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You are on page 1of 49

First and foremost, I would like to thank Allah that finally, I have succeeded in finishing this project work. I would like to thank

my Additional Mathematics teacher for all the guidance he had provided me during the process in finishing this project work.

I also appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work. I would like to give a thousand thanks to mother for

giving me her full support in this project work, financially and mentally. She gave me moral support when I needed it. I would

also like to give my thanks to my fellow friends who had helped me in finding the information that I’m

clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups on finishing this project work.

Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this

coursework. I really appreciate all the help I got.

Again, thank you very much.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of carrying out project work are:

To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems

To improve thinking skills

To promote effective mathematical communication

To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases

Student’s interest and confidence

To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely

To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning

To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

IMPLEMENTATION OF

PROJECTWORK

i. Apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems.

ii. Experiences classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve

their thinking skills.

iii. Experiences classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving

real-life problems.

iv. Experiences classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking, reasoning and

communication are highly encouraged and expected.

v. Experiences classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning.

vi. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use the language of

mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely.

vii. Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increases

internet and confidence.

viii. Prepare students for the demands of their future undertakings and in workplace.

ix. Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop

positive attitude towards mathematics.

x. Trains themselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share

knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment.

xi. Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively

TASK SPECIFICATION

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2014

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape

and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major

branches, differential calculus(concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integral

calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves); these two

branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the

fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and series to a well-defined limit. Generally

considered to have been founded in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz,

today calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics and can solve many problems

that algebra alone cannot.

Calculus is a part of modern mathematics education. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more

advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly

called mathematical analysis. Calculus has historically been called "the calculus of infinitesimals", or

"infinitesimal calculus". The word "calculus" comes from Latin (calculus) and refers to a small stone used

for counting. More generally, calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation

guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi

are propositional calculus, calculus of variations, lambda calculus, and process calculus.

René Descartes Biography

Born 31 March 1596

La Haye en Touraine, Kingdom of France

Died 11 February 1650 (aged 53)

Stockholm, Swedish Empire

Nationality French

Religion Catholic

[

Signature

Era 17th-century philosophy

Region Western Philosophy

School Cartesianism, rationalism,foundationalism, founder ofCartesianism

Main interests metaphysics, epistemology,mathematics

Notable ideas Cogito ergo sum, method of doubt, method of normals,Cartesian

coordinate system,Cartesian dualism, ontological argument for the

existence of God, mathesis universalis;

folium of Descartes

René Descartes

René Descartes (French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31

March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of

his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy", but he was also

one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century, and is sometimes considered the

first of the modern school of mathematics. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to

be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.

Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing

reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as

geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as

equations) — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge

between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes

was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution and has been described as an example

of genius. He refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers and also refused to accept the

obviousness of his own senses.

Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of

the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly

called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written

on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism,

the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural

philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the splitting of corporeal

substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to final ends—divine or natural—in

explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch

Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting

of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in

mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.

He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je

suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but

with inclusion of ”Cogito ergo sum”) and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy.

Early life

Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine Indre-et-Loire,

France. When he was one year old, his mother Jeanne Brochard

died. His father Joachim was a member of the Parlement of

Brittany at Rennes. In 1606 or 1607 he entered

the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand at La Flèche where he

was introduced to mathematics and physics, including Galileo's

work. After graduation in December 1616, he studied at

the University of Poitiers, earning

a Baccalauréat and Licence in law, in accordance with his

father's wishes that he should become a lawyer.

Graduation registry for Descartes at the

Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand, La Flèche

In his book, Discourse On The Method, he says..

"I entirely abandoned the study of letters. Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could

be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting

courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences,

testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, and at all times reflecting upon whatever came

my way so as to derive some profit from it."

Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, Descartes joined the Army of Breda under

the command of Maurice of Nassau in the Dutch Republic, and undertook a formal study of military

engineering, as established by Simon Stevin. Descartes therefore received much encouragement in Breda

to advance his knowledge of mathematics.

[13]

In this way he became acquainted with Isaac Beeckman,

principal of Dordrecht school. Beeckman had proposed a difficult mathematical problem, and to his

astonishment, it was the young Descartes who found the solution. Both believed that it was necessary to

create a method that thoroughly linked mathematics and physics.

[14]

While in the service of the

Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, Descartes was present at the Battle of the White Mountain outside Prague,

in November 1620.

Visions

On the night of 10–11 November 1619, while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Germany, Descartes

shut himself in an "oven" (some type of room specially heated for that purpose) to escape the cold. While

within, he had three visions and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy. Upon

exiting he had formulated analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to

philosophy. He concluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would prove to be, for him, the

pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life's work. Descartes also saw very clearly that all truths

were linked with one another, so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would open

the way to all science. This basic truth, Descartes found quite soon: his famous "I think".

In 1622, he returned to France, and during the next few years spent time in Paris and other parts of

Europe. It was during a stay in Paris that he composed his first essay on method: Regulae ad Directionem

Ingenii (Rules for the Direction of the Mind). He arrived in La Haye in 1623, selling all of his property to

invest in bonds, which provided a comfortable income for the rest of his life. Descartes was present at

the siege of La Rochelle by Cardinal Richelieu in 1627. In the fall of the same year, in the residence of

the papal nuncio Guidi di Bagno, where he came with Mersenne and many other scholars to listen to a

lecture given by the alchemist Monsieur de Chandoux on the principles of a supposed new

philosophy, Cardinal Bérulle urged him to write an exposition of his own new philosophy.

Works

1641

•Descartes continued to publish works concerning both mathematics and

philosophy for the rest of his life. In 1641 he published

a metaphysics work, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia written in Latin and

thus addressed to the learned. It was followed, in 1644, by Principia

Philosophiæ a kind of synthesis of the Meditations and the Discourse.

1643

•In 1643, Cartesian philosophy was condemned at the University of Utrecht,

and Descartes began his long correspondence with Princess Elisabeth of

Bohemia, devoted mainly to moral and psychological subjects. Connected

with this correspondence, in 1649 he published Les Passions de l'âme that he

dedicated to the Princess.

1647

•A French translation of Principia Philosophiæ, prepared by Abbot Claude

Picot, was published in 1647. This edition Descartes dedicated to Princess

Elisabeth of Bohemia. In the preface Descartes praised true philosophy as a

means to attain wisdom. He identifies four ordinary sources to reach

wisdom, and finally says that there is a fifth, better and more secure,

consisting in the search for first causes.

1629

•In April 1629 he joined the University of Franeker, living at the Sjaerdemaslot,

and the next year, under the name "Poitevin", he enrolled at the Leiden

University to study mathematics with Jacob Golius and astronomy with Martin

Hortensius.

1630

•In October 1630 he had a falling-out with Beeckman, whom he accused of

plagiarizing some of his ideas. In Amsterdam, he had a relationship with a

servant girl, Helena Jans van der Strom, with whom he had a

daughter, Francine, at which time Descartes taught at the Utrecht University.

Francine Descartes died in 1640 in Amersfoort, from Scarlet Fever.

1637

•In 1637 he published part of this work in three essays: Les Météores, La

Dioptrique and La Géométrie, preceded by an introduction, his

famous Discours de la method. In it Descartes lays out four rules of thought,

meant to ensure that our knowledge rests upon a firm foundation.

Philosophical work

Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences.

For him the philosophy was a thinking system that embodied all knowledge, and expressed it in this way:

“

Thus, all Philosophy is like a tree, of which Metaphysics is the root, Physics the trunk,

and all the other sciences the branches that grow out of this trunk, which are reduced to

three principals, namely, Medicine, Mechanics, and Ethics. By the science of Morals, I

understand the highest and most perfect which, presupposing an entire knowledge of

the other sciences is the last degree of wisdom.

”

In his Discourse on the Method, he attempts to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one can know

as true without any doubt. To achieve this, he employs a method called hyperbolical/metaphysical doubt,

also sometimes referred to as methodological skepticism: he rejects any ideas that can be doubted, and

then reestablishes them in order to acquire a firm foundation for genuine knowledge.

Initially, Descartes arrives at only a single principle: thought exists. Thought cannot be separated from

me, therefore, I exist (Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy). Most famously, this is

known as cogito ergo sum (English: "I think, therefore I am"). Therefore, Descartes concluded, if he

doubted, then something or someone must be doing the doubting, therefore the very fact that he doubted

proved his existence. "The simple meaning of the phrase is that if one is skeptical of existence, that is in

and of itself proof that he does exist."

Descartes concludes that he can be certain that he exists because he thinks. But in what form? He

perceives his body through the use of the senses; however, these have previously been unreliable. So

Descartes determines that the only indubitable knowledge is that he is a thinking thing. Thinking is what

he does, and his power must come from his essence. Descartes defines "thought" (cogitatio) as "what

happens in me such that I am immediately conscious of it, insofar as I am conscious of it". Thinking is

thus every activity of a person of which the person is immediately conscious.

To further demonstrate the limitations of these senses, Descartes proceeds with what is known as the Wax

Argument. He considers a piece of wax; his senses inform him that it has certain characteristics, such as shape,

texture, size, color, smell, and so forth. When he brings the wax towards a flame, these characteristics change

completely. However, it seems that it is still the same thing: it is still the same piece of wax, even though the

data of the senses inform him that all of its characteristics are different. Therefore, in order to properly grasp

the nature of the wax, he should put aside the senses. He must use his mind. Descartes concludes:

“

And so something that I thought I was seeing with my eyes is in fact grasped solely by the faculty

of judgment which is in my mind.

”

In this manner, Descartes proceeds to construct a system of knowledge, discarding perception as

unreliable and instead admitting only deduction as a method. In the third and fifth Meditation, he offers

an ontological proof of a benevolent God (through both the ontological argument and trademark

argument). Because God is benevolent, he can have some faith in

the account of reality his senses provide him, for God has provided

him with a working mind and sensory system and does not desire to

deceive him. From this supposition, however, he finally establishes

the possibility of acquiring knowledge about the world based on

deduction and perception. In terms of epistemology therefore, he

can be said to have contributed such ideas as a rigorous conception

of foundationalism and the possibility that reason is the only reliable

method of attaining knowledge. He, nevertheless, was very much

aware that experimentation was necessary in order to verify and

validate theories.

Descartes also wrote a response to scepticism about the existence of the external world. He argues

that sensory perceptions come to him involuntarily, and are not willed by him. They are external to his

senses, and according to Descartes, this is evidence of the existence of something outside of his mind, and

thus, an external world. Descartes goes on to show that the things in the external world are material by

arguing that God would not deceive him as to the ideas that are being transmitted, and that God has given

him the "propensity" to believe that such ideas are caused by material things.

La Géométrie

Passions of the Soul

Principles of Philosophy

Discourse on the Method

Historical impact

Mathematical legacy

One of Descartes' most enduring legacies was his development of Cartesian or analytic geometry, which

uses algebra to describe geometry. He "invented the convention of representing unknowns in equations

by x, y, and z, and knowns by a, b, and c". He also "pioneered the standard notation" that

uses superscripts to show the powers or exponents; for example, the 4 used in x

4

to indicate squaring of

squaring. He was first to assign a fundamental place for algebra in our system of knowledge, and believed

that algebra was a method to automate or mechanize reasoning, particularly about abstract, unknown

quantities. European mathematicians had previously viewed geometry as a more fundamental form of

mathematics, serving as the foundation of algebra. Algebraic rules were given geometric proofs by

mathematicians such as Pacioli,Cardan, Tartaglia and Ferrari. Equations of degree higher than the third

were regarded as unreal, because a three-dimensional form, such as a cube, occupied the largest

dimension of reality. Descartes professed that the abstract quantitya

2

could represent length as well as an

area. This was in opposition to the teachings of mathematicians, such as Vieta, who argued that it could

represent only area. Although Descartes did not pursue the subject, he preceded Leibniz in envisioning a

more general science of algebra or "universal mathematics," as a precursor to symbolic logic, that could

encompass logical principles and methods symbolically, and mechanize general reasoning.

Descartes' work provided the basis for the calculus developed by Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, who

applied infinitesimal calculus to the tangent line problem, thus permitting the evolution of that branch of

modern mathematics. His rule of signs is also a commonly used method to determine the number of

positive and negative roots of a polynomial.

Descartes discovered an early form of the law of conservation of mechanical momentum (a measure of

the motion of an object), and envisioned it as pertaining to motion in a straight line, as opposed to perfect

circular motion, as Galileo had envisioned it. He outlined his views on the universe in his Principles of

Philosophy.

Descartes also made contributions to the field of optics. He showed by using geometric construction and

the law of refraction (also known as Descartes' law or more commonly Snell's law, who discovered it 16

years earlier) that the angular radius of a rainbow is 42 degrees (i.e., the angle subtended at the eye by the

edge of the rainbow and the ray passing from the sun through the rainbow's centre is 42°).He also

independently discovered the law of reflection, and his essay on optics was the first published mention of

this law.

Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a

pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two

fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called

a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered

pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the

point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin.

One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three

Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its

perpendicular projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines). In general, n Cartesian coordinates (an

element of real n-space) specify the point in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n.

These coordinates are equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually

perpendicular hyperplanes.

b)

2

= r

2

where a and b are the coordinates of the center (a, b) and r is the radius.

The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized

mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Using the

Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes (such as curves) can be described by Cartesian equations:

algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape. For example, a circle of

radius 2 in a plane may be described as the set of all points whose coordinates x and y satisfy the

equation x

2

+ y

2

= 4.

Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric

interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex

analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory, and more. A familiar example is the

concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also essential tools for most applied

disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering, and many more. They are

the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design, and

other geometry-related data processing.

BASIC PRINCIPLE

1.1 Coordinates

In analytic geometry, the plane is given a coordinate system, by which

every point has a pair of real number coordinates. The most common

coordinate system to use is the Cartesian coordinate system, where

each point has an x-coordinate representing its horizontal position, and

a y-coordinate representing its vertical position. These are typically

written as anordered pair (x, y). This system can also be used for

three-dimensional geometry, where every point in Euclidean spaceis

represented by an ordered triple of coordinates (x, y, z).

Other coordinate systems are possible. On the plane the most common

alternative is polar coordinates, where every point is represented by

its radius r from the origin and its angle θ. In three dimensions, common

alternative coordinate systems include cylindrical coordinates and spherical coordinates.

1.2 Equations of curves

In analytic geometry, any equation involving the coordinates specifies a subset of the plane, namely

the solution set for the equation. For example, the equation y = x corresponds to the set of all the points on

the plane whose x-coordinate and y-coordinate are equal. These points form a line, and y = x is said to be

the equation for this line. In general, linear equations involving x and y specify lines, quadratic

equations specify conic sections, and more complicated equations describe more complicated figures.

Usually, a single equation corresponds to a curve on the plane. This is not always the case: the trivial

equation x = x specifies the entire plane, and the equationx

2

+ y

2

= 0 specifies only the single point (0, 0).

In three dimensions, a single equation usually gives a surface, and a curve must be specified as

the intersection of two surfaces (see below), or as a system of parametric equations. The

equation x

2

+ y

2

= r

2

is the equation for any circle with a radius of r.

1.3 Distance and angle

In analytic geometry, geometric notions such

as distance and angle measure are defined using formulas. These

definitions are designed to be consistent with the

underlying Euclidean geometry. For example, using Cartesian

coordinates on the plane, the distance between two points

(x

1

, y

1

) and (x

2

, y

2

) is defined by the formula

which can be viewed as a version of the Pythagorean theorem.

Similarly, the angle that a line makes with the horizontal can be

defined by the formula

where m is the slope of the line.

1.4 Transformations

Transformations are applied to parent functions to turn it into a new function with similar characteristics.

For example, the parent function has a horizontal and a vertical asymptote, and occupies the

first and third quadrant, and all of its transformed forms have one horizontal and vertical asymptote, and

occupies either the 1st and 3rd or 2nd and 4th quadrant. In general, if , then it can be

transformed into . In the new transformed function, is the factor that

vertically stretches the function if it is greater than 1 or vertically compresses the function if it is less than

1, and for negative values, the function is reflected in the -axis. The value compresses the graph of

the function horizontally if greater than 1 and stretches the function horizontally if less than 1, and like ,

reflects the function in the -axis when it is negative. The and values introduce translations, ,

vertical, and horizontal. Positive and values mean the function is translated to the positive end of

its axis and negative meaning translation towards the negative end.

Transformations can be applied to any geometric equation whether or not the equation represents a

function. Transformations can be considered as individual transactions or in combinations.

Suppose that is a relation in the plane. For example

is the relation that describes the unit circle. The graph of is changed by standard

transformations as follows:

Changing to moves the graph to

the right units.

Changing to moves the graph up

units.

Changing to stretches the graph

horizontally by a factor of . (think of the as being

dilated)

Changing to stretches the graph

vertically.

Changing to and

changing to rotates

the graph by an angle .

1.5 Intersections

While this discussion is limited to the xy-plane, it can easily be extended to higher dimensions. For two

geometric objects P and Q represented by the relations and the intersection is the

collection of all points which are in both relations. For example, might be the circle with

radius 1 and center : and might be the circle with radius 1

and center . The intersection of these two circles is

the collection of points which make both equations true. Does the point make both equations

true? Using for , the equation for becomes or

which is true, so is in the relation . On the other hand, still using for the

equation for becomes or which is false. is not in so it is not in the

intersection.

The intersection of and can be found by solving the simultaneous equations:

Traditional methods include substitution and elimination.

Substitution: Solve the first equation for in terms of and then substitute the expression for into

the second equation.

We then substitute this value for into the other equation:

and proceed to solve for :

We next place this value of in either of the original equations and solve for :

So that our intersection has two points:

Elimination: Add (or subtract) a multiple of one equation to the other equation so that one of the

variables is eliminated. For our current example, If we subtract the first equation from the second we

get: The in the first equation is subtracted from the in the second

equation leaving no term. The variable has been eliminated. We then solve the remaining equation

for , in the same way as in the substitution method.

We next place this value of in either of the original equations and solve for

:

So that our intersection has two points:

For conic sections, as many as 4 points might be in the intersection.

1.6 Intercepts

One type of intersection which is widely studied is the intersection of a geometric object with the

and coordinate axes.

The intersection of a geometric object and the -axis is called the -intercept of the object. The

intersection of a geometric object and the -axis is called the -intercept of the object.

For the line , the parameter specifies the point where the line crosses the axis.

Depending on the context, either or the point is called the -intercept.

RENé DéSCARTES TIMELINE

1596:

Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine, (now known as

Descartes), France.

1618:

He was in the defense force of Maurice of Nassau, Dutch

Republic.

1622:

He returned to France.

1628:

He moved to Dutch Republic.

1637:

He publishedLa Géométrie and Discourse on the Method.

1641:

He wrote “Meditations on First Philosophy”.

1644:

He published “Principal of Philosophy”.

1647:

He was rewarded pension by the king of France.

1649:

-“Passions of the Soul”.

1650:

He died on 11 February 1650 in Stockholm, Sweden due

to pneumonia.

PART 2

A car travels along a road and is velocity time function is illustrated in Diagram 1. The straight

line PQ is parallel o the straight line RS.

(a) From the graph, find

(i) the acceleration oh car in first hour,

(ii) the average speed of the car in the first two hours.

(b) What is the significance of the position of the graph

(i) Above the t-axis,

(ii) Below the t-axis?

(c) Using two different methods, find the total istance travelled by the car.

First Method

Second Method

(d) Based on the above graph, write an interesting story of the journey in not more than 100

words

PART 3

Diagram 2 shows a parabolic satellite disc which is symmetrical at the y-axis. Given that

the diameter of the disc is 8 m and the depth is 1 m.

(a) Find the equation of the curve y = f(x).

(b) To find the approximate area under a curve, wecan divide the region into several

vertical strips, then add up the areas of all the strips.

Using a scientific calculator or any suitable computer software, estimate the area

bounded by the area curved y=f(x) at (a),the x-axis, x=0 and x=4.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(c) (i) Calculated the area under the curve using integration

(ii) Compare your answer in c (i) with the values obtained in (b). Hence, discuss

which Diagram gives the best approximate area.

(iii) Explain how you can improve the value in c (ii)

(d) Calculate the volume of the satellite disc

FURTHER EXPLORATION

A gold in Diagram 4 (a) has the same volume as the solid of revolution obtained when the

shaded region in Diagram 4 (b) is rotated 360 about the x-axis.

Find

(a) The volume of gold needed,

(b) The cost of gold needed for the ring.

(Gold density is 19.3 gcm . The price of gold can be obtained from the goldsmith)

REFLECTION

During this whole project, I cooperate with my friends and my additional mathematics teacher to

finish up this challenging task. At first, I found that this task was hard because I did not learn this

topic yet. However, as the time goes by, I am exposed to the concepts of the the concepts of

the topic is integration and Motion Along the Straight Line.

Throughout this project also I learn to be punctual, make a good use of technologies such as

the scientific calculator and the internet. In my project I had studied about the life of a model in

calculus which is Rene Descartes. From him, I had learned about Cartesian or analytic

geometry, which uses algebra to describe geometry. Rene also taught me that all truths were

linked with one another, so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would

open the way to all science.

In addition, I would like to thanks my additional mathematics teacher for the time he had spent

for us and all the useful tips given to complete this task. Thanks also to my friends Ain Hannah

and Izzati who had given full commitment to complete this task. This gratitude also will be given

to my parents who willing to spent some time sending me to school for our project discussion

The greatest minds are

capable of the greatest vices

as well as of the greatest

virtues.

-Rene Descartes

● ● ●

Common sense is the

most fairly distributed

thing in the world, for

each one thinks he is so

well-endowed with it

that even those who are

hardest to satisfy in all

other matters are not in

the habit of desiring

more of it than they

already have.

-Rene Descartes

● ● ●

CONCLUSION

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