -Sa!ya" Vishwas/
• &ight "nowledge -Sa!ya" 0yan/
• &ight conduct -Sa!ya" 2ar!a/ Various Heterodox Philosophies
• ,hird religious chief was )a"h"hali Putta 0osal -supposed to be the real founder who
popularised it/.
• .ollowers are "nown as $:ivi"as.
• )ain profession was fortune telling and $strology.
• Philosophy is based on 1iyati -Destiny/ which !eans everything in the world is
• )a"h"hali 0osala was a co!panion of )ahavira and this sect had a lot in co!!on with
• #indusar was disciple of $:ivi"as.
• Practised co!plete nudity and rigorous practices.
• $sho"a donated #arabar cvend "ing Dhasarath donated 1agar:uni cave to $:ivi"as.
• Developed byS#rihpor 4harva"a.
• .ollowers are "nown as 4harva"as or o"yatas.
• #elieved that nothing existed which could not be understood by five senses.
• #elieved that earth, water, fire and air are the only ele!ents.
• #elieved that death was ulti!ate and everything ended after death.
• #elieved that there was no soul, no god, no rebirth, no "ar!D6
• .ounder was Purana 2asyapa -a brah!in of 2asyapa gotra/.
• #elieved in the doctrine or non;action.
• #elieved that action did not lead to either !erit or de!erit.
$"rittavada B$agasvatavadB$nunada
• .ounder was Pa"uda 2atyayana.
%nhchedavada B=arvada B$nnihilationis!
• .ounder $:ita 2esha"a!blin -!eaning with the hair blan"et/
• #elieved in !aterialistic philosophy.
• $:ita was the earliest propounder of !aterialis!
.acts about #hagvatis!
'. &eligion based on the idea of a supre!e 0od Han or 1arayan or Vishnu -later "nown as
*. )ain philosophy is #ha"ti, co!plete surrender of self to 0od and salvation through his
@. Did not believe in sacrifice and slaughter of ani!als.
?. &ise in west a!ong the tribe satvatas -a branch of yadavas/ in )athura region.
A. Vasudeva;2rishna of Vrishni race was the chief 0od who discussed its philosophy in
#hagvad D 0ita
<. VasudevaD 2rishna was the disciple of 0hora $gnirasa.
8. #hagvatD0ita gives a!phasis on one6s wordly duties as dhar!a.
+. )agasthenes refers to 2rishna as Hera"ies of Sourseni tribe.
G. ,en awatares
• #atsya (3is!)
• +urma (Tortoise)
• (ara!a (0ear)
• Narsim!a (ma"$lio")
• (ama"a (D&ar/)
• %arasurama (Rama &it! t!e a4e)
• Rama
• +ris!"a
• 0udd!a
• +alki" (As a ma" o" a &!ite !orse &it! a s&ord i" !is !a"d* t!e a&atara yet to come i"
'(. ,he earliest reference to 2rishna is found in 4hhandogya %panishad. Here he is represented as
pupil of 0hora $ngirasa and son of Devi"i.
''. ,he reference of Vasu?eva is found in Panini6s $styaohyagi and Patan:ali6s )ahabhashya.
'*. ,he #esnagar Pillar inscription is associated with Heliodorus son of Dion and a native of ,axila,
and a!bassador fro! the court of the >ndo;0ree" "ing $ntial"idas to 2ing #hagabhadra -Sungas/
who erected a garduadhwa: at #esnagar and clai!ed hi!self a Para!;#hagvata.
'@. Pancharatra -of five nights/, a vaishnavite school gave the doctrine of Vyuha -e!anations/
according to which San"arsana -aftother na!e of #ulra!a/ Pradyu!na -2rishna6s Son/ and
$niruddha -2rishna6s grand son/ e!erged out of Vasudeva.
'?. Developed and popularised in South by twelve saints "nown as $lvars.
'A. ,otal 1o. of 1ayanar saints was <@ and they were shaiv.
• ,iru!urai which is consider as fifth veda in which the preaching of $iwar and 1aynar saint
were co!piled in '' volu!es.
.acts about Saivis!
'. Developed around the concept of Siva associated with the vedic god &udra.
*. Je!a 2adphises, the 2ushana "ing adopted salvis! and depicted 5he figure of siva with
trident and 1andi on the reverse of his coins.
@. Developed and popularised in south >ndia around A(( $.D. by the saints 1ayanars, <@ in
?. ,he sacred literature of the Saivas is "nown as Saivaga!a.
A. ,he 0od Shiva is!entioned by different na!es na!ely >shwara, )ahadev, )ahesvara,
Shan"ara, #holenath.
<. ,he collection of the songs of <@ 1ayanars is "nows as ,evara! stotras and is in ,a!il. >t is
also "nown as Dravida ; veda.
8. $g!as, '+ in nu!ber and said to have been co!posed by the various aspects of Siva hi!self
are the greatest wor" in salvis!.
+. Various for!s of siva:
• Natara,a 2 5ord o/ da"ce* i"ve"ted 678 /orms o/ da"ces* ta"dava* a /ierce da"ce is o"e o/
• Daks!i"amurti 2 A )od sout!$/aci"g'
• Ard!a"aris&ara 2 Hai/$siva a"d !ai/.arvati re.rese"ti"g t!e u"io" o/ )od &it! !is sakti'
G. >n South >ndia, daughter of a Pandayan "ing na!ed )ina"shi is associated with Siva as his spouse
and the )ina"shi te!ple of )adurai had been constructed to celebrate the event of !arriage of Siva
with )ina"shi.
Various sects of Salvis!
Pasupatas B 1a"u'isapasupatas
• .ounded by a"ulisa B 1a"ulisa > a"ulin Ba"utin
2al!u"has B2apali"as
• 7xtre!e for!s of Saivis! )atta!ayuras
• )oderate for! of Saivis!
• Developed in central >ndia.
Virasaivas Bingayats
• .ounded by #asava, the pri!e !inister of
#i::ala, the 2alachuri "ing.
• Popular in 2a!ata"a region.
2ash!ir Saivis!
• .ounder is Vasugupta -+((;G(( $D/
• )oderate for! of Saivis!.
Spanda D sastra
• .ounders are 2allata and So!ananda the two desciples of Vasugupta
• )oderate for! of Saivis!
• #elieves in spitirual develop!ent
• 0reatest exponent was $ghora Sivacharya -'*(( $D/.
.acts about #uddhis!
ife of Siddhartha -0auta! #uddha/
'. ,itle
#uddha, Sa"yarnuni,
*. #irth Place
u!bini -)odern &u!indel
B&upanDDelhi/ in 2apilvastu
@. #irth 9ear A<@ #4
?. 4lan Sa"ya
A. 4lass 4aste 2shatriya
<. 0otra 1a!e 0auta!a -0ota!a in Pali/
8. .oster )other )ahapra:apati 0auta!i
+. Jife
#hadda 2anchana,
Subhadra"a, #i!ba, 0opa,
G. 4ousin Devadutta
'(.Son &ahul
''.Horse 2antha"a
'*.4harioteer 4hanna
'@.,eachers under whose guidance Sidhartha
for Euite so!e ti!e before he attained
$lara 2a!a H &udda"a &a!aputta
'?. 0ot enlighten; !ent at
%ruvela -!odern #odh 0aya/ on theban" of the
river 1iran:ana
'A.0ot enlighten!ent under the tree Pipal -"nown as #odhitree/
'<.Delivered, first ser!on at Deer Par" in Sarnath ->sipatna/
'8.Death -year
?+@ #4 at the age of +(
'+.Death -Place/
2ushinagar -2ushinara/
in %.P., capital of the
'G. #irth, 7nlighten!ent H Death Vaisha"ha Purni!a -.ull )oon day
*(.Preached !ost of his ser!ons at Sravasti
.O%& 1O#7 ,&%,H B 4$,,$&>$&>9$S$44$1>
'. Sorrow -du""ha/ D ,he world is full of sorrow
*. ,he cause of sorrow -du""ha sa!udaya/ B is desire
@. 4essation of sorrow -du""haD nirodha/
?. ,he path leading to the cessation of sorrow -du""ha D nirodhaga!ini pratipada/ is
7ight .old Paths B$shtangi"a )arg
'. &ight beliefBobservation Bviews -Sa!nia D Ditthi/ D %nderstanding that desire is the
cause of sorrow and the ending of it will lead to the liberation of the soul.
*. &ight thought B deter!ination B resolve -Sa!!a D San"appa/ D $voiding the en:oy!ent
of the senses and luxury H to love hu!anity H increase the happiness of others.
@. &ight speech -Sa!!a D Va"a/ D $lways tell truth.
?. &ight actionBeffort -Sa!!a D 2a!!anta/ D %nselfish action.
A. &ight !eans of livelihood -Sa!!a D $:iva/ D )an should live by honest !eans.
<. &ight endeavourBconduct -Sa!!a D Vaya!!a/ D Proper way of controlling senses for
preventing bad thoughts through correct !ental exercises that one can destroy desire H
8. &ight recollection B!e!ory -Sa!!a D Sati/ D 7!phasises the !editation for the re!oval
of wordly evils.
+. &ight!editation -Sa!!aD Sa!adhi/Dleads to peace.
#uddhist order -Sangha/
'. Provisions of the !e!bership
• 1o caste restriction
• Slaves, soldiers, debtors and other persons under obligation were not to enter it without the
per!ission of their superior.
• 4ri!inals, leapers and persons affected by infectious diseases were not given ad!ission
into it.
• On the repeated reEuests of the chief disciple of #uddha $nanda and his foster !other
)ahapra:apatl 0ota!i, ad!itted the wo!en in Sangha.
'. His foster !other 0auta!i beca!e the first wo!an to :oin the Sangha.
*. During the four !onths of the rainy season the !on"s loo" up a fixed abode and !editated.
,hree =ewels in #uddhis!
• #uddha -7nlightened one/
• Dha!!a -Doctrine/
• Sangha -Order/
Sy!bols Signifying Different 7vents of #uddha5s ife
• #irth ; otus H #ull
• &enunciation ; Horse
• 7nlighten!ent ; #odhi tree
• .irst Ser!on ; Jheel
• Death ; Stupa
.our 0reat 7vents in the life of #uddha
i. )ahabhinis"ar!an ; &enunciation
ii. 1irvana ; 7nlight!ent
iii. Dha!!acha"aparivartan ; .irst ser!on
iv. )ahaparinirvana or Parinirvana ; Death
1a!e of .a!ous #uddhist Scholars
%pali, $nanda, Vasu!itra, $svaghosha, Saba"a!i", )oggaliputta ,issa, 1agar:una, #uddhaghosha,
$sanga, #uddhapalita, #havavive"a, Dinnaga, 4handra"irti, Sthri!ati, Dha!!apala, $ryadeva,
Santideva, Santara"sita, 2a!alasila. Dhar!a"irti.
.ive #uddhas in #uddhist ,radition
2ra"ucchnada, 2ana"a!uni, 2asyapa, Sa"ya!uni $nd )altreya -9et to 4o!e/ .our Signs in
'. Old!an
*. Sic" !an
@. 4orpse
?. Saint
Various #oddhistavas >n #uddhist ,radition

#uddhist 4ouncils
>. .irst 4ouncil
'. 9earD?+@#.4.
*. Place D Saptparni 4ave -1ear &a:agriha/
@. Over #y ; )aha"assapa %pali
?. %nder ; $:atsatru
A. Purpose D ,o co!pile the #uddhist scriptures
<. Outco!e
• All t!e teac!i"gs o/ 0udd!a &ere divided i"to t&o .itakas
• (i"aya %itaka2 establis!ed u"der t!e leaders!i. o/ 9.ali
• Sutta %itaka 2 settled u"der t!e leaders!i. o/ A"a"da
>>. Second 4ouncil
'. 9ear;@+@#.4.
*. Place D Vaisali
@. Presided over byD Saba 2a!i
?. %nder D 2alaso"a B 2an"avar!in
A. Purpose D ,o settle down the dispute between the two opposing groups !on"s of Vaishali
and Patliputra and !on"s of 2ausa!bi and $vanti regarding the code of discipline.
<. Outco!e
• T!e cou"cil /ailed to brag about a com.romise bet&ee" t!e t&o o..osi"g grou.s'
• T!e cou"cil e"ded i" a .erma"e"t s.lit o/ t!e 0udd!ist order i"to St!aviravadi"s a"d
>>>. ,hird 4ouncil
'. 9earD*@8 #c
*. Place D Patliputra
@. Presided Over #y ; )ogali Putta ,issa
?. %nder D $sho"a
A. Purpose D ,o &evise the Scriptures
<. Outco!e
• T!e %!iloso.!ical i"ter.retatio"s o/ t!e doctri"es o/ 0udd!a &ere collected i"to t!ird %itaka
called Ab!id!amma %itaka'
• Heretical mo"ks "umberi"g si4ty t!ousa"d &ere e4.elled /rom t!e order
>V .ourth 4ouncil
'. 9ear;'(($.D.
*. Place D 2undalavana >n 2ash!ir
@. Presided over by D Vasu!itra
?. %nder D 2anishica.
A. Purpose D ,o settle the disputed doctrines
<. Outco!e D&ise of )ahayana and Hinanyana
• om.iled comme"taries (9.adesa Sastras : (ib!asa Sastra) o/ t!e t!ree .itakas'
• Decided certai" co"troversial ;uestio"s o/ di//ere"ces t!at arose bet&ee" t!e sarvastivada
teac!er o/ +as!mir a"d )a"d!ara'
2ings who gave Patronage ,o #uddhis!
#i!bisara, $:atastru -)agadha/, Prasen:ita -2osala/, %dayana -2ausa!bi/, $sho"a, )enander,
2adphises, Harsha, 2anish"a, Dhara!pala, 2u:ula. .a!ous #uddhist 4entres -'/ #harhut -*/ Sanchi
-@/ Sarnath -?/ #odhgaya -A/ 1alanda -</ Purushapura -8/,axila -+/ )athura -G/ $!arvati -'(/
2arle -''/ 2anheri -'*/ 1agar:un"onda -'@/ Odantpuri.
Schools of #uddhis!
'. )ahasanghi"as
*. Sthavlravadin B ,heravada
@. Sarvastivadin
?. )ahayana
• 0elieved i" t!e divi"ity o/ t!e 0udd!as
• <ors!i..ed t!e images o/ several 0udd!as a"d 0od!istavas'
• =Sa"skrit> became t!e la"guage o/ .reac!i"g a"d teac!i"g'
• It !ad t&o c!ie/ .!iloso.!ical sc!ools* t!e #ad!yamika a"d t!e Yogac!ara'
• %romi"e"t .lace give" to t!e 0od!istavas 2 &!o &ere bei"g o/ great ki"d"ess a"d !el.ed t!e
!uma"ity t!roug! t!eir o&" su//eri"g'
• Teac!es t!e salvatio" /or all'
• 0elieved i" t!e origi"al teac!i"gs o/ t!e 0udd!a'
• %o.ular i" eylo"* 0u""a* T!aila"d* ombodia* 5oas etc' but lost its .o.ularity i" I"dia'
• Teac!es t!e attai"me"t o/ salvatio" /or o"esel/ alo"e'
• Salvatio" t!roug! sel/$"e a"d meditatio"'
• No belie/ i" idol$&ors!i.' <ors!i.ed 0ud!a i" /orm o/ t!e symbols'
• Ado.ted %ali as t!e la"guage /or teac!i"g a"d te4ts'
<. Va:rayana B Vehlcle Of ,hunder #olt
• Salvation attained by acEuiring the !agical power.
• ,he chief divinities of this new sect were the ,aras, wives of the #uddhas and
• 9ogic and !egical in character.
8. 9ogacharaBVinanayadin
• .ounded by )iitreyanath around ?(( $D.
• ,he only reality is tahatataBsuchnessB thusness or Dhara!adhatu which is eEuivalent to
Sunyata of )adhya!i"a school.
+. )adhya!i"a
• .ounded by 1agar:una B 1agasena around 'A( $D.
• Philosophy of SunyavadaBSunyataBVoidB 7!ptiness according to which everything around
us is e!ptiness and whatever we perceive is only illusion.
• $ssociated with theory of relativity.
Other >!portant seats of #uddhis!
G. Sautranti"as
'(. Sa!itlyas
'?. ,antrayana
#uddhist Scriptures
'. #uddshist Scriptures are Pita"as, which are written in Pall language.
*. >t consists of three sections called ,ripita"as.
>. Sutta Pita"a
'. argest H !ost i!portant of the ,ripila"as. contains the teachings of #uddha.
*. >t is divided into five M0roupsN -1i"ayas/
• Dig!a (lo"g) Nikaya 2 ollectio" o/ lo"g sermo"s ascribed to t!e 0udd!a* &it! accou"ts o/
t!e circumsta"ces i" &!ic! !e .eac!ed t!em'
• #a,,!ima (medium) Nikaya 2 S!orter sermo"s
• Samyutta (co""ected) Nikaya2ollectio"s o/ brie/ .ro"ou"ceme"ts'
• A"guttara ()raduated) Nikaya2ollectio" o/ over ?*777 brie/ stateme"ts* arra"ged i" eleve"
• +!uddaka (#i"or) Nikaya
@. 4ontains !iscellaneous wor"s in prose and verse.
?. $!ong the contents of 2hudda"a are Dha!!apada -versus on virtue/ is containing a su!!ary of
#uddha6s universal teachings. ,haragatha -Hy!ns of the elder !on"s/ ,herigatha -Hy!ns of the
elder nuns/ =ata"as -a collection of over A(( poe!s which describe the previous birth of #uddha,
!any of the! being in the ani!al for!s/.
>>. Vinava Pita"a
4ontains !oral code of conduct
>>>. $bhidha!!a Pita"a
4onsists of philosophy of #uddhis! especially!ela physics.
#uddhist Jor"s
'. )ilinda;Panho -Iuestions of )enander/ D $n account of the discussion between #acterian "ing
)enandar or )ilinda and the #uddhist !on" 1agasena.
*. 4eylonese chronicles D ,he history of #uddhis! in 4eylon and give valuable infor!ation on
political and social history

,he )auryan
4handragupta founded it in @** #.4. with the help of his #rah!in )inister 4hana"ya.
&eferences and Sources:
,he !ost i!portant source in $rtha Sastra which has 'A chapters called $dhi"aranas. Other
Sans"rit sources are 2au!udi )ahotsava of Va:i"a and )udrara"sha of Visa"hadutta. Sanga! poets
na!ed )a!ulnar and Pa!ar described about #i!ba )auryas attac" on South >ndia.
'. Division of >ndian Society into seven castes )egasthenes
*. $bsence of slavery )egasthenes
@. 4hronology and list of )auryan 2ings Puranas
?. 7cono!ic and Political 4onditions $rthashastra
A. Social and 7cono!ic 4onditions =ata"as
<. &ole of $sho"a in spreading #uddhis! to Sri an"a Dipva!sa H )ahava!sa
8. 4onversion of 4handragupta )aurya to =ainis! D his
abdication of throne and
going to Sravanbelagola
Parisistparvan of He!achandra
+ $bsence of usury -)oney lending/ )egasthenes
G. $sho"a6s favour to $:ivi"as #arabar Hill cave inscriptions
'(. 4onstruction of Sudarsana a"e
=unagarh &oc" >nscription of
&udrada!an >.
''. 2illing of GG of his brothers and seiCing of throne by
)ahava!sa H Dipava!sa
'*. ,he na!e $sho"a
)as"i 0u:arra, 1ittur and
%degola! 7dicts
'@. 7xistance of an $sho"an Pillar at Sana"isa with a lion
'?. ,he )auryan ar!y is band of dacoits =ustin
'A. =alu"a was the successor of $sho"a in 2ash!ir &a:ataringini
'<. Pushyagupta the provincial governor of Saurastra was the
brother;in;law of
4handragupta )aurya
=unagarh &oc" >nscription
'8. )auryan ar!y consisted of <((((( ar!y !en Plutarch
'+. #indusar as"ed $ntiochus of Syria for so!e sweet wine
Hegesander -Euoted by $theneus/
figs and a philosopher
4entral $d!inistration
High ran"ing officials next to ,irthas concerned !ostly with econo!ic functions and
so!e !ilitary duties. ,hey were twenty in nu!ber.
High ran"ing officers who acted as present day secretaries, who functioned in
ad!inistrative and :udicial capacity.
Higher ran"ing officials irrespective of the duties assigned of the!. ,hese are
references to the! as a !inisterial of advisory council as well. ,he $rthasastra uses
this ter! in the sense of a !inister.
Highest category of officials for! the inner council apart for! council of !inisters.
,hey were eighteen in nu!ber.
$d!inistrative Divisions and Officers $ssociated with the!


>!portant )aharnattas

• Plutarch and =ustin have described about 4handraguptas ar!y.
• SiCe and organisation of ar!y was fairly large.
• $ccording to Pliny it co!prised <(((( infantry, @(((( cavalry, and '(((( elephants.
• $ccording to Plutarch it consisted of *(((( infantry, +(((( horses, <((( elephants and
+((( war chariots.
• 4hana"ya refers to 4haturangbala co!prising infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants as
the principal organs of the ar!y.
• $r!y ad!inistration was run by six co!!ittees -according to )egasthenes/.
• 7ach co!!ittee consisted to five !e!bers -according to )egasthenes/.
• 7ach co!!ittee was entrusted with a particular branch na!ely infantry cavalry elephants,
chariots, ad!iralty and transport H supplies.
• ,he officers and soldiers were paid in cash.
• Salaries of so!e i!portant officers were: Senapati;?+(( pana, 1aya"a; '*(( pana,
)u"hyas;+((( pana, $dhya"sha ?((( pana.
4ity $d!inistration
• )egasthanese has given prohific infor!ation on )unicipal ad!inistration of pataliputra
wh>ch was devided in to @( words.
• &un by a city council "nown as $styano!i
• 4ity council consist of six sub;councilsB co!!ittees
• 7ach co!!ittee had five !e!bers.
• 7ach co!!ittee was entrusted with a particular wor" na!ely:
• 3irst ommittee $ I"dustry : cra/ts
• Seco"d ommittee $ 3oreig"ers
• T!ird ommittee $ Registratio" o/ birt!s : deat!s
• 3ourt! ommittee $ Trade : commerce* &eig!ts : measures
• 3i/t! ommittee $ #a"u/actured goods
• Si4t! ommittee $ ollectio" o" t!e goods sold
• Head o/ t!e city admi"istratio" &as Nagraka'
• Nagrika &a assisted by t&o subordi"ate o//icials "amely@ St!a"ika : )o.a'
• Raks!i &as t!e .olice &!o looked a/ter t!e .eo.le1s security
• Sita;4rowniand
• #hag;and taxD 'B<
• #ali;Voluntary offering
• Vastu;,ax ta"en fro! rural areas
• Durg;,ax ta"en fro! urban areas
• 2ara D Orchard tax
• Vivit;,ax i!posed on pasture land
.acts about $sho"an 7dicts H >nscriptions
• )as"i 0u:arra, 1ittur and Odegola! edicts !ention the na!e $sho"a
• $sho"an edicts were deciphered by =a!es Princep in '+@8.
• ,he ,opra H )eerut Pillars were brought to Delhi by .iroC Shah ,ughlaE.
• ,he 2ausa!bi Pillar was brought to $llahabad by =ehangir.
• ,he #airat inscription was brought to 4alcutta by 4unningha!.
• ,he !a:or roc" edicts at )anshera H ShahbaCgarhi are in 2haroshthi script.
• ,he 2andahar inscription is bilingual written in 0ree" H $r!enic.
• )ost of the $sho"an edicts are written in #rah!i script.
• ,he language used in $sho"an edicts except 2andhar is Pra"rit.
• ,he inscription in frag!entary condition found at a!pa"aBa!ghan is in $ra!aic.
• >n edicts $sho"a generally refers to hi!self by the title Devana!piya Priyadarshi.
• ,he $llahabad pillars -brought fro! 2ausainbi/ contains the inscription of Sa!udragupta
and =ehangir also.
• )a:or roc" edicts are fourteen in nu!ber.
• ,otal nu!ber of pillar edicts is thirteen, they are inscribed on ten pillars;out of thirteen
seven are !a:or pillars edicts and two are co!!e!orative pillar edicts.
• Of the four !inor pillars edicts, one is "nown as Iueen6s edict and it is on $llahabad pillar.
,his was dedicated to $sho"a6s wife ,isra"shita. >n this inscription the description of his
son ,eevar was found.
• Schis! edicts -one each/ are found on $llahabad, Sanchi and Sarnath Pillars. ,here are
called the inscription for stopping the division.
• ,he co!!e!orative pillar edicts are &u!eindei and 1igalisagar -both in 1epal/
• ,he longest a!ong the !a:or roc" edict is '@th roc" edict. >n this edict the war of 2alinga
has been described. ,he 5slave syste! has also been described in this edict.
• 8th Pillar edict is longest a!ong all the edicts.
• ,he $llahabad pillar contains first six pillar edicts, Iueen6s edict, 2osa! Schis! edict,
Prasasti of Sa!udragupta written by Harisena and so!e decrees of =ehangir.
• 2harosthi script was ad!ixture of $r!eic and #rahini.
Various 7dicts
• 4ontents D Personal history of $sho"a
'st 7dicts
• Don3t "ill any ani!al except dear and Peacoc".
@rd )a:or &oc" 7dict
$sho"a has created @ new post.
'. Pradeshi"a D District )agistrate.
*. &a::u"a D &eveneue officer, who also loo"s after the :udicial things.
@. 9u"ta D 4orrespondence cler".
Ath )a:or &oc" edict
$sho"a created new post of Dhartna )aha!atya.
<th )a:or &oc" edict
>n this edict it has been !entioned that Prativeda"a can !eet anywhere to "ing regarding state
+th )a:or &oc" edict
>n this edict it has been !entioned that at the '(th year of his ruling $sho"a went #odhgaya and
worshiped pipal tree.
'@th )a:or &oc" edict
,his is the #iggest edict in which war of "alinga has been !entioned. ,he description of Satlyaputra
found here.
'?th )a:or &oc" edict
M)y 2ingdo! is vast.N
ocation D '. ShahbaCgarhi -Peshawar/ *. )ansehra Peshawar/ @. 2alsi -%P/ ?.Sopara
-)aharashtra/ 0irnar -0u:arat/ </ Dhauli -Orissa 8. =augada -Orissa/.
*. )inor &oc" 7dicts
• 4ontents DPersonal history of $sho"a
• ocationD'. Siddapura -2arnata"a/ *. =atinga &a!eshwara -2arnata"a/ @. >@rah!agiri
-2arnata"a/ ?. &upnath -)P/ A. Shasara! -#ihar/ <. #airat -&a:asthan/ 8. )as"i
-2arnata"a/ +. 0ovi!ath -)ysore/ G. Pal"igundu -)ysore/ '(. &a:ula )andagin -2arnata"a/
''. 9erragudi -2arnata"a/ '*. 0u:arat -)P/ '@. $hraura -%P/
@. )a:or Pillar 7dicts
• 4ontentsD ,hese are appendix to roc" edicts.
• ocation D '. $llahabad -%P/ *. Delhi ,opra -Pun:ab/ @. Delhi;)erritt -%P/ ?. auriya $rera:
-#ihar/ A. auriya 1andangarh -#ihar/ <. &a!purva -#ihar/
?. )inor Pillar 7dicts
• 4ontentsD$sho"a6s Obsession with Dha!ina
• ocation D '. $llahabad -%P/*. Sanchi -%P/ @. Sarnath -%P/
A. 2alinga 7dicts
• 4ontents D Syste! of ad!inistration in 2alinga
• ocation D '. Dhauli -Orissa/ *. =augada -Orissa/
<. #habru 7dicts
• 4ontents D $sho"a6s conversion to #uddhis! and his reverence for his religion
• ocation D 4alcutta -J#/ brought fro! #airat -&a:asthan/
8. #arabar cave >nscription
• 4ontents D Donation of the caves to $:ivi"as
• ocation D '. #arabar Hills -0aya, #ihar/ *. 1u!ber of caves in three na!ely #anyan tree
-Suda!a/ cave, 2halati"aBVisva:hopri cave and SupiyaB2a!a 4haupar 4ave
1$)7S O. 4H$1D&$0%P,$ )$%&9$
• Sando"optos ; Phylarchus -Euoted by $thaneous/
• Sandrocottus ; Strabo, $rian, =ustin
• Palibrothers ; $dopted by "ing
• Patliputra"a ; $dopted by "ing
• $ndrocottus ; $ppian plutarch
• 4handra Sin ; )udrara"shasa
• Piadsa!a ; )udrara"shasa
• Pnyadarshana ; )udrara"shasa
• Vrishala ; )udrara"shasa
• 2ulahina ; )udrara"shasa
• )aurya Putra ; )udrara"shasa
• Piyadassi ; )udrara"shasa
1$)7S O. #>1D%S$&
'. $!itraghata ; Sans"rit -literally slayer of forces/
*. $!itra"hada ; Sans"rit -literally eater of forces/
@. $rnitrachates ; $thaneous
?. $llitrochades ; Strabo
A. Si!asena ; &a:avali"atha
<. #indupala ; .a;Puen 4hulin -$ 4hinese text/
1$)7S H ,>,7 O. $SHO2$
'. $sho"a ; Personal na!e
*. Priyadarssi ; Official na!e -probably used after coronation/
@. Devana!priya ; &oyal title -$general royal title of the period/
?. $sho"a ; )as"i, 1ittur, 0u:arra H %degola!7dict
A. 2ing of )agadh ; #habru edict
<. $sho"vardhan ; Puranas
8. $sho"a )aurya ; =unagarh >nscription
+. Priyadarsi ; Dipava!sa
G. Priyadarsi ; 2andahar >nscription
'(. Priyadarsi &a:a ; #arabar hill cave >nscription
.O&7>01 7)>SS$&9B$)#$SS$DO& >1 ,H7 )%&9$1 4O%&,
'. )egasthenes D by ; to the court of Seleucus 4handragupta )auryas
*. Dei!achos
@. $ntiochus >, 2ing of Syria D by ; to the court of #indusar
?. @. Dionysios D by Ptole!y >> ; to the court of #indusar

)$%&9$1 4O>1S
'. Punch;!ar"ed coins !ainly of silver and so!e of copper found fro! eastern %.P. and #ihar.
*. ,he !ost co!!on sy!bols are the elephant, the !ountain and the tree
@. Pana D ', 'B*, >B?, 'B+ D Silver
)asi"aDl, 'B*, 'B?, lB+ D 4opper
2a"ini D 'B? of )asi"a
?. Sy!bols on Punched;!ar"ed coins;)ountain, Stupa, $ni!al, ,ree #ranches. Jeapons H
,ools, Hu!an .igures, Dog SeiCing Hare, &abbit, .ish, Scorpian, Sna"e, Sun Sadaracha"ra.
.$4,S $#O%, $&,HS>>$S,&$
'. 4a!e to light in ; 'G(A by Sha!:i Sastri
*. Jritten by ; 4hana"yaB 2autilya
@. Sub:ect )atter ; State craft.
?. 1o. of adhi"a!as -boo"s/ ; .ifteen
A. 1o. of verses ; Six thousand
<. 7xpanded and perfected by ; Vi s h nug u p t a -@((;?(( $.D./.
Post )auryan Period -*((. #4;@(( $D/ -Part ;'/
.oreign &ulers: >ndo;0ree"s
'. .irst contact D during the invasion of $lexander, @ *<;*8 #4
*. Second contact D during the battle between Seleucas 1i"ator and 4handragupta )aurya @(< #4.
• 4handragupta defeated Seleucas and a !atri!onial alliance was established
• .irst i!portant 0ree" "ing was De!etrius.
• He issued bilingual coins.
• He was defeat by Pushya!itra Sunga.
@. 0ree" "ing: )enander or )ilinda.
• His coins bear the i!age of Dha!!ach"ra.
• He accepted #uddhis!i
• ,he boo" )ilinda;Panho is a collection of his Euestions and answers given by
• His capital was Sa"al and Sial"ot
• He was also defeated by Pushya!itra Sunga
?. >!portant "ing: $ntaalio"us.
• His a!bassador Heliodorus ca!e to the court of a shunga "ing and created a garudadhwa:
at #esnagar or #hilsa and called hi!self a Par!bhagvat.
A. 0ree"s issued a large no. of coins.
'. ,hey were the first to issue gold coins.
*. ,hey introduced Hellenistic $rt into >ndia, the i!pact of which can be seen in the 0andhara
,he Sha"as
'. ,hey established control over $fghanistan, Pun:ab, )athura, Jestern >ndia and %pper
*. Sha"a rule was founded by )aos or )oga.
@. He finds !ention in )ora inscription.
?. His coins bear the i!age of #uddha and Shiva.
A. &udrada!an was the!ost fa!ous Sha"a "ing.
<. His =unagarh B 0irnar >nscription. 'A( $D is the first inscription in 4haste Sans"rit.
8. ,his inscription is in s!all prose;poetry for!.
+. ,his inscription !a"es a !ention of pair of Sudarshan a" of Saurastra by &udrada!an6s
governor in Saurastra Suvisa"ha, the expense was borne by "ing6s excheEuer.
,he PahalavasBParthians
'. ,he only i!portant "ing was 0ondophernes.
*. St. ,ho!as reached >ndia during his ti!e.
,he 2ushavas
'. ,hey belonged to 9uechi tribe.
*. .irst "ing was 2u:ula 2adiphises
@. Ji!a 2adiphises
• He adopted the title Devaputra which was inspired by the title Swargputra of the 4hinese
• His capital was Purushpur -Peshawar/.
• He introduced Sa"a era, 8+ $D.
• His rule extended fro! $fghanistan to )athura and #anaras.
• #eing inspired by his teacher Parva he convened a #uddhist council at 2undalvana in
2ash!ir whose President was Vasu!itra and Vice;President was $swaghoasa. >n the
4ouncil )ahavibhashsustra was co!piled.
• He patronised )athura $rt and built a stupa at Purushpur. $ headless statue of 2anish"a
has been discovered fro! village )at in )athura.
• His coins bear the i!ages of Heracles, Sun, )oon, Shiva, $gni and Serapis.
• 1agar:una, 4hara" and )athur -a great diplo!at/ were associated with his court.
S$10$) $07
Sources of Sanga! $ge
'. >n $sho"as inscription 1o. * H '@ there is description of 4hera, 4hola, Pandayas and Sri
*. Hatigu!fa inscription of 2harvela of 2alinga.
@. Sanga! ,exts.
,hree Sanga!s
.>&S, S$10$)
'. Venue ,en!adurai
*. Presided over by $ugust
@. V Sanga! continued for ??(( years.
?. 1o wor" of the first Sanga! is available
S74O1D S$10$)
'. Venue 2avatuparaniB$lvai -Sub!erged in sea/
Presided over by $ugust H ,ol"appiyar
*. >n this sanga! the boo" ,ol"aplyarn was written by ,ol"appiyar. ,his boo" is written on
,a!il 0ra!!ar
'. Venue )adurai
*. Presided over by 1a""irar
@. So!any wor"s has been found of this Sanga!.
Sanga! literature has two sub:ect !atters $ha! -love/ and Pura! -war/.
'. $stha Sangrah ; + #oo"s were written. Out of light two boo"s were very i!portant.
• Padittruptu D ,his boo" provides the History of 4hera.
• Pu!a 1uru; #oth of the boo"s are based on war.
*. $stadasha Short wor"; 7ighteen boo"s has been written.
• ,iru"ural Jritten by ,iruvallur. ,iru"ural is considered as #ible of Southern >ndia. $uthor
,iruvallur considered as the incarnation of R#rah!aR 2ural is also called Pancha! Veda.
@. Pattu;Pattu; $nother na!e of this boo" is ,en >dyls. ,his boo" provides the description of nature.
.$4,S $#O%, S$10$) $07
• Sanga! $ collegeBasse!bly of literacy figures
• Devalaya! ,e!ple
• 2o 2ing
• 9upas Sacrificial ports
• $vai >!perial 4ourt
• Variyar ,ax collector
• )aharu! Supre!e 4ourt
• Puhar Harbour area
• 2orai and tax
S$10$) $07;PO>,>4$ S9S,7)
'. 2ing was "nown as 2o, )ohna!, >raivan, 2orravan, Vendan etc.
*. )onarchy was a regular pattern of the govern!ent.
@. &oyal e!ble!s
Pandayas 4rap -$ type of fish/
4holas ,iger
4heras #ow
?. and tax was "nown as 2aroi. >t was the !ain source of revenue and ''A of the total produce.
,ax 4ollector was "nown as Variyar
,ax was "nown as Vari
Offerings to the 2ing >rabu
A. Depart!ents
Panchvara! )inistrial 4ouncil
$!aichar )inister
Orar Spies
Duttar )essenger
7nadi Senapati
Padai $r!y
S$10$) $07;SO4>7,9
'. 4asteD division was prevalent.
*. #rah!ins were a part of society. ,hey were a!bassadors, priests, ascetics, !erchants,
:udicial advisors. -1orth >ndian #rah!ins were "nown a. Vadanar/
@. 2shatriya H Vaishya were D not regular.
?. 4hild )arriage was not "nown in this period.
A. Sati was co!!on, especially a!ong the higher classes.
<. 7ight type of !arriage were prevailing in the society but generally, two type of !arriage
were prevailing.
• +alb!u$ <it!out .ermissio" o/ %are"t a"d &it!out a"y customary'
• +ar.u$ <it! .ermissio" o/ .are"ts'
• %i"c! Ti""al &as love marriage'
8. M2annagi or Pauni 4ultN was an established institution. >!ages of Pattini Devi were placed in
te!ples. Paitni 4ult was started by Seguttavan.
+. $ccording to ,holpa"iya! -a boo"/, ,a!il Society was divided in four part;
'. $rasar ; &ulling class
*. $ndner ; #rahinins
@. Vahigar ; Poet,Jarrior, )iddle class etc.
?. #ellalar ; $griculturist -&ich H Poor/.
A. Pullain ; &ope )a"ers
<. )alvar ; ,hieves
8. $niars ; Hunters
+. 2anigaichar ; Prostitutes
G. Panar ; Dancers
'(. Valaidiyar ; Dancers
• See;off Syste! for the guest started in this period. >n which the people drop the person fro!
few distance fro! the ho!e !ainly boarder of the village.
• .ood Habit:; #oth vegetarian and 1onvegetarian type of food habit were prevailing in the
,rade H 4o!!erce
• ,rade and co!!erce increased very !uch in this period.
• &o!ans started their trade first with ,a!il.
7xport >te!s:;
• Pepper
• >vory
• 4otton textile
• Precious ge!s.
>!port >te!s:;
• Jine
• 0old and Silver which were in for! of coins.
S$10$) $07;&7>0>O1
'. >nfluence of #rah!anis! !anifested in perfor!ance of Vedic sacrifices and adoption o.
vedic gods by higher classes, Sraddha H Pinda to dead
Various deities
'. )urugan ,he god per excellence. $lso "nown as Subra!anya. He is god of hilloc"
worshipped by hunters
*. ,irunal ,he god considered to be co!petitor of )urgan
@. 2annagi 0oddess of chastity
?. ,iru!al 0od of cowherd
Ports of Sanga! $ge
'. Puhar -2averi Pattanarn/ 4hola
*. 4oichi Pandya
@. $ri"a!edu &o!an 4olony
?. ,a!ralipti -Periplus of 0anga/ #usiest port on the eastern coast
Political Syste!
2ing post was hereditary and )onarchy was prevailing in the society. #ut "ing not autocrate. .ive
person 4ontrols the "ing. ,hose were
'. $niaichchar )inister
*. Purohittar Purohit
@. Senapati $r!y chief
?. Orrar Spy
,H&77 2>10DO)S O. S$10$) $07
,he Pandayas
'. $rea Southern ,a!ilnadu
*. 4apital )adurai -earlier ,en!adurai and 2avatapura!/ on the #an" of river
@. Seaport 2or"ai at the !outh of the river ,a!braparni. Second part was Saliyur
?. >!portant 2ings
>. 1edun:eliyan
• ,he greatest of the Pandaya "ings
• )entioned in Silappadi"aran
• 7xecuted 2ovalan, the hero of the bold 5Silappadi"aran6 leading to 2annagi3s proving her
husbands innuecence and death of the "ing of shoc".
• Defeated the cholas H the cheras in the battle of ,aiaiyalangana!.
>>. 1ediyun
• Started sea worship.
'. Do!inion "nown as ,ondal!andala! B 4hola!andala!
*. $rea ; 1orthern ,a!ilnadu and Southern $ndhra Pradesh
@. 4apital ; %raiyur
?. Sea Port D Puhar B Poo!puhar B 2averi Pattanarn -2haberis of Ptole!y/ at the !outh of
the river 2averi
A. ,itles Sennis, Se!biyas, Valavan, 2illi
<. Oldest "nown 4hola rular ; 7lara
8. >!portant 2ings
>. 2ari"ala
• ,he greatest of the 4holas.
• iteral !eaning M)an with 4harred egR.
• .ounded Puhar B 2averipatna!
• 4onstructed a huge e!ban"!ent -'<( "!. >ons/ on the river 2averi.
• 4onEuered Sri an"a.
• .ought the battle of Venni and defeated eleven "ings.
• Defeated the chera "ing Perun:eral
• Deposed and i!prisoned in his early life
• >n Sans"rit the literal !eaning of his na!e: 3Death of 2ali or Death ,o 7ne!y 7lephants3.
• 7stablished supre!acy over the Pandayas H other 4heras.
• Prevented the !igration of people fro! his land to other regions, a His victories are
described in the boo" Pattinapallai.
>>. 1edun:ellan
• 2illed in a battle against the Pandayas and the 4heras.
• ,he last 4hola "ing.
>>>. Senganan
• .a!ous in legend for his devotion to 3Siva3.
• 4onstructed seven te!ples.
,he 4heras
'. $rea;2erala.
*. 4apital ; Van:i B 2arur B 2aruvur at the !onth or on the river P7&>9$&.
@. Seaport ; )usiriB)uCiris, second i!portant port was tondi.
?. ,itles : Vanavar, Villavar, 2udavar, 2uttuvar, Poraiyar, )alaiyar.
A. >!portant 2ings.
-a/ %divan:eral
'. ,itles applied to hi! ; Vanavara )ban and Perun:oran %diyan
*. )aintained a huge "itchen for free distribution of food to the people.
@. $dopted the little >!ayavara!aban in co!!e!oration of bringing Hi!alayan stones,
?. Provided food to warriors in 2uru"shetra.
A. 4onte!porary of poet Paranar.
-b/ 1endun =eral $da!
-c/ 2uttunbah ; His title was lord of 7lephants.
-d/ Pira"ottiva Senaguttuvan
'. ,he greatest of the chera "ings
*. 2nown as &ed 4hera
@. #uilt a te!ple of 2annagi
?. 4a!paigned;to 1orth >ndia to get a Hi!alayan stone to !a"e an idol of 2annagi
A. .ounder of the 2annagiBPattini 4ult -&eference fro! Silappadi"aran/
<. Sugarcane cultivation started by hi! in South >ndia.
S$10$) $07;)>S47$17O%S .$4,S
'. $ccording to tradition, the father of ,a!il literature is $gastya.
*. Sanga! $ge corresponds to the Post;)aurya and Pre;0upta period of ancient >ndia.
@. ,iru""ural is considered to be the Ath veda.
?. &o!ans trading with Sanga! 2ingdo! built a te!ple of $ugustus at )uCiris.
A. ,he first literary evidence about the South >ndian 2ings is found in )egasthenes >ndi"a.
<. 2orravi was )atridevi which was eEual to the Durga of 1orthern >ndia.
8. 3%raiyur3 was fa!ous for Pearls and !uslin.
+. 7nadi was the highest title given to !ilitary officers.
G. 39avanapriya3 a Sans"rit ter! which ca!e to be used for >ndian pepper.
'(. 2ardhsiyar was the title for low caste wo!en.
''. ,he coins of $ugustus and ,iberius predo!inate the &o!an coins found in >ndia.
'*. %r was another na!e for honey.
'@. )uslin, 0e!s H Pearls and Spices were the !ost i!portant ite!s of export to &o!an
'?. ,he earliest script that the ,a!ils used was #rah!i fro! late ancient period they began to
use a new angular script "nown as 0rantha.
'A. &eferences about the Sanga! $ge are found fro! the 0ree" and &o!an writers of '((;*((
$D. ,hey are Ptole!y, Pliny, Strabo and anony!ous writer of the Periplus of the 7rythrean
• Perur ; #ig village
• Sirur ; S!all village
• )urdur ; Old village
• Salai ; Highway
• )uhir ; 4oc"tail -Jine/
• &o!an factory was found in $ri"a!edu.
• >n )u:ris &o!an !ade the ,e!ple of $ugustus.
'<. >>nd and O>>>th &oc" 7dicts of $sho"a give reference to this period.
Sanga! iterature
Sanga! literature !ainly revolves around the two points
i. $aba! D ove or internal.
ii. Pura!DJar or external.
$. 7P>4S
'. )aninie"hailai
• Jritten by poet Settalai Sattanar of)adurai
• #oo" was influenced by #udhis!.
*. Silappadiagra!
• Oldest and greatest of Sanga! epics.
• ,rader6s na!e ; 2ovalan and 2annigi was his wife.
• over3s na!e ; )adhavi.
• Jritten by >llango $nadigal -grandson of the 4hola "ing 2ari"ala/.
• #oo"s was influenced by Hindu religion.
@. Sivaga Sinda!ani B =iva" 4hinta!ani
• Jritten by ,initta""adevar -a :ain by religion/D Vaisya fro! )uth.
• #oo" was influenced by =ainis!.
?. Valayapati
A. 2undal"esi
<. 1a!es of all epics are no!enclature based on orna!ents
#. ,$)> JO&2S O. 7$&>7S, P7&>OD
'. ,ol"appiya!
• Jritten by ,ola"apiyar, one of the '* deciples of saint $gastya and who played dyna!ic
role in $ryanisation of South >ndia.
• Jor" on ,a!il gra!!er.
*. $gattiya!
• Jritten by Saint $gattiyar
• Jor" on gra!!ar of letters H life Sanga! literature divides ,a!il region in five parts:
-$/ Palai
• ,his is called Pridal in ,a!il.
• ,his was dry land.
• )ayon was the 4od.
-#/ )ullai
• ,his is called >rratual is ,a!il
• ,his was forest $rea.
• Scyon was the 0od.
-4/ 2urun:
• ,his is called Punardal in ,a!il.
• ,his was )ountainous $rea.
• )urugan was the 0od.
-D/ )aruda!
• ,his is called %dai in ,a!il.
• ,his was $gricultural and.
• >ndra was 0od. >n ,a!il >ndra was called Vendan.
-7/ 1eydal
• ,his was called >rrangal in ,a!il.
• ,his was 4oastal $rea.
• Varun was 0od.
,H7 S$,$V$H$1$S >)PO&,$1, 2>10S
'. .ounder of the Satavahana dynasty.
Sata"arni >
'. $dopted the title of 3Da"ashinapathapati3
• Jrote 0athasaptashati B Sagtsati B Satsal in Paisachi Pra"rit.
• 0unadhya the writer of #rihat 2atha in his court.
0auta!iputra Sata"arni
'. 4alled hi!self destroyer of Shalvas -Scythians/, 9avanas -0ree"/ and Pahalavas -Parthians/
*. 4alled hi!self R7"brah!inR.
9a:na shri Shata"arni
'. His coins bear i!pression of 3ship3, fish and shell.
)>S47$17O%S .$4,S
'. Satavahanas tried to establish rule according to the Dhar!ashastra
*. >!portant officials were called )aha!atras and $!atyas
@. District was called $hara
?. 2ata"a and S"andhavaras are ter!s used in the inscription for !ilitary settle!ents and
ca!ps. ,hese also acted as centre of ad!inistration as long as the "ing stayed here.
A. Satavahanas exploited iron !ines of Jarangal and 2ari!nagar.
<. #lac" s!ith3s shops are found in 2ari!nagar District.
8. >ssued coins !ostly of lead also potin, copper and bronCe.
+. Did not issue gold coins.
G. $ndhra region beca!e fa!ous for cotton products -foreign accounts/.
'(. 1agar:un"onda and $!ravati e!erged as centres of #uddhist culture and learning.
''. Official language Pra"rit and script ; #rah!i.
,H7 P$$V$S
So!e fact
'. 4apital was 2anchipura!
*. Dynasty founded by Vishnugopa who was captured and then liberated by Sa!udragupta
@. However definite history of the dynasty begins with the accession of Si!havishnu in second
half of <th century.
>!portant 2ings.
'. Hi!self a dra!atist and poet, wrote a play )attavilasa Prahasan -the Delight of the
drun"ard/, $ burlesEue
*. $dopted litter Vichitrachitta -4urious )inded/
@. .inest roc" cut te!ples were built during his reign -e.g. te!ples at )ahabalipura!/
?. 2nown as 4aitya;"ari -#uilder of 4aityas H te!ples/.
A. $dopted the little )atta;Vilas.
'. >n <?* $D defeated ul"eshin >> with the help of the "ing of 4eylon and sac"ed Vatapi, too"
bac" the territories which were under )ahendraver!an.
*. .ought the #attle of )ani!angala! with Pul"aesin >> in which the latter was "illed
@. 2nown as )aha!alla.
?. .ounded the city of )a!allapura!B )ahabalipura!.
A. 4onstructed seven rathas at )ahabalipura!.
<. Heiun ,sang visited 2anchipura! he called Pallava country ,ailopicha and 2anchi
1$&S>)7$V$&)$1 >>
'. $dopted title &a:asi!ha
*. #uilt 2ailashnath te!ple at 2aranchi, Shore ,e!ple at )ahabalipura!, and $iravaneshwar
,e!ple at 2anchi
,H7 4HO$S
4hola period were fa!ous for ocal Self 0overn!ent >ndian History.
4holas History was based on following Sources
'. 2aiayana6s Description.
*. Peripus of 7rythrian Sea.
@. 0eographia by Ptole!y.
?. %ttar!erur inscription of Pranta" >.
'. .ounder of 4hola Dynasty.
*. 7arlier a feudatory of Pallavas.
@. )ade ,han:avurB ,an:apuri B ,an:ore the capital H built the te!ple of Durga which is
"nown as 1isu!bhasudin.
?. He was follower of Shaiv sect.
• $ditya 4hola, He!urdered last Pallava ruler and !erged Pallav dynasty in 4hola Dynasty.
• Pranta" > -G(8;GAA $.D/:; He defeated Pandya ruler and ta"en the tile of )adurai"ond
&a:ara:i > -G+A;'('? $.D/
• 4onEuered northern Srilan"a -"nown as $nuradhpura/
• His real na!e was $run!oliver!an.
• 4aptured achichapa and )aldive islands nu!bering '*(((.
• His first expedition was against 4hera last expedition was against )aidwipa.
• a. #uilt &a:ara:eshwara B #rihadeshwara te!ple at ,an:ore.
b. Splendid 0opura! is its special feature.
a. His exploits are inscribed on its walls.
• He also expedited on Sri an"a and 4onEuered so!e part and established his capital called
)u!adi 4ho'a )andla!.
• He also established new capital in Sri an"a called Ponnalruha.
• He Surveyed land and land revenue was
• He was first 4hola ruler and established story 1aval ar!y.
• 0ave per!ission to Shailendra ruler Sri )advi:ayotunga Var!an to build 4hudarani Vihar at
&a:endra 4hola > -'('* ;'(?? $.D./
,itle ; %tta! 4hola, Panditya 0angai"ond 4hola.
'. 4hola expansionist policies continued
*. >n '('8 annexed whole of 4eylon and i!prisoned its "ing )ahendra
@. >n '(*A ca!paigned against Shri Vi:aya 2ingdo! is south east $sia for their freEuent
interference in trade with 4hina
?. 4aptured a nu!ber of strategic places along the straits of )olucca.
A. #y '(** turned his attention towards the north and defeated)ahipala, the Pala ruler of
<. .ounded a new capital 0angai"ondacholapura! or 0angapuri.
8. He send his a!bassador to 4hina.
+. .or his successful !ilitary ca!paigns "nown as 51apoleon of the South.
#attle of 2oppa!-'(A*/:; >n this battle he defeated 4halu"ya ruler So!eshwar D > nd "illed hi!.
2hir &a:endra >>:; He was declared "ing in battle field. His another na!e was &a:endra >>.
$dhi &a:endra:; He defeated 4halu"ya ruler So!eshwar >> in 2uval Sanga!war and "illed hi!.
2ulotunga > :; -'(8(;''*( $.D./ He given the Patronisation of $dyar 2a""unllar who has written
hole our Shilpadi"ani.
#i"ra! 4hola :; ,itle; ,yag Sa!udra, $nlan"a. ,his was only ruler of 4hola who was follower of
2ulotunga >>:; He patronised poets li"e Otta"uttan, 2a!ban H Se"hilar
$d!inistration of 4hola:; 4hola were fa!ous for local self 0overn!ent.
)andala! ; State
#alnadu ; District
1adu ; Sub;District
2urra! ; 0roup of Villages
0ra! ; Village.
$r!y of 4hola
i. >nfantry.
ii. 4avalary
iii. 7lephant
4hola $r!y was distributed in ? parts
'. 2ai""olas DPer!anent $r!y.
*. Surungander ; ,hrowing #halla.
@. Velai""aras ; #odyguard of "ing.
?. 1avy
2adga! was !ilitary 4antt.
,he Via:yanagara 7!pire 7st. '@@< $. D.
.our dynasty in Vi:ayanagn 7!pire;
'. Sanga!dynasty
*. Suluvi Dynasty
@. ,ulubh
?. $rvidu

'. .ive sons of Sanga!a D i!portant position under the 2a"atiya of Jarangal.
*. 4apital;Ha!pi
@. &uler of 2a"atiya, Prataprudra >> defeated by )uha!ad ,ughlaE in '@*@.
?. ,wo sons of Sanga!a Harihara and #u""a was converted to >sla! and given charge of the
conEuered territory by )uha!!ad #in ,ughlaE in the south
A. $t the opportune ti!e the two brothers were reconverted to Hindu fold by Vaisnavite saint
called )adhava Vidyaranya of Shringeri.
<. ,he two brothers founded the city and "ingdo! of Vi:ayanagara also called Vidyanagar
'@@< -Haribar > H #u""a >./
• Harihar >> ; ta"en the title of )ahara:adhira:
• Dev &a:;> -'?(<;'?** $S./:; He built a e!ban"!ent on ,ungabhadra river. He patronised
Srinath Di!di! wrote Harivilasa!.
Devarya >> -'?**;'??< $.D./
'. >nduction of )usli!s into the ar!y Dprovided freedo! of religion to )usli!s D placed a
copy of Iuran before the throne
*. ,itle ; 0a:bet"ara -Jho have the power li"e elephant./
@. #uilt a !osEue in Vi:yanagara
?. $bdur &aCCa", a!bassador of Shah &u"h of Persia, son of ,i!ur reached in '??@.
A. He is considered as incarnation of >ndra.
2rishna Den &ai -'A(A;*G/
'. 0reatest ruler of Vi:ayanagar
*. >n 'A'@ defeated 0a:apati ruler of Orissa and too" possession of fort of %daigiri "andividu
and "ondapalli
@. Do!ingo Paes a portuguese traveller visited.
?. He says about the "ing D He is a great ruler arid !an of !uch :ustice but sub:ect to certain
fits of rage
A. #arbossa a foreign traveller says about the tolerant attitude Mthe "ing allows such freedo!
that every than !ay co!e .., whether he is christian or !oor or HinduN
<. His court poet was Pedanna who wroteM)anucharita!N
8. 2.D. &oy wrote three boo"s.
• $!"taya )alyad in ,elgu winch was on Politics.
• %sha Parinaya in Sans"rit which was a dra!a.
8. &uler of ,uluva Dynasty.
+. ,itle ; $ndhra #ho:a. $ndhra Pita!ah, $bhinav #ho:a, -for he gave liberal patronage to ,elugu
G. Jrote a boo" $!u"trnalyada in ,elugu on polity.
• Jorshipper of Virupa"sha -shiva/.
• 2rishna Deva was considered as the incarnation of 2rishna.
• 4onstructed HaCara Swa!i and Virup"sha te!ple at Vi:ayanagara
• He surveyed 4hi land.
• a. 7stablished friendly relations with Portuguese
• 2rishna Den &oy established the city 1agalpur ,own in !e!ory of his !other.
b. $ppointed portuguese soldiers
c. 0ot support of Portuguese governor $lbuEuerEue against #ah!anis.
d. 0ave per!ission to $lbuEuerEue to construct a fort at #hat"al.
)iscellaneous .acts
• )ain .estival ; )ahanav!i
• a 1ational 0a!e ; 4hess
• 9a"shya Dance originated in Vi:aynagar Dynasty.
#ab!ani 2ingdo!
• 7stablished in '@?8 $.D.
• .ounder ; $llaudin Hussain #aha!ansah -Hasan 0angu/.
• 4apital D 0ulbarga.
)oha!ad >; He built a !osEue in 0ulbarga, ,his was the first !osEue in >ndia in which there was
no open court yard.
.iro:sah #ahinani:; He defeated Vi:aynagar ruler. Devra:a > and !arried with his daughter.
• $ccording to .arista he "new %rdu, 2annada, )arathi and Persian.
• He has great interest in $strono!y and he built a Vedshala in Daulatabad.
$h!ad Sah:;
• He shifted capital fro! 0ulbarga to #ihar.
• He patronised $dd, who wrote #ahinannaina.
• 2ali!ulah:; was the last ruler of #ah!ani "ingdo!.
Post )auryan Period -*((. #4;@(( $D/ -Part ;*/
,he Vi:aynagar 7!pire
'. $!ara! and with a fixed revenue given to 1aya"s.
*. )anya! ,ax free land
@. Sist and tax ; 'B<
?. Valangais &ight D handers6, a group of industrial class
A. >dangais 5eft handers6 a group of industrial class
<. $yagars
'* hereditary village unctionaries who too" over the functions of the
village asse!bly.
+. 1adu District
G. $stadigga:as 7ight e!inent scholars in the court of 2rishna Deva &aya.
'(. Varahas
0old coins issued by Via:yanagara rulers, of A< grains, issued in their haf
and Euarter deno!inations
''. Pagodas 0old Varahas ter!ed as by the foreigners particularly the portuguse
'*. &irup"asha 0od Shiva, the !ain 0od of the early Vi:ayanagara rulers.
'@. ord Ven"etswara of
$ssociated with 0od Vishnu, who replaced Virup"asha during the origin
of Ven"ata >>, as the ,irupati principal deity
'?. $ndhra #ho:a
,he na!es associated associated with 2rishna Deva &ay a, because of
his granting of liberal ptronage to
$bhinav #ho:a ,elugu literature.
$ndhra Pita!ah
lA. $!u"ta!alyada $ ,elugu wor" on polity by 2. D. &aya
'<. 4ar .estival
,he concluding event of a festival celebration in a te!ple in which the
idol of the deity was ta"en out in a chariot.
'8. $!aranaya"as .eudatories who held lands of >cings and were bound by !ilitary ties
'+. &aichur Doab
,he region between the rivers 2rishna H 0odavari, the bone of
contention between the #aha!anis and the Vi:aynagar a rulers.
'G. 4haturvedi!angala!s Villages given in grants to the #rah!ins.
*(. #rah!adaya Villages given in grants to the #rah!ins
*'. )andala! Province -in ,a!il region
**. 1ayan"ara )ilitary 4hiefs who were granted a!aran lands by "ings
,hey had to pay a fixed annual financial contributions to i!perial
excheEuer which was generally '? -&eference fro! 1%1,T/.
)aintained troops to assist "ings in ti!es of war. ,hey were guardian of
law and order and ad!inistration in their areas. Office beca!e
hereditary later on when the "ings beca!e wea".
*@. Devadana and gra nt to te!ples
,he Pallavas
'. Da!iri"e B i!eri"e ,he Southern region of >ndia !entioned in Ptole!y6s writings
*. Vishnugopa 2ing of 2anchi, !entioned in $llahabad Prashasti
@. 2inchipulo 2anchipura!, referred to by Hieun ,sang
?. ,alopicha ,he Dravida region -country/, referred to by Hieun ,sang
,he 4holas
'. Vellala $griculturists
*. Variya! 4o!!ittee
@. $lun0ana! 7xecutive 4o!!ittee
?. Salabhoga ,ennures !eant for educational purpose
A. )anigra!a! 0reat 1agara!
<. 1anadesis )erchant guild having wide networ"
8. Valan:iyar )erchant guild
+. $n:uvana! .oreign !erchant organiCation
G. ,aniyur $ very large village, ad!inistrated as a Single unit
'(. )andala! Province
''. Valandu District
'*. 1aduB2urra!B2otta! 0roup of villages
-$/ iterary
-i/ Purana.
• 1itishastra of 2a!anda"; ,his boo" was eEuivalent to $rthasastha of 2autilya.
• #oo" was written by Si"har, Pri!e )inister of 4handragupta Vi"ar!aditya.
-ii/ 2au!udi )ahotasava:; $ dra!a written by 2ishori"a or Va:i"a.
-iii/ Devichandragupta! and )udrara"shas of Visha"hddutta. )udrara"shas gives us the details of
religion of 4luptaperiod.
-iv/ Setubandh 2avya written by Pravarsen >>.
-v/ &avan #adh written by #hatti. ,his is also called #hatti 2avya.
-#/ Description of .oreign ,ravellers
-'/ .a;hein of 4hina -@GG;?'? $.D/
• He 4a!e >ndia during 4handraUupta Vi"rarnaditya is period.
• He gives the details description of exchange syste! during 0upta period, which were done
by "audi.
• He describes about 4handal. $lthough 4handal were e!erged in >ndian society in A #.4. #ut
in Ath century $.D. their nu!ber were very high. -*/ >t;Sing -<8A $.D/
• He describes about Srigupta who was founder of 0upta period.
• He clai!s that he had seen the $sho"an statue as a #uddhist )on".
-4/ >nscriptions
-a/ $llahabad >nscription:; ,his was incription of Sa!udragupta. ,he writer were Harisena, who
was the !inister of war and peace called Sandhi;vigrahi.
-b/ >ron pillar inscription of )ehraulli:; ,his was considered as inscription of 4handragupta
-c/ %dalyagiri 4ave inscription:;
• ,his was inscription of 4handragupta Vi"ra!aditya.
• ,his was written by Virsen Saba, who was also !inister of war and peace.
-d/ #hitary >nscription:;
• ,his was inscription of S"andagupta.
• ,his gives as the details of Huna attac".
-e/ >ndore pillar >nscription:
• >t was inscription of S"andagupta.
-f/ 7ran >nscription:; A'( $d.
• ,his was inscription of #hanugupta. .irst epigraphica' record of Sati syste! was found in
this inscription.
-D/ 4oins
0uptas issued hightest nu!ber of gold coin in >ndia.
• 4handragupta Vi"ra!aditya issued first silver coin a!ong all 0upta ruler.
• ,his coin was based on Sa"a6s coin.
• .irstly this type of coin were in use in Saurastra state. 2u!ar 0upta distributed in who
0upta Dynasty.
• Sa!udra 0upta issued + types of coins.
• On Su!udra 0upta6s coin lion was shown.
• On Surnudra 0upta6s coin picture of $shwa!egh 9agya was shown:
• On Su!udra 0upta6s coin the picture of playing violin was shown because he hi!self played
violin very well.
• On 4handragupta Vi"ra!aditya6s coin tiger were shown.
• Ox were shown on S"andhgupta6s coin.
4oin of 0upta periods
0old coin ; 1ish"a, Pala
Silver coin ; &upa", Sat!ana, Panna
4opper ; 2a"ini, 2asharpan.
• Highest nu!ber of re!nant coins of 0upta a e was found in #ayana -&a:asthan/.
Political History
• .ounder ; Srigupta -*8A$.D/
• 4apital ; Prayaga
• State language ; Sans"rit
• &eligion ; 1eo vaishnavis!.
4handra 0upta > -@'G;@@A $.D/
• .irst >ndian ruler who has ta"en title of )ahara:adhira:.
• He issued 0upta Sa!vat. -@'G;*($.D/.
• He was !arried with 2u!aridevi Princess of ichehavi ruler.
• On the coin of 4handragupta '. One side had the picture of 2u!aridevi and 4hatidra 0upta >
and on the otherside picture of a"sh!i and ichawayah were written.
Sa!udra 0upta: -@@A;@+( $.D/
• V. $. S!ith called hi! 1apolian of >ndia.
• ,itle:; 2acha, 2avira:a, 2ridant Parsu, Sarv;ra:a. Hero of '((. wars.
Jar Policy of Sa!udragupta
'. >n 1orthern >ndia Digvi:aya.
*. >n Southern >ndia Dhar!avi:aya.
• $llahabad >nscription of Sa!udragupta gives the details of war.
• $ccording to 4hinese sources Sa!udragupta was conte!porary of )eghvar!an of Sri
• He was very good violin player.
• $ccording to so!e scholor he has written 2rishnacharita!.
• He patrnoised two #uddhist !on" Vasubandhu and $sang.
4handragupta >> chandragupta #i"ra!aditya. -@+G;?'* $.D/
• ,it>e; Sa"ari, Sahshan", Devra:, &a:ra:arshi, Para! #hagwat.
• 4handragupta >> was also called the lord of %::ain and Patliputra. >t see!s that his another
capital was %::ain.
• His Jife was Druvadevi.
• Son 2u!argupta.
• His daughter Prabhayati was !arried to Va"ata" ruler &udrasen >>.
• During his tenure .a?iien ca!e >ndia.
1ine ge!s of 4handragupta >> court.
'. 2alidasa
*. $!ar Singh
@. Varah!ihir
?. Dhanvantari
A. #etal #hatta
<. San"u
8. 0hatt;2arpar
+. Var;ruchi
G. 2shapana"
4handragupta patronised Dignaga. Dignaga was considered as father of =ustice. He written the boo"
1yaya Pra"ash.
2u!aragupta >. -?'A;?AA. $.D/
• He was follower of 2arti"eya.
• He founded 1a'nda %niversity.
• .irst Huna attac" happened in his period.
• ord Shan"ar and Parvati were shown as wife husband on 2u!argupta6s coin.
S"andhgupta -?AA;?<8 $.D/
• ,itles:; Vi"rarnaditya, Sa"raditya, ord of hundred ruler.
• ord Vishnu and ax!i were shown as wife husband on S"andh 0upta6s coin.
• His vaisya officer Prandutta reconstract the Sudarshana a"e.
• #hitari inscription his victory over Hunas.
Purugupta D -? 8*;? 8@ $.D
1arsingh 0upta #aladitya D -?8@;?8< $.D/
• #uddh 0upta:; He was last great 0upta ruler.
• ,itle; $vanisingh, Prithvipati
• =iva" 0upta: He was last 0upta ruler.
&eligion of 0upta
• 0uptas were the follower of Vaishnav religion. During 0upta period two i!portant change
ca!e into Vaishnav religion.
-'/ 4oncept of >ncarnation; ,en incarnation of Vishnu.
a. )atasaya
b. 2uru!a
c. Varah
d. 1arsingh
e. Va!ana
f. &a!a -Parsura!a/
g. &a!a ; Dashrathi -&a!a/
h. &a!a #hargava -2rishna/
i. #uddha.
:. 2al"i ; yet to co!e.
-*/ 4oncept of wife of 0od.
-a/ Parvati wife of Shan"ar.
-b/ ax!i H Vaishnavi wife of Vishnu. Sa"ti Poo:a was evolved after evolution of concept of wife of
0od. ater on Durga, 2ali were worshiped as 0oddess. ci 7arlist structure of Hindu te!ple was first
!ade in 0upta period.
• Shiva was also worshiped in 0upta period.
• >n this age Shiva was also worshiped as $rdhnarishwar.
$d!inistration of 0upta
• 0upta ruler believes the "ing as a 0od.
• Sa!udra gupta was considered as 0od, who ca!e to life on earth.
• 0upta ruler started appointing their successor as "ing,
• During 0upta period officers post was heridatory.
$d!inistrative Setup
State -4ountry/ #hu"ti
District Vishay
Sub;District Vithi
0roup of village Petha"
Village 0ra!
• Head of country called 0opa.
• Head of #hu"ti called %pari"a.
Other i!portant officer

Vishaypati was head of vishay -District/. .ollowing persons helped hi! in co!pletion of his wor".
-a/ 1agar sresthi D Head of his wor"
-b/ Sarthvaha D 4hief of traders.
-c/ 2uli"a D 4hief $rchitect.
-d/ Pratha! 2ayas a D 4hief ceribe
Village head were called #ho:a", 0ra!i"a
$r!y D ,hree part of $r!y
• >nfantry
• 4avalery
• 7lephantry
0eneral ar!y were called 4hat. S!all group of ar!y were called 4ha!u and head of the! were
called as 4ha!upa.
• 2ing was the chief of :udiciary.
• )ahadandanaya" also see the wor" of :udiciary.
• Diwani and fau:dari law were first separated in 0upta period.
• During 0upta period the trade tax was reduced and land tax were increased.
• ,here were !ainly '+ taxes in 0upta period.
)ain taxes
-a/ %dranga ; tax on per!anent peasants.
-b/ %pari"ara ; tax on te!porary peasants.
-c/ Hiranaya ; the villages pay the tax in for! of 0old,
-d/ Purastha ; tax given to the officer who were collecting land tax.
,ype of land
2shetra ; .ertile land
2hil ; %nfertile land
$prabata ; .orested land
Vastu ; Habitable land.
Special features of 0upta iterature
• #oo" were written !ainly secular type.
• $ll !ost all the boo"s have good ending except )irch"ati"a! written by Sudra".
• Higher class !ale used Sans"rit language.
• #ut lower class people and generally fe!ales used Pra"rit language.
• #oth epic )ahabharat and &a!ayana were written in 0upta $ge.
• ,he collection of !any Purana had ta"en place in 0upta age.
)ain Poets
-a/ 2alidasa )alvi"a $gni!itra, &itusanghar, 2u!arsa!bhava. $bhigyan Sa"untla!,
Vi"ra!ovarshiu!, &aghuvansha
-b/ Vatsayan ; 2a!sutra, 1yaybhasya.
-c/ >shwar"rishna ; San"hya 2ari"a.
-d/ Dignaga ; Pra!an Sa!uchaya, 1yaya Pravesh.
-e/ $!ar Singh ; $!ar"osh -Dictionary of San"rit/.
-a/ $ryabhatt; $ryabhattiu!, Suryasiddhanta.
• He calculated the value of -n/ which was @.'?*.
• He calculated peri!eter of earth. ?(,*@* "!.
• He also discovered the location of status on the basis of #abilonians.
• He also finded out the causes of solar and unar eclipses and said sun is fixed at point and
earth is revolving around the sun.
• He also said that earth is round.
-b/ Varah!ihir:; Jritten #rihat:ata", aghu:ata" and Panchsiddhanti"a.
-c/ #rah!gupta:
He discovered that due to natural reason all the goods falls, down fro! upper level to lower level.
• He Jritten #rah!asphutta.
• 2hand D 2handayan"a.
-d/ Pala"alpa:; Jritten boo" Hasti $yurveda. ,his was written on $ni!al Husbandary. >n field of
)athe!atics the $ncient >ndians 5have three contribution
'. %se of notation syste!.
*. %se of Deci!al syste!.
@. %se of Cero.
• Structural architecture of 0upta6s period was not in good stage.
• >!portant architecture was Dashawatar ,e!ple of Devgarh.
• Painting was highly developed in 0upta period.
• Highest Euality of painting was $:anta.
• ,otal cave in $:anta ; *G.
• '< H '8th caves are very i!portant.
• $:anta cave was built between > $D; 8th $D. #ut !ostly built in 0upta $ge.
• 1a!e of Painting in $:anta D .resco.
• 4olour D #lue.
• Other were painting of 7llora H #agh.
• 0upta age is considered as &ennaissance of Hindu age that6s why #rah!ana were
do!inating in that age.
• During 0upta age !any sub;castes e!erged.
• ,ribals were incorporated in Hindu society in 0upta age.
• During 0upta age wo!en H Sudra6s position were little bit uplifted.
ove!arriage syste! had gone down in 0upta age.
• Jidow re!arriage was prevalent in society.
• Sati syste! was "nown in 0upta age.
• Slave syste! was "nown in 0upta age.
Pushyabhuti Dynasty
Sources:; -$/ Huen;Sang -<*G;<??. $.D./.
• Huen;Sang is considered as prince of pilgri!s H Sa"ya )uni.
• His boo" was; si;yn;"i.
• He indicated sudra as peasant, who were i!portant person in society.
• $ccording to Hiuen;sang there were <(,((( elephant in Harsha6s ar!y,
• $ccording to Hiuen;sang all the wor"s of "ing were accounted and for this Harsha
established one $rchive.
• >ndians were vegetarians. ,hey never had ta"en betal.
-#/ Vanbhatta:; Harsheharit, 2adarnbari, Parvati Parinaya, 4handi;sata".
-4/ Harsha:;
• Harshvardhan had written three plays. Priyadarshi"a, 1agananda, &atnavali.
• He had also written two #uddhist poe!s. -a/ Suprabhat -b/ $sta!ahasree 4haitya.
Harsha6s #ans"hera >nscription:; ,his gives the account about Harsha that his writing was very
nice. He was 2hutswis.
$ccording to Vanbhatta:; ,his dynasty was established by Pushyabhati. $fter that h describes about
Prabha"ar Vardhan.
Prabha"ar Vardhan:; He has two sons; ->/ &a:yavardhan -ii/ Harshvardhan, and one daughter ;
,itle of Prabha"av Vardhan D Huna B Harin"esari.
&a:yavardhana: -<G< $D/ D 0aur;ruler Shashan" "illed hi! by deceive.
Harshavardhan:; -<(<??8 $.D/
,itle; &a:putra, Siladitya, &uler of five country -Pun:ab, 0aur, )ithila, Orissa, 2an"ub:ya/.
• Jhen he ca!e as a ruler his first tas" war to release his sister fro! 0aur ruler Shashan" of
• >n <'* $.D. Harsha beca!e ready to ta"e over the charge of 2annou:, which was the
"ingdo! of his sister.
&eligion of Harsha
->/ Harsha was a Shaiva.
• ater on he shifted to #udhis! of Hinyana. .inally with influence of Hiuen;sang he shifted to
->>/ Harsha organised a Sabha in <?@ $.D.
-$/ 2annau:
• ,o honour Hiuen;sang.
• >n this Sabha there was attac" on )arsha and #luen;sang.
-#/ Prayag Sahha
• ,his was also organised in <?@ $D., which was "nown as )ahanio"sha.
• Harsha describes that he organises this type of Sabha every five years and this was the sixth
• Harsha was the first;ruler established political relationship with 4hina. He send his
anthassdor to 4hina in <?' $D.
$d!inistration of Harsha
• Harsha ad!inistration was feudal. Harsha payed his officers in for! of land.
• Harsha followed ad!inistration of 0uptas.
• 0overnor of state was called as o"pal.
• Village head were called as $shaptali"a.
Vanbhatta; Describes about the officers.
-'/ $vanti D .oreign )inister
-*/ )ahabaladhi"rit Head of $r!y.
-@/ 2outu"D Head of 7lephantry.
-?/ Videshwar D Head of 4avalery
0eneral ar!y were "nown as chatta or #hatta.
,hree ,axes
-'/ #hageDand tax lB? to 'B<
-*/ #ali D
-@/ Hiranaya D ,his tax were paid by agriculturist and traders in for! of cash.
Huen;sang discussed that inco!e generated fro! 4rown land were distributed a!ong;
-a/ .or"ing.
-b/ .or scholars.
-c/ .or pay!ent of officers.
-d/ .or religious wor".
• During Harsha3s age the head of 1alanda %niversity was Shibhadra.
• Harsha Donated *(( villages for loo" after of 1alanda %niversity.
• Hiuen;sang described that capacity of 1alanda university was '(,(((.
• #has"arvar!an ruler of "a!rup was very good friend of Harsha.
• Southern expedition of Harsha were stopped by Pul"esin >>.
• ast expedition of Harsha was 0an:a! -Orissa/.
• 1epal and 2ash!ir were out of Harsha "ingdo!.
• Harsha received the re!nant of #udha3s teeth fro! 2ash!ir and the established that in
>ndian History
0upta H Post ; 0upta Period: Society, 7cono!y H Polity

$nnada 0rain;giver, refer to Sudras
$pad Dhar!a
iterally !eans MDuly when in stressN i!plies what a !an !ay legiti!ately do when
he cannot earn a living by the nor!al deeds perfor!ed by his class.
and grantB a single plot of land or whole of village to an in individual #rah!in or a
group of #rah!ins.
Devdana and grants to religious establish!ent -te!ple etc./
iterally !eans MtwicebornN. &eferred to the three upper classes vig. #rah!ans,
2shatriyas and Vaisyas who were supposed to be born twice, once at their natural
birth and again at their initiation, when they were invested with the sacred thread
and received into the $ryan society.
0hati"as south >ndian education >nstitutions
0hatiyantra >rrigation device -&ef. fro!#anabhatta/
Hinasippas ow profession Hyperga!ous syste! of !arriage based on the concept
of noble;born stated by #allala sena.
2utu!bin >!portant !e!ber of village, having landed property.
)anigra!an $n i!portant guild in 2erela
1agara"a %rban people of refined culture during the 0upta $ge.
1anadeshi 0uild of teachers having !e!bership fro! different regions and castes
,he practice of allowing a widow to cohabit with her husband6s younger brother till
the birth of a !ale child prohibited by Dhar!ashastra fro! 0upta period onwards.
Shrotriyas earned #rah!ins who had the "nowledge of Vedas.
Property in the for! of :ewelers etc. Over which the right of the wo!en was
recognised . $fter the o!en6s death it passed over to her daughter.
$ general nor! of conduct appropriate to each class and to each sage in dhar!a the
life of the individual
Vidusa"a ,he court :ester in the Sans"rit dra!a, a figure of fun, invariably a #rah!an
,axes in 0upta Period
'. Sul"a ; 4usto!s H tolls
*. Sadbhaga ; and revenue -&ef. 2autilya/
@. #haga ; &oyal share of produce 'B< of the total, first reference in $rthashastra
?. #hoga ; Periodica l supplies of fruit, flowers, firewood etc. to the "ing-in the nature of "ings
rights H privileges/
A. #ali a/ $ type of land revenue b/ $ tpetty cess besides "ings nor!al share;
c/ $dditional H oppressive tax; &ef. =aa"as
d/ 7!ergency tax fro! which chief )iniste?s were
exe!pted Fref. )illind Panho
<. #haga #hoga; andrevenue and supplies of first flower etc. to the "ing.
8. 2ara a. $ tax in addition to grain share.
b. Oppressive in nature.
c. .inds !ention in law boo"s, arthsastra and 0upta epigraphs.
d. Periodical
e. 0ift of co!!odities -dravyadana!/ F&ef. )edatithi
f. .ixed gold pay!ent -bhu!iniyata! deya! hiranya!/ &ef. Sarva:narayanag/
4ontribution in the for!s of grassBwood etc. -0ul!adayadi"a!/; &ef. &a!chandra
g. 4harges upon all !ovable and i!!ovable articles;&ef. $rthasastra
h. $nnual tax paid during #hadrapada H Vasanta; #hattaswa!in
i. 4ontribution fro! villagers and towns!en either !onthly or in the !onth of
#hadrapadaH Pausa -0ra!a Puravasi #hyah Pratinasa!;2ullu"a/
a. ,ax in cash upon so!e special types of crops, so!eti!es cash crops.
b. 'B'( of the total;&ef. )anu H Vishnu
c. 'BA( of the total;&ef. Patan:ali
d. )a"es a 2ing wealthy;&ef. Patan:ali
e. &egular in post;!auryan ti!es
f. )antioned in 0upta in epigraphs
g. Pay!ent in goldB tax on the capita generated annually; &ef. aw boo"s
a. 4a!e into vogue during the 0uptas.
b. $ tax on te!porary tenants
a. .irst !entioned in 0upta epigraphs.
b. $ tax on per!anent tenants
c. So!eti!es a ax for !aintenance of police.
d. So!eti!es a tax on fish and other water products.
Various 4o!!entary H #hasya
'. Vishwarup wrote a co!!entary "nown as #alasera on 9av:naval"ya6s S!riti.
*. )egatithi wrote a co!!entary on )anus!riti
@. #hattaswa!i wrote a co!!entary "nown as Pratipada Panchi"a on 2autilya6s $rth Shastra.
>t was co!pleted by Vishnugupta.
?. Vi:ananeshwar wrote a co!!entary "nown as )ita"shara -on civil aw/ on 9a:navl"ya6s
law boo".
Various &eferences
'. Jives. Sons and slaves have no right to property. D )anu
*. Sudras and wo!en have right to study the Puranas D$pastha!ba
@. Slaves can be beaten only on bac" -not on head/ D )anu
?. #rah!in can lend to wic"ed people at low interests D )anu
A. Jo!en has a right to inheritance D 9a:naval"ya
<. .allen 2shatriya -an application given to forging ruling group/ D )anu
8. $ youth can win a girl of his choice by courtshipB treacheryBviolence in special situation. D
+. a. >ndians are of hasty and irresolute te!pera!ent
b. >ndians are of pure !oral principles c. >ndians do not ta"e anything wrongfully
d. >ndians possess Eualities of courage H love of learning
e. >ndians yield !ore than fairness reEuires D Hieun ,sang
G. Sudras as agriculturists D Hieun ,sang and $lberuni
'(. ,here was no provision of death sentenceD .ahiean
''. Jives and slaves have no right to property D )anu
'*. >ndians had no sense of history writingD $lberuni
'@. .irst reference of Sati D7ran -)P/, A'( $D
'?. ,here was no slavery in >ndiaD )egasthense
'A. ,here was seven castes in >ndia D )egasthenes
.acts about ancient literature
'. Various texts were written
• .irst text of Sans"rit gra!!er is $shtadhyayi -A((#4/ by Panini. ,here are + chapters and
?(( sutras in it.
• >n *(( #4 Patan:ali wrote the )ahabhashya on the gra!!ar of Panini.
• >n 8(( $D 2ashi"a was written by :ayaditya and Va!an on $ shtadhyayi.
*. Pachtantra is the earliest story collection.
• >t is co!piled by Vishnu Shar!a.
• ,his boo" is of 0upta period.
@. Hitopadesh is second fa!ous collection of >ndian stories.
• >ts writer is 1arayan
?. $bhi:anash"untala!is the best text of 2alidas.
• >t contains the description of "ing Dushyant of -Hastinapur/
A. ,wo fa!ous plays of Vish"hadutta are )udrara"shasa and Devichandragupta!
• >n )udara"shas there is a description of 4handragupta )aurya and in Devichandragupta!
description of 0pata ruler &a!gupta.
<. )richchh"ati"a is written by Shudra".
• ,his is a social play.
• >t contains the love storey of #rah!an charudata and the fa!ous courtesan of %::ayani,
Sixteen )aha:anpadas -<(( #4/
)aha:anapadas 4apital
'. 0andhara ,axila
*. 2a!bo:a D
@.$ssa"a -$shr"a/ Potna
?. Vatsa 2ausha!bi -on the ban" of river 9a!una/
A. $vanti %::ain
<.Shurasena )athura
+.)alla 2ushinara
G.2urus Hastinapur
'( Panchala
''.)atsya Viratanagara
'*.Va::is -$ confederacy
of republic/ Vaishali
'@.$nga 4ha!pa
'?.2ashi #anaras
'A.2osala Sravasti
'<. )agadha 0irivra:a or &a:agriha -'st 4apital/
Pataliputra -*nd 4apital/
Develop!ent of science H ,echnology in $ncient >ndia
'. Vedic people "new the !ethods of sEuare eEual in area to triangle, rectangles, circles and to
su! H differences of sEuares i.e., !a"ing of sEuare eEual in area to su! and differences of
*. ,hese references and descriptions are found !ainly in Sulvasutras but to so!e extent also
in Satpatha #reha!ana H ,aittirya So!hita.
'. .or!ulation of the theory of Cero, was the greatest contribution of the ancient >ndian
!athe!atics. Deci!al syste! of notation was also developed in >ndia.
*. ,heory of co!!on fraction, rule of three si!ple and co!pound interest also developed in
>ndia. .irst reference of the rule of three is focused upon in the boo" of $ryabhatta.
'. $lgebraic !ethod was first atte!pted by $ryaEbhatta. He was the 'st >ndian $lgebric. His
wor" $ryabhattia! deals with rules for solution of a large no. of algebraic proble!s. He also
developed the syste! of arith!etic progression and geo!etric progression.
*. #rah!agupta around 8(($.D. developed the rules for operating with negative Euantities
and with Cero.
@. ,he great contribution in this field was by #has"ara in '*(( $.D., who developed surds.
,rigno!etry ,his was given a new direction by $ryabhatta who introduced sines which was
"nown as =aya. Hindu !athe!aticians used McosinesN "nown as "ot :aya H versed sines were
also used "nown as ut"ra!:aya.
'. $strono!y was a popular branch of science a!ong the Hindu. 7arliest reference of interest
shown in this field is found in ,aitterya #rah!ana. >t !a"es a !ention of sun, !oon, na"shatras
and seasons
*. ,he first to !a"e great contribution was $ryabhata who wrote a boo" $ryabhattia!.
• ,he !easure!ent of the circu!ference of earth by $ryabhatta is very near to !odern
esti!ation. He Propounded the theory that the earth is round and that it rotates around its
own axis.
• He gave a new theory regarding the cause of eclipse and re:ected the earlier concept which
was related with the !yth of &ahu as a reason for eclipses. He said eclipses are the result of
the shadow of !oon and earth: He also put forward the theory of planetary !ove!ent.
@. Varaha!ihir who was a great astrono!er of this period wrote #rhata!hitaK Pannchasiddhanti"a,
9oga!aya, aghu"atha, Vivahapatal.
• He described about the !otion of 1a"shatras and its i!pact on the hu!an life.
• >n his wor"s we also find descriptions of various varieties of ge!s and its characteristics
along with the description of auspicious ti!es of !arriage and o!ens.
?. Other great astrono!er of this period was #raha!uupta, his wor"s are #rah!asphuta Siddhanta
and 2han"a"hadya"a. Je anticipated 1ewton by declaring that all things fall to earth by law of
nature, for it is the nature of the earth to attract and "eep things. ,his theory was revolutionary in
nature thought it was not elaborated and explained properly.
A. #has"ara >> also contributed to astrono!y and wrote a fa!ous boo" MShiro!anN, where there is
a separate chapter on !athe!atics "nown as ilavati, ,his separate chapter is so volu!inous that >
can be ta"en as a separated boo".
<. $ regard the develop!ent of $strono!y we find the progress of $strno!y in various for!s in the
ancient ti!es.
• 'st for!: Pita!aha Siddhantha beginning @(($.D.
• *nd for! : Vashistha Siddhantha about @(($.D.
• @rd for!: Paulis Siddhantha about @+( $.d.
• ?th for! : &o!a" Siddhantha about ?(( $.D. -which shows the western influence/
• Ath for!: Surya Siddhantha about ?A( $.D.
)edical Science
'. ,he beginning in the field of )edical science was in the for! of $yurveda -science of
longevity/: $yurveda e!erges out of Vedas. $ large no. of hy!ns in $tharvaveda are
associated with $yurveda.
*. >n the subseEuent period -<((#4/ we find the e!ergence of !edicine as a sub:ect in various
centers of learning li"e taxila, ,wo !ain branches of !edical science. )edicine and surgery
developed as separate strea! in ,axila and Varansi respectively.
@. ,he fa!ous teacher M$treyaN taught !edicine at ,axila university. His teachings were of
great value and significance and were collected by his disciple $gniveshaK his teachings
were co!piled by 4hara"a in '(( $.D. which ca!e to be "nown as 4har"asa!hita.
?. ,eachings of Varansi school gave birth to Sustrasa!hita.
A. One of the great contributions during the 0upta period was !ade by Vagbhatta who wrote
$stangasangraha in <(( $.D.
1a!es of 0ods H 0oddesses
Sr. 1o. 0odB0oddess >dentified with Place
'. =agganath Vishnu Puri
*. Vithal Vishnu Pandharpur
@. Vithoba Vishnu Pandarpur
?. &anganath Vishnu Sriranga!
A. Ven"eteswara Vishnu ,irpati
<. Virup"sh Shiva Vi:ayanagar
8. )ina"shi JifeofShiva )adurai
+. $rdhnarishwar Shiva

G. Da"shin!urti Shiva

.acts $bout >nscription
>nscriptions of $sho"a
'. .irst discovered by =eifentheilar in '8A(
*. Deciphered by =a!es Princep in '+@8.
@. )ost of the >nscriptions were in #hrah!i Script -eft to &ight/
?. )ansehra H Shahba:garhi inscription is in 2harosthi Script.
A. ,a"shila Hegh!an >nscription is in $rai!aic Script.
<. Share; 2una -2andhar/ >nscription in bilingual G0ree";$ra!aic/ Script.
8. )as"i, 0u::ara. 1ettur and %degola! >nscription give the na!e $sho"a.
+. ,hirteenth )a:or &oc" 7dict is the longest.
G. ,he Pillar at $llahabad contains wueen6s 7dict, Harisena6s Prasasti and Ordiances of
'(. Second !a:or &oc" 7dict contains the na!es of 4hols, 4heras, 2eralaputra, Satyaputra
''. )ahasthan -#angladesh/ and suhgaura copper plates wor" during fa!ine.
#oghag 2oi >nscription
'. '?((( #.4.
*. 0ives >nfor!ation about the oldest group of $ryans.
@. 0ives na!e of Vedic 0oods;>ndra, Varun,)itra, 1astayas.
Hathigu!pha >nscription
'. Of 2harvela -2ings of 2alinga/
*. Situated at %dayagiri hills
#esnagar >nscription
'. Of 0ree" a!bassador Heliodorus.
*. He dedicates the pillar erected by hi! to the of gods Vasudev.
%ttar!erur >nscription
'. ,wo >nscriptions at %ttar!erur dated G'G H G*' $.D. &espectively.
*. ,hrow light on the local self govern!ent during the 4hola period.
>ndian History F #o"s and $uthors
#oo" $uthors
#uddhacharita $svaghosa -'(($D/
Saptasata"s Hala -'(( $.D./
0athaasapatasat -Pr"arit/
&atnavali Hashvardhana
1agananda Hashvardhana
Priyadarshi"a Hashvardhana
)udra &a"shasa Visa"hadutta
2ada!bari #anabhatta -8(( $D/
Harsha 4harita #anabhatta -8(( $D/
#rihat 2atha 0unadhya -*(( $D/
2atha;Sarit Sagara -.ables/ So!adeva -''(($D/
Prithvira:raso 4handerbardai
Prithvira:aya 4handerbardai
&a:tarangini -History of 2ash!ir , iteral )eaning :
Strea! of 2ings/
2alhan -'*(( $D/
4hara" Sa!hita boo" on !edicine/ 4hara" -4onte!porary of 2anis""a/
Susruta Sa!hita -.irst boo on surgery/ Susruta -?(( $D/
Parisistarvan -&ef. of )auryas/ He!chandra
)ita"shaa -on law of inheritance/ Vi:naneswara
$tyadhyayi -.irst boo" on Sans"rit gra!!er/ Panini
)ahabhasya -on Sans"rit gra!!er/ Patan:ali -*(( #4/
$!ar"ora -lexicography/
$!arsi!ha -During the reign of
4handragupta >>/
0ita 0ovinda =ayadeva -'*(( $D/
)attavilasa Prahasana -$ buriesEue/ )ahendravar!an -Palava 2ing/
Hitopdesa 1arayana
Panchtantra Vishnushar!a
Dansagar Vallalasena
$dbhutsagar Vallalasena

)edieval >ndian History
4hronology of 7vents in )edieval >ndia

&ashtra"utas of Deccan
Palas of eastern >ndia
Dhar!apala, the greatest Pala, and foundation of the Vi"ra!asila %niversity
0u:ara;Pratiharans of northern >ndia, founded by Vatsara:a of &a:asthan
San"aracharya and his philosophy of $dvaitavada
#ho:a of 0u:ara;Pratihara dynastyK visit of Sulai!an, an $rab !erchant, to his "ingdo!
+A( 4apture of ,an:ore by Vi:ayalaya 4hola fro! the Pandyas
+<( 2ing #alaputra fo Su!atra ->ndonesia/ establishes a !onastery at 1alanda
>!perial 4holas of ,an:ore
Hindushahis of Pun:ab and 2abul
>ndra;>>>, one of the greatest &ashtra"uta rules: visit of $>)asudi -an $rab traveler/ to
4handellas of =e:a 2abhu"ti -#undel"hand/K construction of 2ha:uraho te!ples.
G?(;G<8 2rishna;>>>, another great &ashta"uta ruler
2alachuris of ,ripuri in central >ndia
4halu"ya dynasty of 2alyani -later of western 4halu"yas/
4haha!anas -4hauhanas/ of Sa"a!bhari -$:!er/
Para!aras -Pawars/ of Dhar -)alwa/
Solan"is -0u:arati 4halu"yas/ of $hnilwaa -2athiawr/
&eign of &a:ara:a 4holaK construction of the fa!ous Siva or #rihadeeswara te!ple at ,an:ore
2a"atiyas of Jarangla, #eta &a:a > -founder/, Prataparudradeva -lastruler/
'((' '((' #attle of Jaihind and defeat of =aipal -Hindushahi ruler/ by )ah!ud of 0haCni
'8 raids by )ah!ud of gaCni into >ndia;sac" of the So!nath ,e!ple in the last raid.
&eign of &a:endra 4hola
$l;#eruni visited >ndia and rotoe ,ahEiate;i;Hind.
4hola expedition of the 0angetic ValleyK Defeat of the So!ava!sas of Orissa and the Palas of
'(*A 4hola naval expedition to Sri Vi:aya and its conEuest
'(8< )erger of the Vengi 2ingdo! to the 4hola 7!pire by 2ulottunga
7astern 0angas of OrissaK construction of the ingara:a and =agannatha te!ples at
bhuvaneswar and Puri respectively by $nantavar!an 4hodaganga -founder/K construction f
the Sun te!ple at 2onar" in '*A( by 1arasi!ha > -second 0anga/
0ahadvalas of 2anau:
&eign of Vishnuvardhana, Hoysala rulerK His patronage of &a!anu:aK construction of the
fa!ous Hoysaleswara of Vishnu te!ple at Halebid.
Senas of #engalK Vi:ayasena -founder/K a"sh!ana Sena -last rule/.
''8A )uha!!ad of 0hur6s conEuest of the Pun:ab.
''8+ )uha!!ad6s defeat by #hi!a >>, the Solan"i ruler of 0u:arat
9adavas of DevagiriK .ounder; #hilla!aK ast ruler;&a! 4handa
''G' .irst #attle of ,arain and Prthvira:6s victory over )uha!!ad
''G* Second #attle of ,arain and )uha!!ad victory over Prithvira:
#attle of 4handwar and defeat and !urder of =ai 4handra -0ahadvala ruler of 2nnau:/ by
'*(* 4onEuest f #ihar and #engla by #a"htiyar 2hal:i
'*(< Death of )uha!!ad of 0hur and establish!ent of Delhi Sultanate by Iutbuddin $iba"
Salve Sultans of Delhi
&eign of >ltut!ish and consolidation of ,ur"ish rule in north >ndia.
Pandyas of )adurai
'**' >nvasion of north;wet >ndia by 4hengiC 2han
'**+ 4onEuest of 2a!arupa by Su"hapa, the firt $ho! "ing.
'*@' 4o!pletion of the contruction of Iutub )inar at Delhi
&eign of #alban
)arco Polo -theVenetian traveler/ in >ndia
2hal:is of the Delhi Sultanate
&eign of $lauddin 2hal:i and his refor!s and conEuests
)angol attac"s and their repulsion by $lauddin
)ali" 2afur6s expedition to south >ndai
,ughlaEs rule on Delhi
&eign of )uha!!ad;bin;,ughlaE
'@*8 ,ransfer of capital for! Deli to Daulatabad -$ncient Devgiri/
'@*G >ssue of coper to"en currency
Sultanate of )adurai
'@@<; Vi:ayanagar 7!pire
>bn #attutah6s stay in >ndia -)oroccan traveler/
'@@8 )uha!!ad; bin;,ug h la E6 s expedition to 2arachil
Shah!iri Dynasty of 2ash!ir
>lyas Shahi Dynasty of #engal
#ha!ani 2ingdo!
.iroC Shah ,ughuE6s reign
'@<' .iroC Shah6s invasion of Orissa -=a:nagar/
.aruEi 2ingdo! of 2handesh
SharEui 2ingdo! of =aunpur/
'@G+ ,i!ru6s >nvasion of >ndia
0hurid Dynasty of )alwa
2ingdo! f 0u:arat under the Shahs
Sayyida f Delhi
'?*( Visit of 1icolo de 4onti -Venetian traveler/ to Vi:ayanagar
'?*G ,ransfer of #ah!ani capital fro! 0ulbarga to #idar by $h!ad Shah Jali
0a:apais of Oriss
2hali:i Sultans of )alwa
&eign of &ana 2u!bha in )ewar
'??@ $bdur &aCa"6s -Persain/ visit to >ndia
'?A'; odi Sultans of Delhi
'?<G #irth of 0uru 1ana"
)urder of )ah!ud 0awan, JaCir -'?<@;+'/ of the #ah!ani 2ingdo!, and beginning of its
1iCa!shahis of $h!ednagr
$dilshahis of #i:apur
>!adshahis of #erar
'?G+ Vasco da 0a!a in 4alicut
'A(< ,ransfer of capital fro!Delhi to $gra by Si"ander odi
&eign of &ana Sanga in )ewar
&eign of Sri 2rishna Deva &a:aK Visits of Paces, and #arbosa -both Portugese/ to Vi:aynagar
'A'( 4onEuest of 0oa by the Portuguese
Iutubshahis of 0olconda
'A*< .irst #attle of Panipat and defeat of >brahi! odi by #abur.
#aridshahis of #idar
'A*G #attle of 0hagara and #abur6s defeat of $fghans under )uha!!ad odi
'A@A Visit of 1uniC -Portuguest/ to vi:ayanagar $chyut &aya
'A@G #attle of 4hausa and first defeat of Hu!ayun by Sher Shah
'A?( #attle of #ilgra! -or 2annau:/ and second and final defeat of Hu!ayun by Sher Shah
'AG< >ntroductionof the dual ran" -!ansab/ of Tat and Sawar
'<(* )urder of $bul .aCal by #ir Singh #undelat at the instigation of Prince Sali!
&eign of =ahangir
'<(< &ebellion of Pricne 2husrau and execution of the .ifth Si"h 0uru $run by =ahangir
Pri!e !inistership of )li" $!bar of $h!adangar, His!ilitary exploits and ad!inistrative
'<'' 1ur =ahan6s !arriage with =ahangir
'<'* $nnexation of 2ooch Ha:o to the )ughal 7!pire
'<'A 4onclusion of peace with )ewar under &ana $!ar Singh
&ebellion of Prince 2hurra! -Shah =ahan/
'<*< &ebellion of )ahabat 2han and te!porary arrest of =ahangir
&eign of Shah =ahan
'<@' Death of )u!taC )ahal
>!position of treaties on #i:apur and 0olcunda by Shah:ahan $ppoint!ent of $urangaCeb as
viceroy of the Deccan
'<A< $nnexation of =avli by Shiva:i
Jar of Succession a!ong the four sons of Shah =ahan
#attles of Dhar!at -$pril/ and Sa!ugarh -)ay/ in which dara was defeated by $urngCebK
i!prison!ent of Shah :ahan by $urangaCeb -=une/ at $rgaK 4oronation of $urangaCeb
$urangaCeb6s reign.
#attles of 2ha:wah and Deorai in which Dara was finally defeatedK capture and execution of
DaraK i!prison!ent of )urad -who was ulti!ately executed in '<<'/K )urder of $fCal 2han
by Shiva:i.
'<<( 7xpulsion of Shu:a fro! #engal to $ra"anK $ppoint!ent of )ir =u!la as governor of #engal
'<<' )ughal capture of 4ooch #ehar
'<<* )ir =u!la6s invasion of $ssa! and i!position of a treaty on $ho!s
'<<? Sac" of Surat by Shiva:i
'<<A 4onclusion of the ,reaty of Purandhar between Shiva:i and =ai Singh
'<<< Death of Shah =ahanK Shiva:i6s visit to $gra and escape
'<<+ >ssue of new religious ordinances by $urangaCeb
'<<G &evolt of the =ats under 0o"la
'<8( Second sac" of Surat by Shiva:i
'<8' &evolt of 4hatrasal #undela
<8* Satna!i &ebellionK &evolt of $fridis in the north west
'<8? Shiva:i6s coronation and assu!ption of the title of M4hatrapati
'<8A 7xecution of 0uru ,eg #ahadur -Gth 0uru of the Si"hs/
'<8+ Death of &a:a =aswant Singh of )arwar
&ei!position of 5=iCya6 by $urangaCebK &ebellion of &athors of )arwar under Durgadas and
)arwar ca!paign by the )ughals
'<+( Death of Shiva:iK &ebellion of Prince $"bar
'<+' $urangaCeb6s arrival in Deccan in pursuit of his rebellious son, $"bar
'<+* 4onEuest and annexation of #i:apur
'<+8 4onEuest and annexation of 0olconda
4aptur and execution of Sha!bha:i by the )ughal co!!ander )uEarrab 2han at
Sang!eshwarK $ccession of &a:ara! to the )aratha throne.
'8(( Death of &a:ara! and accession of Shiva:i >> with ,arabai as regent.
Death of $urangaCeb at $urangabadK &elease of ShaluK fro! )ughal captivityK #eginning of
civil war between Shahu and ,arabai.
#attle of 2hed and occupation of Satara by ShahuK 4oronation of Shalu as 4hatrapati and
grant of the title of 5Sena"arte6 to #ala:i Vishwanath by hi!.
Peshwaship of #ala:i Vishwanath.
'8'? .inal defeat and i!prison!ent of ,arabai by Shahu, thus bringing the civil war to an end.
'8'G 4onclusion of an arrange!ent between #ala:i Vishwanath and the Sayyid #rothers.
Peshwaship of #a:i &ao>, beginning of the syste! of )arath confederacy and northward
expansion of the )araths.
Peshwaship of #ala:i &ao -1ana Saheb/K .urther expansion of )aratha power and influence.
'8?G Death of Shahu and further strengthening of the position of the Peshwa
'8<' ,hird #attle of Panipat between )araths and $fghansK Death of Peshwa #ala:i #a:i &ao.
)edieval &a:put H Hindu Dynasties
Dynaties &egions &ulers
'. Pala #engal and #ihar
• 0opal was the founder of the dynasty.
*. 4handela
• 1anun"a was thefounder the of the dynsty.
• Dhan: and 0anda were treat rulers.
• Vidhyadhana bravely faced gor!6s attac".
@. 4hauhan
• $:ay &a: founded $:ay !eral $:a!er/
• $rono &a: !ade $na Sagar
• Prithvi &a: was the!ost fa!ous ruler.
?. 0adahval )iddle 0angetic
• =ayachand was plain -2annau:/ defeeated by )d. 0ori in
''G? at the battle of 4handawar
A. &athore
• &ao Siha ounded the dynasty
• ,he greatest ruler was &a:a )aldev.
<. Sisodia )ewar
• &alers called the! selves )aharana.
• &ana 2u!bha !ade 2u!bhalgarha.
• &anasanga fought against #abur at 2hanva in 'A*8.
• %de Singh !ade %daipur.
• )aha &ana Pratap Singh led )ewar ar!y in the battle of )a
ldi h aha t i against )an Singh.
8. #hati Sindh -$!er"ot/
• Virsal protected Hu!ayun.
+. 2achha
=aipur and $!er
• #har!al and )an Singh associated the!selves with $"bar
through !atri!onial alliance.
• 2rishna > !ade 2ailash ,e!ple of 7llora
'(. Par!ar )alwa
• #ho:a !ade #ho:pura Siva te!ple and found city of #ho:pat
-#hopal/ and wrote Sarswati 2antha Shar!a and
Sa!agrangan Sutradhar.

)edieval >ndian History
1orth >ndia #etween 8A(;'*((
.or $gni"ula &a:put
,he four class do!inated by early &a:puts which they founded arose fro! the ruins of the older
Pratihara 2ingdo!. ,hese were;
'. ,he Pratihara;also "nown as Parihara who based the!selves in Southern &a:asthan.
*. ,he 4hauhans;&uled and area in 7astern &a:asthan, helped Praithara against $rabs.
@. ,he Solan"is;also called 4halu"yas of 0u:arat were based in 2athiawar.
?. ,he Pawars of Par!ars;established their control in )alwa with their capital at Dhar near
$ll the four clai!ed descent fro! !y thical figure who arose out of the vast sacrifical fire pit near
)t. $bu. 4onseEuently they were described as the $gni"ula of the fire fa!ily.
4hola 4ultural $chieve!ents
• ,e!ple architecture , particularly Dravida or the South >ndian style of architecture reached
the pinnacle of glory during the 4holas. ,he chola continued the Pallava architectural style.
,he Dravida style of architecture of the 4hola had certain special features. >t included a
-Storey/ Vi!ana, a !andapa, -getway/ gopura!, lion pillars, brac"ets and co!posite pillars.
• Vi:ayalaya built the Vi:aylayacholeshwar te!ple at 1artta!alai.
• Vi:ayalaya built the Vi:ayalayacholeshwar te!ple at 1artta!alai
• Paranta"a > built 2orangnath te!ple at Srinvasnatlur. &a:ara:a built the &a:ara::eshwar
te!ple -also called #rihadeshwar/ at ,an:ore.
• &a:endra built #rihadeshwar te!ple at 0angai"onda;4holapura!.
• ,he ,an:ore te!ples had!urals on prranas and sculptures of &a:ara:a and his Eueen
o"a!ahadevi and the 0angai"ondacholapura! te!ple has that of &a:ender and his Eueen
• ,he 4holas were fa!ous for bronCe statue Of 1atara:aK -dancing Shiva/ used cireperdue
• ,he syste! of canals in the south is a contribution of the 4holas
• ,iruvasa"a!; ,he !aster piece of ,a!il literature was produced during 4hola period.
• 2a!ban6s &a!ayan was another achieve!ent in literature.
Village ,ypes
)ainly @ types of villages were found in >ndia during this period.
'. ,he village with !ulticast population, paying taxes to the "ing, was !ost freEuent.
*. #rah!adeya or agrahara village; granted to the braha!ins and entirely inhabited by the!,
was less freEuent.
@. Devdeya Village;,hose granted to god si!ilar to the first. During the Pallava period first two
types were predo!inant, but under the 4hola the third type gained popularity.
4hola Self 0overn!ent
,he cholas are best "nown for their lical selfgovern!ent at village level. >n %ttara!erur inscription
Dantivar!an pallav and Puranta"a > have thrown sufficient light on the local self govern!ent of
4holas. ,he asse!blies were of @ types %r, Sabha and 1agara!. ,he appoint!ent of these
asse!blies were !ade by election, MVyavasthasN
-a/ ,he ,hree ,ypes of 0eneral $sse!blies
• %r: a general asse!bly of the village consisting of the taxpaying residents.
• Sabha or )ahabhasa: >ts !e!bership was restricted to the #rah!ana of the village. .ound
in #ra!adeya and $grahara villages.
• 1agara!: was found !ore co!!only in trade centers such as cities and town.
-b/ 4o!!ittees of $sse!blies
• $lunganattar; 7xecutive co!!ittee of %r
• Variu!; 7xecutive co!!ittee of Sabha
• Sa!vastarvariu!;$nnual co!!ittee
• ,ottavariu!;0arden co!!ittee
• 7ri variu!;,an" co!!ittee
• Pon variu!;0old co!!ittee
• %dasin variu!;4o!!ittee of ascetics
• 1ayattar;=udicial co!!ittee
-c/ Iualification to be a !e!ber of Sabha
• He should be aged between @A to 8(.
• He should have one and a half hectare of land.
• He should have own house.
7ven after having these Eualifications one could be disEualified if.
• He had served in a co!!ittee during the last @ years,
• He had not furnished details of his account while serving in a co!!ittee.
• Jho had been guilty of cri!e and theft.
,he Sultans of Delhi
Iutubuddin $ibe"
'. .ounder of the Sultanate of Delhi, H the first >ndependent )usli! ruler.
*. $ tur" of 5$iba"6 tribe which !eans 5ord of the !oon6.
@. .ounder of the Slave Dynasty.
?. Died whole playing 4haugan -Polo/
A. aid the foundation of Iutab )inar after the na!e of a Sufi Saint 2hawa:a Iutubuddin
#a"htiyar 2a"i.
<. #uilt tow !ospues MIuwan;ul;>sla! !osEueN at Delhi and MDhai Din "a =honaparaN at $!er.
Sha!suddin >ltut!ish
'. &eal founder of Delhi Sultanate.
*. >ntroducced silver M,an""6-'8A grains/ H 5=ital6 two principal coins.
@. 4o!pleted the construction of Iutab )inar.
?. 4reated 5,ur"an;i;4hanhalagani6 a selected body of ,ru"ish nobles.
A. 4o!ing of )ongols under the leadership of 4hangiC 2han to the frontiers of >ndiaG'**( $D/
<. >ndroduced >Eta Syste! in ad!inistration.
8. Declared &a:iya as his heir apparent.
0hiasuddin #alban
'. 4onsolidator of the Sultanate of Delhi.
*. .irst Sultan to put forward his views about 2ingship according to which the "ing was the
shadow of 0od title 1vabat;i;"hudui and inscribed FCillah on coins .
@. 4reated a separate !ilitary depart!ent -Diwan;i;$riC/ and appointed 2otwal.
?. &egulated court cere!onial after Persian !ode, introduced Si:da / prostration/ Paibo" G
2issing the !onarach6s feet/ and celebration of Persian 51auroC6. -1ew year day/
A. Destroyed the 5group of forty6 or chahalgani.
<. #elonged to the >lbari tribe.
8. $dopted the policy of 5#lood and >ron6 in governance
+. 4lai!ed hi!self the descendant of Persian ruler. $frasiyab.
$lauddin 2hal:i
'. i"e #alban. He believed that Sultan is 0ood6s representative on earth and declared hi!self
second $lexander
*. ,he only !an who could presu!e to advise the "ing was $la;ul;!ul", the "otwal of Delhi.
@. During his ti!e the ar!y was directly recruited by the ar!y !inister -ariCD !a!ali"/. >t
was paid in cash for! the royal treasury. ,he pay of trooper was *@? tan"as a year, while
one with and additional horse was paid 8+ tan"as !ore, $la;ud;din instituted the practice
of recording the descriptive roll 1 4hehra -huliya/ of individual soldiers and the branding of
horses -dagh syste!/.
?. .or regulation and control over !ar"ets he instituted now official !achinery, Diwan;
iriyasat the head of entire !ar"et control syste! Shshna;i;!andi the superintendent of
!ar"et, and &ais Parwana, the per!it officer of !ar"ets.
A. He founded a new clothe !ar"et in Delhi "now as Sarai;$dal.
<. #rought the far!ers in direct relation with the state and curibed and chec"ed !iddle!en
-2hots, 4houdharis, )uEadda!s, Patwaris/ all were village head!en.
8. 7nhanced the state share of the revenue to one;half of the produce in 0angetic valley.
+. 4reated a new depart!ent of revenue -Diwani; )usta"hara:/ to realiCe arrears.
G. $ppropriated ?BA share of 2ha!s -war booty( leaving only 'BA to the ar!y.
'(. &esu!ption of several types of land grants viC. >na!, JaEf, )il"
''. >ntroduced house tax and pasture tax, ghariB charai respectively.
'*. >nitiated the policy of conEuest and expanision of the sultanate -2hal:i >!perialis!/ !ali"
2afur vonlerbase Southern expeditions
'@. #uilt 5$lai Darwa:a6, 5Siri fort6 )ahal;i;HaCar Situn6, MTa!ait;e;"hana !osEue.N
0hiyas;%d;Din ,uglaE Shah
'. He laid the foundation of a big palace fort "now as ,ughalaEabad
*. He was on bad ter!s with the fa!ous sufi saint 1iCa!uddin $uliya.
@. ,he state!ent HunC Dilli dur ast -Delhi is yet far off/ was !ade by the saint for the Sultan
when he was returning fro! #engal to punish the saint.
?. ,oo" 2een inherent in the construction of irrigation.
)oha!!a #in ,ughlaE
'. .or!ulated 5fa!ine;code6 to provide relief to fa!ine;affected people.
*. Jell;versed in various braches of learning viC,.astrono!y, !athe!atics, !edicine etc.
@. 4reated the depart!ent of agriculture -Diwani; $!ir"ohi/
?. >s "nown as M)isture of oppositesN or a !ad "ingN.
A. 7nhanced revenue or doab to one half of the produce.
<. Shifted capital fro! Delhi to Devagiri -rena!e, Daulatabad/ in '@*<;*8.
8. >ntroduced to"en currency of copper and brass-'@*G;@(/
+. 2nown as a 5prince of !oneyers6.
G. .irst sultan to advance loans "nown as sondhar to peasants for digging wells to extend
'(. )uha!!ad had cordial relations with so!e of the $sian countries, particularly 4hina. ,he
4hinese e!peror, ,oghan ,i!ur sent as envoy to Delhi in '@?' see"ing )uha!!ad6s
per!ission to rebuild #uddhist te!ples in the Hi!alayan region. ,hese Hi!alayan te!ples
wee de!olished by )uha!!ad6s soldiers during his Iara:al expedition. ,he Sultan sent >bn
#attuta as envoy to the court of the )ongol e!peror of 4hina. >bn #atuta started in =uly
'@?*, and returned in '@?8.
''. 4reated a heterogenous nobility;incorporated land;owing class, artisan class into nobility.
'*. ,he JiCarat winessed its heyday during his reign.
'@. His waCir was "hwa:a;=ahan.
'?. .aced !any rebellions ding his region. $l!ost entire South >ndia beca!e independent
during his region.
.iroC Shah ,ughlaE
'. Jas a cousin of )oha!!ed #in ,ughlaE and was offered the crown by the nobles.
*. )ade 5>Eta syste!6 hereditary.
@. .ounded several cities li"e .iroCabad, .atehabad, Hissar, =aunpur, .iroCpur etc.
?. Jrote the autobiography M.utuhat;i;.irogshahiN
A. Diwan;i;"hairat was the special creation of .iroC for helping the poor )usli! parents in the
!arriage of their daughter. >t was in charge of Sayyid $!ir )iran.
<. ,he depart!ent Diwan;>;#andgan was also a new creation of .iruC which ad!inistered the
affairs of the slaves. &aised a huge force of slaves nu!bering '+((((.
8. He !ade syste!atic assess!ent of land. 7ntrusted this tas" to 2wa:a Hiso!!uddin who
assessed the land revenue which a!ounted to< corer and +A la"h of tan"as.
+. #esides i!proving the Euality of cultivation, a large nu!ber of gardens were laid out by the
Sultan, '*(( gardens were laid out in the neighborhood of Delhi.
G. ,he !ost re!ar"able contribution of .iroC that gave a fillip to agriculture was the sche!e
of artificial irrigation in which the excavation of canals occupied an i!portant place. ,he
i!portant canals which were excavated were the following K a. ,he &a:iwah., b. %lugh"hani,
e. .iruCabad canal, d. 2ha""har -0haggar( canal, e. ,he canal excavated fro! the river
'(. .iruC Shah i!posed =iCya upon the brahnanas !ade =aCiyah a separate tax.
''. >!posed an additional tax at the rate 'B'( of the total production of such cultivators as
were benefited by the new sche!e irrigation "nown as HaEi;i;Shirb.
'*. ,he Sultan also opened a large nu!ber of hospitals Darul Shafa where !edicines used to be
distributed free to the people. 7xperienced physicians, surgeons, eye specialists used to be
appointed who attended the patients with great care. ,he expenses of these hospitals were
borne by the State.
'@. ,he upper storeys of the Iutub )inar which were struc" by lightening in 8(( $.HB'@<+ $D.
wee repaired by .iroC these repaired were confined to the fourth and fifth storeys.
'?. He built 2ush" .iroC and 2otla firoC Shah;>t was a palce fortress Situated on the ban" of the
river =a!una. $nother interesting ob:ect in the 2otla of firuC Shah was the $sho"an pillar.
Gbrought fro! )errut and ,opana/
'A. 4reated an 7ndow!ent .und.
'<. 7stablished an 7!ploy!ent #ureau to provide wor" to une!ployed.
'8. Started practice of granting old;age pension. -DiwanL VV/
'+. Started charitable 2itchen
'G. $bdicated the thrown in fabour of )uha!!ad 2han
Si"andar #ahlul odi >brahi!
>ntroduced a new gaC "nown as gaC;i;Si"andari of @* digit.
He was fond of literature and poetry and wrote verses in Persian under the na!e of 0hirla"hi.
,he !ain achieve!ent of the Sultan was the conEuest and annexation of #ihar.
.ounder of $gra city in 'A(< and !ade it his capital.
)ain Depart!ents of the Sultanate
,he head of the depart!ent was waCir who exercised general supervision over all depart!ents H in
particular the depart!ent was associated with the finance.
Diwan F>;$rC
• ,he head of the depart!ent was $riC;i!u!ali"
• ,his was the !ilitary depart!ent.
• Overall co!!ander of the ar!y was the Sultan.
Diwan F> F >nsha
• ,he head of the depart!ent was Dabir;i!u!ali"
• oo"ed after state correspondence
• $ssociated with issuing of farnans.
Diwan;>; &isalat
• ,he head of the depart!ent was Sasr;us;Sudur
State .unctionaries
$!il &evenue officer
)inister in;charge of the ar!y of the whole country.
#arid 1ess reporterB>ntelligence agents
$ select body of ,ur"ish nobility originally slaves of >ltu!ish which ca!e into
existence during the period of >ltu!ish to be destroyed by balban later
>Etadar 0overnor, a person in whose charge an >Eta has been placed.
2eeping accounts and sending infor!ation to sultan, the office was created by by
Head of city ad!inistration. He !aintained law and order, enforced econo!ic
regulations, correct use of weight and !easures and "ept vigil on the visitors.
)uftis 7xpounder of law
)uhatasib $n officer appointed to !aintain law and order in a !unicipality
)uEtiBJali Provincial governorB holder of >Eta
ShiEdar Head ShiEs -eEuivalent to districts/
,er!s associated with econo!y
7xcess a!ount of surplus of revenue appropriated fro!>Eta after detraying salary -of the
>Eta holder/ and !eeting expenditure of troops. ,his a!ount was to be deposited with
the state excheEuer. However this trend ceased to exits fro! the ti!e of .irC Shah
$bwabs Various i!posts li"e ghari, charai etc.
$ land tax, charged on the land held by a )usli! and wantered by natural !eans. %sually,
>t was one;tenth of the produce. ,hese lands were "now %shri.
#ooty captured in war. $ccording to >sla!ic tradition one;fifth of the a!ount went to the
state and four;fifths were distributed a!ong the ar!y.
$ religious tax, paid by )usli!s as a charity for the welfare of their co;religionists. >t was
charged at the rate *.A percent of the actual inco!e or property.
=iCya $ tax levied on non;!usli!s in their capacity as protected sub:ected. #rah!ins, wo!en,
children, her!it6s beggars, lunatics, and slaves were exe!pted.
0hari House tax
4hara: 4attle tax levied on graCing.
and revenue, realiCed for! non;!usli!s, such lands were "nown as 2hara:i. $lso "nown
as 2hara:;>;=iCiya or !al.
)asahat )easure!ent of land
#iswa $ co!!on !easure of area in northern >ndia, eEuivalent to 'B*( of a bigha.
,he area whose revenue was reserved for the Sultan6s treasury. >t was not given in >Etas.
Sultan6s officials, a!ils collected taxes directly for the royal treasury.
Sondhar oan given to the peasants.
$rchitecture of the sultanate period
'. ,he first architectural construction erected by Iutd;ud;din $iba" was the well;"nown
Iuwantul; >sla!!osEue at Delhi, >t was built on the plinth of a Hindu te!ple.
*. ,he next ,ur"ish building erected at $:!er is also a !osEue. >t is "nown as Dhai Din "a
=hopra. ,his too was built by Iutub;ud;din $ibe". ,he building was originally a San"srit
college and te!ple built by the great 4hauhan e!peror Vigrahra:a Visaldeva.
@. ,he third i!portant exa!ple ,ur"ish architecture is the Iutub )inar.
?. >ltu!ish, besides co!pleting the Iutub )inar, added so!e buildings of his own , !ost
pro!inent was a to!b, "now as Sultan 0arhi.
A. #alban built his palace, "nown as the &ed Palace. His to!b in Delhi is Purely Persian in
<. ,he 2hal:i !onarch $la;ud;din was a great builder and erected !any buildings. ,wo of his
buildings are notable. ,hey are a !osEue called =a!aite 2hana )as:id at the shrine of
1iCa!ud; din auliya and the fa!ous DarwaCa at the Iutub)inar. #oth these show a
preponderance of )usli! architectural ideas. He also built Siri .ort HaCar Sutun.
8. ,he buildings of the ,aghlaE period do not possess that splendour. ,heir buildings are
characteriCed by stopping walls use of greystone and heavy and dar" appearance.
+. ,he best of the Pathan buildings is the )oth "i)as:id bult by the pri!e !inister of Si"andar
Sultanate $rchitecture
'. 2utubuddin $iba"
• 2uwwatul;>sla! Delhi
• Dhai Din 2a =hopara
• 2utb!inar;$:!er Delhi
*. $ldddin 2hal:i
• Siri .ort
• )ahal; HaCari;> Sitoon
• $lai ;DarwaCa
• $lai )inar
@. 0ayasuddin
• ,uglaEabad -.ort city/
?. )d.,uglaE
• =ahan; Panah -.ort city/
• Sat Pullia
A. .iroC Shah
• .iroC Shah 2otla
• =a!i!a )as:id
• 2usa";i; Si"ar
• &ecinstructed HauC;> F2has and 2atb!inar
<. Si"ander odi
• .ounded $gra
8. Shar Shah
• Old .ort
• Iila;i; 2uhng
• Sher Shah6s ,orib;Sara ra!
Delhi and its different na!es through ti!es
'. $llaudin 2hal:i constructed Siri .ort in '@(@ $D.
*. 0haisuddin ,ughlaE built ,ughlaEabad in '@*'.
@. )d. #in ,ughlaE constructed $dilabad.
?. )d . #in ,ughlaE founded other city "nows as :ahanpanah.
A. .iroC Shah ,ughlaE built .iroCabad in '@A?
<. Hu!ayun constructed Dinpanah in 'A@@
8. Shershah built Purana Iuilla at the site of =ahanpanah
+. Shah:anah founded Sha:hanabad in '<+?.
$!ir 2husro
'. His real na!e was $bdul Hasan.
*. He created a new literary style in Persian which ca!e to be "nown as SabaE ;>; Hindi
@. He co!posed verses in Hindi as well and paved the way for the develop!ent of %rdu
?. He lived through the reigns of six sultans ; patronised by =alaluddin 2hal:i $lauddin 2hal:i
and 0hiyasuddin ,ughlaE.
A. He was a disciple of 1iCa!uddin $uliya the fa!ous Sufi saint of 4histi order.
<. He introduced nu!erous perso; arabic ragas F ai!an sana! ghura etc.
8. His five iterary )asterpieces; Dedicated to $lauddin 2hal:i , )atula;%i;$nwar Shirin
2hasrau , aila )a:nuri $yina Fi; Si"andri, Hasht #ihist
+. His five Diwans - 4ollection of 0haCals/ ,uhafat F%s;Sighar, Jast F%>; Hyat 0hurrat;
%>2a!al, #aEiya 1aEiya , 1ihayat F%>; 2a!al.
G. His Historical )asnavis - 1arrative Poe!s/.
• ,ughlaE 1a!a 0hiyasuddin ,ughlaE6s rise to power .
• 1uh Siphr Iuttubudin $iba" reign and religious a social condition
• Iiran F%s; Sadin Iuarrel and reconciliation between Sultan 2adalEabad and hais father
#ughra 2han
• )iftah F%>;.uruh )ilitary success of sultan =alaluddin 2hal:i
• $ashiEa or Dewal &o!antic love between 2hiCr 2han, eldest son of $llaudin
• &ani 2hiCr 2hani 2hal:i and Dewal &ani daughter of &a: 2aran of 0u:arat
• 2haCain F%>; .utuh $ historigraphical co!position in prose which describes conEuests
and other achieve!ents of $llaudin 2hal:i
Develop!ent of %rdu
'. ,he word %rdu is a ,ur"ish origin and literal !eaning of the word is ar!y or ca!p
*. ,he noted poet $!ir 2husro called it Hindavi. He co!posed verses in Hindavi using Persian
@. %rdu was "nown by various na!es Hindavi, Da"hini, &e"hata , Hindustani.
,he )ughal 2ings
#abur -'A*<;@(/
'. #elonged to 4heghati section of the ,ur"ish race
*. Originally fro!.arghana -,rans F ociana/. #orn in '?+@ in the fa!ily of ,ai!ur
@. Jas invited by !ah!ud 2han odi $1D &anasanga.
• .ounded a new capital city .atehpur Si"ri -'A8*;+(/ which contains edifices of high Euality
li"e #uland Darwa:a, Diwani;i; 2has, ,ur"ish Sultan6s Palace, Panch )ahal etc. $gra and also
ahore served as his capital cities.
• $"bar designed his !ausoleu! hi!self which was constructed by =ahangir at Si"andara
?. $ s"illed !usician and player of 51aEEara6-2ettled dru!/
A. So!e of the great !usicians li"e ,ansen, #aba &a!das and #aba Haridas adorned his court
<. ,he !ode of calligraphy favourite to $"bar was 5 1astaliE6.
8. So!e of the pro!inent painters who wre in court of $"bar were 2hawa:a $bdus Sa!ad.
Dasawanta H #asawan.
+. )ade Persian translation of )ahabharta "nown as 5&aC! F1a!an6. $lso got &a!ayana
,ranslated into Persian.
G. )uCaffar 2han , ,odar!al H Shah )ansur were three !ost notable waCir of his ti!e.
'(. 4o!piled a code of education regulations.
''. Prohibited polyga!y.
'*. $ssu!ed the title of Tul Fi; ilahi -Shadow of god/.
'@. >ntroduced 0aC;i;ilahi, of ?' digits a new yard for land !easure!ent -+G inches in length/
'?. >n 'A8@ introduced 2irori experi!ent.
'A. >n 'A+' introduced Dah; sala syste! -i!portant role of ,odar )al/
'<. $"bar6s e!pire was divided into '* subas -'A8A/. ater the nu!ber rose upto 'A -'<(A/
=ehangir -'<(A;*8/
'. Popular "nown as 5Sali!6 born at ahore in'A<G.
*. Pro!ulgated twelve edicts B ordinances for the general welfare and better govern!ent to
!ar" his coronation. 4apital city was at $gra
@. ost the province if 2andhar to Persia.
?. )arried )ehrunnisa -daughter of )irCa 0hiya #eg/ later "nown as 1ura!ahalH 1ur:ahan.
A. .or!ation of =unta- 4liEue/ co!prising 1ur:ehan , her father )irCa 0hiyas #eg ->ti!aud;
Daula/ her brother $saf 2han =ehangir6s eldest son and son;in;law of $saf 2han 2hurra!
which practically played a decisive role in running the govern!ent for !any years.
<. 4oup of)ohabat 2han ,oo" place that captured =ehangir H 1ur:ahan in ahore.
8. 4o!ing of two 7nglish e!issaries of "ing =a!es of 7ngland, 4aptain Haw"in and Sir ,ho!as
&oy for favourable trade concessions. $s a result of their efforts 7nglish factories were set
up at $gra , Surat , $h!adabad H #roach .
+. Jrote his autobiography ,uCu";>;=ehangari in Persian.
G. He was buried at Shahadara near ahore -Died near ahore while returning fro! 2ash!ir/.
'(. )ughal Painting reached its cli!ax during his reign, great progress was !ade in portrait
painting H paintings of ani!als, )ansure was the greatest na!e in this field.
''. He hi!self was acco!plished in painV.. he clai!ed that he cold distinguish the wor" of
different artists done in a single painting.
'*. >ntroduced 5Du; $spah6 H Sih;$spah syste! -literally tropper with * or @ horses/in
)anasabadri syste!.
'@. Ordered the abolition of inhu!an coropal punish!ents li"e the cutting of nose and ears of
the culprits.
'?. Ordered the preparation of a Tan:ir;i;$dl the cha!of :ustice !ade of pure gold .to hear
public grievances against the highhandedness and oppression of govern!ent officers.
'A. 7xecuted 0uru $r:un Dev with charge of giving help to the prince 2husrao after his revolt
'. &eal na!e 2hurra!. #orn in 'AG* . Died in '<<<.
*. Jitnessed a war of succession a!ong his four sons. ater on i!pressed till death by
@. )ade greatest contribution to architecture, introduced large scale use of !arble , pietra
dura and added elegance and sophistication in buildings.
?. #uilt !agnificient edifices li"e the &ed .ort - &ed Stone /, the =!a )as:id - &ed Stone/, the
,a: )ahal -)arble /,and the )oti )as:id - )arble /at $gra.
A. Ousted the Portuguese fro! Hugli and occupiedit in '<@*.
<. .oreign travelers #renier -.rench/ ,ravenier -.rench/ and )anucci ->talian / visited his
8. His court historian was $bdul Ha!id ahori .
+. 0ot built the Peacoc" throne ,a"ht;i; ,aus -'<*+;@A/ and ,a: )ahal -'<@*;A</
G. >ntroduced scale of 'B@.'B?H'BA in)ansabadri syste!.
Dara Shi"oh
'. He was the eldest son of Shah:ahan andf his !ost favoured no!inee for the throne.
*. He was liberal and possessed !oderate views.
@. He was a devotee of Iadiri order of Sufis.
?. He was disciple of )iyan )ir and then his successor )ulla Shah #ada"sni.
A. He received the tittle of ShaiF>; #uland >Ebal fro! Shah:ahan.
<. He developed the Persian version of the %panishads.
8. His fa!ous wor"s are
• Sufiant Ful; $uliya: #iographies of sufi saints
• Sa"inat Ful; $uliya : #iographies of his two preceptors )iyan )ir H )ullah Shah.
• Hasant Ful; $rifin : 4ontains his religious ideas.
• )a:!a Ful; #aharain : 4ontains his religious ideas- )eaning: 4onfluenceof two oceans/
• Sirr;>; $"bar : ,ranslation of AA* .%panishads.
• &isala;>; HaE 1u!a
$urangCeb -'<A8;'8(8/
'. $dopted the title of $la!gir -4onEueror of the world/, Padshah -7!peror( and 0haCi -Holy
*. 4onfronted a nu!ber of rebellions.
• =ats under 0o"ala &a:ara! and 4hura!an successively.
• Satna!is -)udiyas( by the followers of #irbhan
• Si"hs, after hu!ilitation and i!prision!ent of Sha!bha:i
• &:aput by &athors of)arwar after the death of =aswant Singh, on account of $urangCeb6s
refulas to recongnise $:it Singh -Posthu!ous son of =aswant Singh/ as the legal heir.
• #undelas led by 4ha!pat &ai H 4hhatrasal
@. &ei!posed =iCya in '<8(.
?. $bolished &ahdari ->nland transit duties/ Pandari -Octroi( and $bwab -)iscellaneous taxes/.
A. Discontinued the practice of inscbing the 2ali!a -)uha!!adan confession of faith/ on the coins.
<. $bolished the celebrations of the 1auroC -1ew year6 Day/, Sati -''<@/, =hora"ha;darshan, !usic
and singing.
8. Discontinued the cere!ony of weighing the e!peror -,uladan/ on his birthdays.
+. 7xecuted Sha!bha:i -son of Shiva:i/ in '<G(
G. $ proficient player of veena.
'(. .orbade singing at court.
''. &ei!posed Pilgri!s ,ax.
'*. .orbade the cultivation of 5#hangN
'@. #uilt Pearl )osEue -)oti )as:id/ inside the red .ort at Delhi
'?. He was regarded as a 5Tinda Pir6 -a living saint/
'A. $ppointed a board of ule!as to co!pile a digest on law which ca!e to be "nown as .atwa;i;
'<. $ppointed 5)uhtasibs6.
,he Depart!ents of )ughal State
'. .inance )inister of the state.
*. oo"ed after the revenue and expenditure of the state
)ir #a"shi
'. )inister in charge of !ilitary establish!ent.
Sadr;%s; Sudr
'. $lso "nown as sadr;i;=ehan.
*. Head of ecclesiastical depart!ent.
@. oo"ed after religious affairs of the state.
'. 4onstituted the second highest :udicial authority after the "ing
*. Supervised and control entire :udicial set;up of the state
'. $lso "nown as )i"r;sa!an.
*. Head of royal household
@. >n charge of royal 2or"hanas.
,he organiCation of ar!y
$hdis 2nown as gentle!an troopers who were directly recruited and paid by the state.
$hsha! Soldiers belonging to infantry.
#argirs Soldiers belonging to cavalry. ,hey were !ounted and eEuipped by the state.
Dasti ight $rtillery
2nown as supple!entary troopers. ,hey were recruited by the State and paid fro! the
State treasury,
=insi Heavy $rtillery.
Soldiers belonging to infantry. ,hey wee !ore li"e the civil police.
4avalry!en who brought their own horses and ar!s. ,hey were paid higher salaries
than bargirs.
PO>,>4O;$D)>1>S,&$,>V7 %1>,S
'. ,he largest unit eEuivalent to province.
*. ,he head was "nown as 1aCi! or Subedar of Sipahsalar.
@. Other functionaries at this level were: Diwan -.inance/, #a"shi -Defence/, Sadr -religious
affairs/ and IaCi -:ustice/.
'. ,he unit was eEuivalent to district.
*. Headed by .au:dar or ShiEdar or ShiEdar; >SShiEdaran. He was overall incharge of law H
@. $ssess!ent H collection of revenue was loo"ed after by $!alguCar.
?. ,he head of the district treasury was 2haCandar.
A. #iti"chis functioned as writers and record "eepers.
'. ,he ad!inistrative unit next to sar"ar.
*. Headed by ShiEdar, who was in charge of law Horder.
@. ,he revenue official at this level was $!il.
?. ,he head of the treasury was .otadar.
'. Village affairs were loo"ed after by the Panchayat.
*. a!bardar was the head of the Panchayat.
@. ,here was a 4how"idar.
,ranslations of Different #oo" During the )ughals
$tharvaveda ,ranslated into Persian by ha:i >brahi! Sarhindi.
#abarna!ah ,ranslated into Persian by $bdur &ahi! 2hana.
ilawati ,ranslated into Persian by .aiCi.
,ranslated into Persian by $budul Iadir #adayuni, 1aEib 2han and Shai"h Sultan. >t
is "nown as &aC! na!a in this for!.
,ranslated into Persian by faiCi
,ranslated into Persian by $bulB.aCi. ,he boo" is "nown as $nwer;>;Suhalli in
Persian for!.
&a:atarangini ,ranslated into Persian by )ulla Shah )uha!!ad.
&a!ayana ,ranslated into Persian by $bdul Iadir #adayuni, 1aEuib 2han and Shai"h Sultan.
)ughal Painting
Hu!ayun #rought $bdul Sa!ad and saiyyad $li to Delhi.
$"bar 7stablished royal 2ar"hana for painting.
,laCa! 1a!a and ,ri"h;i; 2handane ,i!uria were painted.
7uropen painting was introduced by portugese
=ehangir He, hi!self was a painter.
Sent #isan Dara to &ussia.
)ansoor was the greatest painter of his ti!e
He loved paintings on ani!al and birds.
Shah:ahan #adsah na!e >llustrated
%sed lavish gold.
$urang:eb He was antagonistic towards !iniature painting.
)ughal 0ardens
Hasht #ahist aid out by #abar at a $gra, now "nown as &a! #agh.
Shali!ar #agh aid out by =ehangir at Srinagar.
1isat #agh aid out by $saf 2han at Srinagar.
aid out by Shah:ehan near ahore.
Hayat #a"sh aid out by Shah:ehan inside the red .ort.
Shali!ar #agh aid out by Shah:ehan in Delhi
JaCir #agh aid out by Dara in 2ash!ir.
4hahar #ur:i aid out by Ceb;un;nisa near ahore. 4rops H >ndustries Distribution
Sind 4ooon, sil", wooden article, ivory, bangles, saltpeter, !attresses.
Sil" weaving, velvet 1eedlewor", 7!broidery. =ewellery, .urniture, Jeapons,
0old 8 Silver e!broidery.
DelhiB$gra Paper, 0lassware, 4opper H #rass utensils.
$vadh Saltpetre
#ihar 0lass vessels, Jooden articles.
#engal )uslin, 4otton, Sil", 7!broidered Euilts.
$gra #ayana >ndigo -4ostlier/
$h!edabad Sar"he: >ndigo
Varieties of cloth
'. Pat $ coarser "ind of cotton cloth used by the poor.
*. 2irpas -4alico/ $ superior variety of cotton cloth than Pat
@. Sirinbaft $ variety of !ullsi!
?. Salahati $ variety of !uslin obtained fro! Sylhet
A. Devgiri $ fine H expensive variety of !uslin obtained fro! Devagiri
<. Patola $ 2id of sil"
8.4hitrapat Painted or printed cloth.
+ ,afetas Sil" e!broidered with gold.
G. ,oti )atting cloth for wrapping !erchandise.
'(. ,atband =ute cloth
,er!inologies in %se During )ughal
7fficient troops which were not placed under the control of e!peror ater on it
has i!portant role in the decline of the !ughal e!pire.
$ syste! where the average produce of different crops as well as the average
prices prevailing over the last ten years were calculated Gintroduced by $"bar/
$l;ta!gha =agirs given to )ulsi! nobles ->ntroduced by Hahangir/
$!alguCar Head of the revenue establish!ent at local level
$!ir 4o!!ander of hundred
#ataiB#haoli 4rop sharing
#iswa 'B*( part of a bigha
)ethod for lifting water fro! wells in a leather buc"et and drawn over by yho"e
of oxen
4hehra )uster roll that was also called Hulia
Dagh #randing of horses
Da!BPalseB.ulus 4hief copper coin of @*@.Agrains -*'0ra!s/ -?(D$)W' &upee/.
Dasturs 4ash revenue rates.
Dhen"il Jooden scoop, used for lifting water fro! wells into field channels.
.atwa &uling
1ew yard for land !easure!ent, consisting of ?' digist -approx @@ inches(,
introduced by $"bar.
Hasil $ctual collection fro! land
Hundi #ill of exchange
=agirdars &evenue assignees
=a!a 7sti!ated revenue of =agir which was eEual to the pay given to the !ansabdar.
=a!a Da!i $ssessed revenue in ter!s of luxury goods.
seniors revenue collectors who collected crores of rupees fro! the people of the
crown lands.
2halisa ,he land where revenue was reserved for the Sultan6s treasury .
2han 4o!!ander of ten thousand horse!en or !ore.
2hud;2ashtaB Owners of land in the official docu!ents
ali";>;Ta!in or resident cultivators.
$ ser!on, recited in !osEues on .ridays wherein the na!e of ruler was
2otwal Police chief
)adad;>;)aashB 0rants of land to !en of learning for
Sayughal their subsistence for life ti!e.
)ahCar &eligious decree issued by $"bar
)ali" 4o!!ander of thousand horse!en
)illat ,he !usli! brotherhood -7ntire )usli! Population/
)uhatsibs Public censors
,he new years day of the Toroastrian calendar introduced by $"bar. -$urangCeb
banned it/
Pai"ashtB Peasents who cultivated land in villages
Pahi"asht other then their own.
Paper to be signed by pessants. $ !ar" of acceptance of state6s de!and of land
Head of the patwaris who as the field officer constituted the land revenue
establish!ent at pargana level.
Head of the patwaris who as the field officer constituted the land revenue
&upee &ounded silver coin of '8* grains
SaElya Sophisticated device for lifting water by Persian wheel.
Sawar $ )ughal ran" that deter!ine the nu!ber of cavarley;!en.
ShiE $n $d!inistrative division -District( during Delhi Sultanate
Sipah salar 4o!!ander of less than one hundred soldiers.
,aEavi $dvance loans to peasant
,uyul ,er! used for :agirs
JaEf 0rants for religious and educational institutions
JaEuianavis 1ews writer
Jatan =agirs =agirs which were assigned to Ca!indars in their ho!elands
$ )ughal ran" that deter!ined the position of a )ughal!ansabdar in the
hierarchy as well as the personal day.
Tortalab $rea where there was ob:ection !ade by the Ca!indars.
ater )ughals
#ahadur Shah -'8(*;'*/
'. $urangCeb died in '8(8. He had surviving sons; Price )uCCa!, )uha!!ad $Ca! and 2a!
*. Price )uCCa! succeeded the throne by defeating $Ca! at =a:au -'8(8/ and 2a! #a"sh at
Hyderabad -'8(G/ and adopting the title #ahadur Shah.
@. $dopted pacific polices.
?. &eserved so!e of the religious policies of $urangCeb.
A. 0uru 0ovind Singh was given high!ansab and had peace with the Si"hs.
<. Sahu, son of Sa!bha:i -2arasha/ was released -captured by $urangCeb/ $fter which there
began a civil war between Sahu and ,ara #ai for )aratha ,horen.
8. 2nown on Shah;i;#e"haber
=ahander Shah -'8'*;'@/
'. Parctice of revenue far!ing of 5>:ara6 was started
*. $bdulah 2han was !ade the JaCir and
@. Hussain $li the )ir #a"hi "nown as Sayyid brothers "nown as 2ing )a"er.
.arru"h Siyar -'8'@;'8'G/
'. 4hin Iulich 2han or 1iCa!;ul;)ul" was !ade governor of the six provinces of Deccan.
*. #anda #ahadur, the Si"h leader, was defeated captured and put to death at Delhi '8'<.
@. Sayyid brothers adopted tolerant polices towards Hindus.
?. =iCya was finally abolished
A. Pilgri!age taxes were also abolished .
<. Sayyid brothers virtually beca!e "ing;!a"ers.
8. .arru"siya was "illed by sayyid brothers.
)uha!!ad Shah -'8'G;?+/
'. &ose to )ughal throne by the Sayyid brothers after death of &afi;ud;Daulah.
*. Original na!e was &aushan $"htar, but too" the title of )uha!!ad Shah after he beca!e
the )ughal e!peror.
@. 1iCa!;u;!ul" was !ade JaCir in '8**. He carried out !any ad!inistrative refor!s, but
dissatisfied over the infighting at the court, left for deccan, where he founded the state of
Hyderabad after defeating )ughal governor of Deccan, )ubariC 2han in the battle of Sha"r;
2hed -'8*?/
?. )usrshid Iuli 2han was governor and subedar of #engal.
A. #urhan;ul;)ul" Saadat 2han was !ade subedar of $ sadh, also followed si!ilar course and
established his rule over there.
<. ,hus #engal and #ihar, $wadh and Decean were lost to the )ughals. However, they never
threw the over lordship of the )ughal 7!peror.
8. =at leder #harat Singh;.ounded a =at state of #haratpur. He hi!self as M.eudatoryN of =ai
Singh Sawai of $!ber, who was appointed fau:dar of )athura region byh .arru"h Siyar to
contain the =at !ove!ent.
+. &ohilla 4hiefs -$fghans/ founded an independent state of M&ohil"handN.
G. .ound of uxurious style of living, and hence called M&angillaN
'(. '8@G;$ttac" of 1adir Shah.
• )ughal ar!y fought at the #attle of 2arnal but was defeated
• 1adir Shah !arched to Delhi and plundered it, !eanwhile, Saadat 2han poisoned hi!self to
• 1adir Shah collected huge war booty, and too" away the fa!ous 2oh;i;noor dia!ond, the
Peacoc" ,hrone and large nu!ber of boo"s on !usic.
$h!ad Shah -'8?+;A?/
'. 1awab of $ wadh Safdar =ang beca!e theJaCir of )ughal e!peror.
Shah $la! >> '8AG;'+(</ $li 0auhar
'. Due to his conflict with the waCir, .led to awadh.
*. Defeated by the #ritish alongwith $wadh and #engla at the #attle of #uxure G'8<?/
@. Signed treaty of $llahabad -'8<A/ with the 7ast >ndia 4o!pany by which.
• $llahabad and 2ara -ta"en fro!$ wadh/ was given to Shah $la! >>.
• 0ranted Diwani &ight -right to collect land revenue/ of #engal. #ihar and Orissa for a fixed
annual pay!ent of &s. *< la"hs.
?. ived for long at $llahabad as pensioner of 7ast >ndia 4o!pany
A. '8<' $bdali gave disastrous defeat to the ,hird #attle of Panipat
<. #rought to Delhi by )arathas -)ahad:i Scindia/ in '88* and declared the! to be the protector of
the )ughal court.
8. '+(@ ta"en to prisoner and confined to the &ed .ort after )arathas were defeated by ord a"e.
#ahadur Shah >> -'+@8;<*/
'. ,he leaders of the '+A8 revolts declared hi! to be the 5e!peror of >ndia6 fought the #ritish
in na!e.
*. $fter the '+A8 revolt was suppressed. He was deposed -'+A+/, tried for waging war against
the #ritish and deported to &angoon -#ur!a/ where he died in '+<*.
@. His wife Teenat )ahal participated in the revolt of '+A8.
Vi:ayanagar 7!pire
Harihar >> -'@88;'?(</
7xpanded the e!pire towards the sea coast but his greatest success was in wresting #elgau! and
0oa fro! #ah!ani and in sending expedition to Sri an"a.
Devraya > -'?(<;'?**/
Jas defeated by .iroC Shah #ah!ani and had to !arry his daughter to hi!. #ut later he allied with
the &eddy 2ingdo! and !anaged to defeat .iroC Shah #ah!ani. He also built a da! across
Devraya >> -'?**;'??</
>nducted a large nu!ber of )usli!s in the ar!y -,heir induction however had begun during
Devraya6s > reign/. 1uniC infor!s us that a large nu!ber of "ings paid tribute to hi!.
2rishna Deva &aya -'A(G;@(/
Jon Orissa -0a:apati 2ingdo!/ for Vi:aynagar and Vi:aynagar e!erged strongest during his reign.
• 2rishna Deva &aya assu!ed the title of 9avanray:aya Sthapancharya also called $bhinav
• Paes says that 2rishna Deva &aya was a !an of !uch :ustice but sub:ect to sudden fits of
• 2rishna Deva &aya built a new city and expanded patronage to a large nu!ber of poets
-$stha Digga:as/.
• 2rishna Deva &aya wrote the political treatise of $!u"ta!alya!ada in ,elugu -=a!bbavati
2alyanna! in Sans"rit/ and e!phasiCed on the welfare of people.
• &a!a &a:a entered into a treaty with the Portuguese to obtain the!onopoly of horses.
• Vi:ayanagar6 defeat ca!e in the battle of ,ali"otta in 'A<A due to &a!a &a:a6s policy of
playing one )usli! dynasty against the other for !a"ing Vi:aynagar supre!e.

Vi:aynagar $rchitecture
,he Vi:aynagar rulers produced a new style of architecture called as Provida style. ,he large
nu!ber and pro!inence of pillars and piers are so!e of the distinct features. Horse was the !ost
co!!on ani!al on the pillars. $nother i!portant feature was the )andapa or open pavilion with a
raised platfor!, !eant for seating deities.
>!portant te!ples were Vithalswa!i and HaCara te!ples at Ha!pi, ,adapatri and Parvati te!ples
at 4hida!bara!and Varadra:a and 7"a!barnatha te!ples at 2anchipura!. ,he Vi:aynagar rulers
inscribed the stories of the &a!ayana and the )ahabharata on the walls of the various te!ples.
HaCara te!ple and Vithalswa!i te!ples are exa!ples of this type of wall inscription.

,he Saints of )edieval >ndia
'. Devotee of Shiva.
*. 0ave birth to the philosophy of $dvaitavad or 7"tatvavad of Vedanta.
@. 7stablished !any )athas -Viharas/ in different parts of country;=agannathpuri in east ,
Sringeri in south, Dwar"a in west and #adarinath in north.
?. 7!phasised "nowledge or true education as a way to attain )o"sha -salvation/.
A. 2nown as 4rypto F #uddhist
<. Defeated #uddhist scholastic teachers.
'. %rged that for salvation the grace of god is!ore i!portant than "nowledge.
*. 7xpounded the philosophy of visistaadwaita and Eualified !onis!.
@. His co!!entary of Vedanta is co!piled in Sribhashya and 0itabhashya.
?. $ccording to hi! soul is one with 0od yet separate.
'. $d!itted to his sect disciples fro! all castes, fro! both sexes and even fro! a!ong the
*. His twelve disciples, who beca!e fa!ous later on included a =at na!ed Dhanna, a barbar
Sena, a cobbler &a!das and a )usli!, 2abir.
@. Jorshipper of &a!a.
?. &epresentative of Sagun #ha"ti sect.
'. )ost radical disciple of &a!ananda.
*. #rought up by a weaver of Varanasi.
@. #y !eans of sa"has and sa"his he i!parted religious instruction to Hindus and )usli!s
?. His sayings.
• MO 2abir, Sans"rit is the water in a well, the language of people is the following strea!.N
• M> a! neither in "aba nor in "ailash VV #ut present in all creatures.N
• M0od is the breath of all breaths.N
A. Stood for Hindu;)usli! unity.
<. Declared that $llah and &a!a were the na!es of the sa!e god and called hi!&a! and &ahi!.
8. &epresentative poet;saint of 1irguna #ha"ti sect.
Dadu Dayal
'. &esident of $h!edabad.
*. $ccepted by both the Hindus and the )usli!s.
@. Devotee of 1iran"ar #rah!a and staunch supporter of 1irguna School of #ha"ti cult.
0uru 1ana"
'. #elieved in the doctrine of "ar!a and the theory of trans!igration of souls.
*. Started angar -free co!!unity "itchen/.
@. Jor"ed for Hindu;)usli! unity.
?. 4onceived 0od as 1iran"ara.
A. His wor" was co!piled in the $di 0ranth which also included the teachings of 2abir.
<. His Saying M0od "nows !an6s virtues and enEuires not his caste, in the next world there is
no caste.N
'. $ devotee of ord 2rishna.
*. .ounder of !odern vaishnavis! in #engal.
@. Original na!e was Vishwa!bhar.
?. 0reat exponent of 2rishnaite for! of Vaishnavis!.
A. He is considered by his followers as an incarnation of 2rishna or Vishnu.
<. His philosophical doctrine F M$cgubttabgeda #hedavada.N
8. His philosophy is "nown as &ag )arg -Path of spontaneous love/.
+. 0ave birth to San"irtan syste!.
G. His birth place was 1avadwip.
'. $ ,elgu #rah!in of $ndhra Pradesh.
*. Spent !ost of the ti!e at Vrindavan.
@. Published the theory of Dwaith advaitvad -Dualis!;non dualis!/.
?. >dentified #rah!ana with 2rishna.
'. Devotee of 2rishna.
*. #elieved in the philosophy o Sudhaadvaita.
@. 7!phasised on Vaishnavis! and )onois!.
?. His philosophy "nown as pushti!arg -the path of grace/.
'. .ollower of the 2rishna cult of Vaishnavis!.
*. Her songs were full of devotion and love, written in &a:asthani H #ra:a #hasha.
'. &enowned author of &a!charit )anas.
*. Depicted &a!a as the incarnation of Vishnu.
@. His other boo"s are F Dohavali, 2avitawali, Vinay Patri"a etc.
?. #eca!e a saint and went to $yodhya.
'. 7xpounded Dwaitvad -Dualis!/.
*. Devotee of Vishnu.
=na!esvar or =nanadeva
'. Saint of )aharastra Dhar!a.
*. 4o!posed his )arathi co!!entary of the #hagwad 0ita "nown as =naneswari.
@. &elated to Var"ari sect.
?. Jrote $bhangas.
'. Saint of )aharastra Dhar!a.
*. $ssociated with Var"ari sect.
@. So!e of his lyrical verses are included in the 0ranth Sahib.
?. His Sayings.
• MHindu is blind, then )usli! sEuint, who "nows it, is wiser than bothK he is the servant of
that na!eN.
'. Saint of )aharastra Dhar!a.
*. Spiritual guide of Shiva:i.
@. Jrote Dasabodha which contains his vast "nowledge of various sciences and arts with the
synthesiCing principles of spiritual life.
?. 7xpounder of Dhara"ari group.
'. .ore!ost of poet of 2rishna sect.
*. ,he first great the!e of his poetry constitutes 2rishna6s #al ila -child 2rishna/.
@. Disciple of Vallabhacharya.
'. Saint of )aharastra Dhar!a.
'. ,ried to reconcile Hinduis! and >sla!. 2nown as M2abir of the DeccanN.
*. Jrote several abhangas which e!body his teachings and were widely recited in
'. &esident of $ssa!.
*. .a!ous as M4haitanya of $ssa!N.
@. His Saying.
?. M,here is only one 0od, only one faith and devotion and besides this there is no other 0odN.
1arsi )ehta
'. &esident of 0u:arat.
*. $uthor of vaishnav :an to teno "ahiye V.. $ favourite #ha:an of )ahat!a 0andhi.
'. Pri!e )inister of the 2alachuri 2ing #i:ala.
*. Jrote Vachanas.6
@. 7xpounder of Virsaivis! or ingayat sect.
Sufis! and Suri Saints
'. )ystic !ove!ent in >sla! is called Sufis!.
*. 7!phasiCed on realiCation of divine unity by arousing intuitive and spiritual facilities.
@. Pir appointed his successor who was calledJali and their dispels were "nown as )urids.
?. )onastic organisation of the sufi was called 2hanEah.
A. Sufi orders or silsilahs are broadly classified into two.
a. #a;Shara F ,hose who followed Sharia or >sla!ic aw strictly.
b. #e;Shara F ,hose who did not strictly follow sharia.
Sufi Orders
4histi Order
'. 7arliest and !ost liberal sufi order in >ndia.
*. Sufis of this order lived life of poverty.
@. Did not visit the court of Sultan.
?. Praticies Sa!a or recitation of !usic to create ecstasy.
A. Perfor!ed a nu!ber of yogic exercises.
2hwa:a )uinuddin 4histi
4histi order in >ndia was founded by 2hwa:a )uinuddin 4histi who settled in $:!er.
His to!b in $:!er developed into a leading pilgri!age centre.
Shei"h Ha!iduddin 1agori
Iutbuddin #a"htiyar 2a"i
'. >ltut!ish was deeply devoted to hi!.
*. >ltut!ish dedicated the Iutab )inar to hi!.
@. Died in the course of !usic.
Shei"h .aridduddin6s B #aba .arid
'. 4onfined his activities to Pun:ab and Haryana region.
*. His verses are Euoted in Euoted in 5$di;0ranth6, Scripture of the Si"ha.
1iCa!uddin $uliya
'. Jas hostile to Sultan;Iutbuddin )ubara" and 0iyasuddin ,ughlaE.
*. .or his !astery over yogic practices he is called a 5sidh6 or perfect.
@. Practiced Sa!a.
?. $!ir 2husrau was his disciple.
0esu DaraC
'. 4histi silsila was !ade popular in the deccan by Sayid )uha!!ad bin 9usuf al;Hussaini or
#anda 1awaC, or )ir 0esu DaraC.
*. )ost i!portant chisti sufi in the Deccan.
b. Suhrawardi Order
'. 4a!e to >ndia with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate.
*. #elonged to the #a;Shara.
@. Did not believe in poor li"e style of the Sufi saint.
?. $ccepted state patronage.
A. &eal founder in >ndia was Shei"h #ahauddin Ta"aria.
c. .irdausi Order
'. 7!erged in '?th 4entury.
*. 7stablish!ent in Delhi by #adruddin Sa!arEandi.
@. Outstanding sufi of the order;Shei"h Sharfuddin 9ahya )aneri -of )aner near Patna/.
d. 2ubrawiyya Order
'. )ain centre 2ash!ir.
e. Ialandariya Order
'. iterally !eans Mwandering dervishesN
*. &efused to obey 2hanEah life.
@. Did not follow Sharia, -#e;Shara/
?. Practices Hathayoga.
f. Shattariya Order
'. .ounded in >ndia y Shei"h $bdullah, called Sahtar -.ast &unner/
*. ived "ingly life style, his disciples !arched wearing soldier6s unifor! beating dru!s, etc.
g. Iadiriya Order
'. Original founder F )uhyuddin $bdul Iadir =ilani -died ''<</
*. Shei"h $bdul Iadir F PopulariCed this silsila in Sind and Pun:ab in '<th 4entury.
@. Orthodox order -#a;Shara/
h. 1ashabandiya Order
'. #abur, while in central $sia, was disciple of 2hwa:a Obaidullah $hrar.
*. Shei"h $h!ed Sirhind, disciple of #aEi #illah, was conte!porary of $"bar and =ahangir,
=ahangir i!prisoned hi! for declaring hi!self to be )u:addid -&edee!er of >sla!/ at the
fort of 0walior.
i. &ishi )ove!ent
'. #egun by Shei"h 1uruddin in 2ash!ir.
*. He incorporated the teachings of 9ogi alla, also called al Ded, a Shaivite wo!an saint of
)odern >ndian History
.acts &elated ,o )odern >ndia
#oo"s and $uthors
Historical wor"s
'. ,abaEuat;> 1asiri by )ilha:;i;Sira:, a detailed account of early history the ,ur"s in >ndia
down to the reign of >ltu!ish6s successors co!pleted, in '*AG.
*. ,ari"h;i;.iroC Shahi by Tia uddin #arni, !ost valuable source for Sultanate6s history, covers
the period fro! the accession of #alban to the six years of .iruC6s reign during whose period
the wor" was written 5'@A86.
@. ,ari"h;i;.iroC Shahi by Sha!s F> Sira: $fif, a detailed account of the reign of .iroC Shah,
particularly i!portant for his public welfare !easures co '?+(.
?. .utuhat;> .iroC Shahi an autobiographical wor" by Sultan .iroC Shah, the only royal
autobiography of sultanate period. Originally inscribed on the walls of the =a!a )as:id built
by .iroC at Delhi.
A. ,uCu";i;#abari,written in ,ur"ish -translated later into Persian at $"bar6s court by $bdur
&ahi! 2han; > 2hanan and given the little #abarna!a/ offers an autobiographical account
of #abar6s reign.
<. ,uCu";i;=ahangiri, written in Persian, an autobiographical account of =ahangir6s reign
particularly useful for understanding his personality.
8. $"barna!a by $bul .aCal first in the category of )ughal court chronicles offers a detailed
account of >ndian history fro! earliest ti!es down to $"bar. $ part of it is "nown as $in;i;
$"bari which is the !ost authentic treaties on the organiCation nature and functioning of
)ughal ad!inistration.
+. Pad Shahna!a by $bdul Ha!i ahori is the official history of Shah:ahan.
G. Hu!ayunna!a by 0ulbadan #egu!is the only historical wor" written by a lady of the
)ughal fa!ily. >t was written at $"bar6s court by his aunt and describes the events of the
reign of Hu!ayun. 1arates that #abur sacrificed his life for the life of Hu!ayun.
'(. )unta"hab;ut;,awari"h by $bdul Iadir #adayuni is an i!portant wor" of $"bar6s ti!e
which is particularly critical of the 7!peror6s religious policy offers a general account of
>ndian history. He was highly critical of $"bar.
''. ,abaEat;> $"bari is a typical exa!ple of a !an writing history as a particular observer,
written by 1iCa!uddin, #a"shi of $"bar, it is very valuable for Deccan and Sind ca!paigns
in which the author participated.
'*. )unta"hab;ul;ubab by 2hafi 2han is a detailed wor" on )ughal history written in
$urangCeb6s reign and is particularly i!portant for studying the events of that reign with
reference to the Deccan. >t also provides earliest infor!ation on )aratha activities under
,ravel $ccounts
'. ,ehEuiEat;e;Hind also called 2itab;ul;Hind by $lberuni in $rabic covers the early ''th
century, a detailed, authentic and extre!ely infor!ative wor" on conte!porary >ndian
society and culture.
*. &ehla of >bn #attuta the )oroccan traveler who visited the 7!pire of )oha!!ad bin
tughlaE and wrote extensively about the period. ,he wor" in $rabi sheds particular light on
the Devagiri episode better "nown as the transfer of capital.
iterary $nd )ystic Jor"s
'. )ira:;ul;SshiEin by 0esuderaC, an early sufi treatise written in the Deccan.
'. )an 2autuhal, a co!!entary on Persian !usic written at the court of &a:a )an Singh of
*. &a!ayana translated into Persian by #adayuni at $"bar6s 4ourt.
@. &aC! 1a!ah, Persian translation of )ahabharat by .aiCi at $"bar6s 4ourt.
?. #hagvad 0ita ,ranslated into Persian by .aiCi.
So!e >!portant ,ravel $ccounts
Delhi Sultanate
2itab;e;&ehla of >bn #attuta -,he ,ravels of >bn #attuta tr. H.$.&. 0ibb/ useful account of ,ughlaE
e!pire particularly the reign and personality of )oha!!ad #in ,ughlaE on >bn #atuta6s travels in
>ndia during '@@*;'@?*.
Vi:aynagar 7!pire;#ah!ani 2ingdo!
'. #oo" of Ser )arco Polo the Venetian, 4oncerni"gn he "ingdo!s and )arvels of the 7ast: the
account of )arco Polo6s travels in '*++ and '*G@.
*. ,ravels of 1icolo 4onti in the early part of the 'Ath century: account of the >talian
-Venetian/ traveler who wrote about the reigns of Devaraya > and >>, the glory of the capital
of the capital and luxury of the court besides the large here in !aintained by the "ings.
@. )atlas;us;Sadain of $bdur &aCCaE ->ndia in the 'Ath century tr. &.H. )a:or/ $ccount of the
Persian envoy to the court of Devaraya >> -arrival '??*/ useful for infor!ation on
diplo!atic an econo!ic life.
?. Voyage to >ndia -eng. tr. of &ussian original/ account of $thanasius 1i"itin, &ussian traveler
who visited the #ah!ani 2ingdo! around '?<+;8( and also wrote about the Vi:aynagar
A. ,he #oo" of Duarte #arbossa -eng. tr. Da!es/ $ccount of the Portuguese traveler #arbossa
who visited South >ndia during 'A((;'A'<. Provides useful infor!ation on 2rishnadeva
<. $ccount of Do!ingo Paes -tr. and rep. by Sewell in .orgotton 7!pire/ who visited
Vi:aynagar around 'A** and has written about 2rishnadev &aya.
8. ,he ,ravels of Pietro deila vella in >ndia: Della Velle6s account of South >ndia -'<*@;*?/.
)ughal 7!pire -7uropean $ccounts/
'. ,ravels in $sia -,he ,ravels of Peter )undy/K an account of the )ughul 7!pire under
Saha:ahan -'<*+;@@?/ the 7nglish factor useful for aspects of social and econo!ic life.
*. ,ravels in the )ughal 7!pire: .rancois #ernier -'<A<;<+/.
@. ,raveller6s ,ravels in >ndia: =ean #aptiste ,avenier -'<?<;<8/.
?. Storia da )ogor of 1icolai )anucci -'<GG; '8(G/.
)ain #attles
Jaihind >-'((';(* $D/ )ah!ud 0aCni defeated =ayapala
Jaihind >> -'((+ $D/ )ah!ud 0aCni defeated the Hindu confederacy under $nandpala
,arain > -''G' $D/ Prithvira: 4hauhan of $:!er defeated )uha!!ed 0hori
,arain >> -''G* $D/ Prithvira: 4hauhan of $:!er was defeated by )uha!!ed 0hori
4handawar -''G? $D/ )uha!!ed 0hori defeated =aichand, the ruler of 2annau:.
Other .acts &elated ,o )edieval >ndia
Saints H Philosophy
Shan"aracharya $dvaitaBVedanta
&a!una:a Visistadvaita -Eualified !onis!/
)adhavachara Dvaita -dualis!/
1i!bar"acharya Dvaita dvaita
Vallabhacharya Sudha dvaita
4haitanya $cintyabheda bhedavada
&oyal Jo!en;Sultanate H )ughal Period
0ulbadan #egu!
#abar6s daughter "new ,ur"ish H Persian and wrote Hu!ayunna!ah.
• 1ur:ehan did social wor".
• She gave grants to poor !usli! to enable the! to !arry their daughters.
• She invented new design of clothes and fashions and perfu!es.
• She was versed in Persian and $rabic.
• She wrote poe!s.
• She showed interest in paintings.
• She was versed in art of decoration.
• She had !any ships.
• She built >t!ad;ud;Daula6s to!b and =ehangir6s to!b.
@. =ahanara
• Sah:ehan6s daughter =ehanara served her father when he was i!prisoned by $urangCeb.
• She did her own trade and she had !any ships.
• She wrote &isala on philosophy.
• She wrote poe!s in Persians.
• She wrote biography of )uinuddin 4histi and other saints.
• She opened a )adarsa in the =a!a )as:id of $gra.
• She put a petition against i!position of =aCiya by $urangCeb.
?. &oshanara
• Shah:ehan6s another daughter &oshanara stood by $urangCeb during war of succession.
• $urangCeb6s gave her the title Shah #egu!and &s.A a"h.
• She tried to hide the illness of $urangCeb and "ept control over royal seal.
A. Tebunnisa
• $urangCeb6s daughter Tebunnisa saved ShahnabaC 2han.
• She supported her brother $"bar.
• She !en!rised Iuran by heart, for which she got @(((( gold !uhar fro! $urangCeb.
• She studied !athe!atics and astrono!y.
• She was well;versed in calligraphy. She "new Shi"ast, 1astaliE and 1as"h styles of
• She opened a ,ranslation Depart!ent.
$rchitecture F Delhi Sultanate H )ughal Period
'. )usli! architecture is based on arch, do!e and !inarets.
*. .irst real arch built in white !arble is #alban6s to!b.
@. .irst real do!e built in $lai Darwa:a F ,his is also "nown as Sal:u"i do!e.
)usli! Orna!entation
• )usli! orna!entation -$rabic/;flower, leaves, geo!etrical designs, verses of Iura.
• )usli! orna!entation -Persian/ Fcoloured tiles, pietra dura, use of !arble.
• >sla! forade use of figures of living beings particularly hu!an figures in orna!entation.
• 4alligraphy based on verses of Iuran was "nown as 2ufi.
A. 0andha" "i #awali is a step well built by >ltut!ish in Delhi.
<. ,ughlaEs
• ,ughlaEs introduced sloping walls "nown as sala!i.
• ,hey used grey sand stone.
• ,heir buildings were !assive and without !uch orna!entation.
8. )ughals introduced new ele!ents in architecture.
• Double do!e in developed fro!-Hu!ayun6s ,o!b, ,a:!ahal/
• 4harbagh style by #abur -Hu!ayun6s ,o!b/
• $rtificial canals H gardens.
• Pietra dura -.irst use in the ,o!b of >ti!adud;Daula/ #uildings put up entirely in !arbles
and the walls decorated with floral designs !ade up of se!i precious stones.
• %se of !arble.
+. $"bar6s )onu!ents
'. $gra .ort
*. ahore .ort
@. $:!er .ort
?. $llahabad .ort
A. .atehpur Si"ri
• $"bar lived here for '* years.
• He left because of scarcity of water.
• =a!a )as:id;inside it lies ,o!b of Sali! 4histi this is !ade in 0u:arati style.
• #uland Darwa:a;#uilt in co!!e!oration of victory over 0u:arat.
• Panch )ahal shows #uddhist influence.
• #irbal6s Palace F Double do!e, Hindu influence.
• =odhabai Palace F =aina >nfluence
• )aria!6s Palace F Paintings on walls, Painting of Hanu!an worshipping &a!.
• Sultana Palace F 4arvings on wood, 2ash!iri style.
'. =ahangir6s )ousoleu! was built by 1ur:ahan at Sahadara near ahore;no do!e;eight;angle
!inerals F inside it ,o!b of 1ur:ahan.
*. Shah:ahan6s )onu!ents
a. $gra .ort F >nside it )oti )as:id H )usa!!an #ur: -fro! here he loo"ed at ,a:!ahal/, 1agina
b. =a!a )as:id at $gra built by =ahanara.
c. ,a:!ahal
• and ta"en fro! &a:a =ai Singh
• 4hief architect F %stad >sa, citiCen of $gra.
• 4onstruction under 2ari! 2han nad )u"arra!at 2han.
• $!nat 2han Sh:ira: of 2andhar wrote inscription.
• >s!ail 2han &u!i of 4onstantinople constructed do!e.
• )arble fro! )a"rana -=odhpur/.
• Double do!e.
• >nscriptions ta"en fro! the ,o!bs of Hu!ayun and $bdur &ahi! 2han;i; 2hana.
• $ccording to 7nglish sources 4hief architect was 0aro!ino #eronio.
d. &ed .ort, Delhi
• 2nown as Iila;e;)uella.
• )ain gates;ahori 0ate -Jest/ and Delhi 0ate -South/.
• &ang )ahal;7!peror6s Palace and the !ost beautiful.
• 1ahar;i;#ahist -4abal of the heaven/.
• ater $urangCeb constructed )oti )as:id.
• Diwan;i;$!, where )ayur;Sihasan was placed.
A. =a!a )as:id, Delhi
• 4hief 4haracteristic F a series of three do!b.
)ughal Paintings
'. )ain ,he!e F Personalities, court scenes, war scenes, scenes of hunting, &eal events.
*. He established a Deptt. of Painting F $bdus Sa!ad was !ade its head F He was given the
title Shirin 2al!i.
@. $bul .aCi !entions na!e of '8 painters out of which '@ were Hindus.
?. .a!ous Hindu Painters F Daswant, #asawan, 2esu, al, )u"und, )adhu, =agan, )ahesh,
,ara"he! 2aran, harivansh, &a!, Sanwaldas.
A. #asawan was expert in painting body organs, bac"ground and portrait.
<. Daswant beca!e insane and co!!itted suicide.
8. 4hronology of fa!ous painting Ha!Cna!ah;X $nwar;i;Suhali -Punchtantra/(X ,utina!ah;
X ,ari"h;i;2handanir ,i!uria;X #adarna!ah; X $"barna!ah;X ,ari"h;i;$lifi;X &a!Cna!ah
+. Jalls of .atehpur Si"ri were adorned with paintings.
'. He hi!self was a great painter. >n his autobiography ,u:u";i;=ehangiri he clai!s that he can
recogniCe paintings of various artists.
*. .a!ous Hindu painters were F #isandas, )anohar, 0ovardhan, )adhav.
@. =ehangir was lover of nature F He too" painters to 2ash!ir to paint natural beauty.
?. )iniature painting got encourage!ent during his period .
A. #isandas was expert in painting portraits and in presenting real reflections .
<. )ansur was expert in painting birds, flowers and trees.
$fter shah:ehan
• $urangCeb destroyed paintings of #i:apur H 0ol"anda. He white washed paintings of
$"bar6s to!b.
&eligional $rchitecture
• ,ughlaE influence on the SharEi architecture is seen in the use of arch and bea!, and
battering walls.
• Propylons -huge recessed arch fra!ed by tapering sEuare !inars divided into registers/
have been used in $tala )as:id ->brahi! Shah/ and =a!i )as:id -Hussain Shah/.
• >t is notable for the excellent co!bination of arch and lintel, construction of stairs of flight,
the use of coloured titles and lofty plinth for the buildings.
• )alwa boasts of Hussain Shah6s to!b, =a!i )as:id, =ahaC )andal, Hindola )ahal and the
palaces of #aaC #ahadur and &up!ati.
• >n 4handeri, ShahCadi 2a &auCa, 2usha" )ahal and the #adal )ahal are located.
• Drop;arch !ethod has been used.
• &oof is raised by a syste! of arched bays.
• $dina )as:id built by Si"andar Shah and the 7"la"hi to!b of )ah!ud Shah were
constructed . So!e other !onu!ents are Da"hil DarwaCa, ,antipura )as:id, the #ara Sona
)as:id etc.
• Jood was the principle building !aterial and the roofs are pyra!idal.
• 2ash!ir has two buildings of pro!inence: )ir Sa::id $li H=a!adani6s )osEue and =a!i
)as:id of Si"andar Shah.
• 1otable !onu!ents are =a!i )as:id of $h!edabad, 1agina )as:id of 4ha!paner and the
cities of )ah!udabad and )astafabad founded by )oha!!ed #eghara.
Sur $rchitecture
• Surs built to!bs at Sasara! which were octagonal but !ost outstanding was Sher Shah6s
)ausoleu! build on a huge plinth, a!idst a la"e and is !ulti storeyed .
• He also build the Purana Iila whose surviving !onu!ents are Iila;i;2uhna )as:id and the
Sher )andal library.
4hronology of 7vents
'8(8 ; #attle of =a:au, accession of #ahadur Shah >
'8(+ ; Death of 0uru 0ovind Singh
'8'* ; Death of #ahadur Shah >, accession of =ahandar Slah
8'@ ; $ccession of .aru"h Siyar, !urder of =ahandar Shah
'8'? ; Hussain $ll viceroy of the Deeccan, ,reaty between Hussain )i and the )arathas
'8'< ; 7xecution of #anda #ahadur, Sw!an 7!bassy to the >!perial 4ourt.
'8'8 ; 7!peror .aru"h siyar6s fir!an to 7ast >ndia 4o. $ppoint!ent of )urshid Iuli 2han as
0overnor of #engal
'8'G ; .aru"h Siyar put to death, accession and deposition of puppet e!perors, accession of
)uha!!ad Shah
'8*( ; .all of the Sayyid brothers
'8*? ; $ppoint!ent of Saadat 2han as governor of Oudh, virtual independence of the 1iCa! in the
Deccan, appoint!ent of Ia!aruddin as waCir
'8@G ; 1adir Shah too" Delhi and sac"ed it, death of Su:auddin and appoint!ent of his son,
SarfaraC, as 0overnor of #engal. capture of bassein and Salsette 2ha H
'8?( ; $liwardi 2han defeated and "illed SarfraC 2han and beca!e 1awab of engal
'8?* ; )arathas invaded #engal, appoint!ent of Duplex as 0overnor of Pondicherry
'8??;?+ ; .irst 4a!atic -$nglo;.rench/ Jar
'8?A ; &ohullas in occupied of &ohll"hand
'8?< ; 4apture of )adras by a #ourdonnais
8?8 ; >nvasion by $h!ad Shah $bdul
'8?+ ; Death of 1iCa! 4hin Iilich 2han, death of 7!peror )uha!!ad Shah. accession of $h!ad
'8?G ; &estoration of)adras to the 7nglish
'8?G;A? ; Second 4arnatic Jar
'8A( ; Defeat and death of 1iCa! 1asir =ang after hi! )uCaffar =ang beca!e 1iCa!
'8A' ; 4apture and defence of $rcot by &obed 4live, death of )uCaffar =ang, accession of Salabat
=ang as 1iCa!, conclusion of treaty by 1awab$livardi 2han with the )arathas by surrendering
'8A? ; &ecall of Dupleix, 0odehu6s appoint!ent as governor and his treaty with the 7nglish,
accessi<n of $la!girll
'8A< ; Death of $livardi 2han -*' $pril/ accession of Sira:uddaulab who captured 4alcutta -*(
'8A8 ; &ecovery of 4alcutta by the 7nglish -* =anuary/, Delhi and )athura sac"ed by $b!ad Shah
$bdali -=anuary/ treaty of $linagat between Sira: and the 7nglish -Gth .eb./, capture of
4handernagoreby the 7nglish -)arch/, battle of Plassey -*@x =une/, )ir =afar installed as 1awab -*+
=une/, capture and execution of Siia:uddaulah -*nd =uly/.
'8A+;<@ ; ,hird 4arnatic Jar
'8A+ ; $rrival of ally in >ndia, occupation of the Pun:ab by the )arathas, )anulipatna! captured
by .orde.
'8AG ; #attle of #edara, Prince $u =afar, second 0overnorship of 4live in #engal, treaty of
$llahabad, grant of the Diwani of #engal, #ihar and Orissa b@' Shah $la! >> to the 4o!pany.
'8<< ; $cEuisition by the co!pany of the 1orthern 4ircars.
'8<<;<G ; .irst )ysore Jar
'8<8 ; Departure of dive, Verelest governor in #engal
'88( ; ,he 0reat #engal .a!ine
'88* ; Jarren Hastings 0overnor in #engal, death of Peshwa )adhava &ao, accession and !urder
of Peshwa 1arayan &ao
'88@ ; 7nact!ent of the &egulating $ct, Peshwaship of &aghnath &ao of &aghaba
'88? ; $ccession of 1arayn &ao as Peshwa, the &ohilla war. Jarren Hastings installed as 0overnor
0eneral, establish!ent of Supre!e 4ourt in 4alcutta
'88A ; ,rial and execution of 1anda 2u!ar, co!!ence!ent of the .irst )aratha Jar which
continued till 8+*
'88< ; ,reaty of Purandhar
'88G ; 4onvention of Jadgaon
' 8+( ; 0walior captured by 0eneral Popha!, Second )ysore Jar -'8+(??/
'8+' ; Deposition of 4hait Singh, $!end!ent of the &egulating $ct
'8+* ; $ffair of the #egu!s of Oudh, the treaty of Salbai, death of Haider $li
'8+@ ; .ox6s >ndia #ill
'8+? ; ,reaty of )angalore closed the Second )ysore Jar, Pitfs >ndia $ct
'8+A ; Jarren Hastings resigned 0overnor 0eneralship
'8+< ; ord 4ornwallis appointed 0overnor.0eneral
'8G( ; 4o!!ence!ent of the ,hird )ysore Jar -'8G(;G*/
'8G* ; ,reaty of Seringapatna! ended the ,hird P?ysore Jar, &an:it Siugh beca!e the ader of a
'8G@ ; Per!anent Settle!ent of land revenue in #engal, renewal of the 4o!pany6s 4harter,
retire!ent of ord 4o!waflis, sir :ohn Shore 0overnor 0eneral
'8G? ; Death of )ahada:i Sindhia
'8GA ; ,he #attle of 2harda or 2hYrdla, death of $halya #ai
'8G< ; Death of Peshwa )adhava &ao 1arayan, #a:i &ao >> Peshwa
'8G8 ; Tarnan Shah in the Pun:ab, death of 1awab $safiiddaulah of Oudh
'8G+ ; ord Jellesley 0overnor 0eneral, acceptance of subsidiary alliance by the 1iCa!
'8GG ; .ourth )ysore Jar, death of ,ipu, fall of Seringapatna!, partition of )ysore, installation of
the Hindu &a: fa!ily in )ysore, &an:it Singh appointed 0overnor of ahore by Ta!an Shah,
)alcol! led 7nglish tnision to Persia, opening of the #aptist )ission at Sera!pore by willia! 4arey
'+(( ; Death of 1ana Phadnavis
'+(' ; 4arnatic annexed to the #ritish e!pire. ,he battle of Poona, ,reaty of #assein
'+(@ ; ,he Second)arathaJar -'+(@;(A/, capture of $ligarh, #attles offleihi, $ssaye, aswari and
$rgaon, treaty of Deogaon and cession of 4uttac", treaty of Sur:i;$r:ungaon
'+(? ; Jar with the Hol"ar, defeat of )onson, battle of Deeg
'+(A ; .ailure of the 7nglish seige of #haratpur, recall of ord Jellesley, second ter! of ord
4ornwallins 0overnor 0eneral, death of ord 4ornwallis, Sir 0eorge #arlow 0overnor 0eneral,
treaty with the Hol"ar
'+(< ; Vellore )utiny
'+(8 ; ord )onto > appointed 0overnor 0eneral -'+(8;'@/
'+(+ ; 7nglish !issions under )alcol! to Persia and under 7lphinstone to 2abul
'+(G ; ,reaty of $!ritsar between the 7nglish and &an:it Siugh
'+'@ ; 4o!pany6s 4ahrterf renewed, retire!ent of ord )into >, appointed of ord Hastings as
0overnor 0eneral -'+'@;*@/
'+'? ; Out brea" of Jar with 1epal -'+'?; '</
'+'< ; ,reaty of Sagauli closed war with 1epal
'+'8;'+ ; ,he Pindari war and the ,hird )arutha Jar, battles of 2ir"ee and Sitabaldi, deposition of
$ppa Shaheb #honsle, battle of )ahidpur, treaty with the Hol"ar
'+'+ ; #attle of $shti, defence of 2oregaon, surrender of Peshw" &a:i &ao >>
'+'G ; 4apitulation of $sirgarh, abolition of the Peshwaship and retire!ent of #a:i &ao >> #ithur as
a #ritish pensioner, protective alliances with the states of &a:putana, earthEua"es
'+*( ; $ppoint!ent of Sir ,ho!as )unro as governor of )adras -'+*(;*8/
'+*@ ; Departure of ord Hastings, )r. $da!s acting 0overnor 0eneral, ord $!herst 0overnor
'+*? ; ,he first #ur!ese Jar -'+*?*</, #arrac"pore )utiny
'+*< ; .all of #haratpur, treaty of 9andabo, annexation of $ssi! $ra"an and ,ennasseri!
'+*8 ; ,he 7nterprise, a !an;of;war propelled by stea!, lay off )adras.
'+*+ ; ord Jillia! #entinc" appointed 0overnor 0eneral -'+*+;@</
'+*G;@8 ; Suppression of ,huggee
'+@( ; $nnexation of 4achar, &a:a &a!!ohan &oy visited 7ngland
'+@' ; Deposition of the &a:as of;)ysore and assu!ption of its ad!inistration by the 7nglish,
:ourney of flu!es up the >ndus, !eeting at &upar between &an:it Singh and ord Jillia! #entic"
'+@* ; $nnexation of =aintia
'+@@ ; &enewal of the 4o!pany3s 4harter, various refor!s
'+@? ; $nnexation of 4oorg, institution of ?w )e!ber in Supre!e 4ouncil with ord )acaulay as
the first incu!bent,
'+@A ; .oundation of 4alcutta )edical 4ollege, 7ducation &esolution, retire!ent of ord Jillia!
#entine", Sir 4harles )etcalfe officiating 0overnor 0eneral, abolition of Press restrictions
'+@< ; $ppoint!ent of ord $uc"land as 0overnor 0enral -'+@<;?*/
'+@8;@+ ; .a!ine in 1orth >ndia
'+@+ ; ,ripartite treaty of the 7nglish with Saha Shu:a and &an:it Singh
'+@G ; 1ew treaty forced on the $!irs of SindK death of &an:it Singh, .irst $fghan Jar -'+@G;?*/,
4apture of 0haCni and occupation of 2abul
'+?( ; &isings of $fghan tribes, deposition of Dost )uha!!ad
'+?' ; )urders of thirties and)acnaghten by the $fghans
'+?* ; #ritish disaster in $fghanistan, retire!ent to =alalabad of Dr. #rydon alone, ord
7llenborough beca!e 0overnor 0eneral -'+?*; ??/, relief of =alalabad, reoccupation of 2abul,
restoration of Dost )uha!!ad #ritish evacuation of $fghanistan.
'+?@ ; Jar with the $!irs of Sind, battles of )iani and Dabo, annexation of Sind baffle of )ahar;
pur. suppression of slavery
'+?? ; &ecall of ord 7llenborough, ord Hardinge beca!e 0overnor 0eneral -'+??;?+/
'+?A ; ,he .irst Si"h Jar -'+?A;?</, battles of )ud"i and .eroCpur
'+?< ; #attles of $liwal and Sobraon, treaty of ahore
'+?+ ; ord Dalhousie beca!e 0overnor 0eneral -'+?+;A</, revolt of )ulra:, the Second Si"h Jar
-'+?+;?G/, enunciation of the Doctrine of apse and annexation of Satan by the application of
'+?G ; #attles of 4hillianwalla and 0u:arat, annexation of the Pun:ab, #ethune School for girls
started in 4alcutta, annexation of =aitpur and Sa!balpur
'+A( ; Penal annexation of a part of Si""i!
'+A* ; Second #urnese Jar, annexation of Pegu, death of ex;Peshwa #a:i &ao >> and stoppage of his
'+A@ ; Opening of first railway in >ndia fro! 4alcutta to ,hana, laying of telegraph line fro!
4alcutta to $gra, annexation of 1agpur H =hansi, annexation of #erar by the 1iCa!, renewal of the
4o!pany6s 4harterK entrance into '.4.S. thrown open to co!petition ; ;
'+A? ; 7ducation Despatch of Sir 4harles Jood
'+AA ; ,he Santhal insurrection
'+A< ; $nnexation of Oudh, the >ndian %niversities $ct, &eligious Disabilities $ct, Hindu Jidows
&e!arriage $ct departure of ord Dalbousie and appoint!ent of ord 4anning as 0overnor
0eneral. end of 4ri!ean Jar, 0eneral Service Order, Pension Jar, war in 4hina -'+A<;
<(/,introduction of the 7nfield rifle and greased cartridges
'+A8 ; #eginning of the &evolt or Sepoy )utiny, foundation of 4alcutta, #o!bay and )adras
'+A+ ; ,rial of 7!peror #ahadur Shah -=an;)arch/, procla!ation of peace by ord 4anning -=uly/,
$ct for the better govern!ent of >ndia -$ugust/, Iueen6s Procla!ation -1ov/, ord 4anning
appointed Viceroy
'+AG ; Jithdrawal of Doctrine of apse, gradual restoration of order, indigo disputes in #engal
'+<( ; 7nact!ent of >ndian Penal 4ode;.
'+<' ; >ndian 4ouncils $ct, establish!ent of High courts, 4ivil Service $ct, .a!ine in 1.J. >ndia,
enact!ent of the code of 4ri!inal Procedure
'+<* ; &etire!ent of ord 4anning, ord 7lgin > appointed Viceroy -'+<*;<@/, a!alga!ation of
Supre!e and Sadar 4ourts into High 4ourts
'+<? ; Sir =ohn awrence appointed Viceroy -'+<?;<+/, #hutan Jar
'+<A ; Orissa fa!ine -'+<A;<8/, operating of telegraphic co!!unication with 7urope
'@<+ ; Opening of railway fro! $!bala to Delhi
'+<G ; ord )ayo beca!e Viceroy -'+<G; 8*/, visit of the Du"e of 7dinborough
'+8* ; )urder of ord )ayo, ord 1orthbroo" appointed Viceroy -'+8*; 8</
'+8@ ; .a!ine in #ihar -'+8@;8?/
'+8A ; Deposition of )aihar &ao 0ae"war, visit to 7dward, Prince of Jales
'+8< ; &etire!ent of ord 1orthbroo", ord ytton > beca!e Viceroy -'+8<;+(/, the &oyal ,itles
$ct, occupation of Iuetta, outbrea" of fa!ine in the Deccan
'+88 ; Delhi Durbar -' =anuary/, Iueen Victoria proclai!ed 7!press of >ndia
'+8+ ; Vernacular Press $ct, Second $fghan Jar -'+8+;+(/
'++( ; &esignation of ord ytton >, ord &ipen Viceroy -'++(;+?/
'++' ; &endition of )ysore, first .actory $ct first 0eneral 4ensus
'++* ; &epeal of Vernacular Press $c Hunter 4o!!ission
'++@ ; #eginning of legislation establishing local self;govern!ent in >ndia, the >lbert #ill
'++? ; &esignation of ord &ipen, ord Duffer in Viceroy
'++A ; .oundation of the >ndian 1ational 4ongress.
'++G ; .oundation of #ritish 4o!!ittee of the >ndian 1ational 4ongress at ondon.
'+G( ; Publication of >ndia fro! the Platfor! of #ritish 4o!!ittee of 1ational 4ongress
'+G' ; Second .actory $ct was passed.
b. )anipur rebellion
c. Passing of the $ge of 4onsent #ill
'+G* ; >ndian 4ouncil $ct was passed.
'+G@ ; >nauguration of the 0anipati festival by ,ila".
'+GA a. >nauguration of the Shiva:i festival by ,ila".
b. 7stablish!ent of the MDeccan SabhaR by 0o"hale.
'+G8 ; >!prison!ent of ,ila" for '+ !onths on ground of ,reason
'G(A a. -=uly/ $nnounce!ent of revised sche!e of partition of #engal by ord 4urCon.
b. -Oct./ Partition of #engal ca!e into force.
c. -1ov./ 7stablish!ent of the 1ational 4ouncil of 7ducation
'G(< a. -Dec./ .oundation of >ndian )usli! eague at Dha"a,
b. Starting of a 1ational 4ollege with $urobindo 0hosh as principal in 4alcutta.
'G(8 a. 4ongress split in Surat
b. .irst $nnual Session of the )usli! eague at 2aranchi.
'G(+ ; >!prison!ent of ,ila" for < years D sent to )andley =ail
'G(G ; >ndian 4ouncil $ct or )orley )into &efor!s was passed.
'G'' a. 4oronation of Delhi Darbar.
b. Partition of #engal was revo"ed
c. $nnounce!ent of transfer of capital fro! 4alcutta to Delhi
'G'* a. -Dee./#o!b thrown on ord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi.
b. ,ransfer of capital to Delhi.
c. 4onstitution of separate provinces of #ihar H Orissa,
'G'A a. 0andhi:i returned to >ndia fro! South $frica.
b. .oundation of Sabar!ati $shra! by 0andhi at $b!edabad.
'G'< a. -$pril/ .oundation of Ho!e &ule eague by ,ila".
b. -Sept/ .oundation of Ho!e &ule eague by $nnie #esant
c. .oundation of #anaras Hindu %niversity by Pt )adan )ohan )alviya.
d. %nity between !oderates and extre!ists.
e. uc"now Pact in which an agree!ent was !ade between 4ongress H )usli! league.
f. .oundation of wo!en3s university at Poona.
'G'8 a. -$pril/ 4ha!paran Satyagrah by 0andhi:i.
b. -*( $ug/ ,he 4ongress and the )usli! league dropped the progra!!e of passive resistance.
c. .or!ation of &owlatt 4o!!ittee.
d. $nnie #esant dropped the Ho!e &ule )ove!ent.
'G'+ a. -)arch/ Organisation of first $ll; >ndia Depressed 4lasses 4onference,
b. $h!edabad Satyagrah by 0andhi.
c. 2haira Satyagrah by 0andhi.
'G'G a. -.eb./ .oundation of Satyagrah Sabba by 0andhi:i against the of &owlatt #ill
b. -<th$pril/ #eginning of &olatt Satyagrah
c. -'@ $pril/ =alianwala #agh!assacre
d. -'A $pril/ )artial law in Pun:ab.
e. -Oct./ $ppoint!ent of the Hunter 4o!!ittee for the investigation of Pun:ab wrongs.
f. -1ov/ .oundation of $ll >ndia 2hilafat 4o!!ittee.
g. -Dec./ )ontague D 4hel!sford &efor!s or the 0ovt. of >ndia $ct 'G'G was passed
h. 0andhi elected as the President of $ll D >ndia 2hilafat 4o!!ittee at Delhi
i. .or!ation of 1ational iberation .ederation.
'G*( a. -=une/ Passing of 1on;cooperation proposal by 2hilafat co!!ittee in $llahabad
b. -' $ugust/ aunching of 1oncooperation )ove!ent by the 4ongress
c. -Deo./$pproval and ratification of the policy of non;violent noncooperation by the congress in the
1agpur Session.
d. .irst !eeting of $ll >ndia ,rade %nion 4ongress
e. .oundation of the $ligarh )usli! %niversity:
'G*' a. -@ =an/ ,he inauguration of the new constitution according to the 0overn!ent of >ndia $ct
b. -' .eb/ 0andhi decided to e!bar" on )ass 4ivil Disobedience at #ardoli.
c. -=uly/ Passing a resolution by $ll >ndia 2hilafat 4o!!ittee prohibited )usli! to serve #ritish
>ndian $r!y
d. -$ug./ )oplas rebellion in )alabar coast
e. .oundation of 4ha!ber of Princess
'G** a. -.eb./ $nnounce!ent of starting of !ass civil disobedience by 0andhi
b. -.eb/ 4hauri;4houra incident and suspension of the 1on;cooperation )ove!ent
c. Opposition of 4ongress Progra!!es in 0aya Session ;
d. -)ay/ Vishva #harti %niversity started by &abindranath ,agore ;
e. -Dee/ .oundation of Swara: Partyf.iberty given to the people of native states to beco!e a
!e!ber of 4ongress.
'G*@ ; 4o!pro!ise between Swara:i:sts and the 1oD4hangers in the congress in the special
session of the 4ongress in Delhi
'G*A a. .oundation of the 4o!!unist Party by).1. &oy
b. .oundation of Hindustan $ssociation by 4handra She"har $Cad
c. Vitthalbhai Patel elected as the President in 4entre egislature;
'G*< a. .irst $ll >ndia 1on;#rah!in 4onference held at #elgau! under the President ship of
b. $nnounce!ent of four;point progra!!e " co;operation with the congress by )d. $u =innah lathe
1agpur session of )usli! league
'G*8 a. -1ov./ $ppoint!ent of the Si!on 4o!!ission -the statutory co!!ission/
b. -Dec./ Passing of RDelhi ProposalsN by )usli! leaders
c. #oycott of Si!on 4o!!ission in )adras session of 4ongress
d. .oundation of $ll >ndia Pra:a 4onference, .irst session under the Presidentship of Diwan #ahadur
). &a!achandra
'G*+ a. -.eb./ $rrival of Si!on 4o!!ission in #o!bay
b. -.eb./ $ll Party 4onference in Delhi and de!and of Do!inion Status
c. .or!ation of + !e!bers co!!ittee for fra!ing of 4onstitution under )otilal 1ehru
d. -$ug./ Presentation of 1ehru &eport
e. $ssault on ala a:pat &ai in Pun:ab during the #oycott of the Si!on 4o!!ission
f. -1ov./ .oundation of >ndependence eague by Subhash and 1ehru
g. $ppoint!ent of #utler 4o!!ittee
h. #aradoli Satyagraha under the leadership of Vallabhai Patel on the issue of increase of revenue
atte!pted by 0overn!ent.
i. -Dec./ De!and given by =innab in $ll >ndia Party 4onference in 4alcutta for the develop!ent of
)usli! !a:ority areas and reservation for )usli!s.
:. -Dec./ Jarning given to the 0overn!ent in 4alcutta session of 4ongress that if 0overn!ent did
not accept,;1ehru &eport till @'st Dec, '.G*G, 4ongress would begin 4ivil Disobedience )ove!ent
'G*G a. -=an./ $nnounce!ent of '? points de!ands by =innab in the )usli! eague !eeting at
b. -$pril/ Dropping of the bo!b in the 4entral egislative $sse!bly by #hagat Singh #atu"eshwar
c. -'+ $ug./ Observation of MPolitical Sufierers DayN by the $ll >ndia 4ongress 4o!!ittee
d. -@' Oct./ $nnounce!ent the goal of #ritish policy in >ndia that is granting of the Do!inion status
by ord >rwin.
e. -Dec./ Passing the resolution for of Pu!a Swara:aya -co!plete independence/ by the >ndian
1ational 4ongress in ahore Session under the presidentship of =awaharlal 1ehru.
f. -@ ' Dec./ Dropping on 1ehru &eport
g. &eport of #utler 4o!!ittee
h. Hoisting of tricolour flag for the first ti!e on @' Dec.
'G@( a. -*< =an./ ,he 4ongress observed >ndian >ndependence Day -'? .eb./ Passing of the 4ivil
Disobedience resolution by the wor"ing co!!ittee of the congress.
b. -* )arch/ 7leven Points de!ands of 0andhi given to >rwin
c. -'* )arch/ aunching of the 4ivil Disobedience )ove!ent with the fa!ous Dandi )arch for Salt
Satyagraha -< $pril/ Violation of Salt aw
d. -)ay/ Publication b -Si!on 4o!!ission &eport
e. -1ov./ ,he first &ound ,able 4onference in ondon without the participation of the 4ongress.
'G@' a. -A )arch/ 0andhi H >rwin pact
b. Suspension of 4ivil Disobedience )ove!ent by 0andhi
c. 0andhi too" part in the Second &ound ,able 4onference as the sole representative of the
d. 7xecution of #hagat Singh, Su"hdeo and &a:guru
e. -Sept/ Second &ound ,able 4onference
'G@* a. -=an./ #eginning of Second phase of the 4ivil Disobedience )ove!ent
b. -$ug./ $nnounce!ent of M4o!!unal $wardR by the #ritish Pri!e )inister &arnay )ac Donald
c. -Sept./ 0andhi began fast to protest against $ward -Sept./ Poona Pact between 0andhi and
$!bed"ar and other scheduled castes representatives
d. -1ov./ ,hird &ound ,able 4onference without the participation of the 4ongress ends without any
'G@@ a. Jhite paper on constitutional develop!ent
b. -)ay/ Suspension of the 4ivil Disobedience )ove!ent by the 4ongress
c. -$ug./ #eginning of >ndividual 4ivil Disobedience
'G@? a. -)ay/ Jithdrawal of civil disobedience )ove!ent
b. #eginning of Hari:an wor" by 0andhi:i
c. -'8 )ay/ .oundation of 4ongress Socialist Party by $charya 1arendra Dev and =ai Pra"ash 1arain
first !eeting in Patna.
d. -*';** Oct./ .irst open session of 4ongress Socialist Party in #o!bay under the Presidentship of
Sa!poorna 1and.
'G@A ; -$ug./ ,he 0overn!ent of >ndia $ct was passed
'G@< ; .or!ation of the first $ll .D >ndia Peasant Organisation, the $ll >ndia 2isan Sabba with
Sah:ananda as the President.
'G@8 a. -$pril/ Provincial autono!y according to the 0overn!ent of >ndia $ct 'G@A ; 4a!e into
b. -@ Sept./ JorldJar >> bro"e out and the viceroy declared >ndia a belligerent country.
c. &esignation of the 4ongress )inistries in the province against the war policy
d. -** Dec./ Observance of the Day of Deliverance fro! the tyranny of the 4ongress rule at the
instance of =innah by the )usli! eague
e. $ll >ndia Pra:a 4onference under the Presidentship of =awaharlel 1ehru
'G?( a. -)arch/ Passing of the Pa"istan &esolution in the ahore session by the )usli! eague
b. -'( $ug./ $nnounce!ent of 5$ugust OfferN
c. -$ug. '+;**/ &e:ection of $ugust Offer by the 4ongress wor"ing co!!ittee
d. -'8 Oct./aunching of 5>ndividual Satyagraha6 !ove!ent by the congress starting with Vinoba
#have as first President and =awaharlal 1ehru on the second.
'G?' a. Death of &abindranath ,agore
b. -'8 =an./ 7scape of Subhash 4handra #ose fro! >ndia
c. Suspension of >ndividual Satyagraha )ove!ent in #ardoli session
'G?* a. -)arch/ $rrival of 4ripps )ission
b. -$pril/ ,he 4ongress President, )aulana $Cad re:ected the 4ripps 4o!!ission Draft Declaration
c. -=uly/ ,he 4ongress wor"ing co!!ittee passed the Iult >ndia &esolution
d. -+ $ugust/ ,he passing of the Iuit >ndia &esolution at the $ll >ndia 4ongress 4o!!ittee at
e. -'* $ugust/ 4ripps left >ndia on the failure of his !ission
f. #eginning of Iuit >ndia )ove!ent
g. -' Sept./ .or!al 7stablish!ent of >ndian 1ational $r!y -$nd Hind .au:/ by Subhash 4handra
'G?@ a. #eginning of 0andhi6s historical *' day fast -,o show flith in non violence and purification
of self/
b. -Oct.*'/ Procla!ation of S.4. &ose to for! the Provisional 0overn!ent of .ree >ndia
c. -Dec./ $doption of the slogan Divide and Iuit by the )usli! eague in 2aranchi sesion
'G?? ; -Sept/ 0andhi !et =innah to discuss the 4. &a:agopalachari .or!ula
'G?A a. -Dec./ ,he -vial of the >.1.$. prisoners
b. 0eneral 7lection in >ndia
c. Viceroy Javell organised the Si!la 4onference to discuss Javell Plan
'G?< a. -.eb. '+/ )utiny of the >ndian naval ratings n #o!bay -,alwar/
b. -'A )arch/ $nnounce!ent of 4abinet )ission by the #ritish Pri!e )inister $ttlee
c. -*? )arch/ $rrival of 4abinet )ission to Delhi
d. -'< )ay/ ,he 4abinet )ission Plan was announced
e. -'< =une/ ,he 4abinet )ission outlined the procedure for fanning the interi! 0overn!ent
f. -*? =uly/ )usli! eague withdraw its acceptance of the 4abinet )ission Plan and called for direct
action to achieve Pa"istan.
g. -=uly/ 7lections to the 4onstituent $sse!bly as provided in the 4abinet )ission Plan
h. -'? $ug./ =awaharlal 1ehru invited to for! the interi! 0overn!ent at the centre
i. -'< $ug./ ,he Direct $ction Day observed by the )usli! eague
:. -* Sept./ .or!ation of the interi! 0ovt.
". -*< Oct./ )usli! eague :oined the interi! 0ovt.
l. -G.Dec./ .irst Session of the 4onstituent $sse!bly !. )usli! eague #oycotted 4onstituent
lG?8 a. -*( .eb./Declaration of granting freedo! tZ >ndia before =une 'G?+ by $ttlee.
b. -*? )arch/ $ppoint!ent of )ountbatten as a viceroy
c. -@ =une/ )ountabatten Plan for the partition of >ndia
d. -=une/ ,he 4ongress and the )usli! eague accepted the )ountabatten Plan
e. -? =uly/ >ntroduction of >ndian >ndependence #ill
f. -'A =uly/ Passing of >ndian >ndependence #ill
g. -'A $ug./ freedo! to >ndia

7uropean ,rading 4o!panies
'. $ sea route fro! 7urope to >ndia through the 4ape of 0ood Hope was discovered by Vasco Da
• He reached the port of 4alicut in '?G+ and was received by the Hindu ruler of 4alicut
-2nown by the title of Ta!orine/.
• Second visit of Vasco Da 0a!a in 'A(*.
*. 7stablished their first factory in 'A(( at 4alicut which was abandoned in 'A*A due to the
pressure of Ta!orine.
@. 4ochin was the early Portuguese capital in >ndia, later on it was replaced by 0oa.
?. ,he first Portuguese governor in >ndia was fransisco De $l!edia -'A(A;(G/.
A. ,he second Portuguese governor was $lfonso De $lbuEuerEue -'A(G;'A/.
• He captured 0oa fro! the ruler of #i:apur in 'A'( and !ade it the capital of Portuguese
7!pire in the east.
• He encouraged his country!en to !any >ndian wo!en.
• He consolidated Portuguese power in >ndia.
<. Other i!portant governor was 1ino Da 4unha -'A*G;'A@+/.
• He acEuired Due and #essein fro! #ahadurshah of 0u:arat.
8. 1ext i!portant governor was )artin $lfonso De SouCa.
• ,he .a!ous =esuit saint .ransisco Oavier ca!e to >ndia with hi!.
+. ,hey lost #o!bay ,as it was given to 4harles >> of 7ngland by the "ing of Portugal as dowry in the
!arriage of his sister -'<<'/.
G. %lti!ately the Portuguses ware left with only 0oa, Due and Da!an which they retained till 'G<'.
'(. ,hey !ade the spice trade -particularly pepper trade/ a !onopoly.
''. ,hey also sold the offices of 4aptains and 4usto!s 4ollectors in the >ndian Ocean strong holds.
'*. ,he first effort to established co!!erce in #engal was !ade for 4hittagaon, the chief port of
#engal during this period.
• ,hey obtained per!ission fro! )ah!ud Shah the "ing of #engal, to erect factories at
4hittagaon and Satgaon in '<<'.
• ,he second settle!ent at Hughli was granted the! by $"bar in 'A8G;+(.
'@. ,he Portuguese had ar!ed vesseles playing in the >ndian ocean and $rabian sea.
• Ships carrying co!!odities which were not given passes -cartaC/ by the Portuguese
• Jere confiscated by the!.
• ,he curtaC was first issued in 'A(*.
'. >nitially their headEuarters was at Pulicut after obtaining per!ission fro! of "ing 4handragiri till
'<G( and then 1agapatna!.
*. ,hey populariCed spice and textile trade, besides they exported indigo, Saltpetre and raw sil".
@. Dutch co!!ercial activities began to decline by the beginning of '+th century and with the #attle
of #edara with the 7nglish in '8AG ca!e to an end.
'. ,he co!pany was given a charter by Iueen 7liCabeth in '<(( giving it the !onopoly of 7astern
,rade for fifteen years.
*. ,he 7nglish a!bassador 4aptain Haw"ins arrived at =ehangir6s 4ourt to see" per!ission, for
trade with >ndia.
• He was granted a )ansab of ?(( Tat.
• =ehangir granted per!ission to erect a factory at surat -'<(+/
• Sir tho!as &oe ca!e to the court of =ehangir as the a!bassador of =a!es and received
• to trade and establish factories at different parts of the e!pire.
@. ,he #ritish acEuired the Ta!indari of the Villages of Sutanuti, 2ali"ata and 0ovindpur -'<G+/
• =ob 4henoc" established a factory at sutanuti.
• Sir 4harles 7yre was the first president of fort willia!.
• $ll sette!ents in #engal, #ihar and Orissa were placed under .ort willia! -'8((/
?. >n south factories were estblished at )asulipatna! in '<'' and at $r!agaon -near Pulicat in
• .rancis Day obtained the site )adras fro! of 4handragiri with per!ission to build a
fortified factory -'<@G/
• ,his factory was na!ed .ort St. 0eorge.
• )adras replaced )asulipatna! as the headEurters of the coro!andal coast.
• $ll the 7nglish settle!ents in 7astern >ndia-#engal, #ihar and Orissa/ and the coro!andal
were placed under the control of the president and 4ouncil of .ort St. 0eorge.
A. ,he Sultan of 0ol"unda issued the co!pany the 0olden .ar!an allowing the! to trade within the
ports of the "ingdo! freely on pay!ent of duties worth A(( pagodas a year -'<@*/.
<. >n spite of all opposition 7nglish !erchants, "nown as >nterlopers continued to defy the
!onopoly of the co!pany by indulging in the 7ast >ndian trade on their own.
• ,hese .ree )erchants tried to press their de!ands in public as well as in Parlia!ent.
8. ,he portuguese gave the island of #o!bay to 4harles >> of 7ngland in dowry in '<<*.
+. ,he diplo!atic !ission during .arru"hisyar6s reign reached the court in '8'A ,he !ission was
ed by ohn Sur!an.
• Dr. Jillia! Ha!ilton a !e!ber of the sur!an co!!ission, cured .arru"ssiyar of a painful
• .arr"siyar granted a far!an in '8'8 for duly duly free trade.
• ,he '8'8 for!an also gave the #ritish right to rent additional territory around 4alcutta.
G. ,he 4o!pany !inted its coin at #o!bay which circulated throughout the )ughul e!pire.
'(. #o!bay was fortified in '8*( by 4harles #oon.
'. ,hey founded settle!ents at ,ranEuebar -,a!il 1adu/ in '<*( and at Sera!pore -#engal/ in
*. ,heir headEuarters in >ndia was Sera!pore.
@. ,hey were !ore concerned with the !issionary activities than trade.
?. ,hey established their factories at )asulipatna! and Porto 1ovo.
'. ,he first .rench factory was set up as Surat by .rancois 4aron in '<<+.
• ater )aracara set up a factory at )asulipatna! in '<<G by securing a patent fro! the
*. ,he .rench - #y .rancois )artin H #ellanger De espinary/ acuired by the )usli! governor of
Vali"oindapura!, Sher 2han odi a s!all village in '<8@.
• ,he village developed into Pondichery and the first governor was .rancois )artin.
@. ,hey acEuired 4handernagar in #engal fro! the )ughal governor Shayista 2han in '<G(.
?. Pondichery -.ort ouis/ was !ade the headEuarters of all the .rench settle!ents in >ndia and
.rancois )artin beca!e the governor general of .rench affairs in >ndia.
A. Dupleix was an i!portant .rench governor in >ndia.
<. ,hey fought a decisive battle at Jandiawaush in '8<( against 7nglish. ,he .rench were defeated
and lost al!ost all their possession in >ndia.
#ritish 4onflict Jith Other Powers
,he ,hree curnatic wars.
.irst Jar;'8?<;?+.
• Jar too" place between 7nglish headed by 4live H .rench headed by Duplex H abour
• Jar ended in co!pro!ise with the end of Jar of $ustrian succession with the ,reaty of
$xe;la;chapal, '8?+
Second Jar;'8?G;A?.
• >n this Dupleix was defeated by 4live
,hird Jar;'8A+;<@.
• #attle of Jandiwash in '8<( in which 7yre 4oot fro! 7nglish side defeated the .rench
under #usy. ,his battle ended .rench co!!ercial influence.
• ,reaty of Paris, ended 8 years war in 7urope H ended war in >ndia as well.
'. ,hree wars were fought between the 4o!pany and the )arathas Second war wea"end the
)aratha power considerably; ,hird war destroyed )aratha power.
*. .irst $nglo;)aratha war;'88A;+*.
• #asic cause of war was conflict over 0addi of Peshawa between &aghunath &ao H )adhav
&ao;>> also "nown as )adhav &ao 1arayan supported by great )aratha politician 1ana
.hadanvis. &aghnath &ao sought #ritish help.
• ,he battle was averted by !ediation of Scindia. ,hrough his efforts ,reaty of Salbai was
signed i '8+* between 7nglish H )adhav &ao.
@. Second $nglo;)aratha Jar ;'+(@;'+(<.
• 4o!bined forces of peshwa H Scindia were defeated by Hol"ar in '+(*
• Peshwa #a:i &ao >> sought #ritish help.
• #ritish gave help on the basis of subsidiary ,reaty "nown as ,reaty of #aessin in '+(*.
• )aratha reaction gave birth to second $nglo;)aratha war. Scindia H #honsle declared war
against #ritish. Hol"ar did not participate in beginning.
• #honsle signed ,reaty of Devgaon in '+(@ H Scindia signed ,reaty of Sur:i $r:ungaon in
• $fter these treaties s!all battle fought between Hol"ar H #ritish in '+(?;Jar ended with
,reaty of &a:pur 0hat in '+(<.
?. ,hird $nglo;)aratha Jar;'+'8;'+'+
• Second war wea"end )aratha power but it had not destroyed )aratha6s $nti;#ritish spirit.
• ,reaty of #aessin H SubseEuent treaties eroded position, power H status of Peshwa H other
)aratha 4hiefs.
• )aratha reaction gave birth to ,hird $nglo; )aratha war. ,his was initiated by Peshwa by
attac"ing #ritish residency at Poona.
• Peshwa #a:i &ao >>, 9ashwant &ao Hal"ar H $ppa Sahib #honsle declared war against
• $ll the three were defeated by the #ritish
• Peshwaship was abolished
• Peshwa was exiled to #ithur with the Pension of &s. + la"h.
'. )ysore was part of Vi:ayanagar 7!pire. $fter decline of the Vi:anagar 7!pire Jodeyar dynasty
established its rule. Haider $li was a fauCdar in )ysor $r!y. ater he beca!e defacto ruler and he
initiated a policy of expansion of )ysore.
*. His policy of expansion alar!ed the #ritish. ,hey initiated efforts to counterbalance Haider $li.
Jhich gave birth to $nglo;)ysore conflict.
@. .irst $nglo;)ysore Jar; '8<8;<G.
?. Second $nglo;)ysoreJar;'8+(;+?.
• >n this war Haider $li died after the #attle of Porto 1ovo in '8+'. >n this battle he was
defeated by 7yre 4oot.
• Jar was continued by ,ipu Jar ended by ,reaty of )anglore in '8+?.
A. ,hird $nglo;)ysore;Jar;'8G(;G*
• ,ipu Sultan Strengthening hi!self, see"ing .rench help Hattac"ing 7nglish protected Stsate
,ravencore in '8+G. ,his beca!e i!!ediate cause of the third Jar
• Jar ended with ,reaty of srirangpattana! in '8G* H in this ,reaty ,ipu gave half of his
territory to 7nglish H his two soon as security.
<. .ourth $nglo;)ysore Jar;'8GG
• Jellesely accused ,ipu of conspiracy
• with the help of .rench against #ritish H
• declared Jar in '8GG
• #ritish victory H death of tipu
'. #ritish interest in $fghanistan was to control $fghanistan in order to protect incursions fro!
north;west in particular to counter balance &ussian influence and develop!ent of trade in 4entral
*. #ritish intervention in $fghan affairs gave birth to three $fgthan Jars.
@. $fghanistan policy.
• ord $uc"land was the first to initiate the forward policy for $fghanistan.
• He sent $lexander #urns to "ing of $fghanistan Dost $li but this )ission did not succeed.
• He initiated !ilitary ca!paign against the next "ing Dost )uha!!ad. #y this !ove he
could control 2abul, Dost)oha!!ad fled away. 1ew "ing Shah Shu:a was installed.
?. ,his !ilitary ca!paign was .irst $fgan Jar -'+@G/.
A. ord awrence initiated Policy of )asterly >nactivity. ,he policy refers to non intervention but
being watchful.
<. ord ytton dropped )asterly inactivity policy H followed forward policy Second $fghan Jar
too" place in '+8+ ;+(.
8. ,his war ended in '++( before that ,reaty of 0andha" in '+8GJas signed %nder this ,reaty
ytton Placed to divide $gfhanistan into two parts.
+. ,hird $fghan Jar began in 'G'GH ended with ,reaty of &awalpindi -'G*'/ during the ti!e of
lord 4hel!sford.
'. Sindh was ruled by #aliuhi ,ribes H rulers were 2nown as $!ir ,here were three branches;
Haid;erabad, )irpur,and 2hairpur.
*. Sindh 4onEuest >t was ord 7llenborogh in '+?* who !ade a plan of conEuest of Sindh 4harles
1apier was appointed as resident in sindh in '+?* He accused the $!irs of hatching plots H
conspiracies against #ritish.
@. >ssue of succession in 2hairpur and #ritish intervention gave rise to war and finally Sindh was
annexed to #ritish.

&ise of $utono!ous States
&ise of #engal
'. )urshid Iuli 2han
• .ounded the independent state of #engal in '8'8.
• transferred capital fro! Dacca to )urshidabad.
• suppressed the revolts of local Ca!indars such as %dai 1arayan,Sita &a! &ai, Su:at 2han
and other.
*. $liwardi "han.
• concluded peace with the )arathas, paid chauth of #engal-&s.'* la"h/.
• prevented the 7nglish and the .rench fro! !isusing their privileges and fortifying factories.
@ Sira:;ud;daula.
• #lac" Hole episode in which *@ out of '?< 7nglish prisoners died -$ccording to Holwell/
• seiCed 7nglish factory at 2asi!baCar and 4alcutta
• signed ,reaty of $linagar -.eb,'8A8/ with #ritish
• so!e of persons who conspired with the #ritish against Sira:;ud;daula
)ir :afar )ir #a"shi
)ani"chand Officer;in;charge of 4alcutta
O!ichand $ rich !erchant of 4alcutta
=agat seth $ fa!ous #en"er of #angal
&ai Durlabh 1obel
2hadi! 1obel
• fought #attle of Plassey -=une, '8A8/ against
• 4olonel 4live and $d!iral Jatson.
• capturedH slain by )iran son of )ir =afar.
• captured .ort Jillia!, Placed 4alcutta under )ani" 4hand and rena!ed the city of 4alcutta
as $linagar
• by ,reaty of $linagar, he gave to the #ritish;for!er privileges of !ade per!ission to fortify
4alcutta huge co!pensation
• #ritish indirectly supported the clai! of 0hasiti #egu!.
• >n the battle of plassey two faithful soldiers of the 1awab )ir )anad and )ohal al fought
?. )ir =afar
'. granted the right to free trade in #egal, #ihar and Orissa and Ta!indari of *? parganas to
the #ritish.
*. forced to abdicate because of direct confi!ation with in 7ast >ndia co!pany in order to
co!pany6s relentless drive for !ore revenues in #engal.
@. surrendered all .rench settle!ents to the #ritish.
?. could not punish Diwan &ai Durlabh andDeputy 0overnor of #ihar &a! 1arayan due to
#ritish intervention.
A. intrigued with the Dutch to oust the #ritish but the Dutch were defeated as #edara '8AG.
<. preferred to reside at 4alcutta after forgoing the pension of &s. 'A(( per !onth.
8. )ir Iasi! signed an agree!ent with the acting 0overnor Holwell in '8<( by which;
• ceded districts or #urdwan, )idnapur and 4hittagong to the #ritish.
• agreed to give &s. A la"hs to the 4o!pany for fighting in the South >ndia.
+. was reinstated in '8<@ by the #ritish on certain conditions.
G. agreed not to disturb the co!pany gornastas -$gents/.
A. )ir Iasi!
'. granted Ta!indari of #urdwan, )idnapre and 4hittagong to the #ritish.
*. transferred capital fro! )urshidabad to )anghyr in'8<*
@. abolished all duties on ionternal trade #ritish wishes in order to protect the >ndian traders.
?. fought #attle of #uxar -Oct. '8<?/ against)a:or Hector )unro in alliance with Shah $la! >>
and Shu:a;ud;daula.
A. got the 1awabship through a secret deal with the7nglish and faced the sa!e fate li"e )ir
<. re!odelled the ar!y, established a fire ar!s !anufactory.
8. disbanded the troops which had served previous 1awabs and whose loyalty was suspected.
+. atte!pted to !odenise ar!y, established fire loc"s and gun;factory at )onghyr.
G. i!posed addtion taxes;'H'B* annas as crown rents and 2ha:iri;=a!a.
'(. after being defated at #uxar, signed ,reaty of $llahabad with the #ritish in '8<A.
''. fled to a $wadh.
'*. deposition and execution of )ir Iasi! was followed by the restoration of )ir =afar.
&ise of $wadh
'. Sadat 2han #urhan;ul;)ul"
*. founded the independent state of $wadh in '8**.
@. co!!itted suicide.
Safdar =ung
'. JaCir of )ughal e!pire.
*. fro! '8?+ the 1awabs of $wadh ca!e to be "nown as the 1awab JaCir since they held the
post of 1awab of $wadh H JaCir of the )ughal e!pire at the sa!e ti!e.
'. concluded the ,reaty of #enaras with Jarrer Hastiugs-'88@/.
*. tried to consolidate the basis of autono!ous political syste! in $wadh.
@. provided shelter to the fugitive )ughal e!peror Shah $la! >>.
?. in alliance with the 1awab of #engal the )ughal e!peror fought the #attle of #uxur against
the #ritish -'8<?/.
A. signed ,reaty of $llahabad -'8<A/ by which;
• gave $llahbad and 2ora to the )ughal e!peror Shah $la! >>
• paid &s. A( la"h as inde!nity
• confir!ed #alwant Singh, Ta!indar of #enaras to his state.
<. annexed &ohil"hand in '88? with the help of the #ritish.
• transferred capital fro! .aiCabad to uc"now -'88A/.
JaCid $li Shah -'+?8;A</
'. was hi!self a poet and expert in 2atha" dance.
*. annexation of $wadh by Dalhausie in '+A< on the ground of !isgovern!ent.
@. pesnsioned off and deported to 4alcutta.
#ri:is Iadir
'. son of JE:id $li Shah.
*. rebels of '+A8 enthroned his to the 1awab of $wadh.
&ise of Hyderabad
4hin Iullie 2han -'8*?;?+/
'. founder of Hyderabad as an independent state in '8*?.
*. was conferred the title 2han;i;Dauran and later 1iCa!;ul;)ul" by .aru""siyar.
@. JaCir of the)ughals -'8**;*?/ during the reign of )d. Shah.
?. was conferred the title $saf =ah by )d. Shah.
&ise of )ysore
Haider $li -'8<';*+/
'. began his carrier as a soldier in )ysore state which beco!e independent of the
Vi:ayanagara e!pire in 'A<A under HinduJodeyar Dynasty.
*. founder of )ysore as an independent state in '8<' with its capital Seringapatna! after
overthrowing the real power behind the )ysore throne, the !inister 1un:ara:.
@. with the help of the .rench tried to strengthen organiCation discipline in ar!y.
?. fought .irst $nglo;)ysore war and died during the Second $nglo;)ysore Jar.
A. after .irst $nglo;)ysore war in '8<8;<G signed hu!iliating treaty with the #ritish -,reaty
of )adras/.
<. in the second battle of $nglo;)ysore, he was defeated by the #ritish at Porto 1ovo i '8+' by
7yre 4oote but he defeated the! in '8+*.
8. set up arsenal factory at Dindigul with the help of the .rench.
+. defeated by the Peshwa in '8<?, '8<< and '88' but after Peshwa6s death -'88*/ he
recovered his territories.
,ipu Sultan
'. continued Second;$nglo )ysore war.
*. introduced new syste! of coinage. new scales of weight H !easures and a new calendar.
@. atte!pted to set up a trading co!pany on 7uropean lines.
?. sent a!bassadors to foreign countries to develop trade.
A. organised infantry on 7uropean lines and atte!pted to build a !odern navy.
<. showed interest in .rench &evolution;planted the ,ree of iberty at seringapat! and
beca!e a !e!ber of the =acobian club.
8. called Sher;7;)ysore.
+. defeated by 4o!awalls with the help of the )arathas and 1iCa! of Hydrabad, in '8G'.
G. he lost ,hird $nglo;)ysore war and signed ,reaty of Seringapatna! -'8G*/ by which he
lost about half to the territories of the #ritish.
'(. defeated in .ourth $nglo;)ysore war -'8G+;GG/ Jellesley. ,ipu died his fa!ily was
deported to Vellore.
''. his territories were divided between #ritish and 1iCa!of Hyderabad.
'*. a boy of royal fa!ily -Jodeyar/ was installed on the )ysore throne and a subsidary treaty
was signed.
'@. was first to apply western !ethod in the organisation of ad!inistration.
'?. had no post of JaCir.
'A. ad!inistration was divided into 8 principal depart!ents each under a )ir $sif.
'<. provinces were called ,ur"is.
'8. established @ doc"yards at )angalore JaCirabad and )olidabad.
'+. he used to say M> can ruin their -#ritish/ resources by and but > can not dry up the sea.
'G. adopted title of Padshah in '8+8.
*(. repaired the te!ple of 0oddess Sharda after it was destroyed by the )arathas.
*'. he had te!ples of Sri &angnatha, 1arsi!ha and 0ongadhareshwa within his fort.
&ise of Si"h state
'. &ise of Si"hs under gurus.
*. Organisation of Si"hs into '* )isls -4onfederacies/.
@. Ta"aria 2han, the governor of ahor, had tried to establish and independent political syste!
in Pun:ab.
?. ,he Si"hs organised the!selves into nu!erous s!all and highly !obile :athas and posed
serious challenge to the )ughal i!perial authority.
&an:it Singh
'. laid foundation of Pun:ab as an independent state in '8G*.
*. belongs to Su"ercha"ia )isl.
@. captured athore with the help of Ta!an Shah of $fganistan.
?. captured $!ritsar, added golden do!e to the golden te!ple.
A. establish!ent of control over all the !issals west of Satlu:.
<. occupation of udhiana;#ritish intervention and !ission of )etcalf.
8. ,reaty of $!ritsar -'+(G/ &an:it Singh agreed to confine his activities to the west of the
+. acEuired 2ohinoor fro! Shah Shu:a of $fganistan after giving hi! protection.
G. ,ripartite treaty -'+@+/ with ord $urc"land and Shah Shu:a to latter on the throne of
$fganistan by invasion.
'(. organisation of his ar!y on western lines. His ar!y was second best ar!y in $sia.
''. his successors were 2hara" Singh, 1ao 1ihal Singh, Sher Singh, Dalip Singh.
'*. enlisted 0oru"has into the ar!y after '+@8.
'@. refused a passage to the #ritish ar!y through his territory.
'?. designated his govern!ent as Sar"ar;i; 2hatsa:i.
'A. struc" coins in the na!e of 0uru 1ana" and 0uru 0obind Singh.
'<. provinces were under 1aCi! and districts under 2ardar.
'8. :ustice depart!ent was called $dalat;i;$la.
'+. founded heavy gun factories a ahore and $!ritsar.
'G. raised .au:;i;2has under general ventura and allaCd.
*(. his foreign !inister .a"ir $CiCuddin.
*'. his Diwan Dinnanath.
**. his Pri!e )inister Dhian Singh Degro, who en:oyed the title of &a:a.
&evolts H &ebellions
P$&,>4>P$1,S >1 ,H7 &7VO,
'. #ahadur Shah >> Delhi
* ax!i #ai =hansi
@ 2unwar Singh =agdishpur
? HaCarat )ahal uc"now
< ,antia ,ope 0walior 2anpur
8 1ana Saheb 2anpur
+ )angal Pandey #arrac"pore
G Ha"i! $hsanullah
4hief $dvisor to
#ahadur Shah >>
'( .iruC Shah
&elative of #ahadur
Shah >> Delhi
'' 0eneral #a"ht 2han Delhi
'* &ao Sahib 2anpur
'@ $Ci!ulah 2han 2anpur
'? $h!ad %llah uc"now
2han #ahadur
'< .$!ar Singh =agdishpur
471,&7S O. &7VO, H ,H7>& 7$D7&S
#ahadur Shah was the no!inal
leader the real co!!and was
under 0eneral #a"ht 2han.
,he revolt was led by 1ana Sahib.
#attle was !ainly led by ,antia
,ope. $Ci!ullah 2han was another
loyal servant of 1ana Sahib
,he revolt was led by HaCarat
)ahal the begu! of $vadh, )aulvi
$h!edullah of faiCabad was also
one of the great leaders.
&ani ax!i bai assu!ed the
leadership of the Sepoys. ater she
captured 0walior with the help of
,antia ,ope and $fghan guards
2han #ahadur 2han proclai!ed
hi!self as 1awab 1aCi!
2unwar Singh, the ruined
Ta!indar of =agdishpur was the
!ain leader.
.$,7 O. ,H7 7$D7&S O. ,H7 &7VO,
#ahadur Shah >>
He was arrested and deported
to &angoon where he died in
1ana Sahib
$fter being defeated he
refused to surrender and
escaped to 1epal in early
'+AG, never to be heared
#engu! HaCrat
,he #egu! of $vadh was
co!pelled to hide in 1epal
after the capture of uc"now
by ca!pbel.
&ani ax!i #ai
,he &ani of =hansi died in the
battle field in =une '+A+.
,antia ,ope
,antia ,ope escaped to the
:ungles of central >ndia in
$pril '+AG. He was betrayed
by a Ca!indar friend and
captured and put to death
after a hurried trial on 'Ath
$pril '+AG.
2unwar Singh
,he leader of the revolt in
#ihar died on Gth )ay '+AG
after successfully carrying on
the revolt.
S%PP&7SS>O1 O. ,H7 &7VO,
• 0en. =ohn 1icholsan Delhi
6' He"ry 0e"ard a"d 0rig' <ilso" besieged Del!i
?' Accessio" o/ +as!miri gate by -'Nic!olsa" a"d ca.tured city embra"ce a"d Del!i'
A' 0a!adurs!a! a"d killed !is so"s a"d gra"dso"s
• )a:. Hudson 2illed bhadur Shah6s sons and grand sons in Delhi
• Sir Hugh JheelerDefence against 1ana Saheb6s forces in the beginning
• 0en. 1eil 2anpur -"illed >ndians as a revenge against the "illing of 7nglish by 1ana Shahib6s
forces/, #anaras, $llahabad.
• Sir 4olin 4o!pbell .inal recovery of 2anpur on <th Dece!ber '+A8 captured uc"now on
*'st )arch '+A+.
• Henry awrence 4hief 4o!!issioner of $wadh -died/
• )a:. 0en. Havelo" Dfeated the rebels -1ana Saheb6s force/ on '8th =uly '+A8.
• Jillia! ,aylor Suppressed the revolt at $rrah in $ugust '+A8.
• Hugh &oseSuppressed the revolt at =hansi
OP>1>O1 O. ,H7 H>S,O&>$1S $#O%, ,H7 1$,%&7 O. ,H7 &7VO,
Disraeli $ national revolt
Dr. ,arachand
Specially !edieval but efforts to powerless
class get their lost power.
=.Outara! H J.,aylor $ Hindu;)usli! conspir cy
=awaharlal 1ehru
1ot only!utiny, for!ed the shape of 4ivil &ebelion
the real for! was of feudalistic though so!e nationalisitc
ele!ents were also present
)aulana $bdul 2ala! >ndian national character had san" very low.
&.4. )a:u!dar 1either first nor national nor war of >ndependence
S.1. Sen
>nherited in the constitution of #ritish &ule an effort by the
conservative ele!ents to turn bac" the cloc".
,.&. Hol!es 4onflict between civiliCation and #arbaris!
V.D. Savar"ar .irst war of >ndian >ndependence.
#OO2S $1D $%,HO&SO1 '+A8
S.1.Sen '+A8
P.4. =oshi &ebellion, '+A8
H.P. 4hattopdhyaya ,he Sepoy )utiny, '+A8
$.,. 7!bree '+A8 in >ndia
#.4. )a:u!dar ,he Sepoy )utiny and the &evolt of '+A8
S.#. 4houdhury
4ivil &ebellion in the >ndian )utinies,
'+A8;AG ,heories of the >ndian )utiny
7tic Sto"es ,he Peasent and the &a:
)aulan $bdul 2ala! $Cad 7ighteen .ifty Seven
V.D. Savar"ar ,he >ndian war of >ndependence '+A8
$sho" )ehta '+A8 a great &evolt
=ohn 4aye History of Sepoy war
Hol!s Sepoy war
,&>#$ )OV7)71,S
-)idnapur, #engal '8<<; '88* H '8GA;
Hos -Singhbhu! '+*(, '+** H '+@*/
-4hottanagpur '+@';'+@*/ led by #uddhu
$ho! -$ssa! '+*+;@@/ ed by 0o!adhar 2onwar
-2hasi Hills;$ssa! and )eghalaya '+*G;@*/
ed by
,riat Singh and #ar )ani".
2handesh '+'8;'G, '+*A, '+@', '+?8/ ed
by Sewara!
agaist the co!pany owing to agrarian
-Sahyadri Hills;0u:rat; )aharashtra '+*?,
'+@G, '+??;?+/
&a!pa 0odavari region of $ndhra Pradesh
'+?(, '+?A,
'+A+, '+<';<*, '+8G, '++(, '+G<, 'G'<,
'G**;*?/. >n
'G**;*? ed by $lluri Sitar!ara:u.
-&a:!ahal Hills;Santhal Pargana, #ihar
'+AA;A</ led
by Sindhu and 2anhu.
1ai"da -Panch )ahals;0u:arat '+A+;AG and '+<+/
led by &up
Singh and =oria #hagat
2acha 1aga -4achar;$ssa! '++*/ led by Sa!bhuda!
4hotanagpur '+GG;G(. 2nown as ulgulan led
#irsa )unda against the erosion of their
land syste!, recruit!ent of forced labour
and against the activities of the 4hristian
,hey attac"ed churches and police station.
#irsa )unda
was ta"en prisoner by the #ritish and the
was suppressed.
-#answara, Suthi Dungarpur;&a:asthan
led by 0ovind 0uru
-4hottanagpur 'G'?;'A/ led by =atra #hagat
and ,ana #hagat
2u"is -)anipur 'G'8;'G/ led by =adonang
>n '+**;*G they rose against deposition of
&a:a Pratap
Singh of Satara in '+@G
4hanchus -'G*';**/ in $ndhra Pradesh.
Sapha Har
$!ong the Santhals in '+8(3s, earlier in
'+AA by
Sidhu and 2anhu against Di"us.
,he #ritish expansion on their territory led
to an
uprising by the !artial Pahariyas of the &a:
Hills in '88+
2harwar ,he 2harwars of #ihar in the '+8(s.
#huyan and =uang
,he first uprising of '+<8;<+ was under the
leadership of
&atna 1aya"
Singphos $ssa! in early '+@(
,he Teliangsong )ove!ent of the )anipur
1agar was
launched by the Te!i, iang!ei and
%nder =odanang -'G(A;@'/. ,he other leader
0aidinliu who fed the Hera"a cult.
1O1;,&>#$ )OV7)71,S
.araCi )ove!ent
ed by Ha:i Shariatullah and his son Dadu
)ian degeneration of >sla!ic .aridpur, 7ast
#engal society and loss of power to
the#ritish. >t supported the cause of tenants
against theTa!indara Dadu )ian was finally
arrested and confined to $lipore :ail.
0od"ari &ebllion
$ssu!ption of direct ad!inistration of
2olhapur by #ritish and -2alhapru '+??;?A/
resent!ent of 0ad"ris against revenue
policy. .inal suppression of the !ove!ent
by the #ritish.
Pagal Panthis
ed by 2aran Shah and his son. ,ipu. $ se!i;
religious sect. &ose against the oppression of
the Ta!indars.
ed by Srendra Sai, inter;ference of #ritish
in the internal affairs of -Orissa '+?(;?'/
Sa!balpur, Surendra Sai was finally arrested
and i!poriosned by the #ritish -'+?(/
Sanyasi &evolt
ed by religious !on"s and dispossed
$gainst restrictions -#engal'8<(;'+((/
i!posed by the
7nglish co!pany on visit ofholy place and
ruin of peasent and Ca!indars.
,he 2u"a &evolt
,he 2u"a !ove!ent started as a religious
though it later began to acEuire political
overtone. ,he !ove!ent was began in '+?(
by #hagat =awahar)al or Sian Saheb in Jest
Pun:ab. ,he !ove!ent ai!ed to purge
Si"his! of its by preaching abolition of
castes and si!ilar discri!inations and
discouraging the eatheg of !eat and ta"ing
of drugs. Jo!an were encouraged to step
out of seclusion. $fter the #ritish conEuered
thePun:ab, the !ove!ent began to focus on
achievingSi"h sovereignty. ,he #ritish
followed extre!ely repressive !easures
fro! '+<* to '+8* to suppress the
P7$S$1, )OV7)71,S
$ll >ndia 2issan
.ounded at uc"now in 'G@< with
Sha:ananda Saraswati
as its first 4hair!an. >t !ain de!ands
includedA([ cut in revenuerents, full
occupancy right to tenants abolition of begar
and restoration of custo!ary forest rights.
#i:olia )ove!ent
eaders Sitara! Das, Vi:ay Patha" Singh.
)ani" al Ver!a H Haribabu -&a:asthan
'G(A, 'G'@, %padhya. ,he
!ove!ent arose due to the i!position of +<
different types 'G'<, 'G*8/ of cesses on the
2isans. ,he peasants refused to pay cesses
and cultivate their land tried to !igrate to
neighbouring areas. >n 'G*8, peasant
adopted satyagrah
!ethods to fight fresh cessed H begar.
#orsad Satyagraha
ed by Vallabhai Patel. $gainst the #o!bay
decision to hi"e -0u:arat 'G*+/ ,he revenue
on cotton by ** percentwhile its prices
declined in the i n t e r n a t i o n a l !ar"et.
,he peasant organised on revenue !ove;
!ent. %lti!ately the govern!ent gave up
their plans to revise the rate.
>t was the !ove!ent of indigo peasants
-wor"ing under tinn"athiya syste!/ -#ihar
'G'8/ against the oppression of the planters.
0andhi as"ed the peasants to resort to
Deccan &iots
ed by traditional head!en -Patel/ ,he fall
in the prices of cotton and -)aharashtra and
Six hi"e in land revenue forced the peasants
to ta"e loans on high ratesb fro! ,alu"s of
Poona H 0u:arat and )arwari !oney
lenders. ,he !ove!ent too" the for!of $ h
! e d n a g a r District/ forceful seiCure H
bu!ing of debt bonds by peasants.
7"a )ove!ent
.ounded by )adari Pasi. ,he !ain de!ands
of the !ove!ent was -$vadh -'G*'/
conversion of pro;duce -batai/ into cash.
.orest Satyagrah
ed by 1.V. &a!a 1aidu and 1.0. &anga. >t
was started
against the -South >ndia 'G@'/ oppressive
>ndigo &evolt
ed by #ishnu #iswas and Diaga!bar
#iswas. >t was the revolt of indigo -#engal
'+AG;<(/ peasants against the #ritish
painters and their oppression refusal to ta"e
advances and enter into contract.
2aira -2heda/
eader Vallabhai Patel. ,he peasants arose
against the de!and of land raha -0u:arat
'G'+/ revenue inspite of crop failure. ,he
peasant collectively refused to pay lan
revenue 0overn!ent was forced to offer
ter!s acceptable to the peasants.
)oplah %prising
Sayyed $lwi H Sayyid .aCi. ,he !ove!ent
arose against the -)alabar '+@<;A?/ vastly
enhanced rights of Hindu 1a!boodri H 1air
=en!is which had '+G<, 'G*'/ worsened the
condition of )usli! lease holders and
cultivators the )oplahs. the )oplahs
attac"ed the =en!is property H te!ples it
was purely agrarian in nature.
Oudh 2isaan Sabha
.ounded by 0auri Shan"ar )ishra, )ain
leader #aba &a!chandra. ,he -%ttar
Pradesh 'G*(/ o r g a n i C a t i o n de!anded
abolition of begar, reduction of rents and
social boycott of oppressive Ca!indars.
Pabna )ove!ent
ed by >shwar -'+8(;+(/ 4handra &oy,
Sha!bhu Pal and
2hoodi )ollah. ,he !ove!ent rose as a
result of high increase in Ca!indari rent. ,he
peasant de!anded changes in !easure!ent
standard, abolition of abwabs and re duction
in rent.
&a!osi )ove!ent
ed by Vasudev #alwant Phad"e. Owing to
hardship caused to the -)aharashtra '+8G/
peasants by the Deccan fa!ine of '+8<;88
Phad"e organised the &a!osi peasants H
revolted against the #ritish and thought of
establishing a Hindu &a:.
,abhaga )ove!ent
,o !iple!ent the .laud 4o!!ission
reco!!endations of ,ebhaga that is -#engal
'G<?;?8/ *B@ of crop to the bargadars
wor"ing on the land rented fro! the
,elegana )ove!ent
#iggest peasants guirella war in the indian
history. >t rose against the -$ndhra Pradesh
exploitation of peasant by Des!u"h and
Hagirdars. ,he !ove!ent retained 'G?<;?+/
di!ensions of national liberation struggle
against the 1iCa!s
%.P. 2isan Sabha
.ounded by >ndra 1arayan Dwivedi H 0owi
Shan"ar )ishra. ,he -'G'+/ organiCation
was against the threat of beda"hli eviction
and the =a:!ani syste!.

Political, Social H &eligious &efor!s OrganiCation H )ove!ent
Hindu &efor!s;Organisations H )ove!ents $rya Sa!a:
'. .ounded by Swa!i Dayanand Saraswati in '+8A.
*. >!portant wor"s of Dayanand are Satyartha Pra"ash, Veda #hasya, Veda #hasya #hu!i"a.
@. Swa!i Dayanand re:ected Jestern idea and e!phasiCed on reviving the ancient of the
?. His real na!e was )ulshan"ar and he was born in a #rah!in fa!ily.
A. .irst $rya Sa!a: unit was organised at #o!bay.
<. ater on the headEurters was established at ahore.
8. 4onde!ned idol worship. Disregarded the authority of the later Hindu sriptures li"e the
Puranas. aunched a frontal attac" on the nu!erous abuses li"e idolatry, polytheis!, belief
in !agic, char!s, ani!al sacrifices.
+. Dayanand6s slogan of 5#ac" to the 5Vdas6 was a call for revival of vedic learning and vedic
purity of religion and not revival of vedic ti!es.
G. Produced leaders of the e!inence li"e ala Hans &a:, Pandit 0uru Dutt and ala a:pat &ai
#rah!o Sa!a:
'. .ounded by &a:a &a! )ohan &ao in '+*+.
*. 4onde!ned idolatry, caste syste! and religious rituals.
@. Started a ca!paign for the abolition of sati, conde!ned polyga!y and concubinange.
?. &a:a &a! )ohan &oy in the ,he Precepts of =esus published in '+*(, tried to separate !oral
and philosophical !essage of the new testa!ent.
A. 7stablished Vedant 4ollege in '+*A.
<. He was the initiator of public agitation on political Euestions in the country.
8. Devendranath ,agore #rah!o Sa!a: in '+?*.
o He conde!ned idol worship, discouraged pilgri!ages, cere!onials and penances;
a!ong the #rah!os.
+. 2eshab 4handra Sen :oined the #rah!o Sa!a: in '+A+.
G. &a:a &a! )ohan &oy published his first philosophical wor". ,uhbatul )uwahhiddin in
'(. He provided enthuisastic support to David Hare who, along with !any other >ndians
founded the fa!ous Hindu 4ollege in '+'8.
''. .irst split in #rah!o Sa!a: in '+<8.
o #rah!o Sa!a: of >ndia led by 2eshab 4handra Sen.
o $di #rah!o Sa!a: led by Devendranath ,agore. '*. Second split in #rah!o Sa!a: of
>ndia in '+8+.
o 4hurch of the 1ew Dispensation
o Sadharan #rah!o was Sa!a: led by younger group.
'*. &a:a &a! )ohan &oy established $t!iya Sabha in '+'A to fight against social evils in
Hinduis! and also to propagate !onotheis!.
'@. &a:a &a! )ohan &oy also gave opinion on Per!anent Settle!ent
&a!"rishna )ission
'. >naugrated by Swa!i Vive"anand -originally 1arendra Dutta/ in '+G< with its headEuarter
at #elur -near 4alcutta/.
*. &a!"rishna )ath was founded in 'GG8 as a registered religious trust by Vive"anand.
@. Spread !essage of Vedanta and founded vedanta society in %.S.$.
?. 4arried on philanthropic and charitable wor"s.
A. Opposed untouchability and caste syste!.
<. 4onde!ned 5touch !e not6 attitude of Hindus on religious !atters.
8. $ttended Parlia!ent of &eligion at 4hicago -'+G@/ where he e!phasised on need for a
healthy balance between spiritualis! and !ateriaslis!.
+. Iuotes.
o Hi! > call a )ahat!a whose heart bleeds for the poor, othrwise he is a Durat!a.
o So long as !illions live in hunger and ignorance, > hold every !an as a traitor who
while educated at their expense, pays not the least head to the!.
o Subhash 4handra #ose wrote ; So far as #engal is concerned Vive"ananda !ay be
regarded as the spiritual father of !odern nationalist !ove!ent.
o &a!a"rishna Para!hans used to say ; $ll different religious views are but different
ways leading to the sa!e goal.
G. &a! 2rishna Para!hansa 0uru of Vive"ananda was a priest at Da"shineshwar te!ple near
,heosophical Society
'. .ounded by H.P. #lavatas"y in the %S$ in '+8A.
*. ater the %S $r!y colonel ).S. Olcott :oined it.
@. HeadEuarters shifted to >ndia at $dya in '++*.
?. ,he society accepted the Hindu belief in re;incarnation 2ar!a and drew inspiration fro!
the philosophy of the upanishads and Sa!"hya, 9oga and Vedanta school of thought to
pro!ote international brotherhood.
A. )rs. $nnie #esant :oined it in '+G@ H beca!e the President of this society in 'G(8.
<. She laid the foundation of the 4entral Hindu 4ollege is #anaras in '+G+ where both the
Hindu religion H western scientific were taught, which later on rose into #enaras Hindu
%niversity -'G'</.
Par!hans )andali
.or!ed by #ala"rishna =aya"ar in '+A( in )aharashtra.
9oung #engal )ove!ent
'. >nitiated by an $nglo;>ndian teacher of the Hindu 4ollege, Henry Vivian DeroCio.
*. DeroCio was a free thin"er H a rationalist, who helped to pro!ote a radical and critical
outloo" a!ong his students.
@. He was dis!issed fro! the Hindu 4ollege in '+@' because of his radical views.
?. DeroCio is called first nationalist poet of !odern >ndia.
,attvabodhini Sabha
'. 7stablished by Devendranath ,agore in '+@G to carry on &a!!ohan6s ideals independent
of the #rah!o Sa!a:.
*. $ ,attvabodhini Press was established in '+?@.
@. ,attvabodhini Patri"a, a :ournal of the organisation was started for the propagation of ideas.
Para!hans Sabha
'. 7stablished in '+?G.
*. .ounder was Dadoba Pandurang ,ar"had"ar.
@. ,he first refor! organisation of 'Gth century )aharashtra.
&a:ah!undary Social &efor! $ssociation
'. .ounded by Viresalinga! Pantulu in '+8+.
*. 7!phasiCed on pro!otion of widow re!arriage.
#o!bay Social &efor! $ssociation
'. .ounded by ).0. &anade in 'G(@.
Jidow )arriage $ssociation
'. .oundation by Vishnu Shastri Pandit H ).0. &anade in '+<'.
Dhar!a Sabha
'. .ounder by &adha 2ant Deb in '+@(.
*. Stood for socio;religious status Euo.
@. 4a!paigned agaisnt abolition of Sati.
0andiya Sabha
'. .ounded by &adha 2ant Deb.
Veda Sa!a:
'. .ounder under the influence of 2eshav 4handra Sen6s visit to )adras.
*. ,runed into #rah!o Sa!a: of Southern >ndia in '+8' by Sridhalu naidu.
)usli! &efor!s;Organisations H )ove!ents Jahabi )ove!ent
'. Started in >ndian in '+*' under the leadership of Syed $h!ed of &aibaraily who was
influenced by the teaching of the DelhiSaint Shah Jalliullah.
*. ,he !ain centre of this !ove!ent was at Patna.
@. $i!ed at refro!ation of religious life and restoration of political power of the )usli!
?. >t was a "ind of holy war.
A. Syed $h!ed was "illed in the #attle of #alacot in '+@'.
<. Suppressed by the #ritish in '+8(6s.
$h!edia )ove!ent B Iuadiani )ove!ent
'. Started in around '+GG at a town Iuadiyan under the leadership of )irCa 0hula! $h!ed of
Iuadi! -0urudaspur, Pun:ab/.
*. $i!ed of restoration of the free and unpolluted faith of >sla! to the followers of the
$ligarh )ove!ent
'. Started by Sayyaid $h!ed 2han in '+<(6s.
*. #ased on the liberal interpretation of the 2oran.
@. >t ai!ed at spreading western and scientific education a!ong the )usli! !asses.
?. .oundation of Scientific society in '+<? to introduce the western sciences through urdu
A. Publishing of urdu :ournal ,ahCib;$l;$"hlaE in '+8(.
<. 7stablish!ent of $ligarh $nglo;)oha!!adan Oriental 4ollege in '+8A.
8. )uha!adan $nglo;Oriental 7ducation 4onference was started in '+<< for pro!oting
western education a!ong !usli!s.
+. S.$. 2han was in :udicial service of the co!pany.
G. '+8+ he beca!e a !e!ber of i!perial egislative 4ouncil.
'(. Jor" in '+<(; ,he oyal )uha!!adans of >ndia.
''. Jas given title of 2nighthood in '+++.
'*. Opposed >lbert #ill and said ; Hindus and )usli!s are two eyes of >ndia.
'@. .ounded >ndian %nited Patriotic $ssociation to counter 4ongress.
'?. $gainst the >ndian 1ational 4ongress with&a:a Shiv Prasad of #anaras.
'A. .ounded )uha!!adan $nglo;Oriental Defence $ssociation in '+G(.
'<. Persons associated with $ligarh )ove!entassociated with hi! ; $ltaf Hussain Hali,)aulavi
1aCir $h!ed, )aulavi Shibh 1u!ani.
.arangi )ahal )ove!ent
'. .a!ous traditional school at .arangi )ahal in uc"now.
Deoband )ove!ent
'. >t was anti;#ritish !ove!ent started by )d. Iasi! 1anawatawi and &ashid $h!ed 0angohi
in '+<8 at Deoband.
*. $i!ed at uplift!ent of !usli!s through religious education and resuscitate classical >sla!.
@. Jelco!ed the for!ation of >ndian 1ational 4ongress in '++A.
?. Deoband %le!a issued .atwa against S.$.
2han6s organisation;
• >ndia %nited Patrotic $ssociation
• )uha!!adan $nglo Oriental Defence $ssociation.
2has"ar )ove!ent
'. Started by $lla! )ashirigi in 'G@'.
*. >t was based on religious ideology of early >sla!.
@. >t was popular in Pun:ab, Sind etc.
)ove!ent of ,itu )ir
'. Started by )ir 1itha $li B ,tu )ir, a desciple of Syed $h!ed of #araily in #engal in '+*(6s.
*. >t was independent off shoot of Jahabis.
@. >t was against the custo!s and beliefs borrowed fro! popular Hinduis!.
?. >t ca!e in conflict withHindu landlords and #ritish >ndigo planters and eventually with
#ritish ad!inistration.
.arCi )ove!en
'. Started by HaCi Shariatuitah in '+?8 at .aridpur \7ast #engal/.
*. >t was the protest of the peasants against the Ca!indars, govt. officials and #ritish
,aayyuni )ove!ent
'. Started by 2ar!at $li =aunpuri.
*. >t re:ected introduction of new things in >sla!.
Pagal Panthis )ove!ent
'. .ounded by 2ara! Shah in #engal.
*. >t was a se!i;religious sect.
@. >t too" up the cause of the tenants against the oppressions of the Ca!idars.
)usli! Political H 1ationalistic Organisations
$rhar )ove!ent
'. Started by the youn !usli! nationalists )d. $li, Ha"i! $:!al 2han, )aChar;ul;HaE, Tafar
$li 2han in '+G( in Pun:ab.
*. >t was against loyalist politics of $ligarh school and was inspired by the !odern idea of self;
$Cad )usli! 4onference
'. .ounded by $llah #ux in 'G?(.
*. Supported by the nationalist !usli!s within the 4ongress, =a!ayatal;ule!a, $hrar Party
@. >t opposed the clai! of Pa"istan.
2risha" Pra:a Party
'. .ounded by .aClul HaE in #engal in 'G*G.
*. >t was a !usli! peasntry party.
2hudai 2hid!atgar
'. $lso "nown as &ed Shirt )ove!ent.
*. Started by 2han $bdul 0affar 2han in '(@( in 1orth;Jest frontier province.
@. >t was nationalist pro;congress organisation.
?. >n #aluchistan the nationlist !usli!s were organised into Jatan Party.
A. >t started no;rent ca!paign during civil;disbedience )ove!ent on 0andhian !ethodology.
2hilafat )ove!ent
'. Started in 'G'G by Ha"i! $:!al 2han, Hasrat )ohani, the $li brothers and )aulana $Cad.
*. >nitially it was religious in spirit but later on assu!ed political co!plexion and lined with
>ndian .reedo! Struggle.$ protest !ove!ent against the hu!ilation of the calipha.
Jatan Party
'. .ounded in #aluchistan by 1ationalist )usli!s.
*. >t6s attitude was pro;congress.
Hari:an %plift!ent;Organisations H )ove!ents Satya Shodha" Sa!a:
Started by =yotibha 0ovindrao Phule in '+8A. >t ai!ed at fighting against #rah!inis! and its
ideology. >t criticiCed idolatry, and priesthood, theory of "ar!a, rebirth and heaven. =otiba Phule
was born in a Shudra )ali fa!ily in Poona in '+*8. &e:ected the sacred Hindu texts and scriptures.
His !ain ideas on econo!ics of the agrarian classes was published in the pa!phlet, >sara in '++A.
Propagated his ideas through a :ournal Deen #andhu in )arathi, his boo" 0ula!giri -slavery/ and
Seta"aryancha $suda -the whip;cord of the peasantry/. Opposed >ndian 1ational 4ongress, for it
failed to ta"e up peasant proble!s. $fter the death of =yotibha Phule Satya Sahodha" was revived
by 4hhatrapati Shahu )ahara: of 2olhapur, Phule was the first >ndian to start a school for
untouchables in '+A?. He started a girl school in Poona with his wife in '+A'. >t was anti;#rah!in
,he founders were ,.1. 1air, P. ,yagaraya 4hetti and 4. 1atesa )udaliar. .ounded in 'G'< in
)adras.the real na!e was >ndian iberal .ederation. ,he initial de!and of the eaders was the
reservation seats in the Provincial egislative 4ouncil. ater on, the de!and was extended to
include concessions in education, public appoint!ents and no!ination to local boards. Social base
was non;brah!in leading Ca!indars and the urban business groups. >t served the political interests
of feudal and co!!ercial classes. Vellals -,a!il/ &eddis-,elegu/ and 2a!!as -,elugu/ constituted
the !ove!ent.
Self &espect )ove!ent
>t was started by 7.V. &a!aswa!i 1eic"er who was popularly "nown as Periyar. He advocated the
burning of )anu Dhar!a Shastras and &a!ayana. $bandoned Hindu !ythology. Vehe!ently
supported the Hari:ans and beca!e a hero of satyagraha at Vai"o!, 2erala started his paper, 2udi
$rasu in 'G*A H turned into a radical social refor!er attac"ed religion and the supre!acy of the
#rah!ins and the caste syste! and e!phasiCed on the issue of widow !arriage and birth control.
Self respect eague was !erged with Party in 'G?? to fro! Dravida 2aChaga!.
Sri 1arayan Dhar!a Paripalana 9ogan
.ounded in 'G(* in 2erala. .ounder was 1anu $san popularly "nown as 1arayan 0uru. $i!ed at
assertion of rights for 7Chawas. ,e!ple ; entry was the !ain progra!!e. His gospel was;one caste,
one religion, one god.
$ll >ndia Depressed 4lasses .ederation .ounded
by Dr. $!bed"ar in 'G*( for the )aharas of )aharashtra. #ahis"rit #harat )ove!ent was also
started by hi!.
Hari:an Seva" Sangh
.ounded by 0andhi in 'G@*. He gave the untouchables the na!e Hari:an. He started a !agaCine
-'G@@/. >t6s ai! was to wor" for their uplift!ent.
Vai"o! Satyagraha -2erala, 'G*?;*A/
>t was led by ,.2. )adhavan, 2. 2ellapan H 2eshava )enon. >t was the first organiCed te!ple entry
!ove!ent of the depressed classed. ,hey asserted along 0andhian lines lines the right of 7Chavas H
other untouchable to use the road near ,ravancorete!ple.
)ahad Satyagraha -)aharashtra 'G*8/
>t was led by $!bed"ar. $!bed"ar de!anded the ight of the )aharas to use tan"s and te!ples H
abolition of )ahar6s traditional service to village chiefs.
7fforts for %plift!ent of Jo!en
'. >nfanticide was abolished by #engal &egulation $ct, '8GA.
*. >nfanticide was abolished by Jellesely in '+(*.
@. Sati was abolished in '+*G by the efforts of &a:a &a! )ohan &oy.
?. Vidyasagar opened a school for wo!en and !ade efforts in passing the Hindu Jidow
&e!arriage $ct '+A<.
A. Virsalinga! e!phasiCed on the education for wo!en
o He also laid e!phasis on the right of widow to re!arry.
o He established &a:ah )undry Social &efor! $ssociation in '+8+.
o He published a :ournal Vive" Vardhani.
<. Jidow )arriage $ssociation was established in '+<' by &anade and Vishnu Shastri Pandit.
8. #ehra!:i )alabari !ade efforts in passing ofthe $ge of 4onsent $ct in '+G'. #y this act the
age of a girl for !arriage was increased fro! '( to '* years.
+. &a!abai wor"ed for the education and rights of the wo!en.
o She founded $rya )ahila Sa!a:.
o She !ade first atte!pt to educate widow and for this purpose established Sharda
Sadan at #o!bay.
G. Dhondo 2eshav 2arve !ade efforts for the education of wo!en and widow re!arriage.
o 7stablished first >ndian Jo!en6s %niversity in 'G'<.
'(. )utthu a"sh!i &eddi opposed Devdasi Syste!.
o )ade efforts in passign the $ct for ,raffic in !inor in 'G'<.
''. &ai Sahib Harbilas Sharda !oved a bill for increasing the age for !arriage.
o a. >n 'G*G sharda $ct was passed.
o b. ,he age of !arriage for a boy increased to '+ years and a girl '? years by this $ct.
'*. ady Hardinge )edical 4ollege was established in 'G'<.
'@. $ll >ndia )usli! adies 4onference held in'G'?.
'?. Sartadevi 4haudharani founded #harat Stri )aha!andal at $llahabad in 'G'(.
o >t was the first per!anent association for the wo!en.
'A. =ohn .illiot Drin" Jater #ethune founded #ethune School in '+?G.
'<. $n >rish, ,heopist, Dorothy &a:a Dasa established the >ndian Jo!en6s $ssociation in 'G'A
under the presidentship to $nie #esant.
o Started a =ournal stri Dhar!a.
'8. #y the efforts of )argaret 4ousin, $ll >ndiaJo!en6s conference held at Puna in 'G*8. She
started a =ournal &oshni.
'+. $ll >ndia )usli! adies 4onference held in 'G*?.
Social egislations in )oderns >ndia
'8GA $bollitionof infanticide by #engal &egulation
'+(* $bolition of infanticide by ord Jellesly.
$bolition of slavery under &egulation O by #engal
$bolition of sati by ord Jillia! #entic" -under &egulation OV>>/.
Pioneering efforts in this direction were !ade by &a:a &a! )ohan &oy.
'+@';@8 $bolition of ,hugi by Jillia! #entic" operation by Jillia! Slee!an
'+@* $bolition of slavery under &egulation of >>>
'+?@ $bolition of slavery by ord 7llenborough
$pproval of widow re!arriage by Hndu Jidow6s &e!arriage
$ct by the efforts of >shwar 4handra Vidyasagar
#anning of child !arriage, polyga!y H approval of intercaste
!arriage H widow re!arriage by 1ative !arriage $ct.
$ge of !arriage for girls was increased to '* years by $ge of
4onsent $ct by the efforts of #ehra!:i )alabari.
,he age of !arriage was increased to '+ years in the case of #oy6s and
'? years in the case of girl6s by 4hild )arriage &estraint $ct co!!only
"nown as Sharda $ct.
'G@' #anning of child !arriage by >nfant Prevention $ct.
'G@8 &ight to property given to wo!en.
&ise H develop!ent of Si"his!
• 1ana"6s disciples calledthe!selves, denved fro! the sans"rit word
-desciple/ or path Si"ha -instruction/.
1ana" -'?<G;'A@G/
• .ounder of Si"his!
• #orn at ,alwandi
• )ystic of 1irguna school
• $ppointed ehans who succeeded hi! as 0uru $ngad
• >nvented new script 0uru!u"hi
• $lso "nown as ehana.
• Divided the si"h spiritual e!pire into ** Parishes or )an:is or
• Started collecting and co!pling 1ana"6s hy!ns
• >ntroduced features which served to
• !aintain the cohesion of the co!!unity
• >nitiated anger ; .ree "itchen !aintained by voluntary offerings.
• >ntroduced !any inovationwhich later helped in e!ergence of Si"h
• 4hurch.
• Had a tan" dug at the site granted to his
wife by $"bar
• .ounded $!ritsar
• During his period succession beca!e hereditary.
• .ounded Har!andir at $!ritsar -0olden te!ple
• 4o!posed 0urugranth Sahib -$digranth/
• Prosecuted by=ehangir on the pretext of 2husrav &ebellion
• Organised collection of spiritual tribute by agents called )aCands
Hargovind -'<(<;
• >ntroduce )ilitarncy
• 7nlisted a body of ,roops
• #uilt $"al ,a"ht -,hrone of $l!ighty/
• .ortified $!ritsar
• Jas ta"en to Delhi, !prisoned at 0walior put and released in '<''.
• Defeated the i!perial forces at Songra!a in '<*+.
• Shifted headEuarter to 2iratpur
• Har &ai #lessed Dara Shi"oh
• Sent his son &a! &a: to Delhi to represent hi! when
$urangCeb called upon hi!
Har 2isan
• Settled at $nandpur
• Prosecuted by $urangCeb
• acco!panied the )ughal in $ssa!
• resisted deligions intolerance of $urangCeb
by encouraging brah!anas of 2ash!ir
0ovind Singh -'<8A;
• Started 2halsa -'<AG/
• >ntroduced two titles Singh and 2aur
• >ntroduced Pan: Piyare -.ive beloved ones/
• Put stress on self reliance
• >ntroduced Pan: 2a""e -.ive"6s/ ; 2esa, 2ancha, 2ara, 2irpan,
• 4alled MSachha #adshahN
• 4o!piled MDeswan Padshah "a 0ranthN
• >ntroduced a new rite MPahulN
• Suppressed organisation of the )asands who had beco!e corrupt
• Said about 2halsa;2halsa is the 0uru and 0uru is !e 2halsa
• Defeated by the hill chiets in which he lost two sons;$:it Singh and
=uhar Singh
• Defeated JaCir 2han, governor of Sirhind
• Served )ughals under #ahadur Shah to Deccan
• 2illed by a Pathan at 1anded on the 0odavari river.
• >ntroduced Pan: Piyare -.ive beloved ones/
#anda #ahadur
• &eal 1a!e ach!an Das
• $bolished Ta!indari
• Defeated JaCir 2han and sac"ed Sirhind
• 7stablished hi!self at hill fort of ohgarh
• 4aptured by $dus Sa!ad 2han governor of ahore and
put to death in Delhi in '8'< by .arru"hsiyar
• 2apur Singh organised independent =a!es into!e ar!y called Dal
under =assa Singh
• Si"hs struc"ed first coinin'8<? thereby signifying their sovereign
Si"h &efor!s ; Organisations H )ove!ents 1iran"ari )ove!ent
'. #aba Dayal Das was the first a!ong the refor!ers in Si"h religion
1a!dhari )ove!ent
Popularly "nown as 2u"a )ove!ent because of the followes resorting to shric"s -2u"an/ while in
ecstasy.Started by #hagat =awahar )al and #aba #ala" Singh.
Singh Sabha )ove!ent
'. Started in '+8@ in $!ritsar
*. $i!ed at social and religious refor! through the spread of education.
@. 2halsa 4ollege was founded at $!ritsar in'+G*.
$"ali )ove!ent
'. Started by the si"h refor!ers to purify their religious places y re!oval of the evil social
*. $"ali refor!ers had to ta"e control of the i!portant shrines the 0olden ,e!ple and $"al
,a"ht because of the !isuse of te!ple pre!ises by anti social corrupt ele!ents and the ban
on the entry of low caste people in the holy shrines.
@. &esulted in the passing of the $ll;>ndia Si"hs 0urudwara $ct in 'G*A.
Social H Political Organisations Servants of >ndia Society
'. .ounded by 0opal 2rishna 0o"hle in 'G(A.
*. Started !any welfare progra!!es.
@. $i!ed at training the 1ational !issionaries for the free service of >ndia.
Social Service eague
'. .ounded by 1arayan )alhar =oshi in #o!bay.
*. Secured the !asses better H reasonable conditions of life and wor".
Seve Sa!iti
'. .ounded by Hirday 1ath 2unCru in 'G'? at $llahabad.
*. ,he !ain ai! was pro!otion of education, sanitation and cleanliness.
Parasi &efor!s ; Organisation H )ove!ent
&ehnu!ai )aCadayasan Sabha
'. Started by .urdon:i, Dadabhai 1aoro:i and S.S. #angalee in '+AG.
*. >t stood for the !odernisation of Parsi religion and social custo!s.
@. >t launched a struggle for the introduction and spread of education a!ong wo!en, and
grant of a legal status to the!.
?. $lso struggled for unifor! laws of inheritance and !arriage for the Parsi co!!unity.
>ndividual 7fforts in the Develop!ent of 7ducation
' 4alcutta )adarasa '8+' #y Jarren Hastings
* $siatic Society of #engal '8+? #y Jillia! =ones
@ Sans"rit 4ollege at #anaras '8G' #y =onathan Duncan
.ort Jillia! 4ollege at 4alcutta to train 4ivil Servants Jillia! carey as teacher of Sans"rit H
'+(( #y ord Jellesely
A Hindu 4ollege at 4alcutta '+'8
#y ra:ara! )ohan &oy, David Hare -Jatch )a"er/
H 7dward Hyde 7ast -4hief =ustice, Supre!e

• School #oo" Society
founded in '+'8
by David Hare, ouis DeroCio H H.H. Jilson

• School at Suripara at
4alcutta founded
by &a:a &a! )ohan &oy for pro!oting english
< $nglo;Hindu School '+** #y &a:ara! )ohan &oy
8 Vedanta 4ollege '+*A #y &a:ara! )ohan &oy
+ 7lphinston 4ollege at #o!bay '+*8 #y )ontstuart 7liphinston
G School at 4alcutta '+@( #y $lexander duff

)oh. $nglo;Orien; tal 4ollege at
'+8A #y Saiyed $h!ed 2han
$. #ethune School '+?G #y =ohn 7lliot Drin"water #ethune
#.,o Pro!ote
fe!ale education
#y Dalhausie
4. He was President of 4ouncil of 7ducation
'* Dayanand $nglo;Vedic 4ollege at ahore 'G+<
'@ 4entral Hindu School at #anaras '+G+ #y )adan )ohan )alviya
'? #anaras Hindu %niversity 'G'< #y 0andhi
'A $ Jardha Sche!e 'G@8 #y 0andhi
# 0andhi proposed this idea in Hari:an
4 4o!!ittee for this purpose headed by Ta"ir Hussain
7!phasiCed on free H co!pulsory education till 8 years., vocational education, !other
tongue and !anual productive wor"
$siatic Society
of #engal
'8+? #y Jillai! =ones
4harles Jil"in,
a !erchant in 7.>.4. translated
#hagwat 0ita
4harles Jil"in, translated
'G Jillia! =ones, translated Sha"untala, 0ita 0ovinda and 0ovinda and )anusa!hita
*( Jor"s on Sans"rit gra!!er and the Vedas by enry ,ho!as 4olebroo"
*' Horace Hay!an Jilson translated )eghduta
=a!es Princep, deciphered
$sho"an 7dicts
0overnors H Viceroys
&obert 4live -'8A8;<8/ -'8<<;<8/
'. 0overnor of #engal fro! '8A8;<( and again fro! '8<A;<8.
*. Started dual 0overn!ent in #engal in '8<A.
@. He forbade the servants of the co!pany fro! indulging in private trade and !ade pay!ent
of internal duties obligatory.
?. 7stablished Society of ,rade in '8<A with !onopoly of trade in salt, betelnuit and tobacco
However this was abolished in '8<8.
A. #engal white )utiny;by white brigades at $llahabad and )onghyr, they were arrested and
Jarren Hasting -'88*;+A/
'. .irst 0overnor 0eneral after serving as the 0overnor of #engal -'88*/.
*. >ntroduced EuinEuennial settle!ent of land revenue in '88* far!ing out lands to the
highest bidder, later on he reversed to annual settle!ent -'888/ on the basis of open
auction to the highest bidder.
@. )ade the appoint!ent of collectors and other revenue officials.
?. 4odified Hindu and )usli! laws.
A. ,rial of 1and 2u!ar and his :udicial !urder in '88A.
<. <. .ondation of $siastic Society of #engal with the help of Sir Jillia! =ones in '8+?.
8. $ssociated with the 4hait Singh -&a: of #anaras/ affair -'88+/.
+. $ssociated with #enga!s of Oudh affair -'8+*/.
G. $fter his return of 7ngland in '8+A, i!peach!ent proceedings were initiated against hi! in
the house of ords but after a long trial of 8 years he was eventually acEuitted.
'(. Dual 0ovt. was abolished in '88* by hi!.
''. >n '88< )anu6s aw was ,ranslated into 7nglish as 4ode of 0entoo aws.
'*. >n 'GG' Jillia! =ones and 4olebro" prepared digest of Hindu aws.
'@. .atawa;i;$la!giri was also tranlated.
ord 4ornawallis -'8+<;G@/
'. Set up courts at different levels and separation of revenue ad!inistration fro! :udicial
ad!inistration in order to refor! the :udiciary.
*. >ntroduced 4ornwallis 4ode based on the principle of separation of powers in '8G@.
@. Superintendent of Police was !ade the head of district police and beca!e the incharge of an
area of '((( sE. "!. #esides the 7nglish !agistrates were given police powers and the
Ta!indars were divested of all police powers.
?. $ ten;year settle!ent was concluded with the Ta!indars in '8G( which was !ade
per!anent in '8G@ -ca!e to be "nown as Per!anent Settle!ent of '8G@.
A. &aised salaries of the officials. 4ollectors were to get '[ of the revenue collection in
addition to their salary of &s. 'A((.
ord Jellesley -'8G@;'8G+/
'. Described hi!self as #engal ,iger.
*. 4reated )adras Presidency after the annexation of the 2ingdo!s of ,an:ore and 4arnatic.
@. >ntroduced the syste! of Subsidiary $lliance in '8G+ which provided for defence of an
>ndian state by the #ritish, stationing of #ritish Subsidiary .orce in the territory, the
!aintenance of which was to be borne by the ruler, stationing of a #ritish &esident at the
headEuarters of the state and #ritish control over the external affairs of the state.
?. ,he States that signed the alliance were first Hyderabad in '8G+ and the! )ysore, ,an:ore,
$wadh, =odhpur, =aipur, )acheri, #undi, #haratpur, #erar and the Peshwar.
A. Signed ,reaty of #assein -'+(*/ with the Peshwa and fought second $nglo;)aratha war
during '+(@;(A.
<. ord a"e captured Delhi and $gra in '+(@ and the )ughal e!peror was pur under
co!pany6s protection.
ord )into;> -'+(8;'+'@/
'. Signed ,reaty of $!ritsar in '+(G between &an:it Singh and 7nglish.
*. Sent in '+(+ !ission of )alco! of Persia and that of 7lphinstone to 2abul.
ord Hastings -'+'@;'+*@/
'. He was !ade )arEuis of Hastings due to his success in the 0o"ha wasr of the $nglo;
1epalese war -'+'@;*@/.
*. Signed ,reaty of Sanguali after defeating the 0or"ha leader $!ar Singh.
@. $bolished Peshwaship H annexed of his territories in the #o!bay Presidency after the
,hird $nglo;)aratha was -'+'+/.
?. Pindari Jar -'+'8;'+'+/.
A. >ntroduction of &yotwari settle!ent in )adras Presidency by 0overnor, ,ho!as )unro
<. )ahalwari -village co!!unity/ syste! of land revenue was !ade in 1orth;Jest Province
by =a!es ,ho!son.
ord $h!erst -'+'@;'+*+/
'. &eceived by the )ughal e!peror -$"bar >>/ on ter!s of eEuality in '+*8.
*. Signed ,reaty of 9audaboo in '+*< with lower #ur!a of pegu by which #ritish !erchants
were allowed to settle on southern coast of #ur!a and &angoon.
ord Jillia! #entinc" -'+*+;@A/
'. 2nown as the #enevolent 0overnor;0eneral
*. >ntroduced a nu!ber of social refor!s. #anned the practice of Sati in '+*G -pionnerring
efforts !ade in this connection by &a:a &a! )ohan &oy/, suppressed ,hugi in '+@(
-)illitary operation led by Jillia! Slee!an/.
@. Defined the ai!s and ob:ectives of the educational policy of the #ritish
0overn!entappointed ord )acualay, the President of the 4o!!ittee of Public >nstruction
which reco!!ended 7nglish as the !ediu! of instruction and introduction of 7nglish
language, iterature, Social and 1atural Science in the curricula! in '+@A.
?. #anned fe!ale infanticide.
A. 4reated the Province of $gra in '+@?.
<. 7nglish was to be court language at higher courts but Persian continued in lower courts.
8. ,he &egulation of '+@@ on land revenue settle!ent by )ertins #ird -called father of land;
revenue settle!ent in the 1orth/. %se of fields !aps and filed registrars were prescribed for
the first ti!e.
Sir 4harle )etacalfe -'+@A;@</
'. $bolished restriction on press.
*. 4alled Miberator of pressN.
ord $uc"land -'+@<;?*/
'. ,ripatriate ,reaty was signed between the co!pany &an:it Singh and Shah Shu:a by which
o &an:it Singh accepted co!pany6s !ediation in disputes $!irs -sind/.
o Shah Shu:a conceded his sovereign right to the co!pany over Sind on condition of
receiving the arrears of the tribute, the a!ount of which was to be deter!ined by
the co!pany.
*. )andavi state was annexed in '+@G.
ord 7llenborough -'G?*;??/
'. $nnexation of Sindh to #ritish 7!pire -'+?@/.
*. 4harles 1apier was replaced by )a:or Outra! as the &esident in Sind.
@. On the annexation of Sind, 4harles 1apier co!!ented ; we have no right to seiCe yet we
shall do and a very advantages, useful, Hu!ane piece of rascality it will be.
?. Disagreeing to 1apier6s policy in Sind, )a:or Outra! wrote to hi!;> a! sic" of your policy >
wll not say yours is the best, but it is undoubtedly the shortest that of the sword. Oh, > how
wish you had drawn it in a better curse.
ord Dalhausie -'+?G;A</
'. >ntroduced the policy of Doctrine of apse of aw of 7scheat which postulated that >ndian
States having no natural heir would be annexed to the #ritish 7!pire. ,he >ndian States
annexed by the application of his doctrine were Satara -'+?+/, =aipur and Sa!balpur
-'+?G/, #aghat -'+A(/, #aghat -'+A(/, %daipur -'+A*/, =hansi -'+A@/ and 1agpur -'+A?/.
*. >n troduced Jood6s despatch "nown as the )agna 4arta of 7nglish education in >ndia
prepared by 4harles Jood the President of the #oard of control in '+A? on education in
suggested a sche!e of education fro! the pri!ary to the university level. >t reco!!ended,
establish!ent of $nglove!acular Schools in districts, govern!ent colleges in i!portant
towns and universities in presidency towns and introduction of ver!acular languages as
the !ediu! of introduction.
@. #oosted up the develop!ent of railways;laid the first railway line in '+A@ fro! #o!bay to
thane and second fro! 4alcutta to &anigan:.
?. 0ave a great i!petus to post and telegraph. ,elegraph lines were laid. -.irst line fro!
4alcutta to $gra/.
A. Organised a separate Public Jor"s Depart!ent by divesting the )alitary #oard of this
<. Sh!la was !ade su!!er capital and ar!y headEuarter.
8. Hindu widow re!arriage $ct was passed in '+A<.
+. $nnexed $wadh in '+A< on excuse of !isgovern!ent when nawab Ja:id $li Shah refused
to abdicate.
ord 4anning -'+A<;<*/
'. Iueen Victoria6s Procla!atior and passing of the >ndian $ct of '+A<.
*. Doctrine of apse started by ord Dalhausie was officially withdrawn in '+AG.
@. .oundation of the universities at 4alcutta, #o!bay and )adras in '+A8. ?. >ndigo revolt in
#engali in '+A+;<(.
?. Jhite )utiny by the 7uropean trooops of the 7>4O in '+AG.
A. #ahadur Shah was sent to &angoon -#ur!a/.
ord 7lgin -'+<*;<@/
'. Suppressed the Jahabi !ove!ent.
Sir =ohn owrance -'+<?;<G/
'. .ollowed a policy of rigid non;interference in $fghanistan called Policy of )asterly
*. Set up High 4ourts at 4alcutta, #o!bay and )adras -+<A/.
ord yttan -'+8<;+(/
'. Passing of the &oyal ,itle $ct of '+8< and the assu!ption of the title 7xpress of >ndia
-2aiseri; Hind/ by Iueen Victoria.
*. Holding of Delhi Durbar in '+88.
@. Passing of Vernacular Press $ct of '+8+ which e!powered a !agistrate to call upon the
printer and publisher of any ver!acular newspaper to enter in into an underta"ing not to
publish any news which would create antipathy against the govern!ent.
?. Passing of $r!s $ct of '+8+ which declared "eeping, bearing and traffic"ing in ar!s
without a licence a cri!inal offence -,he 7uropeans, $nglo;>ndians and sa!e categories of
govern!ent officials were exe!pted/.
A. owering of the !axi!u! age fro! *' yrs. to 'G yrs. for the 4ivil Services 7xa!ination ; an
atte!pt to prevent >ndians fro! entering 4ivil Services.
<. $ppoint!ent of the first .a!ine 4o!!ission under Sir &ichard Strachey. Policy of
)asterly inactivity towards $fghanistan was replaced by .orward Policy.
8. Started statutory civil services.
ord &ipon -'++(;+?/
'. Passing of the first .actory $ct in '++' for the welfare of child labour.
*. &epeal of Vernacular Press $ct in '++*.
@. .oundation of local Self;0overn!ent -'++*/ ; passing of local Self;0overn!ent acts in
various provinces during the period '++@;+A.
?. Holding of first decennial H regular censes in '++' which put the total population at the
figure *A? !illions.
A. .inancial decentralisation in '++* which was earlier initiated by ord )ayo.
<. $ppoint!ent of an education co!!ission under Sir Jillia! Hunter in '++*.
8. ,he >lbert #ill controversy, '++@;+? relating to passing of a bill, fra!ed by the law !e!ber
of the Viceroy6s 4ouncil Sir 4.P. libert which abolished :udicial disEualification based on
race. ,here was a strong protest on the part of the 7uropeans particularly the 7nglish and
eventually under pressure the govern!ent a!ended the bill and provided for the rights of
the 7uropean to clai! trial by :ury of '*, out of which at least 8 were to be 7uropean.
+. .a!ine 4ode in '++@.
G. He usually said M=udge !e by !y wor"s and not by !y wordsN.
ord Dufferin -'++?;++/
'. 4o!!ented on the 4ongress being a !icroscope !inority in '+++.
ord ansdowne -'+++;G?/
'. passed the $ge of 4onsent $ct in '+G' which forbade !arriage of girl below '*.
ord 7lgi!;>> -'+G?;GG/
'. .a!ine in part of &a:asthan ; yli 4o!!ission appointed to loo" into the cause of fe!ines.
ord 4urCon -'+GG;'G(A/
'. 4reation of a new province called the 1orth Jest .rontier Province.
*. $ppoint!ent of a Police 4o!!ission under the president ship of Sir andrew .raCer to
inEuire into the police ad!inistration in 'G(*;(@. >t reco!!ended for enhance!ent in
salaries and creation of a depart!ent of 4ri!inal intelligence.
@. 4reation oa a new Depart!ent of 4o!!erce and >ndustry.
?. Passing of $ncient )onu!ents Protection $ct in 'G(? for the preservation of >ndia6s
4ultural heritage. ,his was followed by the foundation of $rcheological Survey of >ndia.
A. $ppointed )ac Donell 4o!!ission on .a!ine in 'G((.
<. $ppointed )oncrief 4o!!ssion on irrigation in 'G(*.
8. His biography has been written by ronaldshay ; ,he life of ord 4urCon.
ord )into;> -'G(A;'(/
'. S.P. Sinha was appointed a !e!ber of 0overnor;0enerals council.
ord Hardinge -'G'(;'</
'. 4oronation Durban in 'G'' at Delhi in the honour of 0eorge V.
*. $ separate state of #ihar and Orissa was created in 'G''.
@. $ bo!b was throuwn on his carriage at 4handni 4how" in Delhi in 'G'* while he was
entering the capital.
ord 4hel!sord -'G'<;*'/
'. .oundation of Jo!en6s %niversity at Poona in 'G'<.
*. Hunter 4o!!ittee was constituted on Pun:ab wrongs.
@. 4ha!bers of Princess was established in 'G*'.
ord &eading -'G*';*</
'. .oundation of &ashtriya Swaya! Seva" Sang -&SS/ by 2.#. Hedgewar at 1agpur in 'G*A.
*. #eginning of >ndianisation of the officers cadre of the >ndian ar!y.
@. &ailway budget was separated fro! 0eneral #udget in 'G*A. S"een 4o!!ittee or >ndian
Sandhurst 4o!!ittee on $r!y refor!s was appointed in 'G*A. >t sub!itted its report to
?. ee 4o!!ission on Public Service in 'G*?, &eport Sub!itted in 'G*?.
A. 9oung Hilton 4o!!ittee on 4urrency -'G*</.
ord >rwin -'G*<;@'/
'. Popularly "nown as 4hristan Viceroy.
*. $ppoint!ent of the >ndian States 4o!!ission under. Harcourt #utler -'G*8/ to reco!!end
!easures for the establish!ent of better relations between the >ndian states and the
4entral govern!ent.
@. Deepavali Declaration -'G*G/ that >ndia would be granted Do!inion status in due course.
?. &oyal co!!ssion on >ndian abour was appointed -'G*G/, &eport -'G@'/.
A. Sard $ct was passed in 'G*G )arriages of girl below '? and boys below '+ years of age was
ord Jillington -G'@';@</
'. 4o!!unal $ward in $ugust 'G@*.
*. ,hird &ound ,able 4onference -'G@*/
@. Jhite Paper on political refor!s in >ndia was published -'G@@/.
?. #ur!a and $den was separated fro! the #ritish 7!pire -'G@A/.
A. Orissa, #ihar and Sind were !ade new States -'G@A/
<. ees;)ody Pact -October 'G@@/ by this #o!bay textiles group agreed to further
preferences for #ritish textiles in place of =apanese >!ports in return for a ancaashire
pro!ise to buy !ore >ndian raw cotton.
8. )usli! 4onference was founded in 2ash!ir -'G@*/, rena!ed 1ational 4onference in 'G@+.
>!portant leaders Shei"h $bdullah and P.1. #aCaC.
ord lnlthgow -'G@<;?@/
'. October offer by the Vicroy in which he declaraed the Do!inion status as the ulti!ate goal
of #ritish policy in >ndia.
*. $t its Haripura Session -.ebruary, 'G@G/ 4ongress declared Poorna Swara: ideal to cover
native states and #ritish >ndia.
ord Javell -'G?@;?8/
'. Javell Plan and Shi!la conference. 4ongress represented by )aulana $Cad.
*. &>1 !utiny -'G?</.
@. >nteri! 0overfn!ent was for!ed -Septe!ber *, 'G?</.
?. Pri!e )inister of #ritain 4le!ent $ttlee announced independence of >ndia by =une 'G?+.
-.ebruary *(, 'G?8/.
ord )ountbatten -'G?8;?+/
'. 7arlier proposed Plan;#al"an i.e. total dis!e!bera!ent of the >ndian territory but soon
lieft the idea.
*. )ade it clear to the Princely states that they shall not be granted separate independence
and they will have to :oin either >ndia or Pa"istan.
@. His plan to !a"e >ndia free on $ugust 'A, 'G?8 is also "nown as @rd =une Plan.
o 0.0. 4ouncil held !eeting of two "inds one was ordinary !eetings which were
associated with executive business. Second was "nown as legislative, !eetings
which were for !a"ing laws H regulations. 7xecutive 4ouncil H egislative 4ouncil
were two ter!s used to indicate two separate functions of council.
o $ct introduced concept of porfolio syste!. )e!bers of 0.0. 4ouncil were !ade
incharge of separate depart!ents.
Develop!ent of 4ivil Services
'. Jarren Hastings !ade first atte!pt to separate $d!inistrative H 4o!!ercial branches. He
appointed 7uropean collectors H created nucleus of 4ivil Services.
*. Syste!atisation of 4ivil Services.
o 4ornawalis consolidated and syste!atiCed civil services.
o He 7uropeanised 4ivil Services.
o He fixed salary for collectors &s. 'A(( per !ense!.
@. )ove towards training institutes.
o .ort Jillia! 4ollege in '+(( by Jellesely.
o 7ast >ndia 4ollege at Hailisbury in '+(< to provide training for two years.
?. 4harter $ct of '+@@ introduced indea of co!petition.
o ,his was no!ination cu! co!petition.
A. ,hrough 4harter $ct of '+A@ 1o!ination was replaced by 4o!petition.
o $ co!!ittee under)acualy was constituted.
o $i! was to establish regulations regardin age Eualification, sub:ects etc.
<. 1ew at >ndian 4ivil Services $ct '+<' was passed and now it was "nown as >.4. Ss.
8. .irst >ndian to enter was 4ivil Services S.1. ,agore in '+<@;<?.
b. ,ill '+8' three >ndians selected.
i. S.1. #ane:i, -who ws re!oved fro! services for technical reasons/.
ii. &.4. Dutt
iii. #ihari al 0upta
$ll the three fro! #engal.
+. $ge li!it in 4ivil Service 7xa!was ** in '+AG then *' in '+<<, lowered to 'G by ytton in
'+88 raised to * in 'G+*.
G. Scholarship sche!e introduced in 'G<+ to give govt. assistance to talented >ndians for
ta"ing 7xa!.
D7V7OP)71, O. 4>V> S7&V>47S
'. Statutory 4ivil Service introduced in '+8+;8G by ytton.
o %nder this 'B<th of the total vacancies to be no!inated fro! high status >ndian
o )e!bers of this siervice had lower status H lower status H lower salary.
o ,his beca!e sub:ect to criticis!.
o $ithchison 4o!!ission '++< on 4ivil Services to reco!!ended for its abolition.
o .inally it was abolished in '++8;++.
*. $itchision 4o!!ission, '++< under ieutenant 0overnor -$itchison/ of Pun:ab by ord
Dufferin &eco!!endations;
o Statutory Service to be abolished.
o 7xa!ination to be held in #ritian only
o &eco!!endations for strengthening of Provincial Services.
@. >slington 4o!!ission, 'G'* by ord Harding.
o >t re:ected de!and for si!ulatenous exa! in ondon H >ndia.
?. 1ationalist de!and for >ndiansation of Services.
o Pressure of #ritish 0ovt. H si!ultaneous exa! began in 'G**.
A. ee 4o!!ission in 'G*? by ord &ading.
b. &eco!!endations
-i/ 7stablish!ent of Public 4o!!ission.
-ii/ >ncrease in Salary.
-iii/ Pensions for existing #ritish >.4.S. Officers.
<. Public Service 4o!!ission established at 4entre in 'G*<.
8. $ct of 'G@A provided for .ederal Public Service 4o!!ission H Provincial Public Service
Develop!ent of =udicuary
'. a. .irstatte!p by Jarren hastings to rerganiCe :udicial syste.
b. He created Diwani $dalat H .auCdari $dalat at district level.
c. He created Sadar Divani $dalat H Sadar 1i:a!at $dalat at 2ol"ata.
d. He atte!pted to codify both Hindu H)usli! aw.
e. >n '88< 4ode of 0entoo aw was prepared ; this was translation of )anus!riti.
f. Digest of Hidnu aw prepared by Jillia! =ones H 4olebroo" in '8G'.
g. He atte!pted to translate .atwa;i;$la!giri.
*. 4arnawallis for!ulated a 4ode in '8G@ called 4ornawalis 4ode which was a elaborate 4ode
of &egulations and which separated :udiciary and executive.
@. 7stablish!ent of Supre!e 4ourt in '88? at 2ol"ata. ,hen Supre!e 4ourt was established at
)u!bai in '+(( H at )u!bai in '+*@. .irst 4hief :ustice of 2ol"ata Supre!e 4ourt was
?. a. 4harter $ct of '+@@ provided the basis of constitution of aw 4o!!ission.
b. .irst aw 4o!!ission under )acauley by #entic". >t prepared >.P.4.
A. a. >ndian High 4ourt $ct passed in '+<'.
b. High 4ourts were established at 2ol"ata, )u!bai H 4hennai in '+<A.
<. a. $ct of 'G@A had provision for creation of .ederal 4ourt.
b. >t was established in 'G@8 with one 4hief =ustice of Supre!e 4ourt -.irst 4.=. of >ndia/.
8. a. &acial discri!ination was present in syste! of aw.
b. 7uropean #ritish sub:ect were under Supre!e 4ourt alone alone till '+@<.
c. ,his distinction H privilege was abolished in civil !atters in '+@A.
d. Privilege in cri!inal !atters re!ained in principle. ,hey could be tried by 7uropean
=udges H )agistrates only.
e. &ipon tried to abolish it in '++*;+@. f. 4.P. >lbert prepared a bill for this. ,hey was a strong
opposition and a co!pro!ise was struc".
g. $ccording to it they would be tried by =ury of which not less than half!e!bers would be
7uropans or $!ericans.
Develop!ent of .inance
'. .inancial centraliCation H creation of single fund in the hands of govt. of >ndia. i.e. &evenue
of >ndia as a single fund.
*. &ichard Stratechy was first to !a"e definite proposals for refor! of financial syste! in
@. a. )ayo6s resolution in '+8( was first step towards financial decentraliCation.
b. He fixed su! out of revenue of >ndia to be given to provinces for ad!inistration for
certain services li"e police, education, roads, Health, Prison.
?. a. 1ext i!portant !ove was ytton6s &esolution '+88.
b. >n this )ayo6s sche!e was enlarged.
c. )anage!ent of certain depts. transferred to provinces.
-i/ and &evenue, -ii/ 7xcise, -iii/ 0eneral $d!inistration
d. ytton handed over a part of revenue fro! these specific dept. to provinces.
A. a. Syste!was strengthen by &ipon6s resolution '++*.
b. He abolished syste! to fixed grants which were to be at the disposal of states.
c. He introduced new syste!; provinces to get entire inco!e fro! certain sources of
d. Provinces were to get fixed share of inco!e fro! other sources as well.
<. ,his was !ade Euasi;per!anent by 4urCon in 'G(?.
8. &oyal 4o!!ission on decentraliCation was constituted in 'G(8.
+. ,his syste! was !ade per!anent in 'G'* by ord Harding.
Develop!ent of ocal Self 0overn!ent
'. #eginning in Presidency towns even before the $ct of '+A+.
*. in '+<? a new policy was initiated under which there was provision for local self govt. ,his
was introduced by =ohn awrence. ,he ai! was basically to cope with financial crisis.
@. Other i!portant develop!ent in '+8( by ord )ayo through his fiancnail &esolution;this
resolution strengthen )unicipal institutions.
?. )unicipal 4orporations established between '+8* to '+8+ in Presidency towns.
A. )ost i!portant constribution by &ipon.
o &ipon6s resolution was in '++*.
o He focused upon principle of election H end of control fro!outside.
o 0reatest contribution was creation of Sub; Divisional #oards ,alu" #oards H District
<. ord )orlye, secretary of state too showed positive attitude towards local self govt.
8. %nder $ct of 'G'G, local self got. beca!e a transferred sub:ect but >ndian )inisters failed to
do a lot for it.
+. >nstitution of ocal Self 0overn!ent re!ained wea" >nstitution H re!ained basically a
presidency afair.
>!portant 4o!!ittees H 4o!!issioners
Headed by
.a!ine 4o!!
'++( .a!ine 4o!!ission
'++* Hunter 4o!!ission

ord &ipon 7ducation
4ivil Services
#ritish 4o!!ission
of the >14
'+G8 yall 4o!!ission =a!esd yall ord 7lgin
.or an elaborate into the cause of the
fa!ines which had occured in '++( under
'G(( .a!ine 4o!!ission )ac Donnel
.or enEuiry into the service drought
occurred in '+GG
Police 4o!!ission )on"cif
%nder the presidentship of Sir $ndrew
.raCer to inEuire into the police
ad!inistrative of province.
,o probe into the functioning of 2ol"ata
'G(< $rundel

Political &efor!s

Public Services
'G'8 Saddler 4o!!ission
,o enEuiry into the condition and
prospects of the %niversity of 2ol"ata
'G'G Hunter 4o!!ission

,o enEuire into the Pun:ab distrubances
'G*@ ee 4o!!ission ord ee
4ivil Services
'G*A S"een 4o!!ission
>ndianisation of $r!y
'G*+ #utler 4o!!ission
ord >rwin
&elations between the #ritish 0ovt. and
1ative States
'G*G Hartog 4o!!ission Philip ord >rwin 7ducation
'G?? Sargent 4o!!ission =ohn Sargent

>ndian 1ational )ove!ent
OrganiCation .ounder Place 9ear
andholder6s Society Ta!andari $ssociation Dwara"anath ,agore 2ol"ata '+@8
>ndian 1ational %nion $.O. Hu!e 2ol"ata '++@
#engal #ritish >ndiaSociety 0eorge ,ho!pson 2ol"ata '+?@
#ritish >ndia $ssociation Devendra 1ath ,agore 2ol"ata '+A'
)adras 1ative $ssociation

4hennai '+A*
#o!bay $ssociaiton =aganath Shan"ershet )u!bai '+A*
7ast >ndia $sociation Dada #hai 1auro:i ondon '+<<
Poona Sarva:ani" Sabha ).0. &ande, 0.V.=oshi Poona '+8(
>ndian $ssociation S.1. #ener:ee, $. ). #ose 2ol"ata '+8<
)adras)aha:an Sabha
). Viraraghavachari, 0. Subraha!ya
>yer, $nada 4harlu
4hennai '++?
#o!bay President $ssociation
PheroCshan)ehta, 2.,. ,elang,
#adruddin $yab:i
)u!bai '++A
>ndian Society $nand )ohan #ose ondon '+8*
#ritish >ndia Society Jillian ada! 2ol"ata '+@G
ondon >ndian Society
#adruddin ,yab:i, J.4.
#aner:ee, PheroCshah )ehta
ondon '+<A
1ational >ndian $ssociation )ary 4arpenter ondon '+<8
Decan $ssociaiton

1ational &epresentative 4o!!ittee

ondo '++@
.acts about congress
'. .oundation in '++A
*. ,he significance of $.O. Hu!e6s involve!ent was to re!ove official hostility.
@. ,he first Session at 0o"uldas ,e:pal Sans"rit 4ollege in )u!bai.
?. ,he first president was Jo!esh 4handra #anner:ee of #engal.
A. >t was attended by '(( !en of who! 8* were non;officials and were recongnised as
<. ,he founder!e!bers were PheroCshah)ehta, #adruddin ,ayab:i, J.4. #aner:ee,
&o!esh4handra Dutt Dada #hai 1aro:i etc.
8. >nitially it was na!ed >ndian 1ational %nion.
+. ,he na!e >ndian 1ational 4ongress was onthe suggestion of Dadabhai 1auro:i.
G. 7arlier Poona was selected for the venue, but it had to be shifted to )u!bai because of the
outbrea" of 4holera in Poona.
'(. ,he 0overnor;0eneral of >ndia at the ti!e of its foundaiton was ord Dufferin.
''. $!ong the classes, the educated !iddle class had the largest share in the beginning.
'*. ,he legal profession was !ost heavilyrepresented a!ong the professions.
'@. ,he #rah!ins a!ong the castes were co!paratively large in nu!ber.
'?. $!ong the provinces, )u!bai, 2ol"ata and 4hennai too" the leading part.
'A. anded classes and the !asses were absent.
'<. .oundation of M#ritish 4o!!ittee of the 4ongressN in '++G by Dada #hai 1auro:i, $.O. Hu!e
and Jillia! Jedderburn to influence #ritish Public opinion at ondon.
'8. Dada #hai started the :ournal 5>ndia6 in '+G(.
9ear Venue President &e!ar"
'++A )u!bai J.4.#anner:ee 8*delegates
'++< 2ol"ata Dadabhai 1aro:i ?@<delegates
'++8 4hennai #adruddin ,yab:i .irst )usli! President
'+++ $llahabad 0eorge 9ule .irst 7nglish President
'++G )u!bai Sir Jillia! Jedderbu! '++G delegates
'+G* $llahabad J.4. 1ann:er:ee

'+GA Poona Surendranath #anner:i

'G(A ahore 0.2. 0o"hale

'G(< 2ol"ata Dadabhai 1aro:i

'G(8 Surat &ahbehari 0hosh
0ongress split and
session bro"e up
'G(+ 4hennai &ashbehari 0hosh
$ constitution for the
'G'A )u!bai Sir S.P. Sinha

'G'< uc"now $.4.)a:u!dar
4ongress )erger and
Pact with)usli!eague
'G'8 2ol"ata )rs. $nnie #esant .irst Jo!an president
'G*( 1agpur 4. Vi:aya &aghavachariyar
4hange the constitution
the 4ongress
'G** 0aya 4.&. Das
.or!ation of Swara:
'G*? #egaon )ahat!a 0andhi .irst >ndian President
'G*A 4awnpore )rs. Saro:ini 1aidu

'G*8 4hennai ).$. $nsari
>ndependence &esolution Passed for
the first ti!e on the instance of =.. 1ehru
'G*+ 2ol"ata )otilal 1ehru .irst $ll >ndia 9outh 0ongress
'G*G ahore =awaharlal 1ehru Poona Swara: &esolution
'G@' 2arachi Vallabhbhai Patel
&esolution on .unda!ental &ights and
1ational 7cono!ic Policy
'G@? )u!bai &a:endra Prasad
.or!ation of 4ongress
Socialist party
'G@< uc"now =awaharlal 1ehru

'G@8 .aiCpur =awaharlal 1ehru
.irst session to be held
in a village
'G@+ Haripura
Subhash 4handra
'G@G ,ripuri Subhash 4handra #ose
&esignation of S.4. #ose -&a:endra Prasad too"
ov er/ and for!ation of powerd #loc"
'G?< )eerut =awahar al 1ehru


=.#. 2riplani

'. State of #engal co!prising #engal proper, $ssa!, #ihar and Orissa with capital at 2ol"ata.
*. Sepration of $ssa!and creation of a new state with $ssa! and Sylhet in '+8?.
@. Partition of#engal in 'G(A by ord 4ruCon;two separate states were created.
o #engal co!prising Jestern part of #engal, #ihar and Orissa with capital of 2ol"ata.
o 7ast #engal and $ssa!with capital at Dacca co!prising the 4hitagon,Dacca and
&a:shahi division, Hill ,ippera -,ripura/, )alda and $ssa!.
?. $nnul!ent of the partition of #engal in 'G''; intergration of Jest and 7ast #engal and
creation of three separate states.
o #engal 4o!prising Jest and 7ast #engal.
o $ssa!
o #ihar and Orissa
A. Separation of #ihar and Orissa in 'G@A.
Partition of #engal and Swadesh )ove!ent
'. ,hough publicly "nown since 'G(@, this was announced on =uly 'G, 'G(A.
*. )otive of partition was totally political as as in clearl fro! what H.&. &isley, the then Ho!e
Secretary, wrote;N#engal united iis a power, #engal divided will pull in several different
@. 4all for Swadeshi )ove!ent against partition was !ade orr $ugust 8, 'G(A in a!eeting
held at 2ol"ata ,own Hall where boycott resolution was passed.
?. Partition of #engal was effected in October '<, 'G(A.
A. ,he 4ongress supported the boycott !ove!ent only for #engal at its #earas session -'G(A/
which was presided by0.2. 0o"hle. 7xtre!ists in the 4ongress wanted it to be extended to
other parts also.
<. >n 'G(< sessional 2ol"ata, Dadabhai 1aaoro:i decleared the ai!of the 4ongress MSwara: li"e
that of %.2. or 4oloniesN. .our co!pro!ise resolution was also passed at this sessionD
a. Swadeshi
b. #oycott
c. 1ational 7ducation and
d. Self;0overn!ent.
,ila" gave a call MSwara: is !y birth right and > shall have itN
>!portant Euotes about Swadeshi.
o ,ila"D MSwara: or self;govern!ent is essential for theexercise of Swadhar!a.
Jithout Swara: there could be no social refor!, no industrial progess, no useful
education, no fulfill!ent of national life.
o #.4. PalDM>t is not refor!but re;for!, which is the new city in the countryN.
o $urobindo 0hoseDMSwara: is the fulfill!ent of the ancient life of >ndia under
!odern conditions. ,he return of Satyuga of national greatnessN Political freedo! is
the flife breath of national life.
o ala a:pat &aiD M$ !an without souls is a !ere ani!al. $ nation without a soul is
only a du!b driven cattle.
>ndigenous organiCations is various fields developed to sustain swadeshi call.
o #engal 1ational 4ollege was established.
o #engal 4ouncil of 1ational 7ducation headedby 0uroodas #aner:ee.
o Panchaiapa 1ational 4ollege;4hennai.
o #engal 4he!ical .actory established by $charya P.4. &ay.
,agore wrote M$!ar Sonar #anglaN
,o !ar" the Hindu;)usli! unity &a"sha #andhan was celebrated on the day of Partition.
1anda al #ose beca!e the first receipt of scholarship of effered by >ndian Society of
Oriental $rt, set up in 'G((8.
Surat split in 'G(8. ,he !oderates do!inated the session and the extre!ists were ousted.
eader of )oderates was .iroC Shah )ehta. President of this session was &as #ehari #ose.
>ndian 1ational )ove!ent
OrganiCation .ounder Place 9ear
andholder6s Society Ta!andari $ssociation Dwara"anath ,agore 2ol"ata '+@8
>ndian 1ational %nion $.O. Hu!e 2ol"ata '++@
#engal #ritish >ndiaSociety 0eorge ,ho!pson 2ol"ata '+?@
#ritish >ndia $ssociation Devendra 1ath ,agore 2ol"ata '+A'
)adras 1ative $ssociation

4hennai '+A*
#o!bay $ssociaiton =aganath Shan"ershet )u!bai '+A*
7ast >ndia $sociation Dada #hai 1auro:i ondon '+<<
Poona Sarva:ani" Sabha ).0. &ande, 0.V.=oshi Poona '+8(
>ndian $ssociation S.1. #ener:ee, $. ). #ose 2ol"ata '+8<
)adras)aha:an Sabha
). Viraraghavachari, 0. Subraha!ya
>yer, $nada 4harlu
4hennai '++?
#o!bay President $ssociation
PheroCshan)ehta, 2.,. ,elang,
#adruddin $yab:i
)u!bai '++A
>ndian Society $nand )ohan #ose ondon '+8*
#ritish >ndia Society Jillian ada! 2ol"ata '+@G
ondon >ndian Society
#adruddin ,yab:i, J.4.
#aner:ee, PheroCshah )ehta
ondon '+<A
1ational >ndian $ssociation )ary 4arpenter ondon '+<8
Decan $ssociaiton

1ational &epresentative 4o!!ittee

ondo '++@
.acts about congress
'. .oundation in '++A
*. ,he significance of $.O. Hu!e6s involve!ent was to re!ove official hostility.
@. ,he first Session at 0o"uldas ,e:pal Sans"rit 4ollege in )u!bai.
?. ,he first president was Jo!esh 4handra #anner:ee of #engal.
A. >t was attended by '(( !en of who! 8* were non;officials and were recongnised as
<. ,he founder!e!bers were PheroCshah)ehta, #adruddin ,ayab:i, J.4. #aner:ee,
&o!esh4handra Dutt Dada #hai 1aro:i etc.
8. >nitially it was na!ed >ndian 1ational %nion.
+. ,he na!e >ndian 1ational 4ongress was onthe suggestion of Dadabhai 1auro:i.
G. 7arlier Poona was selected for the venue, but it had to be shifted to )u!bai because of the
outbrea" of 4holera in Poona.
'(. ,he 0overnor;0eneral of >ndia at the ti!e of its foundaiton was ord Dufferin.
''. $!ong the classes, the educated !iddle class had the largest share in the beginning.
'*. ,he legal profession was !ost heavilyrepresented a!ong the professions.
'@. ,he #rah!ins a!ong the castes were co!paratively large in nu!ber.
'?. $!ong the provinces, )u!bai, 2ol"ata and 4hennai too" the leading part.
'A. anded classes and the !asses were absent.
'<. .oundation of M#ritish 4o!!ittee of the 4ongressN in '++G by Dada #hai 1auro:i, $.O. Hu!e
and Jillia! Jedderburn to influence #ritish Public opinion at ondon.
'8. Dada #hai started the :ournal 5>ndia6 in '+G(.
9ear Venue President &e!ar"
'++A )u!bai J.4.#anner:ee 8*delegates
'++< 2ol"ata Dadabhai 1aro:i ?@<delegates
'++8 4hennai #adruddin ,yab:i .irst )usli! President
'+++ $llahabad 0eorge 9ule .irst 7nglish President
'++G )u!bai Sir Jillia! Jedderbu! '++G delegates
'+G* $llahabad J.4. 1ann:er:ee

'+GA Poona Surendranath #anner:i

'G(A ahore 0.2. 0o"hale

'G(< 2ol"ata Dadabhai 1aro:i

'G(8 Surat &ahbehari 0hosh
0ongress split and
session bro"e up
'G(+ 4hennai &ashbehari 0hosh
$ constitution for the
'G'A )u!bai Sir S.P. Sinha

'G'< uc"now $.4.)a:u!dar
4ongress )erger and
Pact with)usli!eague
'G'8 2ol"ata )rs. $nnie #esant .irst Jo!an president
'G*( 1agpur 4. Vi:aya &aghavachariyar
4hange the constitution
the 4ongress
'G** 0aya 4.&. Das
.or!ation of Swara:
'G*? #egaon )ahat!a 0andhi .irst >ndian President
'G*A 4awnpore )rs. Saro:ini 1aidu

'G*8 4hennai ).$. $nsari
>ndependence &esolution Passed for
the first ti!e on the instance of =.. 1ehru
'G*+ 2ol"ata )otilal 1ehru .irst $ll >ndia 9outh 0ongress
'G*G ahore =awaharlal 1ehru Poona Swara: &esolution
'G@' 2arachi Vallabhbhai Patel
&esolution on .unda!ental &ights and
1ational 7cono!ic Policy
'G@? )u!bai &a:endra Prasad
.or!ation of 4ongress
Socialist party
'G@< uc"now =awaharlal 1ehru

'G@8 .aiCpur =awaharlal 1ehru
.irst session to be held
in a village
'G@+ Haripura
Subhash 4handra
'G@G ,ripuri Subhash 4handra #ose
&esignation of S.4. #ose -&a:endra Prasad too"
ov er/ and for!ation of powerd #loc"
'G?< )eerut =awahar al 1ehru


=.#. 2riplani

'. State of #engal co!prising #engal proper, $ssa!, #ihar and Orissa with capital at 2ol"ata.
*. Sepration of $ssa!and creation of a new state with $ssa! and Sylhet in '+8?.
@. Partition of#engal in 'G(A by ord 4ruCon;two separate states were created.
o #engal co!prising Jestern part of #engal, #ihar and Orissa with capital of 2ol"ata.
o 7ast #engal and $ssa!with capital at Dacca co!prising the 4hitagon,Dacca and
&a:shahi division, Hill ,ippera -,ripura/, )alda and $ssa!.
?. $nnul!ent of the partition of #engal in 'G''; intergration of Jest and 7ast #engal and
creation of three separate states.
o #engal 4o!prising Jest and 7ast #engal.
o $ssa!
o #ihar and Orissa
A. Separation of #ihar and Orissa in 'G@A.
Partition of #engal and Swadesh )ove!ent
'. ,hough publicly "nown since 'G(@, this was announced on =uly 'G, 'G(A.
*. )otive of partition was totally political as as in clearl fro! what H.&. &isley, the then Ho!e
Secretary, wrote;N#engal united iis a power, #engal divided will pull in several different
@. 4all for Swadeshi )ove!ent against partition was !ade orr $ugust 8, 'G(A in a!eeting
held at 2ol"ata ,own Hall where boycott resolution was passed.
?. Partition of #engal was effected in October '<, 'G(A.
A. ,he 4ongress supported the boycott !ove!ent only for #engal at its #earas session -'G(A/
which was presided by0.2. 0o"hle. 7xtre!ists in the 4ongress wanted it to be extended to
other parts also.
<. >n 'G(< sessional 2ol"ata, Dadabhai 1aaoro:i decleared the ai!of the 4ongress MSwara: li"e
that of %.2. or 4oloniesN. .our co!pro!ise resolution was also passed at this sessionD
a. Swadeshi
b. #oycott
c. 1ational 7ducation and
d. Self;0overn!ent.
,ila" gave a call MSwara: is !y birth right and > shall have itN
>!portant Euotes about Swadeshi.
o ,ila"D MSwara: or self;govern!ent is essential for theexercise of Swadhar!a.
Jithout Swara: there could be no social refor!, no industrial progess, no useful
education, no fulfill!ent of national life.
o #.4. PalDM>t is not refor!but re;for!, which is the new city in the countryN.
o $urobindo 0hoseDMSwara: is the fulfill!ent of the ancient life of >ndia under
!odern conditions. ,he return of Satyuga of national greatnessN Political freedo! is
the flife breath of national life.
o ala a:pat &aiD M$ !an without souls is a !ere ani!al. $ nation without a soul is
only a du!b driven cattle.
>ndigenous organiCations is various fields developed to sustain swadeshi call.
o #engal 1ational 4ollege was established.
o #engal 4ouncil of 1ational 7ducation headedby 0uroodas #aner:ee.
o Panchaiapa 1ational 4ollege;4hennai.
o #engal 4he!ical .actory established by $charya P.4. &ay.
,agore wrote M$!ar Sonar #anglaN
,o !ar" the Hindu;)usli! unity &a"sha #andhan was celebrated on the day of Partition.
1anda al #ose beca!e the first receipt of scholarship of effered by >ndian Society of
Oriental $rt, set up in 'G((8.
Surat split in 'G(8. ,he !oderates do!inated the session and the extre!ists were ousted.
eader of )oderates was .iroC Shah )ehta. President of this session was &as #ehari #ose.
>ndian left !ove!ent : So!e facts
'. >n the late 'G*(s and 'G@(s powerful leftwing group developed in >ndia contributing to the
radicaliCation of the >ndian 1ational )ove!ent. $long with the political goals, it acEuired a
clearer and sharper econo!ic and social content. Socialis! beca!e an accepted creed
a!ong the >ndian youths and there e!erged two powerful left parties, the 4o!!unist Party
of >ndia and the 4ongress Socialist Party.
*. >ncentive fro! the #olshevi" &evolution of 'G'8 in &ussia dissatisfaction of the youth fro!
abrupt suspension of the 1on;cooperation )ove!ent and alternate Swara: party
Progra!!es and propagation and propagation by so!e of the nationalist.
@. >n )u!bai S.$. Dange brought out a pa!plet. 0andhi and enin -first socialist wee"ly.
?. >n #engal )uCCafar $h!ad brought;1avyuga and later founded angal in cooperation which
1aCrul >sla!.
A. >n Pun:ab, >nEuilab was published by 0hula! Hussain and others.
<. >n 4hennai labour 2rishna gaCette was published by ). Singaravelau.
8. $!ong the congress the left group represented by :awaharlal 1ehru who beca!e the
president of the congress in 'G@< and 'G@8 and Subhash #ose who too was President in
'G@+ and 'G@G reflectingthefar reaching influence of the left ideologies whithin the
+. >n 'G*8, =awahar al 1ehru attended #russels congress of the Oppressed 1ationalities and
visited to Soviet %nion.
G. >n 'G*+, 1ehru with Subash #ose organiCed >ndependence for >ndia eague to fight for
co!plete independence.
'(. 'G*', ).1. &oy founded ,he 4o!!unist Party of >ndia at ,ash"ant -Soviet %nion/.
''. >n Sept. 'G*?, independent of the above, Satyabha"ta 0hate founded the 4o!!unist Party
of >ndia at 2anpur.
'*. >n 'G*A, abour Swara: Party of the congress was founded in #engal by )aCaffar $h!ad,
IuaCi naCrul >sla! and He!an" 2u!ar Sar"er.
o >n 'G*<, 4ongress abour Party was founded in )u!bai.
o >n 'G*<, 2irti 2isan Party of Hindustan was founded in 4hennai.
o >n 'G*+, Jor"ers and Peasants Party was founded.
'@. ,hree conspiracy cases against the co!!unists;
o Peshawar conspiracy ,rial 'G**;*@
o 2anpur conspiracy ,rial 'G*?
o )eerut conspiracy ,rial 'G*G;@@
o .or!ation of 4entral Defence 4o!!ittee by the congress wor"ing co!!ittee. ,he
case pleaded by =.. 1ehru 2.). 2at:u and ..H. $nsari.
'?. >n 'G?< the 4P> put before the cabinet !ission a plan of division of >ndia into '8 separate
states on the !odel of bal"ans or %SS&.
o >n =uly 'G@' #ihar Socialist Party was founded by =aipra"ash 1arayan, Phulan
Prasad Var!a, etc.
o >n Sept. 'G@@;Pun:ab Socialist Party was founded.
o >n Oct. 'G@?, $ll >ndia 4ongress Socialist Party was founded in )u!bai by 1.Dev,
=aipra"ash 1arayan and )inoo )asani. ,he socialistic than the other left group in
>ndia. >t sacrificed its theoretical position and too" to realistic position close to
1ehruK >t was not anticongress but was to strengehn it. >t conde!ned the 'G@A $ct,
supported Euit >ndia )ove!ent. >t was not in favour of negotiated settle!ent for
transfor!ation of power.
'A. >n )arch, 'G@G, Subhash #ose founded the .orward #loc" after leaving the congress due to
dispute with 0andhi:i.
o >n 'G?( &evolutionary Socialist Party -&SP/ was founded which was closer to 4SP.
o >n 'G@G the #olshevi" Party of >ndia by 1. Dutta )aCu!dar.
o >n 'G?* the &evolutionary co!!unist Party of >ndia was founded by
Sou!yendranath ,agore.
o >n 'G?' the #olsevi" eninist Party was founded by >ndra Sen and $:it &oy.
o >n 'G?( ).1. &oy founded another party na!ed &adical De!ocratic Party.

#oo"s H =ournals
1a!e .ounder anguage $i! B 1ature
2udi $rasu 7.V. &a!aswa!y ,a!il De!ocracy for Dravidians
Socialist -#o!bay/ S.$. Dange

4o!!unist =ournal
abour Swara:aya Party -&ena!ed Peasants
H wor"ers Party/ 1aCrul >sla!, )uCaffar
$h!ed He!ant 2r. Sar"ar
#engali 4o!!unist =ournal
0anabani Do Do 4o!!unist =ournal
Jor"ers H Peasants Party -#o!bay/ S.S.
)ir:"ar, 2.). =ogele"ar, S.V. 0hate
)arathi Do
2irti Santo"h Singh -0hadarist/ Pun:ab
Disse!ina; tion of
revolution; ary spirit
Pather Sarat 4handra

#ible of revolutiona; ries
Dabi 4hatter:i

=ivan -#engal/
Sachin Sanyal

#ible of revolutiona;ries
Pa"htun 2han $bdul 0affar 2han

Political )onthly
Hari:an )ahat!a 0andhi

1ibandha; !ala Vishnu 2rishna 4hiplun"ar

,ahCid;$l; $"hlaE Sir Sayyad $h!ed 2han

iterary and Philoso; phical
1il;Darpan Dinbandhu )itra

On the !iserable
conditions of indigo
San:ivini 2rishna 2r. )itra

Jee"ly, suggested boycott
of #ritish goods first during
Swadeshi !ove!ent

1ew >ndia #ipin Pal

&evolution; ary 1ational;
#ande )atra!
)ada! 4a!a

)itra!ela Savar"ar #rothers


Pun:abi a:pat &ai

Sandhya #rah!obandhab #engali Do
-#engal/ %padhayaya

9ugantar -#engal/
#arinder 2u!ar 0hosh H
#hupendra 1ath Dutta
#engali Do
0ora &.1. ,agore #engali

0hare #aire &.1. ,agore #engali

#harat )ata
$:it Singh

,enets of the 1ew
#.0. ,ila"

)d. $li

$l;Hilal -4alcutta/ $bdul 2ala! $Cad

&owlatt Satyagraha;-'G'G/
$ll;>ndia Satyagraha organiCed by 0andhi over the passing of a blac" act, the &owlatt $ct ai!ing at
restricting the 4ivil rights of the >ndians. >t provided for detention without trial for a !axi!u! of
two years, a syste! of special courts etc. it was withdrawn following violence in $h!edabad.
.orests Satyagraha;-'G*';**/
Organised by 4ongress leaders over the issue of tax relaxation and forest;restriction at Polad in
0untur and &ayachoti in 4uddapah -$ndhra Pradesh/.
1agpur .lag Satyagraha;-'G*@/
OrganiCed against the prohibition on use of 4ongress .lag in certain areas of the city of 1agpur. >t
did not exhibit !uch vigour and ended in a co!pro!ise.
Vai"o! Satyagraha ; -'G*?;*A/
.irst Satyagraha organiCed over the issue of te!ple;entry in ,ravancore;an expresion of assertion
of rights of low caste 7xhavas and Ollyas. 4arried on under the leadership of ,.2. )adhavan and 2.
#ardoli Satyagraha;-'G*+/
OrganiCed by Vallabhbhai Patel at #ardoli -0u:arat/ against the @([ increase over the existing land
revenue -ater reduced to *'.G8[/.&esulted in the reduction of land revenue to <.@[.
Dharsana Satyagraha ; -'G@(/
Organised by Saro:ini 1aidu, >!a! Saheb and )ani"lal 1aidu during the 4ivil Disobedience

&evolutionary ,erroris!
• $ whole generation of nationalist youth were attracted to revolutionary terroris! because
they were angered by repression
• 4onvinced of the futility of the !oderate path.
• >!patient with the inability of the extre!ists to either extract i!!ediate concessions fro!
the govern!ent or to achieve full scale !obilisation of !asses.
• '+G8 4hape"ar brothers of Poona;Da!odar and #al"rishna;assassinated two #ritish
• #y 'G(?, V.D. Savar"ar and his brother 0anesh organised )itra!ela and $bhinav #harat as
secret, societies. ,hey were co;accused in 1asi" and 0walior conspiracy cases.
• ,he revolutionary trend was launched in $pril 'G(+, by 2hudira! #ose and Prafulla 4ha"i
when they threw a bo!b on 2ingsford.
• $rushilan and 9ugantar Sa!ities spearheaded revolutionary activities.
• >n )adras, Vanchi $ivar of the #harata )atha $ssociation assassinated a #ritish officer.
• >n ondon )adan al Dhingra "illed 4urCon Jylie, an >ndia Office official.
• Hindu $ssociation in Portland later changed its na!e to Hindustan 0hadar Party.
• ,he 0hadar paper carried the inscription $ngreCi &a: "a Dush!an.
• ,he front page of each issue of 0hada carried the slogan $ngreCi &a: "i 2acha 4hittha.
• $n atte!pt was !ade to defy 4anadian i!!igration laws which forbade entry to all except
those who !ade a 5direct passage in their ship6. 0urdit Singh, chartered a ship 2o!agata
)aru and with @8< >ndians it set for Vancouver.
• Ti!!eran Plan was for!ulated by Virendranath 4hattopadhya, #hupen Datta and ala
&evolutionary ,erroris! ; Phase >>
• Sachin Sanyal, =ogesh 4hatter:ee and &a!prasad #is!il founded Hindustan &epublican
$r!y -H&$/ at 2anpur in October 'G*?.
• H&$ ai!ed at organising an ar!ed revolution and establishing a .ederal &epublic of the
%S$ with a govern!ent elected on the basis of adult franchise.
• Sachin Sanyal wrote 5#andi =ivan6.
• =atin Das -Sept. 'G*G/ died after a prolonged fast of sixty three daysin :ail.
• Hindustan Socialist &epublican $ssociation -HS&$/ was founded in Septe!ber, 'G*+ at
.eroC Shah 2otla, Delhi under the leadership of 4handrashe"har$Cad. ,hey were also
influenced socialist ideas.
• #hagat Singh and #.2. Dutt threw bo!bs in the 4entral egislative $sse!bly on + $pril
'G*G to protestagainst the passage of the Public Safety #ill and the ,rade Disputes #ill. ,he
ob:ectives was not to "ill but to !a"e the deaf hear.
• #hagat Singh wroteK Jhy > a! $n $theist.
• $fter raiding 4hittagong $r!ory Surya Sen proclai!ed the for!ation of Provisional
&evolutionary 0overn!ent of the >ndian &epublication $r!y which fought at =alalabad.
• ,wo school girls of 4o!illa, Santi 0hosh and Suniti 4howdhary, shot dead the D), )r.
• 2alpana Datta was arrested and tried along with Surya Sen.
Person $ssociated with &evolutionary ,erroris!
V.D. Savar"ar 'G(? -a/ 7stablish!ent of $bhinav #harat

'+GG -b/ .oundation of )itra!ela in )aharashtra
Da!odar 4hape"ar and
$ssassination of t. $yerst and
)r. &and at Poona
Shya!:ee 2rishnaver!a and ).
. Dhingra
-a/ >ndia House of ondon.
-b/ >ndian House rule Society in ondon
Prafulla 4ha"i and 2hudira!
,hrown up bo!b on 2ingsford the :udge of )uCaffarpur,
who escaped unhurt
)adanlal Dhingra 'G(G $ssassination of 4urCon;Jillie in ondon
Hardayal and Sohan Singh
'G'@ .oundation of 0hadar Party in San;.rancisco, %S$.
#arinder 2u!ar 0hosh and
#hupendra Dutta
%nsucessful atte!pt of the !urder of t. 0overnor .uler of
Jest #engal
)ada! 4a!a
-a/ .oundation of Paris Society in Paris >ndia
-b/ -b/ .oundation of >ndependent >ndia Society
-c/ Publication of #ande )atra!
,ara"nath Das 'G(G .oundation of >ndian >ndependent eague
Vanchi $yyer 'G''
-a/ )urder of District )agistrate of ,irunavalli -b/ >ndia
)other $ssociation
&asbihari #ose 'G'*
-a/ )urder of ord at Delhi Harding at the ti!e of his
)ahendra Pratap 'G'A .or!ation of #ar"utullal and State
$bdulla Sindhi

0overn!ent of >ndependent >ndia in 2abul.
=atin )u"her:ee

,o capture .ort Jillia! situated on the #an" of the&iver
#uri #ala! in #alasore-Orissa/.
=ogesh 4hatter:ee 'G*? .oundation of Hindustan &epublican$ssociation
S.1. Sanyal 'G*? .oundation of Hindustan &epublican $ssociation
Virendra 1ath

.oundation of 4hattopadhya >ndependent

.oundation of Pillai >ndian 1ational Party

.oundation of )u"her:ee 9ugantar Party
2artar Singh
Sarbha 0opinath
Planning of
)urder of Police Saha 4o!!issioner of ,egrat in 2ol"ata
#hagat Singh, 'G*+
.oundation of =atinder 1ath $:ay Hindustan 0hosh,
.annindra Socialist
1ath 0hose

&epublican $r!y =atindra 1ath Das ahore 4onspiracy
ala Hardyal 'G'@ .oundation of 0adar Party
Vipin 4handrapal
%dda! Singh
.oundation of #ande )atra! )urder of Sir )ichal;o;Dyer
in ondon
&a! Prasad #is!il 'G*?
-a/ .oundation of
-b/ Hindustan
-c/ &epublican
-d/ $ssociation

'G*A -b/ 2a"ori 4onspiracy
$shaf"ulla 'G*A 2a"ori 4onspiracy
&oshan al 'G*A 2a"ori 4onspiracy
Surya Sen 'G@( 4hittagong 4onspiracy
4handrashe"har 'G@*
-a/ Self Shooting during the encounter with the Police at
$lfred Par" at $llahabad
$Cad 'G*+
-b/ Hindustan
#hagat Singh 'G*+ -a/ 2illing of Saunder

-b/ ,hrowing of a bo!b in the central egislative

-c/ Pun:ab
1au:awan #harat
&a: 0uru 'G*+ 2illing of Saunders
#atu"eshwar Dutta 'G*G
,hrowing of a
bo!b in the
=atin Das 'G*G
<? days Hunger

abour )ove!ent
'. ,he earliest labour leaders were Sasipada #aner:ee of #engal, S.S. #engalee of )u!baiand 1.).
o"handay of )u!bai.
*. .irst labour organiCation was Jor"ing )en6s4lub founded in '+8( by Sasipada #aner:ee at
2ol"ata. Sasipada #aner:ee published the :ournal #harat Sra!:eevi.
@. 1.). o"handav could be regarded as the first leader of the >ndian wor"ers. >n '+G( hefounded
)u!bai )ill hands $ssociation and protested against the poor conditions in the factories. He
published the :ournal Dinbandhu.
?. Other i!portant wor"ers organiCation were the 2a!gar Hitavardha" Sabhan -'G(G/, the Social
Service eague -'G''/, $!alga!ated Society of &ailway Servants of >ndia -'+G8/, Printers %nion of
2ol"ata -'G(A/ Postal %nion in)u!bai.
A. ,he 4hennai abour %nion, founded in 'G'+by #.P.Jadia was perhaps the first trade union
organiCation of >ndian on !odern lines.
<. On Oct. @', 'G*( $ll >ndia ,rade %nion 4ongress -$>,%4/, which was influenced by the Social
De!ocratic ideas of #ritish labour party. >t was also influenced by !oderates li"e 1.).=oshi.
8. ,he first session of $>,%4 was held in )u!bai. ala a:pat &ai was the President H Dewa! 4ha!
al was the Secretary.
+. .irst session was attended by 4.&. Das, V.V. 0iri, =.. 1ehru, S.4. #ose, Saro:ini 1aidu, Satya!urti
and 4... $ndrew.
G. 0andhi founded $h!edabad ,extile abour $ssociation also "nown as )a:dur )aha:an in'G'+;
'(. $ 0iri 2a!gar )aha!andal was founded by $.$. $lve and 0.&. 2asle in )u!bai. ,his e!erged
as 0irni 2a!gar %nion in 'G*+ under theco!!unists.
''. Split too" place in $>,%4 in 'G*G session which was presided over by =.. 1ehru over the issue
of affiliation and issue of boycott of royal co!!ission on labour.
'*. >n 'G*G $>,%4 was divided into two groups.
• ,he &efor!ers called 0eneva $!sterdu! 0roup, which wanted affiliation with the
>nternational .ederation of ,rade %nions.
• ,he &evolutionary or )oscovite 0roup which wanted affiliation with &ed abour %nion
• $>,%4 was affiliated to pan;pacific secretariate and to the ,hird >nternational.
'@. >n protest 1.). =oshi withdrew and for!ed $ll >ndia ,rade %nion .ederation in 'G*G. V.V. 0iri
was its first president.
'?. Second split too" place in 'G@' and &ed ,rade %nion 4ongress was founded.
'A. >n 'G@@, 1.). =oshi H &.&. #a"hle founded 1ational ,rade %nion .ederation.
'<. %nity was restored in $>,%4 in 'G?(.
'8. $ pro;govern!ent %nion was founded >ndian.ederation of abour.
'+. >ndian 1ational ,rade %nion 4ongress was founded in 'G?? by 1ationalist leaders led by Sardar
Vallabhabhai Patel.
abour aws Passed During the #ritish Period .irst .actory $ct, '++'
• 4o!!ission for this purpose was constituted in '+8?.
• Prohibition of 4hild abour below 8 yrs.
• .encing of dangerous !achinery.
• Jor"ing hours fixed for child below '* yrs.
Second .actory $ct, '+G'
• 4o!!ission for this purpose constituted in'++?.
• Prohibition of child labour below G yrs.
• Jor"ing hours fixed for 4hild below '? yrs.
• &ecess of ''B* yrs.
• Jee"ly holiday for wo!en labour.
.actories $ct of 'G(G H 'G''.
• Sa!e laws were enacted or =ute>ndustries.
>ndentured abour was $bolished in 'G**
• >t began in 'G@(
>ndian ,rade %nion $ct, 'G*@
• egal status was given to union.
• &ights of registered union was recognised.
,rade Dispute $ct, 'G*G
• Special courts were constituted for settling dispute.
• Stri"e was !ade illegal in publica utility services.
$ct of 'G@A
• abour constituencies were recogniCed.
• Provision for election labour representatives.
1ational Service Ordinance, 'G?(
• Duty to wor" was recogniCed.
• Protection was given to rights of wor"ers.
7ssential Services )aintenance Ordinane, 'G?'
• Prohibited e!ployers fro! dis!issing wor"ers without valid reasons.
abour 4onspiracy 4ases During the #ritish Period
8. Peshwar conspiracy, 'G**;*@.
+. 2anpur conspiracy, 'G*?.
• Dange, %s!ani, 1alini 0upta, ). $h!ed were involved.
G. )eerut conspiracy, 'G*G.
• @* 4o!!unists including @ #ritish Philip Sparts, #en #radely, ester Hutchins on were
• Dange, )uCaffar $h!ed, =ogel"ar, %s!ani etc. were involved.
'(. 2anpur wor"ers stri"e, 'G@8 onwards
• 2anpur abour 7nEuiry 4o!!itee under&. Prasad was constituted.
'G@8 : 7lection results
'. 4ongress had clear !a:ority in five provinces i.e. %nited Provinces -%.P./, #ihar, )adras,
4entral Provinces -4.P./, Orissa.
*. >n #engal, 1J.P, $ssa! and #o!bay, 4ongress e!erged as the single largest party.
@. ?+* seats were reserved as )usli! seats. ,he 4ongress contested A+ and could win only *<
?. )usli! eague could not win a single seat in 1J.P. >n Pun:ab it got only * of the +?
reserved seats.
A. 4ongress for!ed its own govern!ent in 8 provinces i.e. #o!bay, %P, )adras, Orrisa,
4entral Provinces, #ihar, 1J.P.
<. Si"andar Hayat 2han of %nionist party won in Pun:ab while #engal was won of .aClulhaE of
2risha" Pra:a Party.
o Haripura Session -.ebruary 'G@+/ declared Purna Swara: ideal to cover Princely
o ,ripuri 4ongress -)arch 'G@G/ favoured active participation in the Princely States
because of the federal structure of the 'G@A $ct and due to assu!ption of office by
the 4ongress after the 'G@8 elections.
o ,he ,ripuri Session witnessed #ose vs. Sitara!yya -0andhi6s no!inee/ conflict.
#ose resigned to for! the .orward #loc in 'G@G.
Iuit >ndia )ove!ent
'. ,he !eeting of 4ongress Jor"ing co!!ittee held on *8th $pril, 'G?* at $llahabad. >n this
!eeting the 4ongress criticiCe the policy of the #ritish 0overn!ent on war front.
*. On =uly, 'G?* the !eeting of 4ongress wor"ing co!!ittee held at Jardha. ,he 4ongress
as"ed the #ritish to Iuit >ndia.
@. On 8th $ugust, 'G?* the session of congress started in )u!bai. 0andhi presented the
historical proposals of MIuit >ndiaN on +th $ugust.
?. 0andhi gave the slogan MDo or DieN.
A. 0andhi and the !e!bers of 4ongress wor"ing co!!ittee were i!prisioned on Gth $ugust,
<. )ahat!a 0andhi was "ept in $gha 2han .ort at Poona and others were "ept in the .ort of
8. 4ongress was declared illegal.
+. ,his !ove!ent was directionless and leaderless.
G. >t is also "nown as $ugust;&evolution because it started in the !onth of $ugust.
'(. 4o!!unist Party of >ndia supported the #ritish 0overn!ent.
''. Dr. $!bed"ar opposed the !ove!ent.
'*. Princes "ept the!selves aloof.
'@. )erchants "ept the!selves aloof fro! this !ove!ent.
'?. Hindu )ahasabha also opposed this !ove!ent.
'A. andlords "ept the!selves aloof this !ove!ent.
'<. ,he Iuit >ndia )ove!ent.
o Jitnessed e!ergence of under ground !ove!ent. So!e pro!inent leaders who
participated wereD$chyut Patwardhan, $runa $saf $li, &a! )anohar ohia,
Sucheta 2riplani, #i:u Patnai" and =ai Pra"ash 1arayan.
o %sha )ehta established 4ongress &adio in )u!bai.
'8. Parallel 0overn!ents were established during this !ove!ent at #alia, Satara and ,a!lu".
'+. $ slogan MDivide and IuitN was given by )usli! eague in 'G?@ 2arachi Session.
'G. )usli! eague supported the govern!ent.
*(. 0andhi observed fast for *' days during his i!prison!ent to confir! his strung belief in
non;violence and for self purification.
*'. During i!prison!ent of 0andhi was personal secretary )ahadeo Desai and wife 2asturba
>ndian 1ational $r!y
'. &ashbehari #ose organiCed a conference in ,o"yo in )arch, 'G?*.
*. $nother conference in #an"o" in =une, 'G?*.
@. Out of these conference was born the >ndian >ndependence eague and a decision to for!
an >ndian 1ational $r!y for the iberation of >ndia.
?. ,he idea of >ndian 1ational $r!y was first conceived in )alaya in 'G?* by )ohan Singh an
>ndian Officer in #ritish $r!y who deserted and want to =apanese for help.
A. ,he >ndian prisoners of war handed over by the =apanese to )ohan Singh who recited the!
in >ndian 1ational $r!y.
<. ,a"en over and organiCed by S.4. #ose in 'G?@ in Singapore.
8. He set up headEuarters at Singapore and &angoon.
+. $nda!an and 1icobar was given to S.4. #ose and rena!ed Sahid and Swara: respectively.
G. $ttac" thorough the !ountaineous areas of #ur!a in .eb. ?, 'G??.
'(. Defeat of =apan shattering all hopes of >ndian 1ational $r!y and failure of its atte!pt to
launch a !ilitary attac" on #ritish >ndia.
''. ,rail of >ndian 1ational ar!y soldiers at &ed .ort in $ug. 'G?A.
'*. So!e pro!inent >1$ officers put on trail were gen. shah 1awaC, 0urdial Singh Dhillon,
Pre! Sehgal etc.
'@. 4ongress declared its support to >1$ soldiers at )u!bai session in Sept. 'G?A.
'?. Defence of the >1$ soilders ta"en up by #hulabhai Desai, ,e: #ahadur Sapru, 2.1. 2at:u, =..
1ehru and $saf $li.
'A. ,he #ritish 0overn!ent felt it expendient to set >1$ soldiers free.
,he Si!la 4onference, 'G?A
• Viceroy Javell called for Si!la 4onference -*? =une;'? =uly, 'G?A/ for setting up a new
7xecutive 4ouncil at the centre;practically >ndian in co!position;excepting the
4o!!ander;in;chief and Viceroy.
• ,he 4ouncil would have eEual representation fro! the 54aste;Hindus6 and )usli!s.
• ,he 4ongress refused to be treated as a 54aste Hindu6 body and sta"ed the right to select the
representatives of any co!!unity as the congress no!iness to the council.
• $bdul 2ala! $Cad and $bdul 0affar 2han went to Si!la as a 4ongress delegate.
• ,he eague wanted to be the sole Spo"es!an of >ndian )usli!s.
• eague de!anded a co!!unal vote by as"ing for a two;third !a:ority in the proposed
council on any decision opposed by the )usli! !e!bers -or eague !e!bers/.
• Javell dissolved the 4onference his action i!plied the eague is clai! to spea" for all
)usli!s was recogniCed. ,hereafter, the satisfaction of the eague beca!e a pre;reEuisite
to any !a:or settle!ent.
• Holding of new election for the >ndian legislatures in the winder of 'G?A;?< was announced.
7lections and the 4abinet )ission, 'G?<
• ,he eague, following the Si!la conference and dangling of the carrot of Pa"istan by the
#ritish was in favourable situation to deal with its separate )usli! electorate.
• ,he 4ongress won A8 out of '(* seats in the 4entral egislative $sse!bly and obtained
!a:orities in all provinces except Sind, Pun:ab and #engal.
• ,he eague polled +< percent of the )usli! votes and won all the @( )usli! seats in the
4entral egislative $sse!bly.
• eague lost 1J7P and $ssa! to 4ongress and failed to dislodge %nionists fro! Pun:ab.
• 4abinet )ission constituted of three #ritish 4abinet )e!bers.
• Pethric" awrence;Secretary of State for >ndia
• Staford 4ripps;President of the #oard of ,rade
• $.V. $lexander;.irst ord of $d!iral
• ,he )ission re:ected the de!and for a full;fledged Pa"istan -4o!prising the whole of all the
)usli! !a:ority areas/.
• ,he )ission reasoned that the right of co!!unal self;deter!ination, if conceded to
)usli!s, had also to be granted to the non;)usli!s who for!ed !a:orities in Jest #engal
and 7astern Pun:ab, as well as in $ssa! proper.
• ,he 5truncated6 or s!aller Pa"istan was unacceptable to the eague.
• ,he )ission offered the plan of a very loose union of all the >ndian territories under a centre
that would control !erely the defence, the .oreign $ffairs and the 4o!!unications, leaving
all other sub:ects to the existing provincial legislatures.
• ,he provincial legislatures would then elect a 4onstituent $sse!bly.
• ,he !e!bers so elected will didide up into three sections.
• Section $; 1on )usli! )a:ority provinces -#o!bay, %nited Provinces, #ihar, 4entral
Provinces, Orissa, )adras/
• Section #; )usli! )a:ority provinces in the north;west -Sind, 1orth Jestern .rontier
Province and Pun:ab/.
• Section 4; )usli! )a:ority provinces in 1orth east -#engal, $ssa!/.
• $ll these sections would have the authority to draw up provincial constitutions and even
group constitutions.
• ,he )ission proposed a short ter! !easure;the for!ation, i!!ediately, of an interi!
govern!ent at the centre constituted by !a:or political parties, andwith the >ndians holding
all the portfolios.
• $t the outset, both the 4ongress and eague were inclined to accept! but proble! soon
e!erged in =uly 'G?<.
• ,he eague interpreted the groupings to be co!pulsory. 1J.P -in #/ and $ssa! -in 4/
would be reduced to !inorities within their section. Hence, in future a wholeso!e Pa"istan
could beca!e a reality if Section # and Section 4 provinces so desired.
• ,he 4ongress wanted the grouping to be optional. >t opposed absence of any elected
!e!bers fro! the princely states in the 4onstituent $sse!bly.
• ,he 4ongress dropped its de!and for electing the !e!bers of 4onstituent $sse!bly on the
basis of %niversal $dult .eanchise.
• ,he 4o!!unal 4arnge $nd >nteri! 0overn!ent
• )usli! eague announced the Direct $ction Da yon '< $ugust 'G?<. Jidespread Hindu;
)usli! riots occurred throughout the country.
• $n interi! 0overn!ent in accordance with 4abinet )ission6s proposal at the centre ca!e
into existence in Septer!ber, 'G?<, when the 4ongress leaders for!ed a 4abinet under the
leadership of =awaharlal 1ehru. )usli! eague refused to :oin in intially.
• Javell persuaded the eague leaders to :oint on *< October 'G?<.
• ,he >nteri! govern!ent, obstructed by its eague !e!bers and bureaucracy was reduced
to a figure head and was unable to control the co!!unal carnage.
• ,he eague refused to participate in the 4onstituent $sse!bly which !et on G Dece!ber,
&oyal >ndian 1avy -&>1/ &evolt 'G?<
• On '+ .ebruary, 'G?<, the ratings of 5,alwar6 in #o!bay harbour went into hunger stri"e to
protest against bad food and worse racial arrogance.
• ,hey elected a 1aval 4entral 4o!!ittee headed by ).S. 2han and de!anded.
• &elease of the >1$ prisoners and freedo! of all other political prosoners.
• Jithdrawal of >ndian troops in >ndo;4hina and =ava.
• 7Eul pay for 7uropean and >ndian sailors ali"e.
• >n 2arachi, ratings of 5Hindustan6 revolted.
• Vallabhbhai Patel and =innah :ointly persuaded the ratings to surrender on *@rd .ebruary,
$tlee6s $nnounce!ent, 'G?8
• Pri!e )inister $tlee on *( .ebruary, 'G?8 announced that the #ritish would withdraw
fro! >ndia by @( =une, 'G?+ and that ord )ountbatten would replace Javell.
• ,he )usli! eague began a civil disobedience co!paign in Pun:ab to bring down the
coalition govern!ent headed by 2hiCr 2ayat 2han of the %nionist Party.
,he @rd =une Plan of )ountbatten
• ,he eague6s de!and would be acco!!odated by creating Pa"istan, but it would be !ade
as s!all as possible.
• )ountbatten supported the 4ongress stand that the princely states !ust not be given the
option of independence.
• )ountbatten considered it vital to retain the goodwill of the 4ongress.
• ,he Plan declared that power would be handed over by 'A $ugust 'G?8 on the basis of
do!inion status to >ndia and Pa"istan.
• ,he speed with which the country was partitioned enabled the #ritish to forsa"e of
responsibility for the worsening co!!unal situation.
,owards .reedo! -'G@G;'G?8/ 4hronology
'. On Septe!ber @, 'G@G the Second Jorld Jar bro"e out and the sa!e day the Viceroy
inlithgow, without consulting the >ndian people, declared >ndia to be a belligerent and at
war with 0er!any.
*. ,he 4ongress Jor"ing co!!ittee, which!et on Septe!ber +;'A, 'G@G, Stressed that the
issue of war and peace for >ndia !ust be decided by the >ndian people.
@. Jhen the #ritish 0overn!ent did not respond favourably, the 4ongress )inisters in the
Provinces to resignK they co!piled with the directive in October and 1ove!ber 'G@G.
?. $fter the resignation of the 4ongress )inisters the annual session of the 4ongress was held
at &a!garh -#ihar/ in )arch 'G?(, where the 4ongress offered to cooperate with the
#ritish 0overn!ent if a provisional 1ational 0overn!ent was set up at the centre.
A. >n response, the Viceroy ord inlithgow offered a set of proposals to the 4ongres for
securing its cooperation during the Jar, which are popularly "nown as the M$ugust offerN.
<. ,he 4ongress re:ected the M$ugust offerN =awaharlal 1ehru said that the whole idea of
Do!inion status, on which the offer was based, was Mas dead as a dorrnail.N
8. $ugust Offer
o Dissillusioned with the $ugust offer the 4ongress decided to launch >ndividual
o >t was launched on October, '8, 'G?(.
o ,he first Satyagrahis was Vinoba #have.
o )ahat!a 0andhi suspended it on Dece!ber '8, 'G?(.
o On =anuary A, 'G?', the ca!paign was started again.
+. 4ripps )ission
o ,he #ritish 0overn!ent decided to send Sir Stafford 4rips, a !e!ber of the #ritish
4abinet, to >ndia, to find out a solution in consultation with the >ndian leaders.
o Sir Stafford 4ripps spent three wee"s in >ndia -)arch;$pril 'G?*/.
G. ,he 4ongress Jor"ing 4o!!ittee, which !et at Jardha on =uly '?, 'G?* ratified the
Jardha &esolution.
'(. Jardha &esolution.
o ,he all >ndia 4ongress 4o!!ittee, which !et in )u!bai on $ugust 8, 'G?*, ratified
the Jardha &esolutio.
o >t sanctioned the non;violent !ass struggle under the leadership of 0andhi:i.
''. Javell Plan.
o On =une '?, 'G?A Javell broadcast a plan, popularly "nown as the Javell Plan.
o ,he essence of the plan was the for!ation of a new 7xecutive 4ouncil at the 4entre,
in which all but the Viceroy and the 4o!!ander;in;4hief would be >ndians.
o ,o consider these proposals and to Progress towards the for!ation of the proposed
7xecutive 4ouncil, a 4onference of *' >ndian Political leaders was invited to the
su!!er capital of Si!la in =une 'G?A.
o ,he leaders included )aulana $bul 2ala! $Cad, then the President of the 4ongress
).$. =innah the leader of the )usli! eague etc.
'*. 0eneral 7lections.
o ,he first step ta"en by the $ttlee 0overn!ent was to hold general elections in >ndia,
which had been held last in 'G@<.
o >n the election results announced in Dece!ber 'G?A, the 4ongress !ade its
presence felt in the 4entral egislative $sse!bly as also the Provincial egislatures.
o >n the 4entral $sse!bly, the 4ongress secured G'.@ percent votes in the 0eneral
4onstituenciesK the 2usli! eague won every )usli! seat.
o >n the Provincial egislature, the 4ongress won absolute !a:ority in )u!bai,
4hennai, %nited Provinces, #ihar, Orissa and 4entral Provinces.
o >n the Pun:ab a 4oalition 0overn!ent of the 4ongress, $"alis and the %nionists was
o ,he )usli! eague could secure !a:ority only in #engal and Sind.
'@. 1aval )utiny
o On .ebruary '+, 'G?<, a section of >ndians serving in the &oyal >ndian 1avy, "nown
as ratings -non;co!!issioned officers and sailors/ !utinied in )u!bai.
o ,hey went on hunger stri"e in protest against untold hardships regarding pay and
food and the !ost outrageous racial discri!ination, in particular derogatory
references to their national character.
'?. ,he 4abinet )ission, co!posed of #ritish 4abinet )inister;Six Pethic" awrence, the
Secretary of State for >ndia, Sir Staford 4ripps, President of the #oard of ,rade and $.V.
$lexander, .irst ord of the $d!irality;arrived in 1ew Delhi on )arch *?, 'G?<.
'A. 4abinet )ission announced its own reco!!endations on )ay '<, 'G?<.
'<. )usli! eague at first accepted the 4abinet )ission paln on =une <, 'G?< but on =uly *G
withdrew its acceptance and called upon )usli!s Mto resot to Direct $ction to achieve
'8. >nteri! 0overn!ent.
o ,he Viceroy ord Javell invited =awaharlal 1ehru, the leader of the largest party in
>ndia, to for! an >nteri! 0overn!ent, which was sworn in on Septe!ber *, 'G?<.
o >t was co!posed of '* !e!bers -including @ )usli!s/ no!inated by the 4ongress
with =awaharlal 1ehru as its Vice;President.
'+. 4onstituent $sse!bly !et for the first ti!e on Dece!ber <, 'G?< with Dr. &a:ender Prasad
as its President.
'G. ,ransfer of Power
o Pri!e )inister $ttlee announced on .ebruary *(, 'G?8, in the House of 4o!!ons,
that the #ritish would Euit >ndia after transferring power Minto responsible hands
not later than =une 'G?+N.
o $ttlee also announced the appoint!ent of ord )ountbatten a Viceroy in place of
ord Jevell. ord )ountbatten, the @?th and the last #ritish0overnor;0eneral and
Viceroy, arrived in >ndia on )arch **, 'G?8.
o ,he 4ongress leaders had also to consider the widespread co!!unal violence and
bloodshed that was ravaging the country, =innha6s unco!pro!ising attitude on the
issue of partition and the #ritish decision to transfer power as soon as possible.
*(. On =une @, 'G?8, Pri!e )inister $ttlee announced the Partition Plan or the =une @rd Plan in
the House of 4o!!ons.
*'. Partition Plan
o ,he 4ongress Jor"ing 4o!!ittee, which !et on =une @, 'G?8 approved of the
partition planK the $ll >ndia c4ongress 4o!!ittee, which !et in 1ew Dlehi on =une
'?;'A, ratified the approval.
o Pandit 0ovind Vallabh Pant, who !oved the resolution for ratificatio, said that Mthis
was the only way to achieve freedo! and liberty for the country.N
o Soon after partition was decided upon, the >ndian >ndependence #ill was drafted,
which wa]s passed by the #ritish Parlia!ent in =uly 'G?8.
,itles of So!e >!portant eaders
$bdul 0affar 2ahn
.rontier 0andhi, #adshah
#al 0angadhar ,ila" o"!anya
4... $ndrew Dinbandhu
4.&. Das Deshbandhu
4. &a:agopalachari &a:a:i
4hatherine )ary Heila!an )eera #ehn
Dada #hai 1auro:i 0rand Old )an
0oapal Hari Desh!u"h o"hitwadi
=.#. 2riplani $charya
=atin )u"her:ee #agha =atin
ala a:pat &ai Sher;i;Pun:ab
ala )unshi &a! Swa!i Shradhanand
ord &ipon &ipon, the Popular
).2. 0andhi
)ahat!a, -0iven by &.1.
,agore/ #apu
)argaret 1oble Sister 1ivedita
1arendra 1ath Dutt Swa!i Vive"anand
&abindra 1ath ,agore 0urudeo
&a:a &a! )ohan &oy .irst )odern )an
Saro:ini 1aidu #harat 2o"ila
Subhash 4hadra #ose 1eta:i
Vallabhai Patel Sardar, >ron )an
.oreign $ccounts -4hronologically/
'. Herodotu6s $ccounts ; 0ree" -?A?;?*A #4/ -He is "nown as father of History/.
*. 4tesia6s $ccounts ; 0ree" -?'<;@G+/ 4lesiar of 2tesias was a physician.
@. Periplus of the 7rythrean Sea ; 0ree" ; #y a 0ree" sailor who !ade a voyage to the >ndian
coast about $.d. He left a record of >ndian ports, Harbours and !erchandise ; 7rythraean
Sea. Description of trade in >ndian Ocean, $rabian Sea and &ed Sea.
?. 1ational History ; atin ; Pliny ; >n first century $.D. ; He wrote about >ndian ani!als, plants
and !inerals.
A. 0eoraphy ; 0ree" ; #y Ptole!y ; written in Second 4entury $D on scientific ti!es ; He gave
the shape of >ndia -li"e a "ite/.
<. 0eography ; #y Strabo ; Jritten in 0ree".
8. $ccounts of 4os!as ; >ndicopleustes ; Jrote about )ihir"ula.
+. .o;2wo;2i -,ravels of .ahien/ ; .ahien.
G. Si;yu;"i -#uddhist &ecords of the Jestern Jorld/ ; Hiuen ,sang ; He refers to )ihir"ula.
'(. ife of Hiuen ,sang ; Hwuili.
.acts about 4oinage
'. 4oins were introduced in >ndia in A(( #4.
*. ,hese early coins were "nown as Punch;!ar"ed coins bearing only a variety of sy!bols.
@. >ndo;0ree"s were first to introduce gold coins;they also initiated the practice of issuing
billignual coins;they were also first to issue coins which could be attributed to particular
"ings with certainly.
?. Portrait;coinage was introduced by >ndo;0ree"s.
A. 2ushans issued the purest gold coins.
<. 2adaphises > -2ushana/ issued gold coins which bore the i!ages of Shiva and 1andi bull.
8. Satvahanas issued coins in four !etals: silver, copper, potin, and lead -the last one being
+. ,he 0uptas issued the largest nu!ber of gold coins.
G. 0old coins of )d. 0hauri bore the i!age of goddess 2ali B a"sh!i on obverse and the na!e
of the ruler in 1agari script on reverse.
'(. )d. #in ,ughlaE introduced to"en currency of brass and copper on the !odel of 4hinese
currency 4H$O -in paper and sil"/.
''. $"bar6s gold !ohur bore the figures of Sita and &a! was called =allai
'*. ,he coins of Harihara > H #u""a > bore the i!age of Hanu!an li"e the coins of 2ada!ba
'@. ,he coins of 2rishnadevaraya bore the i!ages of Ven"atesh and #ala"rishna.
Various 4oin ,ypes
4hief copper coin weighing
@*@ grain introduced by
Shershah and continued by
)ughals, ?( Da!s was
eEual to ' rupee
4opper coin of Sultanate
4opper coin weighing *.*A
grain, Popular during the
)aurya period.
7arly coin type, the !ost
popular one, !ade of gold,
solver, copper and lead.
0old orna!ents used as
!ediu! of exchange.
Silver coin of early period
weighing A8.+ grain.
Popular during the
Silver coin of the 0uptas
weighin @* of @< grain.
Silver coin weighin '8(
grain introduced by
Shershah and continued up
till the advent of 7uropean
Standard silver coin of
Sultanate period weighin
'8A grains and eEuivalent
to <? :ittal. >ntroduced by
>ltut!ish .
0old coin of Vi:ana gara
rulers weighed A* grain,
and was called pagoda by
oreigners particularly
Portuguese, $lso "nown as
Hun and Pana!.
4itiesB,owns .ounders
=odhpur &ao =odha or )arwar
.iroC ,ughlaE -on the site of
=a!anpur/ na!ed after
=auna 2han -)d. ,ughlaE/.
)d. Iuli, 'AG(, a new
capital of Iutub Shahi
"ingdo! of 0ol"unda
$h!ed Shah of 0u:arat, on
the side ot the old town
)ustaphabad )ah!ud #egarha
)uha!!adabad )ah!ud #ergaha
,o!aras, !iddle of ''th
century, $ngapal
.iro:abad B 2otla shah .iroC Shah ,ughlaE
Shah:ehanabad Shah:ahan
.atehpur Si"ri $"bar
)ahabalipura! 1asi!havar!an

>, )aha!allu
#i"aner #i"a -Son of #odha/
.atehabad .iroC Shah ,ughlaE
Hissar .iroC Shah ,ughlaE
Patliputra %dayin
=aipur &a:a Swai =ai Singh
$!ritsar 0uru &a!das -@rd 0uru/
Srinagar $sho"a
0angai"ondach &a:endra of 4hola dynasty
$:!er $:ayra:a -4hauhans/
$gra Si"ander odi
Hushangabad Hushang Shah
1auraspur >brahi! $dil Shah >>
Vi:aynagara B
Harihara > and #u""a >
4alcutta =ob 4harno"
&ai Pithora Prithvira: 4hauhan
,ughlaEabad 0hisuddin ,ughlaE
$dilabad )d. #in ,ughlaE
=ahapanah )d. #in ,ughlaE
Dinapana Hu!ayun
2hiCrabad 2hiCr 2han
Sali!garh >sla! Shah
Daulatabad )d. #in ,ughlaE
$llahabadB >llahabad $"bar
Tafarbad Tafar 2han
Siri $lauddin 2hal:i
Historical )onu!ents and #uilders
Historical )onu!ents #uilders
Sanchi Stupa $sho"a
#harhut Stupa Sungas
$!ravati Stupa Satavahanas
Peshwar Stupa 2anish"a
Sarnath Stupa 0uptas and Va"ata"a
4haitya of #ha:a Satavahanas
$:anta Painting 0uptas
Shore ,e!ple 1arasi!ha >> -Pallava/
Shore ,e!ple
1arasi!ha >> -Pallava/
)ailashnath ,e!ple
1arasi!ha >> -Pallaya/
Vai"untha Per!ual
,e!ple -2anchipura!/
1andian Var!an >>
Virupa"sha ,e!ple
4halu"yas of #ada!i
Dasavatara ,e!ple
)ahabodhi ,e!ple
2rishna > -&ashtra"huta/
7lephanta 4aves
&ashtra"utas, $ccording to
so!e others 2alcharies
#rihadesvara ,e!ple
-,an:ore/ also called
&a:ara:a > -4hola/
ingra: ,e!ple
,he 7astern 0angas
=agannath ,e!ple
$nant Ver!a -7astern
Sun ,e!ple -2onar"/ 1arasi!ha 0a:apati
2endriya )ahadev
4handellas of #undel"hand
Sun ,e!ple -)odhera/ Solan"i of 0u:arat
$dinath -Vi!la Vasahi
,e!ple/ Dilwara
Vi!ala, )inister of #hi!a >
1e!inath una Vastupala and ,e:pala,
)inisters of #hi!a >>
Hoyasaleswara ,e!ple
Hoyasalas -helebid B
Sun ,e!ple
alitaditya -2ar"ota
dynasty of 2ash!ir/
2ritista!bha -4hittor/ &ana 2u!bha
HaCara ,e!ple 2rishnadevarya
,iru!ala 1aya"
0ol 0u!ba: #i:apur )d. $dil Shah
)d. Iuli Iutub Shah
$h!ed Shah >
$dina )as:id - Pandua/ Si"andar Shah
=a!a )as:id -)andu/ )ah!ud 2hali:i
Iila;i;2uhna -with
Purana Iila Delhi/
Sher Shah )as:id
$tala )as:id -=aunpur/ Hussain Shah SharEi
=a!i )osEue -=aunpur/ Hussain Shah SharEi
Da"hili Darwa:a -0aur/ #arba" Shah
7"ala"hi -Pandua/ =alauddin )d. Shah
=a!i )osEue -)andu/
and co!pleted by
)ah!ud >
Started by Hushang Shah
$shrafi )ahal -0old
)ah!ud > )ohur Palace,
,in Darwa:a
$h!ed Shah
Vitthalswa!i 2rishnadeva &aya ,e!ple
Iad! &asul -0aur/ 1usrat Shah
#ara Sona )as:id
1usrat Shah
al Darwa:a -=aunpur/
&a: #ibi B 4onsort of
=a!a )as:id
$h!ed Shah
Hindola )ahal -)andu/ Hushang Shah
2u!bhalgarh &a:a 2u!bha 2aran
Vi:aya Sta!bha
&ana 2u!bha 2aran
Statue of
1alanda %niversity 2u!argupta -0uptas/
Vi"ra!shila %niveristy Dhar!pala -Palas/
>!portant travellers
'. $ gree" a!bassador sent by Selucas to the court of 4handragupta )aurya.
*. Jrote the boo" >ndi"a.
@. ,he boo" provides a graphic picture of the socio;econo!ic conditions of >ndia during the
)auryan period.
?. >t gives valuable infor!ation on !unicipal ad!inistration as well.
'. $ #uddhist !on"
*. Visited >ndia during the reign of 4handragupta >>.
'. $ fa!ous 4hinese #uddhist !on".
*. Visited >ndia during the reign of Harsha.
@. Popularly "nown as the MPrince of Pilgri!sN.
?. Studied at 1alanda %niversity.
His wor" is "nown as Si;9u;2i. >;,sing
'. $ 4hinese traveller.
*. Visited >ndia in connection with #uddhis! and its learning.
@. Jrote the boo" M#iographics of 7!inent )on"sN.
'. $n $rab traveller
*. Jrote the boo" M)uru:ul TababN.
@. He has written extensively on conte!porary >ndia.
)arco Polo
'. $ venetian traveller.
*. Popularly called the MPrince of )edieval ,ravellersN.
@. Jrote a boo" M,he #oo" of Ser )arco;PoloN.
?. ,he boo" gives an invaluable account on the econo!ic history of >ndia.
A. Visited South >ndia in '*G*;G@ on his way fro! 4hina to Persia and collected valuable
a!ount of infor!ation of so!e parts of South >ndia.
>bn #atuta
'. $n $rab and a native of )orocco.
*. &eached >ndia during the reign of )uha!!ad;bin ,uglaE.
@. Jas appointed as IaCi of Delhi during the reign.
?. Jhile returning to )orocco in '@A@, >bn #atuta co!piled his travel experience in the boo"
called 5&ehla6.
A. >t gives valuable infor!ation on the reign of )uha!!ad;bin ,ughlaE and the geographical,
econonic and social conditions of >ndia.
<. 0ives reference to Sadi -group of '((( villages/ and HaCar -group of '((( villages/
8. 0ives reference to fruit;growing activities. -!ango was the priCed fruit/.
1icolo 4onti
'. $n >talian and the earliest visitor to Va:ayanagar 7!pire.
*. *. &eached >ndia during the reign of Devaraya >.
$bdur &aCCaE
'. $ Persian, sent by Shah &u"h as a!bassador to the Tarnorin of 4alicut.
*. He also visited Vi:aynagar during the reign of Deviraya >>.
$thanasius 1i"itin
'. $ &ussian horse !erchant, spent so!e years in the deccan and travelled in the #ah!ani
*. &esided in #idar for a long ti!e.
@. He gave detailed observation of the court, the ar!y and conditions of the people under
#aha!ani rule.
Durate #arbosa
'. Jas a Portuguese official in >ndia.
*. His wor"s gives infor!ation on the Vi:ayanagara e!pire.
udovico Di Varthe!a
'. $ soldier and traveller who was "nighted by the Portuguese.
*. Jrote a boo" 5,he >tinerary of udovido Di Varthe!a6 which provides a detailed account of
0oa and 4alicut and other ports on the Jest 4oast.
Do!ingo Paes
'. $ great Portuguese traveller who visited Vi:aynagar during the reign of 2rishnadeva &ya.
*. Paes has written a descriptive glory of the Vi:aynagar e!pire in his boo" M,he 1arrative of
Do!ingo PaesN.
@. He found the city of Vi:aynagar as large as &o!e
&ernao 1uniC
'. $ Portuguese horse dealer who spent three years in the e!pire of Vi:aynagar.
*. He wrote a boo" 5,he 4hronicle of .ernao 1uniC6.
@. He also translated co!piled and edited the account of Paes and 1uniC in his fa!ous wor" M$
.orgotten 7!pireN.
&alph .itch
'. .irst 7nglish )erchant to reach .atehpur Si"ri and $gra.
*. Visited a nu!ber of places in various parts of >ndia and provides valuable infor!ation on
the trade and urban centres of the late sixteenth century.
4aesar .redric"
'. $ Portuguese who visited the e!pire of Vi:aynagar after the battle of ,ali"ota.
*. He !ade special co!!ents on the runined splendour of the i!perial city.
Jillia! Haw"ins
'. $n 7nglish a!bassador of the #ritsh 2ing =a!es > to the court of =ahangir.
*. He had ca!e to >ndia to secure the trading rights for the 7nglish in >ndia.
@. He has written valuable infor!ation on the reign of =ahangir.
Sir ,ho!s &oe
'. eader of the Second 7nglish 7!bassy to the court of =ahangir.
*. He wrote a boo" 5$ voyage to the 7ast >ndies6.
@. ,he boo" provides a very useful infor!ation about the court business.
Pietro Della Valle
'. $n >talian traveller who reached Surat in '<*@.
*. Jrote about social conditions of >ndia.
Pater )undy
'. $n >ndian traveller to the )ughal e!pire in the reign of Shah =ahan.
*. He has given a valuable for!ations on the conditions of the co!!on people in )ughal
=ean #aptise ,avernier
'. $ french!an, !ade six voyages to >ndia between '<@+ and '<<@.
*. Jrote a boo" entitled 5,ravel in >ndia6.
@. He has written about the reigns of Shah =ahan and $urangCeb.
?. He has give a detailed description of (