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PARTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL

I. TITLE
 Should be a clear, concise, complete description/statement of the subject of the
research.
 The title, by itself, should give a good indication of the problem to be investigated.
 It may answer the questions “What?”. “When?”. “Where?” , “How?” and “Who?”
II. OBJECTIVES
A. General objective – gives the purpose of the study. It is a re-statement of the
problem/hypothesis
B. Specific objectives – answer the details of the study (i.e., variables).
 Objectives/Variables should be measurable and /or expressed in measurable terms.
 Specific objectives should be clear, complete, and logically arranged, stating the
specific outcomes to be anticipated from the study.
III. SIGNIFICANCE
 This gives justification to the study.
 It is the rationale for the research and thus answers the question “Why?”
 It should be able to give the reason for doing the work, the need the project (or its
results) will fill, and why the work should be done here and now.
 It should also define the scope and limitation of the study
IV. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
 This describes the “state of knowledge” on the problem.
 It should present a brief summary of the
o a) findings of pertinent previous research
o b) status of current research, and
o c) additional knowledge needed which the project is expected to contribute.
V. METHODOLOGY
 This details the “How?” of the study.
 It essentially describes the working plans and methods to be used in obtaining each of
the stated objectives.
 For completeness, it should contain the following:
a) plan of investigation (study design)
b) subjects of the study (criteria for subject selection)
c) operational definitions of terms (definitions of variables)
d) data processing and analysis
e) interpretation and conclusion*
VI. TIME TABLE
VII. PERSONNEL & FACILITIES
VIII. BUDGET
IX. PROPONENT’S BIODATA (optional)

TECHNICAL STEPS IN RESEARCH
1. Identification and definition of the Problem
 Analysis of Needs
 Review of Literature
 Determination of the Significance of the problem
 Formulation of Hypothesis; categorization of variables
2. Planning the Research
 Statement of objectives
 Study population and selection of subjects
 Research design
 Method of data collection
 Plan of Data processing and analysis
3. Implementation of the Plan
 Data collection
 Data processing
 Data analysis
4. Interpretation and Conclusion
5. Reporting of the study

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Sources of Problems:
a) Intellectual curiosity
b) Serendipity – making unexpected but desirable discoveries
c) Analysis of needs – requires critical review of available documents
d) Organized and systematic determination of research needs – gaps in research

Characteristics of a GOOD Research PROBLEM:
1. Researchable
Is data (on the variables) available? / collectible?
2. Significant
Is it worth it? Will it fill up an important gap in research?
Will it improve the practice? Is there a practical application?
3. Feasible
Is the methodology practical? Are there enough subjects? / data?
Are resources available? Is there enough time?
4. Critical Mass
Is the study broad enough for an adequate mass of information?
5. Interesting (this is the “icing on the cake”)
Is the problem of current interest?
Is it within the mission of the institution?

DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF DATA COLLECTION:
1. Validity This is the ability of an instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure.
This is often expressed as Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive Predictive Value.
2. Objectivity (absence of bias)
3. Precision, reliability, and repeatability
4. Practicability

PROCEDURE IN PREPARING A QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Listing of variables
2. Formulation of questions
3. Sequencing of questions
4. Drafting
5. Pre-Testing
6. Modifying

REQUIREMENTS FOR QUESTIONNAIRES
1. Validity of questions
2. Questions should be clear and unambiguous
3. Questions should be non-offensive
4. Questions should be fair
5. The respondent can be expected to know the answer

INFORMATION ROUTINELY SOUGHT BY CLINICAL STUDIES
1. To assess the health status or clinical characteristics of a well-defined population
2. To probe the natural history of disease
3. To examine clinical decision-making processes
4. To determine and assess treatment outcomes
5. To identify and assess risk factors

The scope of behavioural medicine extends from research efforts to understand fundamental
biobehavioral mechanisms to clinical diagnosis and intervention, to disease prevention and health
promotion.
Researchers in behavioural medicine are more recently being called upon to focus on
behaviours that are detrimental not only to the health of individuals but also to the environment and
the society as a whole (eg. cigarette smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction). They are also encouraged to
gather more evidence and disseminate their findings on the importance / significance of behavioral
interventions ( eg. lifestyle modifications, hand washing, safe sex) in the prevention, control, and
treatment of diseases like flu, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, and AIDS.