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DISSERTATION REPORT

IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON GENERATION Y’S CONSUMER
BEHAVIOUR

Submitted by
ROHITH THAMPI
A01012212011

MBA Class of 2014
Under the Supervision of
Ms. SWARNA BAKSHI
Assistant Professor
Department of Marketing

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Business Administration (Marketing & Sales)


AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH
SECTOR 125, NOIDA - 201303, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA



""
Certificate



I Ms. Swarna Bakshi hereby certify that Rohith Thampi student of Masters of
Business Administration - M&S at Amity Business School, Amity University
Uttar Pradesh has completed the Project Report on ! “Impact of packaging on
generation Y’s consumer behaviour”, in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Business Administration – Marketing & Sales under
my guidance.

The report has been checked for the plagiarism and it is acceptable.




Ms. Swarna Bakshi
Assistant Professor
Department of Marketing



"""
DECLARATION
The title of dissertation is
“Impact of Packaging on Generation Y’s Consumer Behaviour”
I declare that
(a) The work presented for assessment in this Dissertation my original work, that it has
not previously been presented for any other assessment and that my debts (for words,
data, arguments and ideas) have been appropriately acknowledged;
(b) Work conforms to the guidelines laid by the University, and
(c) Plagiarism for this report has been checked using Turnitin software and is 0%. The
summary of report is attached along with for reference.



Date: ……………
Rohith Thampi
A0102212011
MBA – M&S



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TURNITIN ORGINALITY REPORT


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Packaging has been called the “silent salesman” because the current self-service economy has
transferred the role of informing the customer from the sales assistant to advertising and to
packaging, as it informs us of the qualities and benefits that consumers are going to obtain if
they consume a certain product. Therefore, all the packaging elements have to be combined
to provide the consumer with visual sales negotiation when purchasing and using the product.
This study went a step beyond the traditional attitude models and also demonstrated the
impact of product packaging on actual behaviour, in terms of product evaluation and
purchase decision. Besides, previous literature indicates that, behaviour is guided by several
factors while attitude is a crucial one. The promotion and product appearance is not positively
sufficient to support the effect of packaging. To be comprehensive, attitude was included for
better understanding the behaviour.







CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION


I
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
Now days, retail competition is becoming constantly complex and competitive in nature.
Marketers have been facing the most challenging task to target the markets as different
promotional strategies have been developed and used to reach the target markets (Belch & Belch,
2004). Advertising is considered as one of the best ways to achieve the goals, but reaching the
entire target market for most products is generally not a feasible prospect (Louv and Kimber,
2007). Many kinds of media have emerged during these years, which means that it is becoming
increasingly expensive and difficult to reach and communicate with consumers and potential
customers. The average consumer is bombarded with anywhere from 250 to 5,000 media
messages each day (Ståhlberg & Maila, 2010). Consumers have been exposed to the advertising
more than ever – traditional media such as television, magazine, newspaper and billboards and of
course electronic media for examples, YouTube and blog, all competing for our attention. Even
social media is playing a vital role in consumers today. Retailing today and in the future will
include both buildings and cyberspace, which means the market, coexist two different types of
shopping behaviour. The experiences in live shopping trip and buy on-line are totally different
(Sullivan, 2004). With the situation like that, all marketers still need to communicate with their
customers in a live way effectively and efficiently.
Packaging design is one of a unique and powerful tool in modern marketing environment. Visual
packaging design acts as a “silent salesman” (Stewart, 1996; Rettie and Brewer, 2000; Van
Hurley, 2007). Packaging designs are becoming a big issue on promotion strategy, as some of the
evidences prove that, most of the consumers make their buying decision based on this criteria.
Especially for today’s young consumer, i.e. Generation Y who have learnt to shop and make
their own brand decision sooner than the previous generation, which is mainly because their
parents were out for work at their early age. Not only that they are also better educated, more
discriminating and belongs to a smaller, younger household. Now days, many households have
two wage earners, husband and wife, creating more discretionary income. There has been a
change in family traditions and lifestyles as well. They have been brought up with unprecedented
choice amongst most consumer goods and services (Quelch and Kenny, 1994,) e.g. different


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kinds shampoos of HUL or P&G and more than 50 varieties of Nike shoes. In this current
scenario, package can extend its capacity to influence generation Y. It is believed that youth
market is having the greatest potential market in respect for packaging. Meanwhile, the ever-
increasing number of products available to consumer and the constant addition of products from
different brands, give generation Y an increasing choice of buying various product, and the
retailer has the power to determine which product is to display and which to neglect.
To convince the retailer and to convince the consumer to purchase and repurchase are two
different things. The world has changed; it is no longer sufficient merely to put the brand/product
on the shelf. The simplistic preoccupation with pure shelf impact has given way to need for
establishing a sophisticated marketing strategy for the product. The strategy includes (1) a
thorough understanding of the consumer’s needs, (2) the perceived quality of the product, its (3)
price, (4) the retail environment in which it is sold and (5) the advertising and promotional
support that it receives. In order to sell the product all has to work synergistically to attract
consumers and turn customers to prospect. In this complicated and vital process the package
plays a important role in communicating the total marketing strategy.
The package design elements like colour, shape, text etc. provide information that will influence
the consumer’s image perception of the product (VanHurley, 2007). They may range from
communicating the perception of the product’s quality, its efficacy, its efficiency, its gender
relationship, or any number of characteristics about the product inside the package (Meyers and
Lubiner, 1998).
One of the marketing innovations of packaging is the combination of the unique package, brand
identification and advertising and this trend has refocused the attention of marketers. Large
number of academic research continues to examine the roles of packaging in marketing mix.
However, literature review helps in revealing a little theoretical development in the area of
packaging and how its influence to Generation Y’s. The main purpose of this research is to
explore the relationship of visual packaging design and consumer’s purchasing behaviour.
Recent years, fashion companies are putting more efforts on packaging rather than other
variables including price, quality, and so on, in order to influence Generation Y’s decision-
making.



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1.2 The Reason for Studying Packaging
Packaging is growing and considered to be one of the new marketing strategies. The major
reasons for the popularization of this new marketing tool is mainly is the changing retail format
and shopping habit of consumer
1.2.1 New Retail Format
Despite of the traditional retail stores, catalogues and various televisions’ shopping channels,
today’s consumers have more shopping choices with the emergence of Internet. Retailing can be
divided into in-store and non-store. The traditional stores also can be called brick and mortal,
which means the company possesses a physical store for operation and offers face-to-face
consumer experience. Nowadays, more and larger chain operations set up which advocate self-
service. A new retail format has formed in such a way to reduce the number of sales force to help
and inform the prospect customers. Therefore the burden of communication and information falls
on promotion strategies. This is one of the significant factors, which led to rise of different kinds
of promotion.
1.2.2 Changing Shopping Habit
As per November 2013, Internet users in India crosses over 200 millions (Internet and Mobile
Association of India (IAMAI) and IMRB International) and source also reports that India will
have 243 million Internet users by June 2014. The impact of technology advance includes
change in consumer’s shopping behaviours and their preferences. Online marketing have been
outplayed other kinds of non-store marketing, i.e. telemarketing. Flavia !n, Guinalíu and Gurrea
(2004) stated that Internet is growing very powerful and changing the way of transmitting and
communicating information. Now consumers can get wealth of information in single touch or a
single click with the help of electronic devices. The power of consumers has grown and now
days they have wider choice as well as bargaining power. Retail marketers are also fascinated by
the power of Internet, which proves that the Internet has no sign of slowing down. For most of
people, Internet has become their first source of information for shopping. The increasing
concern about the deception of advertising provides an opportunity for traditional stores on
advertising. Traditional advertising cannot not replace by online marketing. It shows that the in-
store merchandising should never be neglected.


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1.2.3 Advertising Trends
Advertising or any kinds of marketing tools are not only to provide an opportunity for a brand to
be seen. It also should provide interaction, visual excitement, story telling, creating shared
experience at mass level and making emotional connections. There is a trend that will be less and
less focus on physical infrastructure and layers of bureaucracy to deliver the desired value by
customers (Sheriff & Nagesh, 2007). Now days, the focus has been shifted to emotional
attachment of consumers towards brand/product. The most challenging task for any company is
to impress and attract consumers’ attention and to persuade them to put the products into their
shopping basket. Therefore, the key and the challenge of companies are to turn every opportunity
into powerful selling tool that will help in achieving competitive advantage. This is the main
reason why investment and the cost of advertising continue to increase each. Now days,
Consumers have become more in tune with package design and high expectation that the
packaged product help in meeting, both of their functional and emotional needs. Ståhlberg &
Maila (2010) indicates that a new designed package can last five to eight years. Therefore it is
clear that package has a longer promotional life than any other tools. Packaging is trying to keep
in step with the selling environments and changing lifestyles (Meyers and Lubliner, 1998).
Therefore, investing in package is a wiser choice in this cluttering retail environment.



M
1.3 Scope of Study
This research aims at investigating the value-added functions of package. Afterwards, the
influences of these value-added functions to generation Y’s consumer behaviour were also
investigated. My study on impact of packaging on consumer buying behaviour is in respect to
generation Y. Questionnaire was distributed to this generation who aged between 16 and 29. The
reason for choosing this generation is because of their unique shopping habits and their
discretionary income. The focus of this research aims at providing guideline to marketers in
order to re-focus the role of packaging.
Through the course of this research, the attributes and value-added features of package were
identified and was used to analyse their effect of package on generation Y’s buying behaviour.



N
1.4 Significance of Study
The significance of study is as follows:
1) To Understand generation Y’s attitude towards packaged product/brand
2) To enhance the understanding of the effects of promotional power and visual appearance
of packaging
3) To exploring the feasibility to make investment in the packaging
4) To repositioning packaging design to the forefront of marketing strategy
5) To exploring how packaging may strengthen customer-buying intention. The findings
may serve as a guideline for long-term marketing and branding strategies
6) To demonstrate the significance of packaging, as future opportunities for Indian retailers
to sustain long-term profitability







CHAPTER - 2
LITERATURE REVIEW


O
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Package becomes part of our life, when we walk on a street or come into a store, we can see
almost everything with a package. Nowadays the traditional role of package has been changed.
This is mainly due to changing retail format and rising competition. The main objective of the
study is to investigate the consumer buying behaviour of generation y towards fashion
packaging.
In order to provide an understanding of packaging in influencing generation y behaviour, the
reviews of literature has been organized accordingly. First, the definition and roles of package is
examined. Then, previous academic developments and studies related its value-added functions
are reviewed. I will be also trying to discuss the impact of two different cues (package
attractiveness and promotional power) on generation Y’s product evaluation (perceived quality
and perceived value) and subsequently, their behavioural intention (purchase decision).
2.2 Packaging
2.2.1 Definition of Package and Packaging
In most of the literatures, the terms packaging and package are used interchangeable. These
terms are relevant, in particular, to our understanding of packaging and advertising in fashion
Industry. Klimchuk & Krasovec (2006) defined package is a term use for physical object that
have containment purpose. The objects like carton, container, box or bundle, which can prevent
leakage and disintegration, can also be regarded as package in this sense. It can also refer to the
wrappings or covering of an object. This amphiboly is broad and somehow can be problematic in
practice where there is a need for distinguishing the expanded role of package. The phrase
“package” refers to the production of the process of packaging (Meyers, 1998). This generic term
does little to express the distinct nature of this dynamic design medium or its planned function to
contain, transportation, dispense. This study focuses on the changing roles of packaging,
therefore the definition of Meyers (1998) was adopted that “a package is a noun for describing
the protection, containment and identification purpose while packaging is a verb- reflecting the
ever-changing nature of the medium.”


P
Compared to other marketing information like pricing and distributing, packaging has received
little academic relevance. As the functions of package are changing from time to time, there is no
single definition of package. Olson and Jacoby (1972) described package is the attributes far
beyond the physical characteristics of the product and is considered as an extrinsic attribute of
the product, while Zeithaml (1988)"s means-end approach considered packaging as an intrinsic
attribute. (i.e. one that cannot be changed without altering the nature of product itself) . In this
regard, package that is part of the physical composition of the product is intrinsic while the
information appearing on the package is considered as an extrinsic attribute. This thesis
conceptualizes packaging as an extrinsic attribute.
2.2.2 Package Design
The package has an appeal to the shopper’s impulse: the design elements like colour, size, shape,
and even the shelf position of the package (Pilditch, 1973). Bloch (1995) interpreted package
design or its form makes contribution to a product’s success. He also presented that design
characteristics like forms, colours, materials, shape or even ornament is necessary in designing a
package. Hayes (2009) exercised food industry as an example and defined package design is a
means use both verbal and nonverbal message to communicate with consumers.
Bix , Rifon and Lockhart (2003) considered packaging functions and environment as one entity,
therefore package is no longer mere a physical container or protector (Stewart, 1996). The
potential of influencing consumer behaviour is counted. He went on to propose a concept
“packaging matrix”. In this concept, packaging has three functions, namely protect, utility and
communication exercise in three environments: human, biosphere and physical. The package
element involved in the part of communication that is considerably relevant is this thesis includes
brand name, graphics, material, shape, photographs and text. The ultimate goal of creating a
package is to maximize the intersection of each function and environment without diminishing
performance at other intersections (Nilsson and Ostrom, 2005).
2.2.3 Package at Different Buying Stage
Packaging has different functions at various consumption stages. Ghoshal (2010) considered
some of the package is visible at the time of purchase and some is not visible before or at the
time of purchase. Evident examples in fashion industry are cosmetics and perfumes. These
products can be regarded as impulse products which products are bought without prior plans


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(Liao, Yung and Chu, 2009). These visually appealing package design can attract customers
attention and arouse their interest immediately especially at the point of purchase situation.
The invisible package refers to the paper shopping bags and shoeboxes etc. These packages do
not affect the purchase decision but can obtain a promotional effect when consumers carry them
around the street (Stewart, 1996).
2.2.4 Package Components
Generally speaking, package elements can be viewed as design elements (Orth, Limon and
Kahle, 2009; VanHurley, 2007; Clement, 2007; Meyers 1998). The design elements can be
distinguished into two blocks: graphic components and structural components. Graphic
components including colour, typography, shape and image while structural components include
package size, shape and the materials used (Ampuero and Vila, 2006).
Combination of the right package elements can excite the consumers in a way to influence their
feeling towards a product through sight, taste, smell, hear and touch (Meyers, 1998). The
followings are regarded as the most common design components of package and can be named
as communicators (Stern, 1981):
Color: Color is probably the fastest and most important visual communicator
(VanHurley, 2007). Colors have the advantages of being able to set a mood immediately
and then assisting consumer purchase intention. Consumer has been preconditioned to
react to color as a stimulus.
Shape: Consumers identity certain products merely by the shape of the package. Package
shape can lend an air of femininity or masculinity. Besides, shape can also communicate
a feeling of solidarity and quality (Stern, 1981).
Typography: It conveys product information in a way that is different form color and
shape. It communicates through language (Meyers, 1998). Typography becomes the
advertiser as well as identifier. It can be the prime package identification elements or
supportive element (Stern, 1981).
Texture: Consumers touch the package and the texture can reinforce their preconceived
ideas of how package for certain products should feel and reinforces each of the other
communicators (Ghoshal, 2010; Peck and Wiggins, 2006).


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2.3 The changing Role of Packaging
Recently, researchers shifted the focus to the communication impact of packaging and the
importance of packaging is recognized in recent research. The roles of packaging range from
being simple and functionally focused to more extensive interpretations (Lonv and Kimebr,
2007).
2.3.1 The functional Role of Packaging
It’s rather obvious that packaging was served as the basic function of transportation in the past
decades. Package was created for protective reason and the main purpose is for holding and
transporting food and beverage. Griffin and Sacharow (1972) agreed with that, the main
objective of package is to make transportation easier, prevent spillage and contamination. Olson
and Jacoby (1985) designated package designed to avoid the products being unprotected along
the distribution channel and to ensure the final products are in good condition.
2.3.2 Marketing Role of Packaging
Due to industrialization, technical innovations and revolution in our ways of shopping, the
marketing strategies emphasis from day-to-day product sales to looking for ways of building
long-range brand strategies. The role of packaging from protect, contain and delivery devices
made great progress to achieve marketing objectives (Ghoshal, 2010; Capsule, 2008; Meyers &
Gerstman, 2005; Nilsson & Ostrom, 2005; Stewart, 1996; Underwood, 1996). Pilditch (1973)
was the first person to introduce the new role of package. He spotlights package being a “silent
salesman” and positions it as a new force in marketing. Pilditch (1973) believed package has the
responsibility to sell the goods it contains. Having a package that can be seen recognized and
linked both in advertising and in the shops is the task of package (Selame and Kolligian, 1982).
Capsule (2008) took packaging to the next level. He stated that package is far beyond the basic
functions of physiological and safety. It can be a sense of belongings, fulfill self-esteem and self-
actualization.
In fashion industry, package is becoming an integral part of marketing strategy and a part of
product attributes to provide a degree of benefit to customers rather than only the physical
functions. A package can be regarded as informer, advertiser and even image in marketplace
(Selame and Kolligian, 1982).


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Packaging is must protect what it sells and sell what it protects (Briston and Neil, 1972).
Klimchuk and Krasovec (2006) believed that packaging” is part of the bigger pictures of brand”.
By now, branding has become a marketing hotpot that radiates into every niche of the
communication media. Nowadays, a brand is widely associated with variety of people, service,
people, places, ideas and concepts. For packaging, brand is a name, a mark of ownership and the
representation of products, services, people and places. From a marketing standpoint, the
association of the packaging with the product –from the tangible physical structure and visual
identity to the tangible emotional connection-becomes inextricably linked to the legitimacy and
reliability of the brand. It is not possible to separate the consumer’s perception of the brand from
packaging.
2.3.3 Marketing Mix
Package is traditionally regarded as a component of marketing mix (Olson and Jacoby, 1985).
Package considered as a part of product when package can communicate to consumers through
the information (Hoegg, 2006). It shares the same function with product that is contributing to
the product performance, including maintains shelf life and ease for use (Rigaux, 1982). It can
also be an indicator of the price point at the point-of-purchase situation (Bix et al, 2003). An
estimation on price will be generated by simply judging the packaging. Package has become
indistinguishable from the product it contains (Pilditch, 1973) when it can influence consumers"
perception, appeal to their emotions and motivate desire for the product before the consumers
ever see the actual labels.
Besides product, a well-performed objective of packaging is promotion. People understand and
remember symbols easier and faster than words (Hayes, 2009). Promotion can be the vital key to
the development and position of brand image (Diamond, 1996). Package can use for identifying
and differentiating brands or products. A package can be informative, provocative or seductive
etc. to show its unique personalities that communicate product attributes to alter consumers
brand choice (Stewart, 1996). In Keller’s (1991) research, he discovered that visual cues from
advertisement that were placed on product package enhanced the accessibility of ad-related
details of that ad and improved product evaluations.



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2.4 Value-Added
In order to obtain the particular influence of package on consumer behaviour, the value-added
functions of package must be analysed in great detail (Stewart, 1996).
2.4.1 Effect of Value-added Functions
By the classification of Meyers & Gerstman (2005), three kinds of package perform value-added
functions:
• Image-creating package: Packaging can communicate the personality through a
combination of design elements. The variety of visual presentation and their combination
can help establishing the brand image and brand identity by conveying different message
(Underwood, 1996; VanHarley, 2007). Evident example is the jewellery box of Tiffany
& Co, the blue box implies that there is something precious inside without opening the
box. Packaging reflects the brand image, consumer come to recognize and visually
identify with the values, qualities, features and attributes of the brand (Stewart, 1996).
• Communication package: In today fashion retail environment, it is not rare for the
product sameness or similarity. With the vastness competition, many of the retailers
overlap similar products. Shoppers have to decide among numerous choices. Package
serves to visually communicate product differentiation and avoid consumer confusion
(MacCallum, 2004). Without a package, each product would look remarkably similar.
Package is ultimately responsible for determining their product’s distinguishing
characteristics and providing a clear contrast between products.
• Sensuous package: The objective of creating sensuous packaging is to create a positive
perception of purchasing the products. Package tries to evoke our emotion to influence
our purchase decision. Many cosmetics and perfume packages are designed to convey a
sensuous reaction, such as associate with beauty, desire, love, seductiveness and luxury
(Liao et al, 2009; Stewart, 1996). The package that is invisible at point-of-purchase can
also create a sensory response. The shopping bag or box can communicate the perception
of what you bought and where you bought it (Stewart, 1996). Beyond simply being a
means of transporting objects from a store to home, shopping bags provides the
opportunity to convey the special characters of a store. When people carry a Gucci
shopping bag, we may associate with premium items inside.


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2.5 Aesthetic
Another important attribute of package is aesthetics, which have significant impact on
influencing consumer preferences and choices. Aesthetic is used in reference to either sensitivity
to beauty or to the branch of philosophy (Veryzer, 1993).
Eckman and Wagner (1994) stated Aesthetics as the study of artistic phenomena. While the term
“aesthetics” is associated with all the fine art-music, literature, dance, painting and sculpture - it
is used in reference to the visual arts. As such, aesthetics is often extended to the design of
everyday object, such as apparel, that are consume visibly. Traditionally, aesthetics dominated
fashion industry in only a few categories, most notably of the design of skincare and perfume.
Due to the keen competition, aesthetics provide marketers another way for differentiation.
Literature has acknowledged that any products can be viewed in the sense of aesthetics
(Holbrook, 1985; Hirschman 1983; Olson 1981), which means outward appearance of package
can also be appreciated in aesthetics. This perspective provides an insight on the role of
aesthetics in consumer behaviour.
2.5.1 Aesthetics Response
Aesthetics is a stimulus and is important for the first impression to consumers for the product and
brand (Cox, 2002). For fashion product, people consider aesthetics as a visual communication to
be one of the primary advantages when buying products (Workman, 2007). Consumer nowadays
began to demand product that were both functional and attractive. In response, package
appearance serves as a tool to influence consumer searching for product and play an important
role in shaping their preferences and choices (Creusen, 2005). Besides, the appearance of a
product not only influences the aesthetic value of a product, but also the perceived functional and
product value (Workman, 2007; Creusen, 2005).
Aesthetics can be regarded as the design of an object (Veryzer, 1995; Creusen and Schoormans,
2005). Lauer (1979) stated that design elements (e.g. line, shape, color, etc) and principles (e.g
contrast, proportion, balance etc.) are essentially for consumers to form their perception towards
an object or a visual display (Lauer, 1979). Such design elements and principles have a strong
impact on the formation of aesthetic response (Veryzer, 1993).
Although literature does not have a general agreement on aesthetic response, there prior


IL
researches do seem to share a consistent concept that aesthetic response involves “the registering
of affect or pleasure due to the conscious or unconscious influences of stimulus characteristic of
an object” (Berlyne 1974). In a general sense, an aesthetic response refers to how a person reacts
to an object (e. g. product). The reaction is based on two criteria: perception of the object
(Berlyne 1974) and composition of the physical features (i.e. design) of the object (product)
(Veryzer and Hutchinson, 1998).
Bloch (1995) proposed a model regarding consumer reaction towards product form. In
examining the proposed model, the first component to be discussed is product form itself. As
Bloch (1995) suggested, a product's form represents a combination of elements and to achieve a
particular sensory effect. The product form, once developed, may stimulate a variety of
psychological responses. Cognitive and affective responses interact and may occur
simultaneously. After that, psychological responses to design lead in turn to behavioural
responses. The behavioural response can be described as either approach or avoidance.
Approach behaviours reflect an attraction to a design and include spending time in a site and
exploring it. Avoidance behaviours represent the opposite of approach responses.
The level of package aesthetics affect how consumers perceive and categorize a product (e.g.,
product class, complexity level/technological sophistication), influence their attitude toward its
use (e.g., difficult to use), and shape their perception of the risks involved in purchasing the
product (Veryzer, 1995).
Bloch (1995)"s proposed model is shown as following:
Figure 2.1: A model of consumer response to product form (Bloch 1995)


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2.6 Generation Y
2.6.1 Characteristics
This study target in this research is generation y. Generation y, by the broadest definition, were
born between 1977 and 1994 (Broadbridge, Maxwell and Ogden, 2007) and are the children
either of generation x or baby boomers (Bakewell and Mitchell, 2003). Many of researches have
been studied the characteristics of this generation as they has unique features compared to the
previous generation. One of the outstanding features of generation Y is they have a strong sense
of entitlement (NAS, 2006). They desire for quality of life and want the best of everything. From
their young age, they have been taught and told by the media and parents that they can have what
they want. They desires for quality life and product that can offers the best to them. As NAS
(2006) mentioned, “it makes generation y driven and ambitious, with high expectations”. It can
be said that they are brand-conscious, perfectionism, materialism and hedonism towards fashion.
2.6.2 Shopping Habits
Bakewell and Mitchell (2003) states that generation Y has been acculturated into a unique
shopping environment that consists of more opportunities and reasons to shop than ever before.
Generation Y are now grown up and consisting more and more of working couples. Their
shopping behavior is action-oriented, far less conventional, and less product loyal than their
parents were (Meyers and Lubliner, 1998). Customers may not surprise to see that the new
products are being introduced in a short period to satisfy their wants and needs.
Todays young consumers live in an era in which shopping is far beyond a simple act of purchase
(Bakewell and Mitchell, 2003). Previous findings have indicated that this generation has
tremendous buying power (Sullivan, 2004; NAS 2006). This consumer group is known for its
large disposable income and is growing at a very fast rate. Individuals within this generation
make for a profitable and loyal customer base because this group is often typified as being highly
consumption oriented and sophisticated in relation to their tastes and shopping preferences
(Belleau, Summers, Xu and Pinel, 2006). Shopping to them, is not only an act of purchasing, it is
a combination of social activities and leisure activities. Literature related to generation y
describes they are a generation that are born to shop (Bakewell & Mitchell, 2003). They view
shopping as being enjoyable and entertaining experiences of looking for and choosing products.
Besides, this generation is facing an over-choice shopping environment. With the wealth of


IN
information available in Internet, hundreds choices of television channels and magazines has
encouraged generation y to switch to another choice if they do not get what they want from one
source.
2.6.3 Attitude towards Advertising
Technologies advanced and mass media plays a crucial role in shaping generation Y attitude and
judgment. They can get information from many sources. Concerning on their attitude towards
advertising, this generation is particularly attracted by advertising that is individualistic and anti-
corporate (Wolburg & Pokywczynski, 2001). Research shows that young consumers are easily
get bored by repeat advertising (Sheriff & Nagesh, 2007). They can be regarded as “repetition
avoiders”.
Besides, generation y are said to be as millennial and Internet generation (Broadbridge, Maxwel
and Ogden, 2007). They are addicted to Internet. The most up-to-dated information can be found
and transmit in an extremely fast rate. Generation Y who has grown up in this media-saturated,
brand-conscious world, they respond to advertising differently and prefer to encounter marketing
messages in different places or from different sources (Belch & Belch, 2004). Therefore,
marketers have to transit their messages to this generation in a different way in order to stand out
above the competitors.
2.6.4 Differences in Female and Male
Traditionally, the distinctive role of male and female in society are defined. Male are associated
with masculinity while female are associated with femininity. The value, beliefs and attitudes
they hold are entirely different. It can be called as gender self-schema (Terjesen, Vinnicombe
and Freeman, 2007). Therefore, there are great individual differences in explaining their way to
shop.
Gender is a significant factor in explaining the shopping behaviour of generation y. Shopping is a
pleasure activity for both male and female, but female find it easier than men to obtain
enjoyment from shopping (Campbell, 1997). Also, female are socialized into being aesthetically
skilled gender and hence find it easier than males to appraise and assess aesthetically significant
products (Campbell, 1997).



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Buttle (1992) illustrated that men shop but with less frequency than women do. They could be
described as specialist-shoppers. Moreover, most male perceived that shopping is a female’s
activity. However, it is not surprised to see females buying cars or audio products and males
buying skincare nowadays (Bakewell and Mitchell, 2003). Generation y lives in a more gender-
role burring environment than generation x than ever (Bakewell and Mitchell, 2003).
2.7 The Role of Package in Consumer Behaviour
Many researchers have examined the effect of marketing has on consumer’s evaluation, brand
choices and brand attitude. This study area can be regarded as consumer behaviour. The purchase
can be a long and detailed process and incidental as impulse purchases. The study of consumer
behaviour not only provides a framework for identify consumer needs and target markets, but it
also enables the anticipation of consumer response to marketing action.
2.7.1 Consumer Decision-Making Process
The model of consumer decision-making can be used to examine the judgment of consumer
when choose between product alternatives (Kwan, 2006). Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006)
defines CDP as “a model captures the activities that occur when decisions are made and shows
how different internal and external forces interact to affect how consumer thinks, evaluate and
act. Some organizations use the CDP model to identity relationships between variables that affect
consumer decision-making. It is essential to examine the process on account of the several
separate decisions that collectively comprise buy or not buy decision. Package is categorized as
external factors that have impact on consumer decision-making process. Using the model of
consumer decision process, packaging engages in all process of consumers in their decision-
making (Ghoshal, 2010).

Figures 2.2 Consumer decision making process Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006)
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2.7.2 Purchase Decision
Intention for purchasing is the inner force that drives and energizes consumers’ actual purchase
(Solomon & Rabolt, 2009). Purchase decision is defined as a consumers making choice about
which product and service to buy. The theory of reasoned action suggested that purchase
behaviour could be explained based on two criteria: attitude and perception of social pressures to
perform or not perform the behaviour (Madden Scholder and Ajzen, 1992). Based on the theory,
Belleau et al. (2007) proposed favourable attitude had the positive impact on influence purchase
intention. A higher purchase intention implies a higher probability to buy (Solomon & Rabolt,
2009). External variables may also have significant influence on purchase intention such as
demographics, fashion involvement, price/quality perception and personality traits (Belleau,
2006).
Moreover, according to Ghoshal (2010), touching can evoke different reactions in consumers
when they interact with a package. Engaged in touch can arouse consumers" interest for the
products and create positive attitudes towards the products, which in turn may trigger their
purchase decision (Peck & Wiggins, 2006). This powerful sensory touch has been ignored in the
prior researches related to packaging. This argues for examining the role of packaging in
particular.
When consumers are faced with a multitude of choices, especially in an unfamiliar product
category, the packaging is a source of information (Vanhurley, 2007). Research has shown that
at least 70% of brand choices are made in store and some 68% of purchases are not planned in
advance (Stahlberg & Maila, 2010). Research showed that higher fashion involvement and
positive emotions created a positive effect on impulsive fashion-oriented buying behaviour
(Park, Kim and Forney, 2006).
2.7.3 Product Evaluation
A consumer judgment and evaluation of a product or brand is a result of a host of variables. In a
product evaluation situation, consumers may rely on certain cues that can be encoded and
utilized to categories and evaluate the product. Package design is one of the extrinsic cues
(Underwood 2003; Underwood and Klein 2002; Underwood and Ozanne 1998; Oslon and
Jacoby, 1972) and takes on a heightened importance for many consumer nondurables when
consumers make decision at the point of purchase. Package often obtains the first sight and first


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truth of customer’s .In the case of food items, shoppers often rely on a package to develop an
first impression of the items in its prepared state or non-final forms (Underwood, 1996). In the
other hand, some factors that far beyond the physical characteristics of the product may also
influence consumers’ perceptions. The perception may range from communicating the
perception of the product’s quality, its efficacy, its efficiency, its gender relationship, or any
number of characteristics about the product inside the package. Consumers utilize on extrinsic
attributes cues on the package when they are unfamiliar with the product category (Underwood,
1996), such as price, country of origins. This theory is known as cue utilization theory.
Ghoshal (2009) found that more appealing packaging positively impacts product valuation.
Attitude toward the product is superior when presented in appealing packaging. Emotions
evoked by appealing packaging are stronger and more positive than those evoked by ordinary
packaging. While it may be possible to extract more consumer surplus via exposure to appealing
packaging before purchase, superior packaging may also play a significant role in enhancing the
post-purchase product usage experience by evoking positive judgments and emotions, which
impact product satisfaction and loyalty measures.
2.7.4 Attitude and the Relationship of Behaviour
Behaviour is strongly affected by the consumers’ attitudes towards a brand or product. Attitudes
are a learned orientation or a predisposition to a given situation, person, object or idea resulting
in a tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably (Easey, 2009). Literatures had been
illustrated attitude as a mediator of affecting consumer perception or behavior towards a certain
object (Homer, 1990; Blech, 1986; Belch et al, 1983). Axelord (1986) suggested that attitude
have impact on consumer’s switching behavior and repeat purchasing. Fashion marketers are
interested in consumer attitudes as they are seen to be closely linked to behaviour. Rosenberg &
Hovland (1960) proposed that there are three components to an attitude: cognitive, affective and
conative (Figure 2.3). Cognitive refers to knowledge or information possessed about the product,
services, image, store or prices. The affective dimension is concerned with consumer feelings
about marketing offerings and is measures in terms such as like and dislike or good and bad. The
conative aspects provide the behavioural aspects of attitudes and are usually expressed in terms
of intention. Several studies have shown that positive attitudes towards a fashion product do not
always result in higher sales. Easey (2009) and Ajzen & Fisbein (1980) argued that the model


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oversimplifies matters that attitudes emerge or become manifest after purchase. When
considering the point that attitude may emerge or change after purchase, it should be noted that
post-purchase with fashion products can leads to attitude change, both positive and negative
(Easey, 2009).







Figure 2.3 Attitude components and buying behaviour (Easey, 2009)
Beside, Ghoshal, Boatwright and Caganl (2009) proposed a model illustrated the packaging
influence on product valuation and attitude. According to figure 2.3, it showed that exposure to
packaging elicits a reaction (“attitude toward packaging”), which in turn evokes specific
thoughts or judgments and feelings or emotions (affective reactions) that elicit an overall
reaction toward the featured product (“attitude toward product”), which finally impacts
behaviour. This also follows Burke and Edell (1989)"s characterization of attitude to advertising
as consisting of “cognitive and affective elements.

Figure 2.4 A conceptual model of how packaging impacts product valuation via a dual logical-
affective process (Ghoshal, Boatwright and Caganl, 2009)

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CHAPTER – 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


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CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This research aims to investigate how packaging influences generation y’s consumer behaviour
by providing certain cues and the objectives of this study are discussed below. To ensure the
reliability and accuracy of the data collected, a series of preliminary and pilot test will be
performed and the research approach is discussed in this chapter. Research instrument, sampling
method as well as the questionnaire design are also presented in this chapter.
3.2 Research Design
The present research will compose of two phases. For the first phase, it involved the field study.
Definitions, principles and theories were studied to have better understanding of the basic
concepts and knowledge to conduct the research as well as to construct the questionnaire. Ideas
for the construction of questionnaire are derived from an in depth overview of the assumptions
and concepts proposed by academic researchers. Statements about the marketing power and
visual appealing package were developed from these theories and conceptual ideas. The second
phase is the development of questionnaire. The survey will be created after a pilot test to enhance
the reliability, validity and practicability of the questionnaire.
3.2.1 Exploratory Research
To provide insights and understanding of the nature of the marketing phenomena related in this
research, related definitions and theories were researched from the publication, academic
journals and the Internet to provide fundamental knowledge in literature review section.
Exploratory research also served to define the research areas fully and helped to formulate for
further investigation.
Afterwards, all the appropriate variables were established and their connection has defined.
These valuable secondary data are served as basic background information for the present study
and provided insight for development of the research.



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3.2.2 Quantitative Research
In this research, quantitative research was employed. Further, hypotheses testing and statistical
analysis were utilized. Besides, questionnaire was adopted as an effective tool for the collection
of primary quantitative data. Details of the questionnaire design and setting would be discussed
in the following parts.
3.3 Sample Frame
Sampling frame is a representation of the elements of the target population. In this research, the
respondents must be generation Y and could read and understand scale wordings, regardless of
gender or demographic differences.
3.3.1 Sample of the Study
Sampling was a vital process of a survey approach. Useful data were collected form a subgroup
of particular target population. Considering the target group of participants, all generation Y was
included and for which the present research would like to generalize. As a result, sample for the
study was drawn from the target population.
3.3.2 Sample Size and Response rate
Above 100 respondents will be surveyed.
3.4 Data collection
This stage is used for collecting the required data. The questionnaire was served as an effective
tool to collect the quantitative data needed.
3.4.1 Data Collection Method
Hardcopy of the questionnaires were distributed through personal network in university,
company and friends, home. Face-to-face method where used for the data collection. To get
access to potential consumers in multi-nationality and various culture backgrounds of packaging,
another questionnaires was collected through Internet. A self-administrated questionnaire survey
using the random sampling approach was conducted. The questionnaire was first set up online,
then questionnaire were sent out through email and Facebook. The respondents are able to
answer the entire questionnaire without any disturbing of interviewer.



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3.5 Objectives of the Study
Five objectives were established in this research. They are as following:
1) To demonstrate the marketing and aesthetically appealing power (AAP) of packaging.
2) To understand the attitude towards packaging by Generation Y’s.
3) How the variables (marketing and aesthetically appealing power) influence the
Generation Y’s action in marketplace and how packaging influence their consumer
behaviour.
4) To explore the factors influence Generation Y’s.
5) To see whether packaging has a positive effect / reflects truly value on marketing mix
amongst Generation Y’s



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3.6 Limitation
Since it was a study for educational purpose it might be suffering from various limitations. The
main limitation for this research was the time, resources and sample size, which does not
represent whole of India, the limitation of the study are: -
• Lack of time – In this fast moving world every person is so busy that they do not have
time to spend in providing information for the questionnaire
• Limitations of skills - There are respondents who don’t understand the sense of the
questions, which may lead to observation of inadequate information.
• Since sample was random sample it may lead to an error due to sample taken not
confirming to the actual population.
• There can be errors because consumer provides incorrect information.







CHAPTER - 4
DATA ANALYSIS


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CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Analysis and Results
4.1.1 Descriptive summary of Demographic profile: Personal profile
In the 113 respondents (N=113), there were 84 male while the rest 29 were female. Over a half
of respondents were aged between 23 and 26 (52.13%), then followed by 45.13 % of the
respondents aged between 19 and 22 years old. And rest (2.65%) aged 27 to 30. No respondent
below the age 18 or above the age 30 filled my questionnaire.
Statistics shows that vast majority of the respondents are either pursuing his/her postgraduate.
Therefore it is clear that the respondents have received higher education.
Majority of respondents earned less than Rs.10000 of their monthly income, which accounts for
59.29%. The next frequent monthly income was mainly in the range between Rs.10001 and
Rs.20000 (19.47%). It is followed by 11.50% of respondents earned Rs.20001 to Rs.35000 of
their monthly income. 9.73 % of respondents fell into the income range of above Rs.35000.
The significant findings of personal profiles includes gender, age, education level and monthly
income are illustrated in Table below
Table 4.1 – Showing Demographic Profile of the Respondents
lrequency ÞercenLage
Cender
lemale 29 23.66
Male 84 74.34
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Age
13-18 0 0.00
19-22 31 43.13
23-26 39 32.21
27-30 3 2.63
Above 30 0 0.00
!"#$% 113 100.00
MonLhly lncome
8elow 10000 67 39.29
10001-20000 22 19.47
20001-33000 13 11.30
Above 33000 11 9.73
!"#$% 113 100.00


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Figure 4.1 - Showing Gender of Respondents
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Figure 4.3 - Showing monthly income of the respondents
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4.1.2 Standard deviation and mean comparison of importance of the roles of packaging
The following questions where asked to analyse the importance of roles of packaging in respect
to Generation Y. This section presents the importance of the role of package in consumers’
perception. Seven answers were pre-determined for selection and divided into two categories:
new role and traditional role. Table below showed the mean score and standard deviation of
questions 1 to 7. The result shows that the factor “Brand Representation” has received the
highest mean score (Mean=4.06, Standard Deviation=1.10). It is follow by the “Protector”
(mean=4.00, Standard Deviation=1.04) and “Easy Storage” (mean=3.83, Standard
Deviation=1.03). “Visual Attraction” (mean= 3.68, Standard Deviation=1.17) ranked number
four among the seven factors. The result reveals that the one of the new role of packaging ranked
the top score but traditional role still plays important role in packaging. Container (mean= 3.48.
Standard Deviation=1.07), Promotion (mean = 3.38, Standard Deviation=1.18) and adornment
(mean = 3.20, Standard Deviation=1.03) ranked the least important.


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Table 4.2 – Showing Mean and standard deviation of roles of packaging
New Roles Mean
Standard
Deviation Traditional Roles Mean
Standard
Deviation
Brand Representation 4.06 1.10
Protector 4.00 1.04
Visually Attractive 3.68 1.17
Easy Storage 3.83 1.03
Promotion 3.38 1.18
Container 3.48 1.07
Adornment 3.20 1.03



4.1.3 Mean comparison of the importance of new roles and the tradition role of packaging
According to table above, the top four ranking of important functions of fashion packaging are
brand representation, protector, easy for storage and visually attractive. Among these four roles,
two are new roles were as the other two are traditional roles of packaging. The remaining three
functions are container, promotion and adornment. They are considered to be the least important
functions.
From the table above, the means score of the four new roles are shown are only 3.58 while the
mean score of the three traditional roles are only 3.77. This shows that the traditional roles are
perceived as more important than the new role.
Table 4.3 Showing mean of new and traditional role of packaging
Mean
new 8ole 3.38
1radlLlonal 8ole 3.77 n=113


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4.1.4 Standard deviation and means of generation Y’s attitude towards packaged products
The mean score of attitude toward a packaged brand/product are showed in below table. Each of
statement scores above 3, which indicate that respondents have generally a positive attitude
towards packaged product. The highest ranking to the three statements in relate to packaged
product is for the trustworthiness of the brand (mean=3.79, Standard Deviation=1.06) followed
by brand image (mean=3.49, Standard Deviation=1.04). The mean score of the three statements
is 3.55.

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Table 4.4 – Showing SD & Means of generation y’s attitude towards packaged products
Mean
SLandard
uevlaLlon
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Table: Means of generation y’s attitude towards packaged product



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packaged products
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4.1.5 Standard deviation and means of generation Y’s product judgment of packaging as a
marketing tool
The standard deviation and mean score of product judgment of packaging as a marketing tool of
respondents are showed in below table. The marketing power of a product package reflects its
value has highest mean value (mean=3.46, Standard Deviation=0.92). It is follow by probability
of repurchasing the product (mean=3.19, Standard Deviation=1.18) and then with belief in terms
of quality (mean=3.08, Standard Deviation=1.06). The last position is for the brand switching
due to marketing power (mean=2.94, Standard Deviation=0.99). The mean score of the four
statements is 3.17, which indicates that respondents generally have a positive attitude towards
product judgment of packaging as a marketing tool.

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Table 4.5 – Showing means of generation y’s product judgment of packaging as a
marketing tool

Mean
Standard
Deviation
Package with marketing power is more believable in terms of quality. 3.08 1.06
Marketing power of a product package reflects its value. 3.46 0.92
The probability of repurchasing the product/brand is higher if I found that
the package of that brand/product has strong marketing power.
3.19 1.18
I switch brand/product due to the marketing power of the packaging. 2.94 0.99
Mean 3.17 1.06


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packaging as a marketing tool


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4.1.6 Means and standard deviation of generation Y’s attitude towards aesthetically
appealing package on products
The mean and standard deviation score of product judgment of packaging as a marketing tool of
respondents are showed in below table. The Aesthetically appealing package can increase my
interest to possess the brand/product has highest mean (mean=3.31, Standard Deviation=1.09). It
is follow by the expectation to satisfy me (mean=3.27, Standard Deviation=1.05) and then
preference to buy brands/products, which is attractive in appearance, even with similar contents
(mean=3.03. Standard Deviation =1.16). Aesthetically appealing package helps me to determine
the quality of the product stands fourth position (mean =2.86, Standard Deviation=1,08). The last
position is for consumer’s attitude towards paying more for aesthetically appealing package
(mean=2.79, Standard Deviation=1.02). The mean score of the five statements is 3.05. This
indicates that respondents generally have a positive attitude towards product aesthetically
appealing power of package.
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judgment of packaging as a marketing tool


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Table 4.6 – Showing Means of generation y’s attitude towards aesthetically appealing
package on products
Mean
SLandard
uevlaLlon
Aesthetically appealing package helps me to determine the quality of the
product.
2.86 1.08
It is generally worth it to pay more for aesthetically appealing package. 2.79 1.02
I believe the product/brand can meet my expectation. 3.27 1.03
I prefer buying fashion brands/products which is attractive in appearance,
even with similar contents
3.03 1.16
Aesthetically appealing package can increase my interest to possess the
brand/product.
3.31 1.09
Total 3.03 1.10
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generation Y


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aesthetically appealing package on products
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0%5FA6 4.14 - Showing Standard Deviation of generation y’s attitude
towards aesthetically appealing package on products







CHAPTER - 5
FINDINGS


KN
CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS
5.1 Major Findings
5.1.1 The Role of Packaging
As per the analysis it is found out for generation y, “the traditional role” with a higher mean
score is considered as more important than “the new role” in respect of packaging. Among the
proposed seven roles, brand representation and protector yield the top 2 position respectively.
Surveys revealed that generation Y considered packaging as a marketing tool and should be
attractive on appearance without hammering tradition role. These predicted results were
consistent with the literature which suggests that 1) packaging as a brand communication vehicle
(Nilsson and Ostrom, 2005), 2) Packaging can be a stimulus associated with attractive
appearance (Ghoshal, 2010). On the other hand, mean of traditional role and new role score are
more over similar. This indicates generation Y does not ignore the basic functions of package,
but only received a relatively attention compared to the new roles.
The mean score of the new role and traditional role is above 3.5. The finding supported that the
new roles of packaging are important as old roles in generation Y’s mind. One possible reason
behind can be explained by the nature of fashion and food industry. As mentioned in the
previous chapter, package is used for protection and assist transportation of food items in the
present and past decades. Unlike food, fashion products are always in its final form. Packaging
acts as a “silent salesman” instead of merely a container or protector (Pilditch, 1973). The ever-
changing fashion market is formed by innumerable competitions; therefore they should be more
innovative in terms of packaging. With this environment, fashion retailers tried to adopt
innovative means to capture their attention. Packaging often presents consumers with a crushing
display among other marketing stimuli. Due to the unique features of the fashion market, it may
be beneficial to convey the brand meanings via packaging in an aesthetically attractive manner.
This result also reflects the noticeable transformation in role of packaging, but the role differs
from category to category. That is in general both tradition and new roles are important but for
FMCG traditional role are important in compared to Fashion Industry and for fashion Industry
new roles are more important,


KO
5.1.2 The Attitude towards Packaging
Mean of “attitude” was calculated and it was found out the mean score of the three statements is
3.55, with the highest mean of 3.79 that is for the trustworthiness of the brand/product.
Generation Y generally has a favourable attitude towards packed fashion product/brand.
Trustworthiness is ranking the top position in respect to the attitude of generation Y towards
packaging. These results are important for market as it help to reposition package as one of their
marketing strategy.
5.1.3 Product Judgment of Packaging as a Marketing Tool
Mean of “product judgment” was calculated and it was found out the mean score of the four
statements is 3.17, with the highest mean of 3.46 for value which reflects the marketing power of
a packaged product. This indicates that respondents generally have a positive attitude towards
product judgment of packaging as a marketing tool. The marketing power of a product package
reflects its value has highest mean value (mean=3.46). It is follow by probability of repurchasing
the product (mean=3.19) and then with believable in terms of quality (mean=3.08). The last
position is for the brand switching due to marketing power (mean = 2.94). There fore packaging
has quite a effect on Generation Y’s consumer behaviour in respect to packaging.
5.1.4 Attitude towards Aesthetically Appealing Package on Products
Mean of “attitude” was calculated and it was found out the mean score of the five statements is
3.05, with the highest of 3.31 for aesthetically appealing power of package to increase ones
interest to possess the brand/product. It is follow by the expectation to satisfy one (mean=3.27)
and then preference to buy brands/products, which is attractive in appearance, even with similar
contents (mean=3.03). Aesthetically appealing package helps me to determine the quality of the
product stands fourth position (mean =2.86). The last position is for consumer’s attitude towards
paying more for aesthetically appealing package (mean=2.79).










CHAPTER - 6
CONCLUSION


KP
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
6.1 Conclusion
The overall purpose of this study was to investigate and learn more about the value-added
functions that influence the purchasing behaviour and it effect of generation Y. Instead of
studying the fundamental knowledge of package, the study mainly focuses to gain an in-depth
look of its value-added function. Effect and issue of packaging has widely been studied in the
past few years. We also studies its role and unique promotion effect in today’s marketplace that
helps in manifests in the domain of consumer purchase behaviour. The relationship of its value-
added functions with respect of generation Y has been successfully proved in this research. The
results have important implication for brand packaging strategy. This study is undertaken to
provide a general views of package product and its influence is generation Y’s consumer
behaviour.
The generalization of the results of this study should be interpreted with caution in light of
specific functions of packaging. The findings may vary in different target groups in different
industry as the study focuses only on generation Y. The research was limited to the analysis of
113 respondents, which was due to the time and resources limitation. Most of the data was
collected either from the university and other social media using Google drive. There fore most
of the respondent are pursuing their Post Graduation which shows respondents are well educated.
Majority of the respondents where aged between 19-26. The result may not be representative and
there might be deviations with respect to general population in terms of geographic profiles.
Another limitation is that most of the data were collected online. By using this self-
administrating method, respondents were allowed to complete the questionnaire at home or any
places, the answers may not be accurate enough because some of them may complete the
questionnaire with distraction.




KQ
6.2 Future Scope
The main aim of this research is to identify the impact of packaging on consumer behaviour. The
focus of this research is only on generation Y. The entire findings are well supported with
influence of value-added functions. This study offers several contributions and implications for
future practice.
The research identified that both the traditional as well as the new role of packaging is equally
for generation Y. The literature review discusses the changing roles and its relevance in different
industries, such as food and fashion industries. The impact upon consumer behaviour in
decision-making through packaging has been evaluated through various researches recently.
These researches are a good source of information for all studies in food industry, but other
major industries have been ignored. This study spreads light upon the perception of generation Y
with respect to packaging.
Moreover, the significant impact of attitude on generation y’s decision-making was added to the
existing framework. More than just being a basis for a comprehensive understanding of
packaging, this research acts as an opportunity for future study for marketers.
The current scenario of retail marketing is like the survival of the fittest. Retailers have realized
that packaging is the ultimate tool to be employed to harvest the maximum potential from the
customers.








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Veryzer, R.W. (1995). The place of product design and aesthetics in consumer research. in
Kardes, F.R. and Sujan, M. (Eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer
Research, 641-645.


LL
Veryzer, R.W., & Hutchinson, J.W. (1998). The influence of unity and prototypicality on
aesthetic responses to new product designs. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24 (4), 374-394.
Walter Stern.(1981) Handbook of package design research, New York: Wiley.
Wolburg J. M., & J. Pokrywczynski. (2001). A Pychographic Analysis of Generation Y College
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Workman Jane E., & Caldwell, Lark F. (2007). Centrality of visual product aesthetics, tactile and
uniqueness needs of fashion consumer. International Journal of Consumer Studies Vol 31, 589-
596.
Zeithaml, Valarie A. (1988) Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End
Model and Synthesis of Evidence. The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52 (3), 2-22.









APPENDIX


LM
QUESTIONNAIRE
Sir / Madam
I am Rohith Thampi currently pursuing MBA from Amity Business School, Noida. As a part of
curriculum, I am doing a dissertation on “Impact of packaging on generation Y’s consumer
behaviour.” Kindly cooperate and respond sincerely to each question. All the information will be
kept confidential and will be used only for academic purpose.
Part I – Attitude towards packaging of product/brand
Please score the following factors that you think the package of products should function? (1 –
the least important; 5 –the most important)
1 Container 1 2 3 4 5
2 Protector 1 2 3 4 5
3 Easy for storage 1 2 3 4 5
4 Promotion 1 2 3 4 5
5 Adornment 1 2 3 4 5
6 Visually attractive 1 2 3 4 5
7 Brand representation 1 2 3 4 5

Part II - Attitude towards a product/brand with packaging
Please read the statements carefully, and then indicate the extent of your agreement or
disagreement with the following statements by circling the appropriate number. (1=strongly
disagree, 5= strongly agree)
Packaging is a tool that connects from, structure, material, colour, imagery, typography and
ancillary design elements with Fashion product information and brand name. For example, you
may think about the brand Tiffany & co. when you saw the blue jewelry box with white ribbon.


LN
8 The brand /product have enough prestige 1 2 3 4 5
9 The brand /product is trustworthy. 1 2 3 4 5
10 This is a high-end fashion brand/product. 1 2 3 4 5

Part III - Product judgment of packaging as a marketing tool
Please read the statement carefully, and then indicate the extent you agree or disagree with the
following statements by circling the number “1” to “5”.
Marketing power* Packaging as a marketing tool which has an appeal to the shoppers’ impulse.
Packaging is a tool that connects from, structure, material, colour, imagery, typography and
ancillary design elements with Fashion product information and brand name. For example, you
may think about the brand Tiffany & co. when you saw the blue jewellery box with white ribbon.

Part IV - Aesthetically appealing package on products
Please read the statement carefully, and then indicate the extent you agree or disagree with the
following statements by circling the number”1” to “5”. (1=Strongly disagree, 5=Strongly agree)
Aesthetically appealing in a package is visually attractive and can provide you a pleasant feeling.
11
Package with marketing power is more believable in
terms of quality.
1 2 3 4 5
12
Marketing power of a product package reflects its
value.
1 2 3 4 5
13
The probability of repurchasing the product/brand is
higher if I found that the package of that
brand/product has strong marketing power.
1 2 3 4 5
14
I switch brand/product due to the marketing power of
the packaging.
1 2 3 4 5


LO
15
Aesthetically appealing package helps me to determine
the quality of the product.
1 2 3 4 5
16
It is generally worth it to pay more for aesthetically
appealing package.
1 2 3 4 5
17
I believe the product/brand can meet my expectation.
1 2 3 4 5
18
I prefer buying fashion brands/products which is attractive
in appearance, even with similar contents
1 2 3 4 5
19
Aesthetically appealing package can increase my interest
to possess the brand/product.
1 2 3 4 5

Part V – Demographic
20 Gender Male Female
21 Age 16-19 19-22 23-26 27-30 Above 30
22 Education _________________________ (Please Specify)
23 Monthly Income Below 10000 10001 - 20000 20001 – 30000 Above 30000




LP
WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORT
Sl.
No
Week Targets
Achievements
(Work Done)
Comments /
Observation by
faculty Guide
WPR
S/D
Faculty
Guides
Signature
1
23 Sept
2013
28 Sept
2013
Selection of the
area or Industry
for the
dissertation
Analysed various
Industries such as
consumer goods,
Retail, packaging
etc.
Suggested to
analyse package
and consumer
Industry

2
30 Sept
2013
05 Oct
2013
Shortlisting the
various sector
& Industries
Studied the
market for
packaging
industry
Approved the
selection of
packaging sector as
area of study

3
07 Oct
2013
12 Oct
2013
Discussion
regarding the
title of
dissertation
Analysed few
research papers,
related to various
studies already
conducted in
packaging sectors
Suggested to focus
on Generation Y
and their impact on
packaging



LQ
4
14 Oct
2013
19 Oct
2013
Shortlisting the
title for
dissertation
Selected the title
for the study –
packaging on
Generation Y’s
Approved the title
and also suggested
that study should
be on a particular
product segment

5
21 Oct
2013
26 Oct
2013
Final selection
of the title for
dissertation
Final title –
“Impact of
packaging on
Generation Y’s
consumer
behaviour”
Accepted the title
as final title
selected for study.
Advised to analyse
research paper on
similar studies

6
28 Oct
2013
01 Nov
2013
Discussion
regarding the
format, layout
& flow of the
study
Decided the
sequence of study,
content & format
as well as linking
of various
chapters
Explored the APA
format & shared
few reports to
create a better
understanding of
the format



MR
7
04 Nov
2013
08 Nov
2013
Introduction of
the study &
method of data
collection
Discussed the
content of
introduction
chapter &
collected
secondary data.
Completed
Introduction
chapter
Advised to refer to
advertisement text
books, journals,
research papers and
collected the
secondary data

8
02 Dec
2013
07 Dec
2013
Developing the
literature review
Discussed the
format for
literature review
and designed the
entire review of
literature
Providing reports
for understanding
APA rules &
guidelines of
writing of review
of literature

9
09 Dec
2013
13 Dec
2013
Framing the
objectives for
the study
Detailed
discussion about
the objectives,
construction of
objectives
Suggested that the
objectives for a
study should be
concise and
achievable



MI
10
16 Dec
2013
20 Dec
2013
Design of
research
methodology
and the research
design
Decided the data
collection
methods, the tools
for data collection
& defined the
catchment (target
customers)
Advised to conduct
a primary research
for data collection
& helped to design
the methodology

11
23 Dec
2013
27 Dec
2013
Design the
questionnaire
Analysed various
scales and design
a tentative draft of
questionnaire
Suggested change
to questionnaire
change of
parameter and
advised to make
questionnaire short
& concise

12
30 Dec
2013
03 Jan
2014
Approval of
questionnaire
Made all
necessary changes
to the
questionnaire and
revised the
various parameter
as per objectives
Approved the final
questionnaire and
advised to
commence data
collection



MJ
13
06 Jan
2014
10 Jan
2014
Pilot Study
Conducted a Pilot
study to
understand the
validity of the
questionnaire
Pilot study was
conducted

14
13 Jan
2014
18 Jan
2014
Data Collection
Collected the
primary data by
getting
questionnaire
filled from
students, friends
etc.
Data collected
complete – advice
to study various
tools that should be
applied

15
20 Jan
2014
24 Jan
2014
Review of
primary data
collected
Analysed few
reports and
studied and where
to apply various
tools
Assisted to make
decision and
suggested ways to
perform the
analysis



MK
16
27 Jan
2014
01 Feb
2014
Data Analysis
Discussed the
various tools that
should be applied
and learned about
interpreting the
decide results
Suggested to use
Microsoft Excel for
the data analysis
purpose

17
03 Feb
2014
07 Feb
2014
Data analysis
review
Formed table and
charts out of data
collected using
Microsoft Excel.
Used mean and
standard
deviation.
Review the entire
data analysis and
advised to interpret
all results

18
10 Feb
2014
15 Feb
2014
Review of data
analysis
Analysed all the
results and
reviewed them to
write their
interpretation.
Checked the
interpretation and
approved all the
analysis performed



ML
19
17 Feb
2014
22 Feb
2014
Finding of the
Study
Used the
interpretation of
all the results to
identify all the
findings from the
study
Findings from the
study is appropriate
and according to
the objective

20
24 Feb
2014
01 Mar
2014
Conclusion and
future scope of
the study
Based on various
findings drawn
out conclusion
was made
All the conclusion
are based on the
findings and are
appropriate

21
03 Mar
2014
08 Mar
2014
Final report
completion for
Pre –
submission viva
Compiled all the
chapters together
to prepare the
tentative report
Advised to arrange
all the chapters in
the given Amity
format



MM
22
10 Mar
2014
15 Mar
2014
Completion of
the report for
pre –
submission viva
Completed the
report and
designed the taste
of contents, list of
tables & figures
Approved the
report for pre –
submission viva

23
17 Mar
2014
22 Mar
2014
Submission of
the report for
pre –
submission viva
Submitted report
to pre –
submission viva
found changes
suggested by viva
board
Advised to
incorporate all the
changes suggested
by viva board

24
24 Mar
2014
29 Mar
2014
Changes in
report for the
viva board
Make the changes
to the report and
submitted final
copy for
plagiarism check
Plagiarism is less
than 15%.
Approved the
report and accepted
the final report

25
31 Mar
2014 -
05 Apr
2014
Final
Completion
Got the hard
bound report to be
submitted for final
viva
Accepted a copy of
the hard bound
report.


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